Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (1989)

Download collection of documents about ISHM 1989 including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, etc.


International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Basic Devices And Techniques For Supervisory Control And Systems
Author(s): Gary Lewandowski
Abstract/Introduction:
Most of the basic devices and techniques for supervisory control and systems can be described by taking a close look at what is commonly known as SCADA, which stands for supervisory control and data acquisition. Since the concept of SCADA brings together many different aspects, it is most accurately referred to as a system. A SCADA system would generally include computers, remote telemetry units (RTUs), alarms, reports, calculations, event tracking, and the like-all designed to make operations more efficient and provide that important competitive edge.
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Document ID: 0100B1F2

Mass Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Alan Young
Abstract/Introduction:
Process industries increasingly are adopting flow rate measurements based on mass rather than volume or flow velocity to better control the operating economy of their processes. Flow measurements based on flow velocity or volume are subject to measurement error that occur when a fluids chemical composition, temperature, pressure, viscosity, or density changes. The accuracy of conventional volumetric flow measurements is also affected by anything that changes the upstream or downstream flow velocity distribution or velocity profile across the pipe. The presence of entrained gas or solids, pulsating flow, or coatings that reduce the effective cross sectional area of the meter also degrades the accuracy of volumetric and flow velocity based measurements.
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Document ID: 9F35554D

Control Valve Selection And Sizing For Liqu
Author(s): Brook A. Vickery
Abstract/Introduction:
Properly sized control valves are essential to obtain good process control. Simply specifying a valve size to match an existing pipe size leaves much to chance and will likely create an impractical situation in terms of initial investment and adequacy of control. Too small a valve will not pass the required amount of flow, while too large a valve will be unnecessarily expensive and will create instability problems at low flow rates.
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Document ID: 629D8C91

Critical Flow Testing Uf Gas Wells
Author(s): E.J. Turk Robichaux, Sr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Critical Flow Testing of gas wells and open flow potentials presented will be covered in two sections. Section One discusses types of equipment used and their differences, the suggested monitoring of the well test, and the methods used. Section Two discusses definition of Critical Flow.
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Document ID: 8C0804C1

Witnessing Orifice Meter Calibration And Field Testing
Abstract/Introduction:
It would seem with the advent of electronic measurement and electronic custody transfer of natural aas and other petroleum products that witnessinq orifice meter calibration and field testinq would become an obsolete practice in the petroleum industry. This, however, is not the case. Due to low volume measurement, remote locations, dollar cost of electronic measurement, and aareements between companies reqardina electronic custody transfer, witnessinq orifice meter calibration and field testinq will continue to be an inteqral part of the petroleum industrys future. Even as technoloqy moves forward and electronic measurement becomes common within the petroleum industry, electronic hardware used in measurement will, like the orifice recorder, only be a secondary measurinq device. The meter tube and orifice olate will continue to be the primary measurinq device. Due to these circumstances witnessinq orifice meter calibration and field testinq will also continue to be important even thouqh some emphasis will be shifted to witnessinq field testinq of electronic equipment. The information in this paper is not meant to be an absolute but to be used as a quide in witnessinq and field testinq orifice meters. There are many variables in testinq which, due to the lenqth of this paper, will not be discussed
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Document ID: 483F848E

Correcting And Recording Instruments As Applied To Displacement And Turbine Meters
Author(s): Thomas R. Comerford, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas is traditionally purchased and sold in standardized volume units, such as the Standard Cubic Foot (SCF). The SCF volume is referenced to a particular pressure and temperature, called the base or contract pressure and temperature, commonly 14.73 PSIA and 60 deg. F. By converting gas volume measured under different conditions of pressure and temperature to the equivalent Standard Volume units, the purchased quantity is measured consistently, and equitable custody transfer is achieved.
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Document ID: 64F33D3F

Design Of Distribution Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Mickey Asheraft
Abstract/Introduction:
Data gathered from distribution metering and regulating stations is used to determine the income of gas distribution companies. Since these stations are the cash registers of each company, proper station design is imperative. Obviously, improper design of these stations can cause problems with customer bills, but less obvious problems are also created. One major problem is the introduction of wrong information into the decision making process. For example, statistics created by poorly designed stations may result in inaccurate lost and unaccounted for gas figures and could cause needless expenditures in that area. Similarly poor measurement results in inaccurate sales reporting that may affect such seemingly unrelated areas as rate making. With these potential problems, proper station design is not an option, rather it is a necessity.
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Document ID: E6AC9F22

Real Time Electronic Flow Measurement
Author(s): Michael J. Keady
Abstract/Introduction:
In the first part of this century, natural gas was considered mostly as a nuisance that came with valuable crude oil rather than an asset and was flared to the atmosphere. The flow rate in the first pipelines was approximated by the line pressure. Imagine how difficult it was to sell the concept of using meters and chart recorders when gas was selling for 5 cents per MCF!
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Document ID: 6B8C65E6

Remote Collection & Transmission Of Domestic Meter Reading
Author(s): Steve Damato
Abstract/Introduction:
Metretek, Incorporated, is a company originally founded in 1977 to design and develop an idea based around gathering remote field data using existing telephone systems. This idea led to a patented technique of sharing the customers telephone line and then to one of the very first fully automatic, domestic meter reading (AMR) systems in the country. Since Metreteks first development, changes have occurred in the fields of new technologies, new AMR systems, and the utilitys need for AMR systems. However, with all the changes in the gas industry, one item still remains constant: TODAY, UTILITIES STILL CANNOT AFFORD TO IMPLEMENT A FULLY AUTOMATED DOMESTIC METER READING SYSTEM ACROSS 100% OF THEIR METERS.
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Document ID: 51FF166F

Measurement Fundamentals - Crude And Refined Liquids
Author(s): H. G. Poynter
Abstract/Introduction:
Crude oil is a dark, viscous, naturally-occurring liquid which is found in great underground reservoirs. Crude oil is not a pure compound. It is a physical mixture of many things that are familiar to us in everyday life including motor gasoline, lubricating oils, heating oil, jet fuel, diesel fuel, paint thinners and solvents, waxes, asphalt, and many other components such as petrochemicals which are used in the manufacture of plastics.
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Document ID: 856A72C9

Remote Collection And Transmission Of Meter Readings
Author(s): Jim Robetis
Abstract/Introduction:
During the past decade manufacturers of measurement and control equipment used by North American utilities were forced to reevaluate their product offerings. The devices, which were previously stand-alone products, are being integrated into distributed networks for better data acquisition and system control (SCADA). This re-evaluation has been stimulated by:
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Document ID: 02694AD2

Measuring Station Inspection Program And Guide
Author(s): Thomas C. Staats
Abstract/Introduction:
good measuring station inspection program is an intricate and essential part of every companys operations to insure accurate measurement and safe working equipment. A good inspection program includes training of personnel, standards and tolerances, actual performance of the inspection, the reporting of the inspection through the proper channels and monitoring the results.
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Document ID: F5A85E49

Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Abstract/Introduction:
The vast majority of technical papers deal with either producs performance characteristics, in the lab and/or field, or the theory involved. Seldom are the events in the product development chronicled. This paper does just that, outlines how a new turbine meter for light hydrocarbon measurement came to be.
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Document ID: 7F16E633

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement II
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
knowledge of the Fundamentals of Gas Measurement is essential for all technicians and engineers that are called upon to perform gas volume calculations. These same people must have at least a working knowledge of the fundamentals to perform their everyday jobs including meter calibrations, specific gravity tests, collecting gas samples, etc.
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Document ID: C348795F

On-Line Computers For Custody Transfer
Author(s): Philip L. Boden
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry has undergone many changes in the past few years, changes which have impacted both the basic daily business operations and the complex technical functions. Traditional methods for secondary elements used in natural gas measurement and custody transfer are now at the edge of evolutionary change bringing new settlement capabilities to meet the needs of a new industry. State-of-the-art computer and telecommunication technologies make possible the step forward from paper-chart settlement to highly accurate, reliable and timely Chartless Custody Transfer operations. Major natural gas transmission companies, including the El Paso Natural Gas Company, have embarked upon fast-paced programs to develop new electronic flow measurement systems for the Chartless Custody Transfer of natural gas. This paper addresses the methodology of On-Line Computers for Custody Transfer, and describes in general systems developed by EPNG for Chartless Custody Transfer and Electronic Flow Measurement at its largest natural gas metering facility.
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Document ID: 35EAA02B

Installation And Operation Of Densitometers
Author(s): Marsha C. Yon
Abstract/Introduction:
Before addressing the subject of this paper, one should have a minimum of four items on hand. These are, in order of importance, (1) a definition of the measurement and control system into which the densitometer is to be installed, (2) the densitometer manufacturers instruction manual, (3) the instruction manual for the associated electronics, and (4) a copy of Chapter 14.6 of the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards, Continuous Density Measurement for Hydrocarbons and Other Petroleum Related Fluids.
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Document ID: 9FCF64D3

Controlling Surges In Liquid Pipelines
Author(s): G A L E N m. C O T T On
Abstract/Introduction:
O n e d a y in t h e l a t e 1 9 0 0 s a S c o t t i s h e n g i n e e r by t h e name of J o hn S c o t t R u s s e l l r e c o r d e d a n e v e n t t h at s e e m e d c o n t r a r y to a l l of h i s s t u d y and h i s common s e n s e . He o b s e r v e d a wave m o v i n g at a s u b s t a n t i a l v e l o c i t y in e x c e s s of t h e g e n e r a l f l o w w i t h i n t he c o n f i n e s of an o p e n c a n a l . While k e e p i ng a b r e a s t of t h e wave on h o r s e b a c k , he was a b l e t o c o n f i r m t h a t t h e wave m a i n t a i n ed i t s s h a p e , s i z e , and a p p a r e n t v e l o c i ty f o r m i l e s w i t h o u t d y i n g o u t . His was t he f i r s t r e c o r d e d d e s c r i p t i o n of a s p e c i al t y p e of s u r g e e v e n t known as a s o l i t o n. I t i s now u n d e r s t o o d t h a t s o l i t o n s o c c ur when a waves n a t u r a l t e n d e n c y to s p r e ad a n d d i s a p p e a r ( a t t e n u a t e ) i s e x a c t ly c o m p e n s a t e d f o r by an o u t s i d e f o r c e . In t h e c a s e of Mr. R u s s e l l s wave t h e c a n al w a l l p r o v i d e d t h a t f o r c e , r e f l e c t i n g t he w a v e b a c k on i t s e l f and c o n t i n u o u s ly r e i n f o r c i n g t h e e v e n t . Such a phenomena o c c u r r i n g in t h e c l o s e d c o n d u i t of a p i p e l i n e w o u l d b e t r e m e n d o u s ly d e s t r u c t i v e . S o l i t o n s a r e , a d m i t t e d l y, r a r e o c c u r r e n c e s . In p i p e l i n e s t h e more common s u r g e e v e n t s r a n g e from s i m p le w a t e r h a m m e r t o s i g n i f i c a n t s u r g e e v e n ts t h a t c a n i n c l u d e t h e s u p e r d e s t r u c t i v e, s e l f r e i n f o r c i n g p r e s s u r e p u l s e s of a m a j o r s u r g e e v e n t . In o r d e r t o c o n t r ol t h e s e e v e n t s i t i s n e c e s s a r y to u n d e r s t a n d t h e s y s t e m i n t e r m s of s t e a dy s t a t e h y d r a u l i c s and t h e s u r g e e v e n t.
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Document ID: 47359B30

Sediment And Water Testing And Monitoring
Author(s): Jimmy Raper
Abstract/Introduction:
When the custody of crude oil is transferred from one party to another information concerning the transfer is necessary before the accounting can be accomplished. First, the total volume of fluid that is involved in the transfer must be established. This volume is a gaged or metered amount of fluid that has been corrected to a standard temperature (sixty degrees Fahrenheit). Second, the API gravity, which is also corrected to standard temperature, must be known. Third, the volume of non-hydrocarbons or the amount of sediment and water that is present in the total transferred volume must be determined. Fourth, the value or the price per unit volume should be known. After these facts are known, the monies that are to be exchanged may be determined as follows:
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Document ID: 5498C9AA

Energy Measurement Utilizing On-Line Chromatographs
Author(s): Louis N. Cox
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of p r o c e s s gas c h r o m a t o g r a p hs f o r on-line energy measurement has i n c r e a s e d due to the r e q u i r e m e n ts e s t a b l i s h e d by the gas i n d u s t r y . Gas was p r e v i o u s l y p u r c h a s e d . sold* or t r a n s f e r r e d by volume only. Today* in a d d i t i o n to volume* the energy content (BTU per cubic foot) is included in t h e c a l c u l a t i o n s for t o t a l energy measurement.
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Document ID: A66C2949

High Pressure Regulators
Author(s): Brent E. S.
Abstract/Introduction:
When one thinks of high pressure regulation, he must be careful to understand that the term high pressure is relative. High pressure regulation applications to a transmission company will certainly differ from those applications which would be considered as high pressure by a distribution company.
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Document ID: 7E737B4D

Fundamental Principles Of Pilot Operated Regulators
Author(s): Brent E. Sayer
Abstract/Introduction:
In order for one to have a clear understanding of pilot operated regulators one should first have a clear definition and understanding of a gas pressure regulator. Regulators are mechanisms that automatically control or limit deviations of pressure from a selected set point. Most regulators are self-contained controllers that operate from the measured stream pressure and require no auxiliary souce of power. Control action is proportional in that the valve is positioned in proportion to the deviation of the outlet pressure for the set point.
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Document ID: 6140D324

Determination Of Specific Gravity Of Gases
Author(s): Faruk Civan
Abstract/Introduction:
3. METHODS AND INSTRUMENTS Specific gravity is one of the basic properties used for characterization and measurement of gases. Instruments used for determining specific gravity are called gravitometers. There are also methods by which specific gravity can be determined indirectly. Accurate determination of specific gravity is essential for accurate measurement of gas flow rate using orifice meters.
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Document ID: F859D5C2

Orifice Meters - Operation And Maintenance
Author(s): David E- Pulley
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow measurement by orifice meters is an old and accepted method of metering flowing hydrocarbons. The Texas Railroad Commission Rule #27 States: ...inpart, all natural gas produced from wells completed in gas reservoirs shall be accounted for by measurement before the same leaves the lease.
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Document ID: 7BB75F86

Transient Lightening() Protection For Electronic Measurement Devises
Author(s): Lee Erickson
Abstract/Introduction:
ANSI/IEEE C62.41-1980 (formerly IEEE Std 587- 1980): IEEE Standard, describing power-line surges/transients that is now widely agreed upon (until someone decides to establish a new one). This standard would normally be used in place of the old IEEE 472/ANSI C37.90a, which dealt with low energy disturbances in the megahertz region usually caused by sub-station high-voltage relay switching.
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Document ID: B6164C49

Auditing Gas Measurement And Accounting Systems
Author(s): Steven E. Fosness
Abstract/Introduction:
To perform a measurement audit is to thoroughly examine and evaluate all items used to measure, test, calculate, and produce the final volume record. The original volume record should be able to be recreated using the correct information and, if not, the problems identified.
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Document ID: A2F460A9

Mechanically Driven Electronic Correction Devices
Author(s): Thomas R. Comerford
Abstract/Introduction:
There is a great deal of interest in applying electronic measurement and computing techniques to gas volume correction. What are the advantages of digital electronics which have caused so much anticipation? What benefits can really be expected? Here are the major benefits:
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Document ID: 04C26453

Chromatograph Maintenance And Trouble Shooting
Author(s): Louis N. Cox
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Chromatograph used in energy measurement system and control system are designed for minimum amount of maintenance and high reliability.
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Document ID: 910914E6

Application Of Flow Computer And Telemetering System
Author(s): Fred De Busk
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow c o m p u t e r a p p l i c a t i o n s in companys measurement system have impact far g r e a t e r than simply anoth k i n d of m e a s u r e m e n t d e v i c e . T r e a s o n for this impact is the many d i f f e r e n t groups of people that use i n f o r m a t i o n from the m e t e r i n g s i t e. This l i s t i n c l u d e s: 1. Measurement Group 2. Maintenance Group 3. Operations Group 4. Accounting Group 5. Managem ent
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Document ID: 62C3BE3A

Pressure & Temperature Transducers Installation(, Calibration U Repair)
Author(s): Warren E. Meyer
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure transmit t referred years, be use in pr involved both gas of these employ th has shown pressure mit ter ca close att lation , c ins trumen and tempe ers, as t to, have , come inte ocess mea with hydr and 1iqui instruraen eir use. that the or temper n only be ent ion to alibratio ts . rature transduc hey are most ge within the las gral instrument surement. Thos ocarbon measure d, recognized t ts and moved qu However, exper maximum worth ature measuring achieved as we the proper ins n and repair of ers, or nerally t 15 s for e men t , he worth ickly to ience of a transgive talthese
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Document ID: 65F40FDE

Automatic Tank Gauges
Author(s): James Columbus
Abstract/Introduction:
The art of gauging products has become more important in recent years. The problem is simply that of measuring quantity of liquid in order to know how much is produced or processed, transfered or sold.
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Document ID: D4CF641A

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Burt Reed
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice fitting with its accompanying meter tube is the most prevalent device in use today in fluid measurement. The fitting, orifice plate and fabricated meter tube must meet rigid specifications to provide accurate, reliable measurement.
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Document ID: 787F2BBC

Carbon Dioxide Measurment Experience
Author(s): David V. Beitel
Abstract/Introduction:
Many of the major production companies have made significant commitments to a continuing program for tertiary recovery. Due to favorable reservoir response, Carbon Dioxide (cot) has been selected as the principal injection material for tertiary recovery projects in the West Texas and the Rocky Mountain areas. As a result, the oil and gas industry, and more particularly the measurement industry, has been given the responsibility to design systems to handle a material for which little operation experience has been developed and for which there were minimal amounts of PVT data.
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Document ID: 13C00028

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement - IV
Author(s): Mahboobul Mannan, Kenneth E. Starling
Abstract/Introduction:
It is shown that for low gravity, low carbon dioxide content natural gases A.G.A. Report NX-19 is reasonably accurate in comparison to A.G.A. Report No. 8. For natural gases which have high gravities, due either to carbon dioxide or ethane plus heavier hydrocarbons, A.G.A. Report No. 8 is dramatically more accurate than A.G.A. Report NX-19.
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Document ID: CB2417AE

Leak Detection On Petroleum Pipelines
Author(s): Edward J. Farmer
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline leak detection is a new field rapidly growing in importance. The preeminent position of pipelines as the safest method of transporting petroleum fluids does not eliminate the responsibility of operators to exercise all possible care in preserving the products they carry for their clients and in maintaining the safety of the people and the environments through which their pipelines pass. This responsibility is especially keen in the case of petroleum pipelines where the fluids that are carried are not only valuable, but hazardous in many ways. There is, therefore, a growing conviction in the pipeline industry that being a responsible corporate citizen includes exercising care in the surveillance of pipeline operations.
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Document ID: E5E7FBA3

Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Smith, A Moore
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors that should be considered when selecting Turbine Meters for the custody transfer measurement of crude oil. In order to do this, it is necessary to develop a basic understanding of the measurement characteristics of Turbine Meters in general and to consider the peculiarities of crude oil.
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Document ID: C17E58BE

Behind The Scenes Of A New-Product Development
Author(s): Jack Harshman
Abstract/Introduction:
The vast majority of technical papers deal with either products performance characteristics, in the lab and/or field, or the theory involved. Seldom are the events in the product development chronicled. This paper does just that, outlines how a new turbine meter for light hydrocarbon measurement came to be.
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Document ID: 08E80BB5

Determination Of Calorific Values Of Natural Gas By Combustion Instruments
Author(s): Richard L., Dick Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
The three combustion type instruments for determination of calorific value of natural gas most commonly used in the domestic natural gas industry will be the topic of this paper.
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Document ID: 166EEF78

Coping With Changing Flow Requirements At Existing Meter Stations
Author(s): A. B. Pender
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays changing business, with interstate gas companies being carriers of transportation gas as well as traditional sales gas, measurement personnel face a new challenge. We must get the most accurate accounting of gas for the least expense, using contractual guidelines and industry standards. Nothing particularly different about that. But we must do it in the face of changing flow conditions.
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Document ID: 682B20A7

Instruments For The Determination Of Specific Gravity Of Gas
Author(s): Marsha C. Yon
Abstract/Introduction:
The term specific gravity was replaced by the term relative density by the American Gas Association in 1985. By definition, the term is dimensionless, although it is normally referred to in specific gravity units (SGU). This paper uses the outdated term specific gravity as it is currently better recognized by gas industry personnel.
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Document ID: D5CF24C0

The Use Of Manometers In The Gas Industry
Author(s): C. French
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate gas measurement depends oi precise measurement of small pressures and differential pressures. Large volumes of gas are bought and sold every day. Therefore, the utmost accuracy is desired in our measurement of these y/olumes. For this reason the manometer is of prime importance to the gas industry. The simplicity, inherent accuracy and versatility of manometers lend them to broad application in calibration troubleshooting and meter maintenance leak test i ng.
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Document ID: 7406BBBF

Elements Of Gas Contracts
Author(s): Jerry G. Kerr
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas contracts have evolved from a highly regulated environment to the market oriented instruments currently in vogue. Long-term contracts, which were commonplace during years of regulation, are being replaced by short-term, market-oriented contracts commonly referred to as spot market contracts. This tranformation happened so rapidly that virtually every producer and purchaser must administer both types of contracts. Consequently, the industry does not have a so called standard.
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Document ID: 553943D1

Devices For Moisture Measurement In Natural Gas
Abstract/Introduction:
As you know, moisture and natural gas dont mix. Among other things, moisture lowers the BTU rating, causes freeze-ups and makes for compressor breakdowns. To address these problems, gas contracts generally set an upper limit of seven pounds per million standard cubic feet of water. Thus, moisture determination close to that value is very critical. Enter the electrolytic method of moisture analysis, a technology that has historically proven effective for natural gas applications.
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Document ID: 42B321C5

Instruments For Determination Of Specific Gravity Of Gas
Author(s): H. E. Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
This class offers a comprehensive presentation of the kinetic type gas gravltometer, Including: Simple explanation of operating principle Equipment set-up and operation In field Trouble-shooting, repair and adjustment The kinetic type gas gravltometer 1s manufactured as a portable Indicating type Instrument Illustrated 1n Figure 1 and as a stationary recording type Instrument Illustrated In Figure 2. The basic operating mechanism 1s Identical for both types, but the case, motive power and linkage are modified to adapt them to either portable use or permanent mounting.
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Document ID: C4B09FA8

Instruments For The Determination Of Specific Gravity Of Gas
Author(s): Chuck Gray
Abstract/Introduction:
Fundamental to understanding specific gravity instruments and their use is the definition of specific gravity.
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Document ID: 0BD843BB

Instruments For The Determination Of Specific Gravity Of Gas
Author(s): E. L. Collins
Abstract/Introduction:
The Kimray Gas Gravitometer is a precision instrument. If handled carefully it will give precision readings and a long service life.
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Document ID: 9F1497FA

A Progress Report On The Gri Metering Research Facility
Author(s): Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
Within the United States, some 17 trillion standard cubic feet of gas are produced, transported, and distributed to customers each year. This gas must be metered several times as it is purchased and resold by various companies, and finally to the end user. It is essential that the metering of gas flows be accurate, reliable, and efficient. The goal of the Metering Research Facility (MRF) program is to improve the technology for gas flow measurement at field installations where the business of buying and selling gas takes place.
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Document ID: D945A3FF

Electronics For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Rogers G. Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
Recent events in the transportation of natural gas have created a strong interest in electronic measurement. Gas measurement personnel are used to dealing with the mechanical aspect of gas measurement but some orientation is necessary to properly understand the electronic aspect of gas measurement. This presentation will introduce you to the terms needed for understanding electronics in gas measurement and then explain the functioning of the major electronic components used in the measurement of natural gas.
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Document ID: 6F16FBF6

Effects Of Abnormal Conditions On The Accuracy Of Orifice Measurement
Author(s): Steve Caldwell
Abstract/Introduction:
When the accuracy of orifice measurement in custody transfer applications is in doubt, it may be detected either by identifying instrumentation or other hardware malfunctions, by locating physical damage or by the comparison of different measurement stations on a common flowing stream.
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Document ID: DFA5FC56

Orifice Meter Gauge Calibration Using Portable Digital Pressure Indicators
Author(s): David B. Savells
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice Meter Gauges whether Circular Chart recorders or 4-20 mA DC Delta p Transmitters, ranged for the various conditions using an orifice plate, all need periodic calibration using some sort of device to check and recalibrate the span and zero settings. This is essential for proper orifice measurement
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Document ID: 2AE1C4FF

Field Experience With Installation, Operation And Maintenance OF.AUTOMATIC Chart Changers
Author(s): Gene Herron
Abstract/Introduction:
The automatic chart changer was developed some twenty seven years ago. This relieved the problem of having someone manually change the chart every day. It also helped to eliminate the need of either contract chart changers or company employees having to change charts on weekends and holidays (except to pick up the final dropped chart in a contract period
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Document ID: 7440C454

New Ideas In Measurement Real Time - A Measurement Perspective
Author(s): William E. Wickman
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas pipeline industry working environment has changed dramatically over the last decade. The complexity of transactions handled today in the natural gas industry has increased phenomenally and the means of handling gas both physically and contractually is in a state of tremendous flux. Essentially New Ideas In Measurement have not been manifest in the eauipment employed to measure and monitor natural gas but rather in the strategies employed to satisfy the demands of our rapidly changing environment not applied sciences, but rather conceptual theologies. Hence, we will not look at the technological strides made in new and exotic eauipment, but at the concept of how companies are grappling with the conceptual changes in this new era of the natural gas pipeline industry.
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Document ID: D9A2CBE3

Evaporation Loss From Storage Tanks
Author(s): Robert B. Wagoner
Abstract/Introduction:
The loss of stored hydrocarbons has been a concern since the early days of the petroleum Industry. Initially hydrocarbon liquids were stored 1n open tanks or In tanks with only fixed roof covers.
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Document ID: 500231D2

Development And Implementation Of Portable Computers For Field Gaugers
Author(s): Kerry S. Alka
Abstract/Introduction:
Prior to 1986, Sohio Pipe Line Companys field crude oil run tickets were handwritten by the gauger and then mailed to the Corporate Office in Cleveland, Ohio where they were keypunched into the Corporate computer system. This required a staff of computer terminal operators to keypunch all run tickets into the Corporate crude oil volume accounting system for subsequent reporting of crude oil losses and gains. The ticket data was also used in generating payments to the 1 ease operators or sellers of the crude oil. However, there were several problems associated with the handwritten crude oil run ticket:
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Document ID: FF2C4848

Energy Measurement Using Flow Computers And Chromatography
Author(s): Jim Beeson
Abstract/Introduction:
Arkla, along with many other transmission companies, is converting to electronic measurement to: 1. Increase accuracy and resolution 2. Make on-line correction of flow variables 3. Increase speed in data retrieval and processing 4. Reduce capital expenditures with rapid return on investment 5. Reduce operational expenditures
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Document ID: 8549976F

Btu Reduction In Gas Plants
Author(s): Weldon m. Glidewell
Abstract/Introduction:
The determination of BTU and volume reduction in gas processing plants is a method of accounting for the difference between the inlet MMBTU and the outlet MMBTU in any facility that conditions or processes a natural gas stream. With the current market situation in the natural gas industry, reduced operating margins make rigorous accounting for MMBTU and volume reduction imperative. To insure the validity of data used for this determination, care must be taken so that all methods used are representative of the time period for which you are accounting.
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Document ID: D93E9309

High Pressure Measuring & Regulator Station Design
Author(s): Melanie A. Acord
Abstract/Introduction:
Introduct ion Station design begins with determining basic requirements of the station itself. These basics include determining class location, maximum and minimum station inlet pressures, maximum and minimum flow rates, and controlled pressure. Once these have been determined component selection can be made.
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Document ID: 3410229B

Installation And Operation Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): A. F. Kersey
Abstract/Introduction:
The Cutler-Hammer recording Calorimeter measures the total calorific value of combustible gas. It continuously measures, indicates, and records BTU per cubic foot. It is frequently calibrated in megajoules per dubic meter or kilocalories per cubic meter.
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Document ID: EE65DAFA

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): R. H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbulence anywhere in a pipeline system is no asset. However, immediately downstream of pressure regulation, its effect can be especially harmful due to the high velocities that are set up within the regulator body. Design engineers and field men alike will be equally interested in keeping turbulence to a minimum. Both are thinking of maximum throughput with the least amount of noise, plus the best site for analytical instruments such as calorimeters, chromatographs or dew point instruments and a steady sense point for control. In addition, we should be fully aware of the effect of harsh noise on the working efficiency of operating personnel. A person with normal hearing will have a tendency to rush his work in a noisy environment and the result of this is a lowering of the quality of the work.
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Document ID: 70AAD8E5

What The Field & Office Groups Expect From Each Other
Author(s): David Beanly, Royce Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
I mailed it in last week, or we have not received it. These two statements seem all too familiar. Sending and receiving information, of all kinds, must employ good communication and knowledge about both sides. While two-way communication is the key to sending and receiving accurate and timely information, there are definite needs that each side requires to accomplish their respective task. In dealing with the measurement of gas the two distinct sides are the field location: meter station and field offices, and the chart office. Many times the two are hundreds of miles apart and the concerned parties have no first-hand knowledge what is at the other location or how information is used. Gas measurement can be defined as the process of ensuring accurate metering equipment, volume calculations, and maintaining historical volumes of the gas flow from one point to another. The actual process of gas flow occurs in the field through the metering equipment with the office group responsible for most volume calculations and volume history. This concept concludes that to be efficient and accurate the two groups must be aware of each of their needs. As a majority of the information flow is from the field to the office, this flow of data will be discussed first.
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Document ID: 8B3FE6C0

Manual Chart Calculation
Author(s): J.D. Jhiflet
Abstract/Introduction:
The era of the computer has done much to curtail the need to perform manual chart volume calculations both in the field and the measurement office. Mainframe, mini, on-site, flow, and/or personal computers now perform this task quickly and accurately. A trade publication recently contained an article which detailed some 364 programming steps necessary to cause a programmable, hand-held calculator to perform orifice calculations. Despite this level of technology, those seriously involved in the gas measurement industry should possess both an understanding of what variables are required for calculations, and how each effects the volumetric outcome. A thorough understanding can be of enormous benefit to one who must either perform a manual calculation or determine if a calculation has been made correctly, then one can possibly find what has been done in error and initiate corrective action.
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Document ID: E13620B2

Office Application Of Computers For Flow Calculation
Author(s): Dewayne Mosley
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for increased precision in hydrocarbon measurement is a growing concern for everyone in our industry. In order to achieve the quality of measurement desired, we must learn to fully utilize the many technologically advanced instruments now available on the market. Fully automated chart processing systems can greatly enhance the speed and accuracy at which volumes are calculated and accessed.
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Document ID: 6967915C

Odor Level Testing: Instruments And Operations
Author(s): Gordon R. Plunkett
Abstract/Introduction:
Odor level test determination is a difficult subject, and leads to much discussion. Odor level test instruments have been in use for approximately fifty years and many users are convinced of their reliability. There are others, however, who feel that the test results of these instruments are meaningless. Since both sides in this disagreement are using the same type of instrument, the primary problem appears to surround the manner in which the odor level test is taught and run.
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Document ID: 34F82D19

Devices For Moisture Measurement In Natural Gas
Author(s): T. F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
The objective is to present a specific system for on-line monitoring of the water dewpoint in natural gas. The described analyzer is based on a conductivity measurement of an hygroscopic glycerol solution. This system is designed for natural gas measurement without the need for extensive sample conditioning to protect the sensor.
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Document ID: DF493AA0

Devices For Moisture Measurement In Natural Gas
Author(s): Michael J. Scelzo
Abstract/Introduction:
The p u r p o s e of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s to p r e s e n t an o v e r v i e w of the p r o b l e m s most c o m m o n l y e n c o u n t e r e d in t h e a n a l y s i s of n a t u r a l gas for w a t e r vapor c o n t e n t , and t o p r o v i d e d e t a i l s on t h e s u c c e s s f ul a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e t h i n f i l m a l u m i n um o x i d e m o i s t u r e s e n s o r t o t h i s t y p e of m e a s u r e m e n t .
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Document ID: 6C6FDEC2

Economics Of Electronic Flow Measurement
Author(s): Jim Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
During the past few years the management of ths measurement departments in many of the gas transmission companies, production and distribution companies across the Onited States and Canada, have been in a quandary about what to do with electronic metering systems vs. the use of charts in gas metering. Many questions have been asked about electronic measurement such as:
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Document ID: 74308C42

Operation Of Orifice Meter Chart Integrators
Author(s): Don Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
To get a better understanding of why we do things in the measurement office today, we should know some of the history of natural gas and the developments through the years that the industry has experienced.
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Document ID: 118C39B3

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Charles R. Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas turbine meter is only one of many types of meters that are used to measure natural gas. While each type of meter, each with its own design, has a particular application for which it is well suited, the gas turbine meter is one of the most versatile due to its high accuracy, wide rangeability, and moderate cost..
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Document ID: B510E85D

Light Liquid Hydrocarbon Sampling
Author(s): Chris m. Wilkins
Abstract/Introduction:
The sampling of light liquid hydrocarbons most generally involves one of two types of sampling: (1) flow proportional composite type sampling by a mechanical device, and/or (2) the physical transfer of hydrocarbon fluids from a flowing pipeline or other source into a suitable portable sample container. This paper will discuss in some detail the importance of these procedures. and the proper equipment and techniques needed to perform these operations.
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Document ID: DA642E6B

Calibration Of Liquid Density Meters
Author(s): David Kilian
Abstract/Introduction:
Mass measurement has become the dominant method for measuring mixed natural gas liquids. This procedure requires the true density of the product be determined at flowing conditions simultaneously with volumetric measurement. The accuracy of the density meter or densitometer is equally important as the volumetric por.ion of the system in determining total pounds mass. It is essential the liquid density meter be installed, operated, and calibrated properly. The pycnometer method of calibrating density meters is the industry standard. Therefore, this paper will concentrate on the calibration of liquid density meters using the pycnometer.
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Document ID: 9E9F4F58

Chromatographic Analysis Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): James C. Lee
Abstract/Introduction:
During the past few decades, the natural gas liquids industry has undergone many changes. Volumetric measurement of mixed product has given way to mass measurement flat rate pricing of mixed product streams has given way to pricing of individual components such as ethane (C2), propane (C3), isobutane (IC4), normal butane (NC4), and gasoline. The need to quantify the components of a mixed stream is vital to the measurement process. Gas liquid chromatography lends itself exceptionally well to this task.
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Document ID: 2C487603

Orifice Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): m. J. Joe Sergesketter
Abstract/Introduction:
While the orifice meter is most commonly used for measuring gas and steam flows, it also has many applications in liquid flow measurement. These applications range from measurement for control purposes only, where flow rate is the important variable, to measurement of dirty or corrosive liquids that would cause excessive maintenance in positive displacement or turbine meters.
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Document ID: 143FD4C6

Laboratory Calibration Op Fluid Flowmeters
Author(s): Stephen H. Caldwell, Halter F. Seidl
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 9FD444C5

Theory And Applications Of Pulse Interpolation To Prover Systems
Author(s): Wyman Hammock
Abstract/Introduction:
The volume represented by each number of a meters register and each pulse of a meters signal generator has always been of major concern among measurement personnel. In the past, better resolution of each volumetric unit indicated by the measurement device was achieved by taking larger liquid samples. This made each unit represent a smaller percentage of the whole meter reading. Therefore, the loss or inaccurate reading of a single unit was of less consequence. In order to obtain an adequate number of units for proper resolution, the prover volume had to be of sufficient size.
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Document ID: 707BCC9B

Karl Fischer Vs. H20 By Distillation
Author(s): Roy J. Barrios, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
FAST EASY CHEAP Three qualities we all need. The Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP) measures over 500 million barrels of crude oil a year. This volume includes receipts and deliveries. These 500 million barrels are divided into approximately 1400 batches per year and LOOP analyzes each batch for water content using ASTM Method D-4006 (Water by Distillation).
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Document ID: 2BF72AF0

Installation Of Pycnometers And Pycnometer Calculations
Author(s): Harold L. Gray
Abstract/Introduction:
In our ever changing world of neasurement it should be noted to those who are involved in mass measurement that the A.P.I. Chapter 14.6 is now undergoing some very radical changes in the way we handle the density meter and all that is used to insure the validity of its results. The reduction of our work forces and the declining prices of our products has forced a new outlook on the way we install and calibra-e measurement equipment. Once a company has cut manpower to a minimum and still operate, the next is to put emphasis on more accurate measurement of their raw and finished products. This will squeeze the last bit of profit out of its throughput and possibly make a marginal plant a profitable one. The purpose of this paper is to briefly explain the new methods of Installation of Pycnometers and Pycnometer Calibrations using the new A.P.I. Chapter 14.6.
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Document ID: 10586AC8

Installation Of Pycnometers And Pycnometer Calculations
Author(s): Harold L. Gray, Warren Petroleum
Abstract/Introduction:
In our ever changing world of neasurement it should be noted to those who are involved in mass measurement that the A.P.I. Chapter 14.6 is now undergoing some very radical changes in the way we handle the density meter and all that is used to insure the validity of its results. The reduction of our work forces and the declining prices of our products has forced a new outlook on the way we install and calibra-e measurement equipment. Once a company has cut manpower to a minimum and still operate, the next is to put emphasis on more accurate measurement of their raw and finished products. This will squeeze the last bit of profit out of its throughput and possibly make a marginal plant a profitable one. The purpose of this paper is to briefly explain the new methods of Installation of Pycnometers and Pycnometer Calibrations using the new A.P.I. Chapter 14.6.
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Document ID: B0AD98BA

Installation Of Pycnometers And Pycnometer Calculations
Author(s): Harold L. Gray, Warren Petroleum C
Abstract/Introduction:
In our ever changing world of measurement it should be noted to those who are involved in mass measurement that the A.P.I. Chapter 14.6 is now undergoing some very radical changes in the way we handle the density meter and all that is used to insure the validity of its results. The reduction of our work forces and the declining prices of our products has forced a new outlook on the way we install and calibrate measurement equipment. Once a company has cut manpower to a minimum and still operate, the next is to put emphasis on more accurate measurement of their raw and finished products. This will squeeze the last bit of profit out of its throughput and possibly make a marginal plant a profitable one. The purpose of this paper is to briefly explain the new methods of Installation of Pycnometers and Pycnameter Calibrations using the new A.P.I. Chapter 14.6.
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Document ID: BA0B7EA5

Other Flow Measuring Devices
Author(s): David L. Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
Quite often an industry becomes so familiar and comfortable with one or two types of flow elements that other potentially useful and beneficial flow elements may be overlooked, even when they are especially well suited for the flow metering application at hand. This may be the case with the Annular Averaging Pitot Tube in the Natural Gas Industry. Orifice plates and turbine meters, long time standard in the Natural Gas Industry, are good flow elements. But there are times when a flow application will be encountered which will benefit from the characteristics of the Annular Averaging Pitot Tube.
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Document ID: BF8E2E7F

Karl Fischer Vs. Hqo By Distillation
Author(s): Roy J. Barrios, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
FAST EASY CHEAP Three qualities we all need. The Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP) measures over 500 million barrels of crude oil a year. This volume includes receipts and deliveries. These 500 million barrels are divided into approximately 1400 batches per year and LOOP analyzes each batch for water content using ASTM Method D-4006 (Water by Distillation).
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Document ID: 3BAC0C44

Liquid Measurement Station Design
Author(s): Scottie Duplantis
Abstract/Introduction:
A liquid measurement station is a designed and engineered package of valves, pipe, instrumentation, flow meters and wiring, configured to produce accurate measurement data in the delivery of a product in a process unit or in a custody transfer between a buyer and seller. A liquid measurement station could be as simple as a manually operated single meter run or as complex as a multi-meter run tanker loading facility with a multi-tasking control/computer system.
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Document ID: EFB8D226

Fundamentals Of Liquid Turbine Meters
Author(s): Michael J. Keady
Abstract/Introduction:
The liquid turbine meter was first applied in the aerospace industry to measure fuel and hydraulic fluid. This meter had the necessary characteristics of being small in size, light weight, linear, highly accurate, and easy to interface to electronic controls. The liquid product pipelines and light crude handlers quickly adapted the turbine meter to their need for a linear, highly repeatable, and long-lasting meter for custody transfer. Applications in general industry measurement followed. Turbine meters are widely used to measure the produced oil and water from production wells. Turbine meter sizes range from 1/4 to 30 in size.
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Document ID: 71663EFF

Calibration Of Liquid Provers
Author(s): Charles G. Shannon
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid flow meters are the cash registers of the industry. Whether the liquid meter is used in a plant for internal measurement for inventory control purposes, or in transactions between producers and pipelines, pipelines and refiners, refiners and marketers, valuable commodities, crude oil, refined products and liquified petroleum gases are bought and paid for based on what these meters say is going through them.
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Document ID: BE6C4F3B

Liquid Measurement Techniques And Problems
Author(s): M.J.Yeandle,
Abstract/Introduction:
The design of all measurement systems should be concerned with achieving a balance between accuracy, flexibility and cost. Companies trying to obtain reductions in measurement losses are also seeking cost effective measuring systems which will achieve acceptable levels of uncertainty. Therefore consideration has to be given to the performance and cost of a whole range of measurement equipment available on the market. The question of whether to use dynamic measurement (metering), or static measurement (tank gauging), must be looked at in terms of accuracy and cost.
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Document ID: 65E590D5

Operational Experience With Small Volume Provers
Author(s): Frank D. Graves
Abstract/Introduction:
The small volume prover has definitely made an impact on the Petroleum Industry. It is a relatively new piece of equipment that when applied correctly can make the job of proving meters faster, and, in some cases, even make the job of proving possible.
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Document ID: E8F34729

Calculation Of Liquid Petroleum Quantities
Author(s): Daniel m. Cornstock
Abstract/Introduction:
With the advent of electronic calculators and computers, calculations can be performed in chain sequences that allow for less handling and ease of operation. However, it is possible for different operators, using difference machines, to arrive at slightly different answers from time to time. Therefore, there is a need to standardize some of the calculation procedures. The API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards addresses this problem in Chapter 12, which is currently under review.
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Document ID: C08F2FB4

Marine Crude Oil Terminal Measuring Systems
Author(s): Wayne T. Lake
Abstract/Introduction:
Marine Crude Oil Terminal Measuring Systems are used to accurately determine the quantity of crude transferred when loading or discharging marine vessels. The quantity determined is used for the Bill of Lading in the purchase of crude, transportation cost, royalty and tax assignments, and customs tax. An average sized crude carrier transports 500,000 barrels or 9,000,000 worth at current prices of 18 per barrel. Even small errors in a cargo of this size cause large financial gains or losses and can not be tolerated making it important to measure as well as possible.
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Document ID: 22B4EE8A

P.D. Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Robert Carlson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will examine positive displacement meters in their design, construction and application for liquid measurement. Factors affecting the P.D. Meters accuracy performance will also be presented. The P.D. Meter is a universal measurement device for many different liquids. The information presented may be applied not only to hydrocarbon service but also to industrial, chemical, and commercial applications.
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Document ID: BE8CD67C

Crude Oil Sampling For Custody Transfer
Author(s): Thomas E. Moroni
Abstract/Introduction:
The discovery of crude oil in Titusville, Pennsylvania, in 1859 was the birth of the oil industry in America. The transportation of crude oil began with horse carts, wooden barrels, gallon buckets, and little regard for accurate measurement of quantity or quality.
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Document ID: 28F0ADEE

Onsite Proving Of Gas Turbine Meters Using Sonic Nozzles
Author(s): Jim Beeson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper explains a mobile gas turbine meter proving system that combines technology from liquid turbine meter provers with new ideas that specifically apply to gas measurement. Arkla Energy Resources developed and currently uses a sonic nozzle prover on 4 thru 8 gas turbine meters at meter station sites under actual operating conditions.
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Document ID: EE83A391

Calibration Of Storage Tanks
Author(s): H. S. Moore III
Abstract/Introduction:
Tank Strapping is the term commonly applied to the procedures used in the measurement of tanks to provide the dimensions neccessary for the computation of capacity tables.
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Document ID: BAE5DCFC

Liquid Flow Provers Conventional()
Author(s): Steven E. Everley
Abstract/Introduction:
Ever since meters have been used for the custody transfer of a liquid petroleum product there has been a need to confirm the accuracy of that transfer. This accounting of the metered volume or auditing of the cash register is performed by a meter prover.
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Document ID: 005007BF

Prevention Of Freezing In Measuring And Regulation Equipment
Author(s): Don Day
Abstract/Introduction:
Freezing has been a problem faced by gas men since the birth of the industry. This problem will continue for all time but there are ways to minimize the effects of the phenomenon.
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Document ID: 1DE1E751

Liquid Meter Proving Techniques
Author(s): Lennie Z. Ingue
Abstract/Introduction:
The proving of a liquid meter is the actual test conducted on a meter to determine its accuracy and performance. Meter performance is the relationship of the amount of liquid or throughput registered on the meters counter to the actual quantity of liquid which passed through the meter. The only way to ascertain this relationship is to calibrate the meter against a known volume. The terms calibration, proving, and prover are used in the industry when referring to the means of establishing the accuracy of a meter. The goal of a meter proving is to obtain the greatest accuracy possible under the circumstances and environment surrounding the meter.
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Document ID: B9A6BE12

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted-For-Gas Distribution
Author(s): C. m. Spriggs
Abstract/Introduction:
All gas systems leak. Gas escapes every system in one way or another. This is true because gas is permeable to every system. For instance, with PE2306 pipe the volume of methane lost through permeation in one mile of two-inch pipe operated at 60 psi is about 0.26 cubic feet per day. So, if every system leaks, then how much do we lose? Hence we have unaccounted-for-gas.
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Document ID: F2926E83

Application Of Flow Computer For Gas Measurement And Control
Author(s): Paul E. Kizer
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronics technology has been used to calculate gas flow volumes for over twenty (20) years. With the commercialization of the microprocessor in the oil and gas industry ten (10) to twelve (12) years ago, it became possible to calculate many of the AGA factors out in the field. Some six (6) years ago, battery powered flow computer units (FCUs) were introduced. The aim of these devices was to provide a replacement for the three (3) pen round chart and also give field operators a window on the gas volumes at the meter site. Considering the complications of the following:
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Document ID: 3A0F7BC6

Selection. Testing, Maintenance And Operation Of Electronic Flow Computers
Author(s): Fred De Busk
Abstract/Introduction:
Selecting the right Electronic Flow Computer (EFC) device for your company or application will determine its success. Such Acronyms as EFC. EFM, and/or EGM will be used around the industry. A. EFC / Electronic Flow Computer B. EFM / Electronic Flow Computer C. EGM / Electronic Gas Measurement
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Document ID: 802EC443

Field Experience With Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): John m. Murphy
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas turbine meters have been in use since the mid 1950s. They have proven to be accurate, compact and easy to maintain. Turbine meters like diaphragm and rotary meters can be used with a standard index, volume & pressure recorders and mechanical or electronic correctors.
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Document ID: 73C0823E

The Design, Maintenance, And Operation Of L.A.C.T. Units
Author(s): Mike Marshall, Ken Steward, Larry Pitts
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss the basics of Lease Automatic Custody Transfer (L.A.C.T.) units to include the design, maintenance, and operation. While a paper of this length can not be definitive, hopefully it will prove useful to those people being initiated to L.A.C.T. units.
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Document ID: 75AC08A0

Effective Use Of Deadweight Testers Pneumatic( And Hydraulic)
Author(s): Mike S. Morrison
Abstract/Introduction:
The Deadweight Gauge is the most accurate instrument available for the measurement of pressures. Repeatable readings with accuracies of 0.1% to .02% of measured pressure are obtainable. The device does not require recalibration unless the components have excessive wear or weights are replaced. It is easily transported and set up in the field, requires minimum maintenance, and is simple to operate. Tripod mounting is available for most instruments.
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Document ID: 57D07E2F

Causes And Cures Of Regulator Instability
Author(s): William H. Earney
Abstract/Introduction:
THIS PAPER WILL ADDRESS THE GAS PRESSURE REDUCING REGULATOR INSTALLATION AND THE ISSUE OF ERRATIC CONTROL OF THE DOWNSTREAM PRESSURE. A GAS PRESSURE REDUCING REGULATORS JOB IS TO MANIPULATE FLOW IN ORDER TO CONTROL PRESSURE. WHEN THE DOWNSTREAM PRESSURE IS NOT PROPERLY CONTROLLED THE TERM UNSTABLE CONTROL IS APPLIED. FIGURE 1 IS A LIST OF OTHER TERMS USED FOR VARIOUS FORMS OF DOWNSTREAM PRESSURE INSTABILITY. THIS PAPER WILL NOT ADDRESS TE MATHEMATICAL METHODS OF DESCREIBING THE AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE PRESSURE REDUCING STATION, BUT WILL DEAL WITH MORE OF THE COMPONENTS AND THEIR AFFECT ON THE SYSTEM STABILITY.
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Document ID: 1598391D

Meter Shop Equipment, Techniques And Operation
Author(s): Jim Lancaster
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past we have discussed the how to of meter maintenance and testing more than how much does it cost. When we set our objectives, costs should be a priority on the same level as quality, productivity and employee relations. This paper and discussion will focus on costs and cost control work done at Arkla Meter Repair Plant in Sheridan, Arkansas.
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Document ID: F470555B

Proving And Repairing Domestic Meters
Author(s): G. B. Lynn
Abstract/Introduction:
Before we begin to address the subject of proving, and repairing domestic meters, we first need to determine their significance to our industry. Domestic meters far outnumber any other type of gas measurement equipment. There are probably over ICO million domestic meters in service and probably not over 5 million other gas meters combined. The domestic meter is typically used at a residence and has a capacity of 175 to 250 cubic feet per hour. Domestic meters are small in size but are of great importance to our industry since one-third of the gas sold to end users is measured by these domestic devices. The domestic customer is very important to local distribution companies and that importance has remained virtually unchanged by recent ability of the end user to direct purchase gas from its source. In one way the domestic customer is captive and we must treat him with equality of service and measurement.
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Document ID: 99984AA4

Operating Principles Of Self-Adjusting Turbine Meters
Author(s): D.W. Peace
Abstract/Introduction:
A perfectly valid question for anyone involved in gas measurement to ask is: How do I know that the measuring device I am using in the field is as accurate as the original factory calibration?
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Document ID: 2278D7D3

Fundamental Principles Of Regulators
Author(s): J.M. Kruse
Abstract/Introduction:
A Gas Pressure Regulator is an automatic device which controls the media flow and maintains a desired media pressure while reducing the media supply pressure.
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Document ID: 8BB0964C

Gas Service Regulators - Installation, Selection And Operation
Author(s): Scott Follin
Abstract/Introduction:
A gas pressure regulator is a device utilizing mechanical and pneumatic principles designed to reduce varying high pressure to a constant lower pressure throughout a range of flows. Originally, the regulators primary function was to reduce high pressure to a more usable lower pressure. Today, much more is required of a simple spring loaded regulator and several operating functions are being satisfied. They are no longer just pressure reducing devices but are an integral instrument of measurement and have the internal ability to satisfy the stringest modern safety codes of D.O.T. Regulators must be selected and sized to match measurement and safety requirements,
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Document ID: 516E0365

Flow Measurement By Vortex Shedding Meters
Author(s): Frank D. Gunther
Abstract/Introduction:
Vortex flowmeters have been used in indus - trial applications for over a decade. This paper describes the theory, construction, and applications featuring this type of flowmeter. Characteristic advantages and limitations are also discussed.
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Document ID: 9B59C602

Temperature Measurement For Orifice Flow Measurement
Author(s): Gerald D. Adkins
Abstract/Introduction:
When we speak informally of temperature and temperature differences, we all understand what we are talking about. We also know the difference between cold compared to hot, but when it comes to defining temperature, many of us are at a loss for words.
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Document ID: 51503770

Fundamental Principles Op Rotary Displacement Meters
Author(s): James A. Jackson
Abstract/Introduction:
The first positive displacement rotary gas meters were built in 1920 by the PH & FM ROOTS Company and the Connersville Blower Company, both located in Connersville, Indiana. In 1966, this gas meter operation was renamed Dresser Measurement Division. However, these rotary meters today are still known as ROOTS Meters.
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Document ID: 59C49BA5

Fundamental Principles Of Diaphragm Displacement Meters
Author(s): Ed Stebbins
Abstract/Introduction:
The process and effort to seek a better means of light than the open fire inevitably led to the manufactured gas business. In what was first thought of as a mystical vapor, led to past and present developments in making, purifying and storing gas.
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Document ID: F26E1AA3

Composite Sampling Techniques Of Gas Sampling
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
A composite sample is gas collected in a sample container that is representative of the gas flowing in the pipeline during some specific period of time. In order for this to be true, the sampling system must be installed properly, maintained in working order, and the sample must be subsequently handled properly.
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Document ID: 99445E75

Communication Systems For Gas Measurement Data
Author(s): Steve Darsquo
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays changing world, it is necessary to have more and more information available to adequately manage any business. Certainly, this is no less true for a gas utility than it is for any other commercial business. Until recently however, it has been uneconomical for the utility to obtain all of the information it needs for efficient system operation because of the diversity of its customers. Now, because of recent advances in technology, it is becoming more and more feasibile to collect the informaton needed. Several different communications technologies are currently maturing into economically justifiable systems.
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Document ID: 6FDDB0AE

Methods Of Field Testing Large Displacement Meters
Author(s): Dale C. Shuck
Abstract/Introduction:
Many papers have been published on the different methods of field testing large capacity meters with the emphasis being placed on flow testing and procedures for performing the various flow tests. It is my opinion that flow testing the meters, regardless of the method is just one step in assuring accurate measurement when field testing large displacement measuring stations.
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Document ID: 7DAFD554

Communication Systems For Gas Measurement Data
Author(s): John Yabsley
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past 40 years, instrumentation technology has produced an evolution of advancing gas measuring techniques moving from the local clock drive circular charts with integrator, into use of the local flow computing remote terminal units with data being collected, transmitted by satellite, and massaged by the gas control host computer.
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Document ID: E3F81937

Devices For Moisture Measurement In Natural Gas Updated Bureau Of Mines Type Dew Point Tester
Author(s): A. R. Kahmann
Abstract/Introduction:
OF ALL THE DEVICES AVAILABLE FOR MEASURING WATER VAPOR CONTENT IN GASES, BUREAU OF MINES ...............
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Document ID: 7D338700

Odorization
Author(s): Dan Zimmerman
Abstract/Introduction:
Times were when many gas companies with gate station volumes of less than 20 rnmcf/day held little regard for accurate odorization, Traditional by-pass odorizers, despite their inherent inefficiency, were the order of the day. It indeed appears that times are changing, Todays litigous society, the availability and widespread acceptance of electronic instrumentation, and a more qualified breed of technician has ushered in an era of improved odorization techniques. Senior gas company management have developed greater concern for their companys odorization practices, approving budgets for evermore sophisticated odorizer installations and upgrades. This concern hasnt merely trickled down, it has dumped hard and fast on operations and engineering, encouraging these groups to protect the company, the customer and the environment - encouraging them to do it right.
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Document ID: CCA3B561

Field Experience With Charts, Pens & Ink
Author(s): Lonnie R. Grady
Abstract/Introduction:
SOME OF THOSE ATTENDING THIS PRESENTATION OR READING THIS PAPER MAY ASK, WHY IS THIS SUBJECT BEING DISCUSSED? EVERYBODY KNOWS THAT ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENT IS TAKING OVER. IN TWO YEARS THERE WILL BE NO NEED FOR CHARTS, PENS OR INK. WHILE THIS MAY BE A VALID ASSUMPTION FOR SOME, MANY YEARS OR EVEN DECADES WILL PASS BEFORE ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENT WILL TOTALLY REPLACE STANDARD RECORDERS.
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Document ID: 92527D17

Odorization - Think Or Stink
Author(s): Ira Katuran
Abstract/Introduction:
Many people feel that gas odorization is one of those necessary evils forced upon gas utilities. However, gas companies recognize the advantages of the product they distribute and are cognizant of the objective of maximizing proper handling and safety to the public. In this paper we will cover the requirements of gas odorization. We will start with the federal law to see why odor is added, what is added, and how much is added. We will also investigate ways to make that job a little easier for all of us by taking into consideration proper planning for storage so that chances for mishandling are reduced.
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Document ID: 8B5400A9

Effects And Control Of Pulsations In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Debbie Gegg
Abstract/Introduction:
It has long been recognized that pulsations have adverse effects on the accuracy of orifice flow measurement. This is of great concern to the natural gas industry since the orifice meter is the most widely used device for measurement. Considerable research has been done to establish the exact cause and cure for these inaccuracies. The effect of pulsation and some methods for its elimination or control follow.
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Document ID: 8FEFFEA4

Selection Of Control Valves And Associated Instrumentation
Author(s): Donald W. Irwin
Abstract/Introduction:
A control valve is used to control fluid flow based on the process demands. The four basic processes where control valves are utilized are: Pressure Temperature Flow Level In the gas industry, pressure and flow control loops are the principal processes utilizing control valves.
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Document ID: E156F43F

Large Capacity Gas Regulators
Author(s): Donald W. Irwin
Abstract/Introduction:
Although gas pressure regulators dominate much of the control applications in the gas distribution and transmission industry, they are usually limited to applications where capacity requirements do not exceed 10 mm CFH. These applications are numerous in any gas distribution system and include commercial, industrial, and domestic service, farm taps, and district pressure control.
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Document ID: DE6FC04E

Fundamentals Of Pneumatic Controllers
Author(s): Lon Ca Ison
Abstract/Introduction:
CONTROLLERS IN ONE FORM OR ANOTHER HAVE BEEN AROUND THE PROCESS INDUSTRIES FOR A NUMBER OF YEARS. IN FACT, THEY ARE SUCH A FAMILIAR SIGHT THAT THEY FREQUENTLY SUFFER FROM BEING TAKEN FOR GRANTED. YET, THE QUALITY OF PERFORMANCE PROVIDED BY A CONTROL SYSTEM IS DETERMINED BY THE PERFORMANCE OF THE CONTROLLER AND THE OTHER ELEMENTS IN THE LOOP.
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Document ID: 600AEE9A

Crude Oil Sampling For Custody Transfer
Author(s): James m. Strawn
Abstract/Introduction:
Representative sampling and accurate determination of sediment and water (S&W) in crude oil is a five step process: -Disperse free water uniformly at the sample point -Extract and collect sample grabs to provide a representative sample of the entire volume -Maintain the sample in the sample receiver without altering its contents -Handle and mix the sample so that a representative alliquot may be taken for analysis -Analyze the sample accurately
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Document ID: 87357B05

Fixed Factor Pressure Measurement
Author(s): Dean Splittgerber
Abstract/Introduction:
PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to review fundamentals of Fixed Factor Pressure Measurement. BASICS: Since the density of natural gas is affected by temperature and pressure, a standard unit of measure is defined at a pressure called standard base pressure and temperature. A cubic foot of gas at standard pressure and temperature conditions is called a standard cubic foot (SCF).
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Document ID: F25525BF

Ethylene Measurement
Author(s): C m . Wilkerson
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate custody transfer of ethylene through pipelines has become increasingly important since it began in the mid-1960s because: 1. The volumes transported have increased dramatically to approximately 30 billion pounds per year. 2. The cost of ethylene has increased from 2 cents per lb. in the mid-1960s to more than 30 cents per lb. at todays cost.
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Document ID: FA88254E

Mechanically Driven Electronic Correction Devices
Author(s): Bernard J. Kemperman Mineral Wells, Tx
Abstract/Introduction:
In the 1930s, when more and more companies began to sell large volumes of gas at elevated pressures, i.e. at pressures above inches water column, it became apparent that a device was needed which, either clock or meter driven, would correct the measured volume for pressure and temperature. And, necessity being the mother of invention, it was not long before the first such instrument came on the market. These instruments were essentially like mechanical calculators of which certain inputs were automatically adjustable as a function of changing pressure and temperature. A great many of such instruments are still in use today and their design has not been changed a great deal since the first units were introduced in the mid-thirties.
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Document ID: F7FE8468

Application Of Densitometers To Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Charles W. Derr
Abstract/Introduction:
This discussion presents a practical orientation to liquid densitometers. The technology chosen and the required absolute installed accuracy must be carefully considered to match the proper density meter, computing device, and sampling technique to the fluid measured. Densitometers are used to measure clean or dirty light, heavy, corrosive, viscous fluids and slurries. They are well suited to measure cryogenic and two-phase state fluids. Historical applications and useful calculations are explored.
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Document ID: 8488D3B4

Operation & Maintenance Of Regulators
Author(s): Jim Massey
Abstract/Introduction:
The operation and maintenance of regulators is very important because a gas regulator is one of the most important mechanisms for controlling the movement or the flow of gas. One that controls a changeable situation is often referred to as a control valve, a governor, or a pressure reducer.
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Document ID: FC126C16

About Ishm 1989
Abstract/Introduction:
Collection of documents about ISHM including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, exhibitor and sponsor information, etc.
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Document ID: 73BEF303


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