Measurement Library

Measurement Science Conference Publications (1988)

Fiber Optic Calibration Considerations
Author(s): Russell C. Pepe
Abstract/Introduction:
THE CALIBRATION OF OPTICAL TEST INSTRUMENTS INTENDED FOR FIBER OPTIC APPLICATIONS WILL BE DISCUSSED.
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Document ID: EF88C827

Automated Phaser Enbanced Calibration Of Power Sensors.
Author(s): John Gregory Burns
Abstract/Introduction:
The automated calibration of RF power sensors has been accomplished with a single system consisting of a Hewlett-Packard (H.P.) 8409 network analyzer and several power meters, All measurements are performed in a single series of steps, in two bands over the 50 MHz to 18 GDz frequency range, to produce a final report of Calibration. This paper includes a system description, operational procedure and an error analysis. It will begin with a brief review of RF power measurements.
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Document ID: B2E84082

Automated Calibration A Different Approach
Author(s): J. R. Niederecker, C. L. Lundstrom, G. A. Martinez, Wolfgang John
Abstract/Introduction:
Another automated calibration system? What makes this version of an automated system SO different from others developed in the past? Lets face it, there are only so many ways to take a frequency measurement. However, the problem with most automated systems is that many times the calibration procedure is buried in software. A subtle transformation has taken place a calibration procedure is now a program. And the costs associated with maintaining programs can easily devour the savings realized from automation. The optimum solution becomes obvious keep metrology and software separate. This paper describes how this was achieved.
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Document ID: E64D7038

Enhancing Reliability In A Multi-Function Calibrator Using Thermal Design
Author(s): Howard Voorheis
Abstract/Introduction:
The failure rates of semiconductor devices have been directly related to junction temperatures. Thus, the reliability of a semiconductor device can be enhanced by lowering it5 junction temperature. In a complex electronic instrument where substantial amounts of power are dissipated, temperature control becomes necessary. For this to happen, however, thermal design must be incorporated into the system design of the instrument from the very start. To treat thermal problems after the fact can create t-eal problems in electrical, mechanical, and scheduling areas of the project. This paper describes the thermal problems in the design of a complex multifunction calibrator and a solution methodology that was used to reduce the device junction temperatures in the instrument.
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Document ID: 89E0375B

Reliability And Maintainability (R&MM) Program
Author(s): Laurence E. Lezofson
Abstract/Introduction:
Adhering t o t h e Increased emphasis on equipment r e l l a b l l l t y malntalnablllty, supportablllty, and overall quality mandated by the Unlted States Air Force, the Dlrectorate of Metrology (ML) established a program leveraglng quality In the acqulsltlon of commercially-available test equipment and identifying deflclencles In previously flelded Instruments.
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Document ID: 5137D0F3

The Metrology Crisis
Author(s): Walter J. Mcgee
Abstract/Introduction:
This technical report exposes a deficiency deep within our American industrial institutions which is not recognized by management, the military customer, or the quality czars. This report explains some of the costs, delays, catastrophic failures of equipment and the weakening posture of our nations economy and defenses. In short, productivity and quality are down and no one seems to be totally solving the problem. The METROLOGY CRISIS reveals much more than metrology. It reveals that, contrary to the stated assurance that products conform to all requirements, they, in fact, do not.
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Document ID: 819BA143

Volt Maintenance At The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant And Some Comments On Ancient Metrology.
Author(s): Ross Endsley
Abstract/Introduction:
The present system of volt maintenance at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is described, along with the influence of developments over the past three decades. The discussion includes the utilization of computers digital meters: 10-v, solid-state references circular data patterns and a drift-compensating divider technique. Also, some comments are offered on ancient metrology.
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Document ID: 0BF71C7E

Advanced Calibration Technique For Precision Dmm
Author(s): Hal Chenhall
Abstract/Introduction:
The performance of precision digital multimeters used mainly for calibration and standards laboratories applications has been limited by the basic stability of certain critical components in their analog measurement circuits. The most significant of these components are the gain defining resistor networks used in signal conditioning amplifiers, and the zener devices which form the instruments basic voltage reference.
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Document ID: CDB61A73

New Design Developments Simplify Calibrator Support
Author(s): Paul Baldock
Abstract/Introduction:
Supporting the calibration of high precision instruments can be a costly business. It is costly both in terms of the equipment to facilitate the adjustments and in the down-time associated with removing the instrument from service for the adjustment process. In order to reduce the increasing costs and simplify the support process, manufacturers of precision instruments such as digital multimeters and multifunction calibrators, are incorporating reference standards and measurement systems internally. This internal circuitry has the ability to automatically and independently make many of the measurements and intercomparisons formerly reserved for operations in a standards and calibration laboratory.
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Document ID: 1043BC5E

Space Sbutile Tile Automated Dimensioning
Author(s): James D. Tostenson
Abstract/Introduction:
The x-entry of Space Vehicles into the atmosphere after completing missions in orbit around the earth or the moon has been accomplished many times in the past two decades. Past man rated vehicles like Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo carried from one to three astronauts and were quite small and compact in size compared to the Space Shuttle Vehicle and required much less of an area to have re-entry insulation to protect the capsule and its occupants from the heat during re-entry. Insulation on past vehicles was an ablative type that actually charred and peeled away the dynamic heating of w-entry carrying the heat away from the capsule. These vehicles were used for only one mission.
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Document ID: 11241EB2

Flexible Gaging The Future Of Factory Management
Author(s): David H. Genest
Abstract/Introduction:
For the past decade or more, FMS (flexible manufacturing systems) have been widely discussed but rarely put into practice. Now that flexible manufacturing has been pioneered in Japan and Europe, manufacturers in the United States and Canada are earnestly putting these principles to work in their own factories. An important sign of our heightened interest in FMS is the highly flexible palletized transfer lines which are being installed in many industries.
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Document ID: B563F9BD

Attaining Legal Metrology Status In Eec Nations
Author(s): Henry Ernst Sostmann
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1987 the YSI Metrology Laboratory received accreditation as a Calibration Center of the Deutscher Kalibrierdienst (German Calibration Service, DKD) for the calibration of highprecision platinum resistance thermometers at fixed points of the International Practical Temperature Scale. I describe how this came about, other activity in the EEC nations, and *ome consequences to the meaning of graceability.
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Document ID: E7A2513B

Modular Test Equipment: Proof Of Performance
Author(s): Benny R. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
While modular instrumentation offers significant advantages in flexibility and adaptability, there will always be a gap in performance between an integrated instrument and a modular instrument. Narrowing this performance gap requires fanatical attention to process control and a sound statistical approach to proving and maintaining modularity. This paper describes a manufacturing process which narrows the performance gap significantly.
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Document ID: 2A680FEC

Improved Performance In Automated Accelerometer Calibrations Resulting From The Use Of A Signal Analyzing Voltmeter
Author(s): David R. Workman
Abstract/Introduction:
A fundamental accuracy limitation for Accelerometer Calibration results from the residual hum and noise of system instrumentation. Because calibrations are usually performed at relatively low vibration levels, the outputs from lower sensitivity Shock Accelerometers can be effectively buried in noise. This paper will discuss the improvements which can be achieved in both automated and manual accelerometer calibrations that result from the use of a Signal Analyzing Voltmeter.
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Document ID: 95013068

Evaluation Of Methods For Estimating Amplitude And Phase Of Sinusoidal Signals Corrupted By Noise
Author(s): M.R. Serbyn, D.R. Flynn
Abstract/Introduction:
This is a summary of a continuing investigation of methods for estimating the parameters of sinusoidal signals corrupted by noise. The purpose of the study has been to compare several algorithms for computing the amplitude of the fundamental component of a sampled waveform. Because of their intended application to instrument calibration, the methods considered must be capable of real-time performance
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Document ID: A9A1A308

Precision Weight Calibration With A Specialized Robot
Author(s): Robert D. Cutkosky
Abstract/Introduction:
A selected commercial top-loading balance with a range of 200 grams and a resolution of 10 micrograms has been adapted for use in conjunction with a specially designed robot arm configured to load and unload the balance in accordance with established weighing designs. The complete system includes a personal computer for control of the robot and the balance, a 6-axis stepper motor controller, and a system for maintaining the balance, the robot, and the stored weights at a constant temperature.
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Document ID: 1D5B8018

A Clearer View Of The Data: Smoothing Scatterplots
Author(s): Karen Kafadar, Sherry L. Read
Abstract/Introduction:
Plots of data are everywhere: stock market closings, production yields, waveform measurements. Usually we plot data to summarize the information contained therein sheer volume of numbers can be overwhelming. Besides, a graphical display of the data often can provide more information than numerical methods. But sometimes the message can get lost in the medium, or, worse, can be misleading. Consider Example 1. A glance of a few moments or even more at the points on this graph will more often than not suggest a linear association between the two variables. But smoothing this scatterplot (solid trace) reveals otherwise: the trend really consists of iwe distinct liuear trends (dashed lines), the second half with twice the variability and half the slope of the firs half.
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Document ID: D0514575

Concepts For Ate Systems Calibration: Transport Standards To Achieve Traceability To National Standards*
Author(s): Thomas F. Leedy, Barry A. Bell
Abstract/Introduction:
Technical objectives are presented for a proposed transport standard to establish direct traceability of selected low-frequency electrical quantities between the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) and automatic test systems includihg the calibration laboratories that support these automatic test systems. The transport standard would consist of precision ac and dc voltage and frequency sources and could also include more specialized measurement modules in future versions. The transport standard would allow the intekcomparison of dc voltage, ac (rms) voltage, total harmonic distortion, phase, and frequency measurements made using ATE systems.
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Document ID: 21A814FD

Concepts For Itf Systems Calibration, Distributed Calibrations And Support
Author(s): William B. Graseclose
Abstract/Introduction:
NEW ATE SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS REQUIRE CREATIVE SYSTEM SUPPORT CONCEPTS AND TECHNIQUES. ONE SUCH TECHNIQUE, DISTRIBUTED CALIBRATION, OFFERS THE CONVENIENCE OF INTERNAL SYSTEM CALIBRATION.
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Document ID: 849C4F7A

Data Management And Analysis In Ate Systems
Author(s): J.L. Ball, M.V. Holstrom
Abstract/Introduction:
Effective use of ATE systems requires that they be managed using a systems approach, rather than the traditional hierarchical structure. Integrated diagnostics is one approach to the problem of maintaining high accuracy and high reliability at a reasonable cost. Different types of data are required -- static (informational), historic (for various analyses), and current (for predictions and trade-off evaluations). Finally, the implications of Bayes formulas should be considered when designing, testing, and adjusting the outputs of ATE systems.
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Document ID: 29904A17

Development Of A Transportable Calibration Laboratory
Author(s): Frank A. Flynn
Abstract/Introduction:
In March of 1984, the Air Force determined that there was a need for a transportable calibration laboratory to support bases where existing labs were cut of service. The development of this capability from concept to hardware in 30 months involved the cooperation of many organizations, an innovative contractor. and a number of creative solutions to problems.
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Document ID: 3840DB09

Wild Claims And Calibration Folklore
Author(s): John R. Pickering
Abstract/Introduction:
A more accurate title for the paper is presented as Blind Faith And Calibration Folklore and the pitfalls of present calibration methodology discussed. A suggestion that creating two classes of test and measurement instrumentation with different, appropriate, calibration philosophies is explored.
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Document ID: 32DBD8D2

Precise Phase Noise Measurements Of Oscillators And Other Devices From Approximately 0.1 Mhz To 100 Gh,
Author(s): Fred L. Walls
Abstract/Introduction:
In this talk the commonly used measures of phase noise are briefly defined and their relationships explained. Techniques for making precise measurements of phase noise in oscillators, multipliers, dividers, amplifiers, and other components are discussed. Particular attention is given to methods of calibration which permit accuracies of 1 dB or better to be achieved. Common pitfalls to avoid are also covered. It is shown that the two oscillator approach is the most versatile of these techniques offering simultaneously both the lowest noise floor and the widest bandwidths. Phase noise floors (precisions) in exce.s.s of -170 dB relative to 1 radian2 per hertz are achievable for carrier frequencies from well below 0.1 MHz to beyond 100 GHz range.
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Document ID: 2B9A1C62

Local Area Networking In The Laboratory Today And Tomorrow
Author(s): John m. Grajera
Abstract/Introduction:
various manufacturers for at least five years. One of the first LANs for laboratory instrument controllers, the Hewlett Packard Shared Resource Management System (SRM), was available in 1983. The standards for LAN communication have just recently been defined by a committee of manufacturers and the IEEE standards committee. The IEEE 802.3 standards are a product of their efforts. At present, four layers of the IS0 model have been agreed to by major manufacturers.
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Document ID: 322DE410

Future Directions In Laboratory Networking
Author(s): Phil Aramoonie
Abstract/Introduction:
Goals of a research, development or testing laboratory may be to develop or improve on optimum designs quickly, modeling or simulation techniques or testing procedures.
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Document ID: 16DAD238

Can A Blackbody Be An Intricate Standard?
Author(s): C. Fu, R. Kaehms, E.D. Tung, K.B. Jaeger
Abstract/Introduction:
The radiation emitted from an idealized blackbody (BB) follows a Planck distribution, which is characterized by the temperature of the BB. For commercial blackbodies (CCBs), the emissivity is usually specified as 0.99 f. 0.01, or better. In this paper we describe a technique to experimentally investigate how close a CBB approximates an ideal one. and also under what geometric conditions a CBB can be used as an ideal one. We present the experimental results and compare them with the theoretical calculations.
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Document ID: 09449CE4

Optical Power Meter Calibration Systm, Model MT9501
Author(s): Russell C. Pepe
Abstract/Introduction:
The MT9501 Optical Power Meter Calibration System is a system designed for the calibration of optical power meters. It can calibrate the optical power meter indicator and sensors independently or combined as a system. The IG?9501 includes a voltage and current generator, stabilized light sources, a reference optical power meter indicator and optical power reference sensors. A thorough discussion of optical power meter calibration techniques using the MT9501 will be rendered herein. An optical power transfer technique utilizing an optical fiber in addition to a collimated light beam will also be presented. Furthermore, the traceability program for optical standards in the United States through the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) will be paralleled to the traceability program in Japan through the Electrotechnical Laboratories (ETL) and the Japan Machinery and Metals Inspection Institute (JMI).
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Document ID: 38C3EA38

Microwave Synthesizers Their Specifications And Measurement Applications
Author(s): Rolf Dalichow
Abstract/Introduction:
Different principles of microwave synthesizers are being presented. Their specifications are being related to various measurement applications. Properties such as output power, effective source match, phase noise, broadband noise, frequency resolution, pulse modulation, frequency modulation, and amplitude modulation are being reviewed. Each specification is then related to different measurement types. Key performance limitations are compared to the needs of microwave measurement applications.
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Document ID: 63A60989

Software Measurement Techniques
Author(s): Gerald E. Murine
Abstract/Introduction:
Measuring software is a contorversial subject today. Many feel that measurment of software has no meaning. Others feel that the ness of software does not lend itself to traditional concepts of measurment. It is the authors intention in this paper to propose a meaning for software measurment, define some measurable characteristics, and discuss a technique which has been shown to be of considerable value in establishing a degree of excellence for evaluating software products.
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Document ID: DB150E81

Software Quality Standards
Author(s): B.J. Mac Mclean
Abstract/Introduction:
How do you know you are developing good quality software? One way is to have a software quality standard which allows you to compare the developing software against an approved model. This is about how one .organization resolved such a problem. It is about how we developed a plan, implemented it, and produced a Computer Software Engineering Standards Manual.
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Document ID: 72F615AD

Decisions That Influence Testing Quality
Author(s): J E R R Y L. H A Y E S
Abstract/Introduction:
Good testing quality results from decisions baaed on intelligently gathered and applied information. Currently, knowing how to make correct decisions is a problem. Seven factors that affect testing and calibration quality are examined. Their relative Influence on each other and on testing quality are described.
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Document ID: 8A8AAAEC

Cdnflicitng Positions Out-Of-Tolerance Measurements
Author(s): Rolf B. F. Schumacher
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary purpose of MIL-STD-45662, Calibration Systems Requirements, is to ensure that calibrations and measurements are performed with uncertainties which are not very much different from expected uncertainties, given the means utilized by the prescribed program. The standard does not address itself to controlling uncertainties, except in a proximate way, because it does not provide for any means to analyze, quantify, and, therefore, to know measurement uncertainties. However, the intent is clear.
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Document ID: 3943B65B

Automation Of Ac-Dc Transfer Standard Measurements From 100 Khz To 100 Mhz
Author(s): R. L. Semer, A. m. Fouts
Abstract/Introduction:
An automatic AC-DC difference measurement system was developed for the characterization of Thermal Voltage Converters (TVCs) from 0.5 to 10 Volts at frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 100 MHz. It utilizes conercially available equipment and incorporates an automated version of the measurement method (Null Balancing) used at the National Bureau of Standards. Automatic adjustment of the direct voltage is accomplished using the response characteristic (n-factor) of the standard and unknown TVCs.
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Document ID: 3F8259F5


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