Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (1988)

Gas Quality Issues From The Perspective Of Gas Management And Control
Author(s): Bill Mangels
Abstract/Introduction:
As pipelines continue to merge and become larger, one thing that we must not forget is that it is still one of our major objectives to transport and deliver good quality marketable gas to and for our customers. Someone in each pipeline organization must accept the responsibility for the overall monitoring of the gas and its quality as it flows into our pipelines. Supply Control will continue to help Gas Management and Control be that organization when it comes to managing the gas quality of the pipeline. Supply Control oversees the Big Picture on the supply side, and we will work diligently to be certain that appropriate monitoring equipment is in place before allowing off-quality gas to flow into our system. If a flowing stream of gas goes off-spec, then we will work to get it shut-in as soon as possible. Maintaining good gas quality in our pipelines is of key importance, and therefore additional emphasis has been given to it within Gas Management and Control. Figure 1 provides an overview of Enrons Pipeline Grid. The integrated pipeline system is 38,000 miles long and extends from the Florida peninsula to California and from near the Mexican Border to Canada.
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Document ID: 70D65496

Identification Of Injected Storage Gas
Author(s): Raymond P. Anderson, James W. Vogh
Abstract/Introduction:
A literature search and survey of operators of underground gas storage facilities indicated that methods that can be used for identification of injected storage gas include tracers, compositional analysis, and isotope ratios. The ideal situation is that in which a naturally occurring component can be used to distinguish between two sources of gas. Where naturally occurring tracers are missing, added tracers have been used. Compositional analyses (both hydrocarbons and nonhydrocarbons) may be used sometimes to distinguish between gases from different sources. Fractionation during migration is a complicating factor in this approach. Isotope ratios have been very successful in distinguishing between storage gas and swamp gas this method has also been extended successfully to distinguish between storage gas and native gas. The surveys indicated that knowledge of migration characteristics of tracer gases and their stability under underground storage conditions was deficient. Stability and migration characteristics of ten potential tracers were examined. TVvo programs (multiple regression analysis and factor analysis) were developed for the treatment of compositional analyses for the identification of migrating storage gas.
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Document ID: 8D4DDB70

Pipeline Corrosion Control Information System Using Digital Recorder
Author(s): Akihiko Fujii, Noboru Nakayama
Abstract/Introduction:
To measure and analyse the protective potential in corrosion control operations on buried pipelines, a new corrosion-control information system with better labour saving, accuracy, and efficiency than the conventional system in which wave form on the analog pen recorder chart was the only data source) has been achieved. The system uses a digital potential recorder named Frogboy and a personal computer. We are currently developing a wide area corrosion control system using a host computer for measures against noble potential and for two-dimensional control combined with map information.
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Document ID: DFEE9130

Optimal Replacement Decisions For Cast Iron Gas Piping Systems
Author(s): Ram B. Kulkarni, Kamal Golabi, George Dugovic, Kenneth B. Burnham
Abstract/Introduction:
Although cast iron pipe is but a small fraction of the total gas distribution piping system, it contributes more than its proportionate share to the frequency of reportable incidents. Because of the brittle nature of cast iron, there is concern about sudden breaks. Occasionally, these breaks present a public hazard when escaping gas enters a building and, very infrequently, causes an explosion. The frequency of incidents reported to the Office of Pipeline Safety involving cast iron pipe is 1.5 incidents per 1,000 miles versus 0.7 for plastic and 0.5 for steel (Gideon and Smith, 1979). Also, the maintenance costs per mile of cast iron pipe are significantly higher than for steel or plastic pipe. In spite of these problems, a massive replacement of cast iron pipe is neither the optimal nor a practical solution. This is because a vast majority of cast iron piping segments are providing a safe, reliable, and economical service to the consumer. To replace the entire system of some 70,000 miles of cast iron gas pipe in the U.S.A. would cost billions of dollars. The problems creating a potential for public hazard are actually caused by a small percentage of the total system. If the failure-prone segments can be identified and replaced, the surviving cast iron piping system can provide an acceptable service for decades to come.
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Document ID: 0EC41045

User Values Provided By Protective Clothing
Author(s): Wallace P. Behnke, R. Thad Masters
Abstract/Introduction:
Fabrics for use in thermal protective clothing must provide flame resistance, have flame barrier properties, and insulate the wearer from heat exposure. In addition to these thermal properties, protective clothing must perform as well as work clothing. This requires fabrics that are cost effective, durable, comfortable, and easy to care for. These user values for clothing of Nomex and Kevlar aramid fibers will be described.
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Document ID: E196AFFD

Gain Update-1988
Author(s): Larry T. Ingels
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of the GAIN program is to improve gas appliances and accessories for customer satisfaction. The program is consumer oriented. As such, usually it is of interest to state utility commissions who are looking for programs that benefit the consumer. On the national level, the Consumer Product Safety Commission is aware of GAIN and is supportive of its goals. The GAIN Program is in its 15th year, having begun in January, 1973. At that time, it replaced the National Appliance Field Observation Program (NAFOP), which had been centered at the A.G.A. Laboratories in Cleveland. Under the GAIN program, the Laboratories monitor the activities but are not involved in the operation of the program.
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Document ID: 6FDBEA4E

The Role Of Storage In Unbundled Services
Author(s): Dwayne L. Foley
Abstract/Introduction:
THE ISSUE IS FREEDOM OF CHOICE! The trend toward more freedom of choice in purchasing decisions is catching up to the natural gas industry. The fundamental objective in the open-access transportation programs provided in FERC Orders 436 and 500 is to permit new gas purchasing options for end-use customers and distribution companies. As part of this transition, new services will be offered by local distribution companies and pipelines to fit the needs of the purchasers more closely. The advent of open-access transportation has emphasized the need for more flexibility in management of gas supplies. Throughout the history of our industry, the use of storage has been a major tool to provide such flexibility. This new world also has presented the opportunity to sell new services by use of storage facilities. This paper describes the relationship between storage options certain to be used by the LDCs and pipelines to manage their gas supplies and additional, complimentary services that may be offered to end-use customers.
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Document ID: 253EB26A

Targeted Selection
Author(s): Timothy P. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
The Project Managers fundamental responsibility Is to develop sound project plans, on which project success depends. To accomplish this. Project Managers manage the translation of project objectives into tasks. They Identify staffing reouirements and conceptualize the division of responsibilities. They coordinate the team members formulations of individual plans, and oversee the integration of these plans into a project plan. Including budget preparation and scheduling of resources and tasks through the project life cycle. Project Managers coordinate these activities with other managers and other departments. Throughout this entire process it is Important that Project Managers continue to see the big picture and maintain a clear focus on budget and schedule commitments. Because Project Managers and team members serve on multiple projects, it is particularly Important that Project Managers ensure that their time, and the time of team members, is scheduled efficiently.
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Document ID: BC02C7F6

Horizontal Directional Drilling
Author(s): B. H. Yeh
Abstract/Introduction:
New Jersey Natural Gas Company utilized the state-of-the-art method known as horizontal directional drilling for six pipeline construction projects during the summer of 1987. Five were 12-inch submarine crossings, the longest of which was 3,000 feet. One was 850 feet of ID-inch pipe with the 16-inch casing installed beneath the New Jersey TUrnpike to accommodate the highways widening to 10 lanes. The horizontal directional drilling method is used for drilling underground inverted arcuate paths and installing production pipe therein. Installation can be beneath rivers, bays, highways, or other surface obstacles such as mountains without dredging, digging, trenching, or otherwise altering the obstacle. Directional drillings have many advantages from cost savings to convenience to preserving the environment. More importantly, this method is easier for obtaining construction permits, takes less time to install, and is maintenance free after installation.
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Document ID: 5F26223D

Utility Vehicle Disposal Practices
Author(s): Donald R. Ashton
Abstract/Introduction:
In January 1988, questionnaires were sent to 120 A.G.A. Automotive Mobile Equipment Committee and EEI Transportation Committee member companies. Responses were received from the 75 companies identified in Figure 1. The responses do not suggest any major changes since our last review in 1980, but they do indicate the general trends we should be aware of. The answers show that most companies continue to use either auctions or sealed bidding to sell their used equipment most still do not recondition prior to sale. The disposal function generally is performed by the transportation and/or purchasing departments, and replacement decisions are heavily influenced by a combination of condition, age, and mileage. After the 1973 oil embargo and attendant economic problems, we saw a significant increase in the mileage and age figures that were being used as replacement guides. Although this trend has now stabilized, there has not been any appreciable drift back toward the lower figures of the sixties and early seventies.
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Document ID: BD1D1C6A

Developments In Non-Utility Uses Of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
Author(s): Philip J. Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
Today, natural gas in its liquid form finds its applications confined almost exclusively to utility uses. Predominately, they are base-load gas supplies and peakshaving, but LNG also finds other utility applications as an emergency gas supply and as an alternative supply of gas when scheduled maintenance is to be done on the conventional supply source. LNG has also been used for backfeeding gas mains and to supply remote, off-the-pipeline communities and industrial users. Although LNG was first used for peakshaving in 1939, it was not until 1964 that commercial implementation began to be realized at a significant level. The first commercial cargo of base-load LNG from a liquefaction plant at Arzew, Alergia, was unloaded at the then British Gas Councils receiving terminal at Canvey Island, England, on October 12,1964. Construction of four LNG peakshaving plants was under way in the United States that year. These plants began operation for the winter heating season of 1965-1966. Today, international trade in LNG amounts to some 1.91 trillion CF of gas equivalent or about 25 percent of the total international trade in natural gas. The number of peakshaving plants has grown to over 70 worldwide, with plants located in Australia, Belgium, Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, Great Britain, and the United States. Additionally, there are some 66 satellite plants located in Canada, Germany, Japan, Spain, Switzerland, Great Britain, and the United States.
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Document ID: 42B767CF

Saving Dollars With Polyethylene Installation
Author(s): George J. Gent
Abstract/Introduction:
The recent implementation of polyethylene pipe at Northwest Natural Gas Company required many changes in installation methods, equipment, and material handling practices. The company benefited greatly from the expertise of other utilities when initially phasing in polyethylene. Since that time, the company has customized many of the methods and tools to meet its particular needs. This paper presents some of the ideas that Northwest Natural Gas Co. has implemented to improve the cost, productivity, and quality of polyethylene pipe installation.
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Document ID: A9829EBA

Maintaining 1,000 NGVs-History Of Nipscos Ngv Program
Author(s): Verl L. Elms, John J. Hart
Abstract/Introduction:
Northern Indiana Public Service Company (NIPSCO) began its natural gas vehicle conversion program in October, 1981. Today, the Company has approximately 914 vehicles using natural gas as their primary fuel. NIPSCO believes that its NGV program is successful because of four main reasons: (1) total company commitment, (2) the process used to select the conversion equipment, (3) the training that was provided to its employees, and (4) the preventive maintenance program used for the NGVs. NIPSCO is enjoying fuel cost savings that are an added benefit not sought when the Company initiated the NGV conversion program. In April I98I, Transportation Operations of Northern Indiana Public Service Company (NIPSCO) began evaluating the use of alternate fuels in its fleet. With the recurring shortages of gasoline, our major objective was to try to ensure that we would be able to provide service to our customers. Our only intent at that time was to reduce our dependency on gasoline.
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Document ID: 87FBCEF0

NBS-Boulder Gas Flow Facility Performance
Author(s): Susan E. Mcfaddin, James A. Brennan, Charles F. Sindt
Abstract/Introduction:
Major modifications have been made to the gas flow facility at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) in Boulder, Colorado. Significant improvements in steady state operation and overall efficiency have resulted. Variability in the gas temperature has been decreased by a factor of five and the precision of performance data on flowmeters has increased by a factor of two. This mass-based facility provides the gas industry with an accurate, efficient, and precise research facility operating at pipeline conditions.
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Document ID: BE3EEF14

T-Scope-A Tool For Quick Analysis Of Mainframe Data Using A Pc
Author(s): Leonard Wheat, Ronald S. Lyons
Abstract/Introduction:
A typical dilemma faced by transportation managers is that of having a great deal of data on mainframe computer and not being able to utilize it for quick and effective analysis. As the need for information grows, so does the need for avenues that will answer questions and answer them quickly. These needs led us into think tank sessions which, in turn, resulted in T-Scope. The acronym T-Scope is derived from the hand-held telescope that puts things in focus. In T-Scopes case, one really is looking through the scope from the broad end to the smallest end. This inverted method allows you to look at a situation from the widest point of view and then narrow it to its smallest or most concentrated perspective (see Figure 1).
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Document ID: 512ED8F1

Pipeline Casings-Reviewing An Old Problem
Author(s): Frank A. Perry
Abstract/Introduction:
Many years of controversy surround the practice of installing pipelines within casings. Requirements for this construction method when pipelines cross beneath railroad lines or roads have been presented by many authorities. Arguments against this practice have come mainly from those concerned with the control of corrosion action on the carrier pipeline within the casing. A study was implemented by the Transportation Research Board of the National Research Council. The research gave engineering details of the encasement of pipelines through highway and railroad roadbeds. The problems related to the corrosion of the carrier pipeline were not addressed in detail in this project. A recently completed initial phase of a research study, GRl-86/0209 State-of-the-Art Review: Practices for Pipeline Crossings at Railroads has been published. The work was conducted by the Department of Structural Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, for the Gas Research Institute. This study did not investigate in great detail the corrosion situation inside a casing.
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Document ID: 2D6DC636

What Does The Future Hold For A.G.A. Report No. 3?
Author(s): Gerry B. Lynn, Paul A. Hoglund
Abstract/Introduction:
What does the future hold for A.G.A. Report No. 3? That is an excellent question because it addresses the very heart of measurement in our multi-billion dollar industry. The future rests on two main areas. The first is research, where technology can offer refinements to a basic 30-year-old document. The second is industry involvement, where the task is to find a way to move these refinements from the researchers laboratory to actual practice. One of these areas is red hot while the other is just warming toward the ignition point. Over the past several years, our industry has devoted literally millions of dollars to research-resulting in red hot activity. However, from an operating standpoint this new technology has been very slow to move to the market. We have seen very little of it in practical application. Is our industry really getting its moneys worth? Is research a hot topic, or a slow burn, or will it burn up before we catch on fire and utilize this energetic resource?
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Document ID: 070805A6

A Transmission Companys Experience With Total Electronic Measurement
Author(s): John J. Mullaney
Abstract/Introduction:
On July 1, 1982, Algonquin Gas Transmission Company commenced using on-line computers for custody transfer. The system was provided by Tfeledyne Geotech of Garland, Texas, in January, 1982. This presentation includes a general description of Algonquin, system planning and implementation, system design, and advantages/disadvantages of the system. Algonquin Gas Transmission Company, through its parent, Algonquin Energy Inc., is a wholly owned subsidiary of Texas Eastern. Texas Easterns 10,495-mile natural gas transmission network consists of two interconnected pipeline systems: Tfexas Eastern Gas Pipeline Companys 9,520-mile pipeline extending from the Tfexas-Mexico border to the New Jersey/New York City area and serving the mid-Atlantic region, and the Algonquin Gas TYansmission Company pipeline system originating in New Jersey and serving New England. Algonquin, headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts, serves 18 customers in five northeast states of New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts. The company has 975 miles of pipeline, 82 delivery points, 5 compressor stations (with a total of 61,690 horsepower), and 600,000 Bbl. LNG facility. Annual deliveries are 200,000,000 MMBtu with a peak day of 950,000 MMBtu.
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Document ID: F5DFE0D7

Assigned Vehicle Survey
Author(s): Fred Flihan
Abstract/Introduction:
Corporate Assigned Vehicle programs are developed to address transportation needs of various employees in conducting company business. Generally, officers of the company and employees whose responsibilities include full-lime or frequent use of a vehicle during the normal workday, frequent attendance at meetings outside the office, or response to call-outs during off-duty hours, may be assigned a vehicle In theory, corporate Assigned Vehicle programs may be quite similar. However, significant differences may be found in their practice. At a recent American Gas Association meeting, this issue was addressed. Research was requested to determine what differences, if any, exist in the administration of corporate Assigned Vehicle programs
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Document ID: 37538277

The Use Of Hand-Held Computers In Leak Survey
Author(s): Roger Nehreass
Abstract/Introduction:
Through the years we have seen technological improvements in the equipment used in our various leak surveys, but little has been done to improve the processing of the paperwork that is a by-product of these surveys. The use of hand-held computers, so successful in meter reading, has enabled us to make the first significant improvement in eliminating the paper trail associated with the leak survey process. Wisconsin Gas has reduced paperwork by developing a program to use hand-held computers to collect the leak survey data in the field and send it to our mainframe computer. Not only has this process eliminated the paperwork, it has given us a helpful new management tool capable of monitoring productivity and gathering other data. This is truly a stride forward. Most natural gas utilities gather data in the field and process the information back in the office. Two of the activities that produce the largest volume of field data are meter reading and leak survey. We have all seen how using hand-held computers to read meters increases productivity and reduces paperwork. Using hand-held computers for leak detection offers many of the same benefits.
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Document ID: 86DAE18F

Quality Assurance In The Meter Shop
Author(s): J. F. Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
In Canada, the federal government has embarked on a program to push the function of testing and sealing meters from themselves to the utilities and meter manufacturers. In response, utilities have developed comprehensive quality assurance programs for their meter shops. These programs are reviewed and sanctioned by the govermnent in order that a utility be Accredited. This paper describes the essential features of the quality assurance program developed by Union Gas Limited- the first Canadian utility to become Accredited.
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Document ID: 6E465147

Underground Storage Tank Management: A Regulatory And Technical Update
Author(s): Ronald J. Edington
Abstract/Introduction:
New regulations to be implemented by the summer of 1988 will require underground storage tank owners and operators to assume a greater responsibility for leak detection, closure reporting, and inventory management. New tank installations will be under more strict design, construction, and compatibility standards. The EPA is currently reviewing public comments on several points to include alternative release detection methods, static inventory control, regulated petroleum substances, and federal review of no less stringent state programs, lll comply with the federal guidelines, the states must have a program in place that addresses several key objectives. These include design and construction standards, upgrading of existing facilities, UST operational requirements, release detection guidelines, release reporting and corrective action, closure rules, and financial responsibility.
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Document ID: D7849B6E

Clearing Casing Contacts
Author(s): Robert A. Cook
Abstract/Introduction:
At Pacific Gas & Electric, our Pipe Line Operations Department operates the major backbone transmission system for the company. Essentially this is composed of the L-300 system, which imports gas from the southwest and the L-400 system which imports gas from Canada. Together these two systems make up a network approximately 1,300 miles long of 34 and 36 pipeline, which is used to supply our more than 3 million customers in central and northern California.
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Document ID: 2AE0AD51

New Technology In The Meter Shop
Author(s): Pete Mason
Abstract/Introduction:
Automation, bar coding, sonic nozzles, and robotics are all making their way into the workplace. This paper gives you an overview of these technologies and how they can be used in the meter repair industry. New perspectives for conceiving and implementing these systems in the meter shop will also be discussed. The benefits received and the practicality of implementing these new systems will depend on your operation. Items such as repair schedules, budget and shop size will be deciding factors as to what systems are workable and which are not. Southern California Gas Companys meter repair shop in Pico Rivera repairs and outtests 130,000 to 185,000 meters per year. Approximately 300,000 to 350,000 meters are also intested each year at this facility. The Meter Shop workforce fluctuates between 86 and 115 meter mechanics, depending on the repair schedule. Although not all of the systems discussed are currently in place and operating in Southern California Gas Companys repair shop, they are continuing to proceed and will soon utilize the complete operation as described in this paper.
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Document ID: A89B5F0E

The Auto-Boring Method
Author(s): Shugo Tomozoe
Abstract/Introduction:
Tokyo Gas. Co. has developed The Auto-Boring Method. It is a systematic technology to lay new service pipes with minimum excavation. The sequence of work is as follows 1. Microtunnelhng from a 20-inch-diameter shaft and pulling a service pipe into the microtunnel by an auger-type tunnelling robot. 2. Joining a service pipe to a main by remote operation on the ground level. 3. Conducting permanent reinstatement on the same day. For this method, the following devices have been developed: Mechanized excavation equipment mounted on the vehicle which drives it A special clamp and various long-handled tools for joining Coid asphalt that can be preserved and used in atmospheric temperature As of March 1988, there were over 1,700 sites of service pipe installation and 35 percent reduction in cost is estimated.
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Document ID: D5CA2D58

Longevity Testing Of Joint Seals
Author(s): Wallace W. Youngblood
Abstract/Introduction:
This report was prepared by Wyle Laboratories (Wyle) as an account of work sponsored by the New York Gas Group (NYGAS)- Neither NYGAS, members of NYGAS, Wyle, nor any other party acting on their behalf: a. makes any warranty or representation, express or implied, with repect to the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of the information contained in this report, or that the use of any information, apparatus, method, or process disclosed in this report may not infringe privately owned rights or b. assumes any liability with respect to the use of, or for damages resulting from the use of, any information, apparatus, method, or process disclosed in this report.
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Document ID: 13C9A6ED

Engine Combustion Optimization By Exhaust Analysis
Author(s): R. A. Bayless, D. J. Lee
Abstract/Introduction:
The Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbia Gas Transmission Corporation, and Bailey Controls Company, under sponsorship from the Gas Research Institute, participated in a joint effort to demonstrate improved combustion efficiency on a two-cycle turbocharged compressor engine by use of exhaust-gas analysis. This paper documents the results of these tests and summarizes the economic benefit that accrued to the specific engine under test.
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Document ID: 9FACD80D

The Application Of Low-Cost Repair Methods For House Piping
Author(s): Akira Kojima, Shuji Okada, Toshinori Tsuji
Abstract/Introduction:
In Japan most housepipes are connected with screw joints and most housepipe gas leaks occur there. Conventional repair methods frequently require cutting or removal of house interior and/or fixture because most housepipes are concealed by ceilings, walls, and so forth. Osaka Gas Co. has developed/introduced an efficient, simple and reliable repair method some of which can be used without cutting or removing houses interiors. This report outlines housepipe leakage characteristics, repair methods, and their implementations.
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Document ID: B779F403

Start-Up Of The LNG Terminal At Zeebrugge, Belgium
Author(s): David m. Cobb, Henri D. Cattoor
Abstract/Introduction:
The LNG receiving terminal of Zeebrugge, owned by Nationale Methaanterminalmaatschappij (N.M.T.M.) and operated by Distrigas, is by far the largest facility of its kind located in Northern Europe. The current design is based on an annual throughput of 5 billion m of gas. The LNG imported from Algeria is vaporized on a continuous basis exclusively for the supply of the Belgian gas network. Many site locations had been investigated before the Belgian Government decided in 1977 to have the terminal built on an artificial peninsula in the outer harbor of Zeebrugge. In order to achieve gas deliveries from Algeria by the contractual delivery date, Distrigas negotiated an agreement with Gaz de France for the unloading of Algerian LNG at its Montoir de Bretagne terminal during the period needed for reclaiming of the peninsula and for the construction of the terminal. Cargoes were delivered at Montoir between November 1982 and August 1987. The first cargo was delivered at Zeebrugge on June 25th, 1987. This paper briefly summarizes the main construction topics and describes the activities related to the start-up of the Zeebrugge LNG receiving terminal.
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Document ID: DB3518F8

Michcons New Meter Intest Program
Author(s): Robert W. Sirkle
Abstract/Introduction:
Prior to 1984, Michigan natural gas utilities were required to adhere to a meter-testing rule that primarily established a quantitative process for removing meters on the assumption that it improved the quality of the overall meter population. The old rule specified that the percentage of meters to be tested in a given year and maximum on-premise meter life was to be based on the percentage of meters tested the previous year that fell within an acceptable accuracy range. The old rule merely determined the workload for a utility. It was not aimed at systematically correcting the deficiencies identified through meter tests. Consequently, it provided no incentive for a utility to improve the level of meter accuracy by identifying and removing poorperforming meters. ReaUzing that the old rule had become detrimental to customers need for accurate metering, Michigan Consolidated Gas Company (MichCon), the Michigan Utilities Association, and the Michigan Public Service Commission developed a new rule that rewards a qualitative process of identifying and removing poor-performing meters. Under the new rule, a utility is required to divide its total meter population in a service into meter classes and to grade each meter by a test point system, which quantifies the extent by which meters tested fall outside the acceptable accuracy range.
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Document ID: 0F741BF4

Replacement Criteria For Cast-Iron Mains
Author(s): C. W. Crooks, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1816 Baltimore was the first city in the United States to light its streets using manufactured gas. That was the beginning of a number of Bahimore gas companies that were all consoUdated in the early part of this century to form what is now called Baltimore Gas and Electric Company. For well over a century, cast-iron pipe was the standard of the industry for the distribution of gas. In the late 1920s four compressor stations were installed at the extremities of the cast-iron system to boost the gas pressure to 100 psig. Steel pipe was used to reach and serve the suburban area and outlying towns. With the advent of natural gas in 1950, customer growth accelerated dramatically, mostly via the 100 psig steel system. However, the use of cast-iron pipe continued through 1958 for the low pressure (4wc - 8wc) and medium pressure (1 psig -10 psig) systems. Economics and inventory costs finally dictated the change to all-steel pipe for new construction.
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Document ID: DE714E98

Storage Reservoir Modeling
Author(s): J. L. Bashbush, K. m. Kothari
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents the results of the testing and initial applications of a general purpose reservoir simulator specifically designed to solve gas-water storage reservoir problems. A unique feature of the simulator described herein is its ability to treat the gas as a miscible mixture of two components: an inert and a hydrocarbon gas. The simulator is based on a modification of Scientific Software-Intercomps (SSI) standard three-phase, three-dimensional reservoir simulator and therefore it encompasses the experience of more than 20 years of simulation technology. The solution to the two-component gas problem was accomplished using the method of characteristics, so that numerical dispersion is eliminated or minimized. Several example problems and a brief description of the model are included. Comparisons of calculated results with analytical solutions, and experimental laboratory data in one- and two-dimensional models are presented. Results of the history matching of a depleted gas field converted to storage are presented. A correlation to estimate coning of inert gas into single producing wells is proposed.
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Document ID: 1F2EE8AF

The Commissions New Regulations Implementing The National Environmental Policy Act Of 1969-Order 486
Author(s): Richard R. Hoffmann
Abstract/Introduction:
The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC or Commission) issued Order 486 Regulations Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 on December 10, 1987. These regulations became effective on January 19, 1988. In doing so, the Commission reiterated that it will be its general policy to adopt and adhere to the objectives and aims of NEPA in its regulations. One of these objectives, of course, includes promoting efforts that will prevent or eliminate damage to the enviornment. The final rule recognizes the Commissions major responsibilities to review all projects with potential for impacts, including the Commissions own rulemaking actions. An environmental impact statement (EIS) will be prepared if a project is a major Federal action having a significant impact on the quality of the human environment.
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Document ID: A51D41CB

Safety And Employee Development Service Training
Author(s): Ned Waters
Abstract/Introduction:
The assessment center concept is a method of gathering additional information about a job applicant or a person being considered for promotion. The center is designed to gather unique information that is used with traditional information (performance information, interview, reference check, testing, etc.) so the organization can make a better decision relative to hiring or promoting an individual. Assessment centers have been around since World War 11, when the government used them to evaluate military personnel. Today, both private and public companies use assessment centers for selection or promotion. Our assessment center provides a means of determining an individuals skills, aptitudes, and potential for success in a particular job. Assessment center participants are applicants for the position of Serviceman C. They engage in a variety of dimensions critical to the job they are applicants for. During the exercises, participants are evaluated by trained observers service supervisors, service foremen, and servicemen). Upon completion of all exercises, the observers meet to discuss each participants performance during the assessment. At these meetings, called consensus meetings, the observers will reach agreement on the participants strengths and weaknesses and determine whether they should be offered employment as a Serviceman C.
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Document ID: 58EDEE35

What God Intended When Astm F1055 Standard On Electrofusion Fittings Was Written
Author(s): Jim Inhofe
Abstract/Introduction:
Electrofusion fittings were introduced to the U.S. gas distribution market at the A.G.A. Distribution Conference held in Houston, Tfexas, in 1983 by two manufacturers: Central Plastics Company of Shawnee, Oklahoma and R. W. Lyall & Company of Santa Fe Springs, California. Since that introduction, several other electrofusion fittings have been announced and are on the market or in various degrees of planning. Those that we are aware of include Innogaz of Houston, Tfexas Dresser Industries of Bradford, Pennsylvania DuPont of Wilmington, Delaware and Raychem of Roseland, New Jersey. It was apparent that the market for electrofusion fittings would expand and some guidelines would be needed for the industry to follow in these products. At the Fall 1983 meeting of ASTM Committee F17 on Plastic Piping Systems, a task group, under the jurisdiction of subcommittee F17.10 on fittings, was formed to write a standard for electrofusion fittings. The results of that task groups efforts culminated in late 1987, when F1055 Standard Specification for Electrofusion-type Polyethylene Fittings for Outside Diameter Controlled Polyethylene Pipe & Tbbing was published.
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Document ID: A604F41F

State-Of-The-Art Features Of The Cherokee LNG Plant
Author(s): R. Keith Howell
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides a brief description of Atlanta Gas Light Companys third liquefied natural gas facility. The Cherokee LNG Plant was designed and built to incorporate state-of-the-art controls and equipment applicable to LNG plant operations. On October 10, 1987, an aluminum dust cover on the gas return arm was blown off at a pressure between the normal working pressure and the design pressure of the arm. The bottom part of the arm, which was in the stationary position, swung back and was slightly damaged by hitting the base section. Nevertheless, repair time was over four months. The aluminum covers, which were not calculated to the design pressure of the arms, have now been replaced by full rating blind flanges.
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Document ID: FE1585E0

Washington Outlook-1988
Author(s): George H. Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the years it has been my privilege to address this conference- alternating with A.G.A. Chairmen. I have always welcomed the opportunity for a couple of reasons: 1. I do a lot of bragging about our million-mile-plus delivery systems and our eight trillion storage system -its extensiveness, its efficiency, its safety record, and its people. I do that fairly regularly to pubhc officials, the financial and insurance communities, and professional groups. So, every now and then its good to stand up here and take a look at you and look over your program. Just to be sure youre all still out there and this thing isnt just running itself. 2. It gives me a chance to share with you some of the things weve been up to while youve been tending the store- sort of a State of the Industry as 1 see it. I especially enjoy that because the state of this industry is good, and its going to get better.
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Document ID: 34997F1D

State-Of-The-Art Features Of The Cherokee LNG Plant
Author(s): R. Keith Howell
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides a brief description of Atlanta Gas Light Companys third liquefied natural gas facility. The Cherokee LNG Plant was designed and built to incorporate state-of-the-art controls and equipment applicable to LNG plant operations. In 1976, Atlanta Gas Light Company (AGLC) purchased property that would later become the site for its third LNG peak-shaving facility. An initial 334 acres were acquired in Cherokee County, Georgia, with direct access to a Company-owned 12-inch transmission line. Approximately four years later, on January 4, 1980, Atlanta Gas Light Company contracted with Stone & Webster Engineering to begin engineering and planning for an LNG facility to be completed in January of 1984.
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Document ID: DFEA2ECE

Gearing Up To Service High Efficiency Equipment
Author(s): Kevin Campbell
Abstract/Introduction:
The development of new-generation gas equipment created a situation requiring many gas utilities to retrain experienced servicemen, restock etisting warehouses, and develop information systems in order to maintain their service operations at the high level of expertise that customers had grown to expect. This paper describes how Consumers Gas met the challenges of the 1980s and has prepared itself to enter the 1990s with confidence.
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Document ID: 9E0CCFC1

PSE&Gs Computerized Vehicle Management System
Author(s): Joseph De Furia
Abstract/Introduction:
PSE&G replaced its outdated, cumbersome vehicle management system with a system purchased from a vendor and modified to meet its requirements. This paper briefly describes PSE&Gs design requirements relating to both hardware and software and discusses the types of information needed to manage its fleet.
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Document ID: B8947EFF

Downsizing Existing Masonry Chimneys For Fuel Efficient Natural Gas Appliances A Flexible Approach
Author(s): B. F. Stubbert
Abstract/Introduction:
Hi-tech has made its presence felt this decade in the control of home environment. Our homes are now equipped with high-efficiency natural gas heating systems coupled with computerized control of temperature and humidity. It is not difficult to understand why we are racing down this technological pathway when one is exposed to these new systems. However, as is often the case when people are caught in a wave of enthusiasm, some details are being overlooked. The new breed of gas fired heating equipment has been hailed as the energy saviour but in the past couple of years these units have brought about a renewed focusing of attention onto an old problem-the vent system. This new generation of heating equipment has made us very aware of flue-gas condensation. The industry has been caught by surprise to find that this condensation has been deteriorating our masonry chimneys long before the arrival of high-efficiency appliances. Everyone involved in efforts to deal with this nuisance agrees that there is no single cure-all. It is essential to address the entire home as a system in which the heating system and its vent are components. Since 1980, flexible aluminum venting systems have been serving as an economical Band-Aid. We think youll agree upon review of the following material that this product may, in fact, be part of the cure for venting ailments.
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Document ID: A8698155

Hope Liner Installation At Sayre Storage: A Case History
Author(s): Tim Hermann, Tim Koch
Abstract/Introduction:
Severe internal corrosion was found in several of NGPLs Sayre storage gathering system laterals. In order to mitigate the corrosion problems, high-density polyethylene (HOPE) liners were installed in the NGPL Sayre storage field as part of a rehabilitation project in 1986. A total of 27,000 feet of 4, 6, 8, and 10 liners were installed in both new and existing laterals. The length of liner sections pulled ranged from 122 to 3,642 feet. This paper reviews the reasons for the selection of polyethylene liners and describes the method of installation.
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Document ID: CBE3BF5E

The System Management Approach To Repair/Replace Decisions
Author(s): Sig Boysen, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The development of the System Management approach to main repair/replace decisions at Public Service Electric and Gas Company is traced. There are brief explanations of the difficulties experienced with the other approaches tried and how System Management overcame them. There is also an explanation of what System Management is, the theory upon which it is based, and an example for other companies to follow to initiate their own programs. The real challenge of the gas distribution main repair/replace decision does not involve the selection of individual replacement segments. It involves accurately predicting, for management, the outcome of the various repair/replace policies it may be considering long before the selection of individual replacement segments begins. At Public Service Electric & Gas Company, we have developed a system to make gas distribution repair/replace forecasts with considerable accuracy this is how we did it.
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Document ID: 8BD6879D

Design Considerations For An Electronic Ivieasurement System
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith, Brad Merlie
Abstract/Introduction:
The decision to implement an electronic measurement system is a significant one, and one that can provide great benefits. Because of the wide variety of available systems and varying capabilities and features of each, it is necessary to go through a careful evaluation process when choosing or designing a system. The goal of this paper is to convey thoughts, ideas, and suggestions based upon recent experience with the implementation of such a system.
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Document ID: 18082179

Vendor Contributions To Fleet Maintenance-Tires
Author(s): Alex Jankowsky
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses vendor contributions to fleet maintenance, especially in the area of tires. It may sound elementary, but the most important contribution you can expect a vendor to make to the maintenance of your fleet is to provide you with a quality product. A maintenance program that begins with quality is a maintenance program that has started oul on the right foot. In the area of tires, if you start with superior radial construction, if you start with a tire proven reliable for long carcass hfe, youre starting out ahead of the game as far as maintenance is concerned. Today, fleet managers are finding themselves under more pressure than ever to control costs. For most fleets, tires are the second largest maintenance expense -second only to fuel. Unfortunately, tire maintenance also is one of the most neglected areas in many fleet operations. The good news is that proper tire maintenance offers great potential for reducing fleet operating costs -simply because it is an area of major expense that, in most cases, has not received enough emphasis. As I see it, there are two primary parts to a good tire program.
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Document ID: 003750F4

Electronic Data Interchange
Author(s): Roy S. Barron
Abstract/Introduction:
Stelco consists of a series of companies controlled and owned by the holding company Stelco Inc. We are suppliers of basically all types of steel product: the basic cold-rolled product for the car industry, bar products, wire, fasteners, and pipe products. In Canada, we have operations in the provinces of Quebec, Alberta, and Ontario, with most of our operations in the Toronto Hamilton vicinity employing 17,000 people. Our steelmaking capacity is approximately 5 million tons, mostly cast, with the majority produced at our Hilton Works facility. Sales in 1987 were 2.5 biUion dollars, and purchases by our department to support the primary and finishing operations totalled 900 million dollars, excluding coal and ore. Purchasing is headquartered in Hamilton, with small Purchasing groups in Alberta and Quebec. Our purchasing activities therefore, work in a semi-centralized environment but our purchasing system is on-line, corporate-wide, allowing us to deal with 5000 suppliers. As you can deduct, Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) held a great opportunity for us, although when we started we really didnt understand what it was. First, to get into EDI you need an automated purchasing system. We have one, as I mentioned earlier it is called PROMISS. It covers all of our activities from requisitioning through payment, including inventories, purchasing, invoice validation, receiving, and accounts payable.
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Document ID: 41CE582B

Economics And Installation Of Large Diameter Pe Inserts
Author(s): Michael G. Glasgow
Abstract/Introduction:
Polyethylene pipe is the predominant piping material utilized in new construction and replacement of gas distribution mains in the U.S. today. To date, the use of large-diameter polyethylene for insert renewal of natural gas distribution piping has been limited. This technology, well established through use in municipal and industrial applications, offers significant potential for reduction of replacement costs while complying with appropriate code requirements.
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Document ID: E088190E

Prioritizing And Making Replacement/Renewal Decisions On Gas Mains
Author(s): Mark B. Nelson
Abstract/Introduction:
Northern States Power Company is working with a limited construction budget, and construction requests are greater than the resources available. The system that was developed provides a systematic program to analyze reconstruction requests and spend limited resources in the most cost-effective and beneficial manner. The Reconstruction justification Analysis (RJA) System was developed because Northern States Power Company (NSP) is working with a limited construction budget, and requests for construction funds are greater than the resources available. The RJA provides NSP with a systematic program to analyze nonforced reconstruction requests and spend limited construction resources in the most cost-effective and beneficial manner.
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Document ID: 2ADBC776

Historical Risic Assessment Of Environmental Liabilities At Former Sites Of Manufactured-Gas Plants
Author(s): Sandy Peterson
Abstract/Introduction:
Sites of manufactured-gas plants present risks of environmental impairment that can result in a wide range of liabilities for natural gas utilities. The potential liabilities can range from nuisance claims and legal violations to multi-million-dollar lawsuits and Superfund involvement. The contaminants that present ongoing concerns of environmental impairment are coal tars, spent purifying oxides, slag, ash, and particulate air emissions. The history of site use and the environmental setting are more variable factors influencing the potential for impairment. Risk Science International (RSI) has developed a historical risk assessment methodology for acquiring site-specific knowledge on potential environmental impairment and identifying corporate liabilities. The risk assessment serves as a comprehensive risk management tool enabling informed decisions to be made concerning necessary remedial investigations or actions. It is an essential element of proactive risk management strategies that provide a company with the flexibility to address environmental liabilities in an efficient and cost-effective fashion.
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Document ID: 7A335F9D

Primary Device Research
Author(s): W. Studzinski, D. G. Bell
Abstract/Introduction:
Nicks and burrs at the orifice edge, edge rounding, entrained liquids or solids, and protruding or recessed gaskets are conditions sometimes experienced during routine pipeline operations. Understanding the impact these conditions have on metering would be useful in developing new standards and could improve accuracy and reduce operating costs. This increased knowledge could also be used to ensure efficient meterstation design and operation. This paper presents results of experimental studies on the changes of flow rate due to damage at the orifice plate edge, liquid and solid build up on the orifice plate face, and orifice plate surface roughness. Experiments were carried out with natural gas at pipeline pressure and equipment often used in custody-transfer metering. The results provide data that are representative of what could be expected in the field. Although these conditions all alter the geometry of the orifice plate, the impact on metering accuracy varies greatly. Experiments show that a small nick on the leading edge of the orifice plate cannot cause significant metering errors. This suggests that the current industry method of testing orifice edge condition results in unnecessary orifice-plate rejections. Conversely this work has shown the build up of solids or liquids on the plate surface and increases in surface roughness results in significant changes in flow rate.
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Document ID: FA23D632

Practical Experiences Witli A Telephone-Based Remote Monitoring And Interruption Notification Module
Author(s): Christopher B. Lettau
Abstract/Introduction:
For a number of years Washington Gas Light (WGL) has been offering Interruptible service to its largest customers. The concept is that, in exchange for a favorable rate, these customers are required to switch to an alternate fuel (predominately oil) during periods of peak demand. This service rate class has grown dramatically over the last few years and has become a very important part of our peak-shaving capability. Originally we used volume and pressure recording charts to monitor these customers and verify that they switched fuels when required. We notified each customer by means of a telephone call when they were to be interrupted. This system worked fine when the number of customers was small, but it became cumbersome, labor intensive, and only marginally reliable as the number of customers grew. As an alternative to this sytem, we began to look at a telephonebased system to monitor and notify our customers remotely. Three years ago, we made the decision to install such a system, and now have about 1,(X)0 customers on the system.
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Document ID: A264942A

Distribution Construction Information System-Gas
Author(s): Mel Priester
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper details an on-line information system that streamlines the transmission and distribution process for utilities. The potential of this system for immediate impact on performance is reviewed in light of current utility concerns for operational efficiency. The information addressed describes why the system was developed how the system reduces costs and inefficiencies through standarized compatible units and what the individual subsystems are designed to accomplish. Emphasis is placed on the specification of construction standards during the design phase of the work order life cycle.
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Document ID: C5D8514C

Status Of Quality Assurance-The Steel Industry And Line Pipe In The U.S.
Author(s): Raymond H. Bittner
Abstract/Introduction:
Although Newport Steel is a relatively new company (incorporated in 1980), the steelmaking site dates back to the turn of the century. Prior to 1980, it was owned and operated by Interlake Steel, a flat roll steel producer out of Riverdale, Illinois. Interlake controlled the facility during the sixties and seventies and closed the plant in July 1980, due to a labor dispute and immediately put the facility up for sale. Two weeks after the closure, four previous Interlake management employees formulated a plan to raise the necessary capital to purchase the facility Even though the plan was referred to as a thousand to one shot, the group was successful and reopened the facility on April 15, 1981. The company (located across from Cincinnati, Ohio) is a mini mill operation with three 100 ton electric furnaces giving it the capability to produce 600,000 tons of steel per year.
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Document ID: BD8ADDAA

Evaluation Of Squeeze-Off Procedure For The Control Of Gas Flow In Polyethylene Pipe
Author(s): Michael J. Cassady
Abstract/Introduction:
The research program to evaluate the squeeze-off procedure in polyethylene pipe is composed of three phases: Phase I-test selection, Phase II - screening tests to identify critical variables, and Phase III - focused testing of variables selected. The results of Phase I and part of Phase II were presented at the 10th Plastic Fuel Gas Pipe Symposium in October 1987. This paper presents an update of that work, including the results of the initial focused testing of the critical process variables. The results reported here include: (1) selection of the stress-rupture test using 1-percent Igepal-water solution as the test most sensitive to squeeze-off damage, (2) identification of percent squeeze and rerounding as the process variables most affecting material performance, and (3) preliminary focused test results for one material indicating an interaction between the two process variables selected.
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Document ID: 69383F23

Interactive Training Systems For The Gas Pipeline Dispatcher
Author(s): Robert E. Mcdonald, Kevin F. Webb
Abstract/Introduction:
The advent of improved computer systems and recent improvements in the area of pipeline simulation technology make possible a new and effective way to train pipeline Dispatchers. This paper describes the application of simulation-based training systems to the area of pipeline system dispatching. A gas pipeline Dispatcher receives most of his training on the job, because there is no other practical way to get actual operating experience on the line. Training in this manner is time-consuming at best operating situations that give the Dispatcher insight and experience happen infrequently. For instance, a period of prolonged cold weather that causes peak demand flows may only happen every several years. In many instances, you hope that a situation such as a pipeline rupture or major equipment failure never happens at all. The more time that a Dispatcher spends on the job, the more experience he gets and the more valuable he becomes. In addition, many experienced operating personnel are taking on other responsibilities or are retiring, leaving an experience gap.
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Document ID: 429444DA

Retention Of Cast Iron Gas Mains Adjacent To Foreign Trenches
Author(s): Arthur A Shapiro
Abstract/Introduction:
The Brooklyn Union Gas Company is maintaining, rather than replacing, many 4 to 8 low-pressure cast iron gas mains adjacent to parallel trench construction. We would have replaced these mains in the past. Instead, we are demonstrating new procedures to maintain these mains under a three-year New York State Public Service Commission rule waiver. This paper provides an account of the Cast Iron Retention Program (CIRP) at Brooklyn Union. The new procedures resulted from research managed by Brooklyn Union and performed at Cornell University. The New York Gas Group, a trade organization of natural gas distributors in New York, sponsored the project. The research produced a field-usable replace/retain decision guide. The guide criteria are based upon the mechanical properties of the cast iron pipelines, predicted pipeline response to construction, and identification of conditions that could cause unacceptable levels of strain. Brooklyn Union has retained 35,000 feet of main in the first twelve months of the program (since March, 1987), avoiding S2.8 million of capital construction and 750,000 of related operating and maintenance expenses.
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Document ID: 0816A6B5

New Computational Tool For Analysis Of Transmission Line/Pipeline Interference Problems
Author(s): F. P. Dawalibi, R. D. Southey
Abstract/Introduction:
Analysis of electrical interference effects of transmission lines upon nearby pipelines has been a topic of growing interest due to the proliferation of rights-of-way that must be shared by transmission lines and pipelines. This paper describes the results of a recent joint EPRI/A.G.A. research project whose objectives were to develop an effective tool for computing complex realistic right-of-way problems accurately and to investigate the effects of various system parameters. The ECCAPP computer program combines a powerful input data preprocessor with a computation algorithm that accurately evaluates the effects of both conductive and inductive interference for arbitrarily positioned above-ground and buried conductors that could occur in typical rights-of-way. A parametric analysis illustrates some of the capabilities of the computer program and provides insight on how to control both conductive and inductive interference effects. Further parametric analyses should be performed to evaluate in greater detail various existing methods of interference mitigation and to develop new ones. ECCAPP promises to unearth many important results.
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Document ID: 6BAFCB36

Conversion Of Landfill Gas To Pipeline Quality Gas
Author(s): Stephen J. Markbreiter, Irving Weiss
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses landfills in their role as new sources of pipeline quality natural gas. Landfill gas, for all practical purposes, is a 55:45 mixture of methane and carbon dioxide. At the present time, according to the Government Refuse Collection and Disposal Association (GRCDA), there are approximately 10 high BTU landfill gas recovery projects in various phases of operation. This paper will concentrate on high BTU projects where carbon dioxide, water, and heavy hydrocarbons are removed to meet pipeline quality specification- and specifically on the landfill gas recovery plant that is owned by Atlanta Gas Resources Corporation (AGRC) of Roswell, Georgia. Before we discuss the actual performance of the AGRC plant, we will describe the technology that is used to separate the raw landfill gas.
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Document ID: 34BC12F0

Pipe Leak Position Detector
Author(s): Takashi Anamizu
Abstract/Introduction:
The pipe leak position detector has been developed to efficiently detect the positions of gas leaks in concealed pipes such as those under floors, behind walls or underground. This device is composed of two parts: the main equipment and the Ni supply equipment. The result to be obtained through measurement by means of this device is the distance of the leak position from the pipe end to which the main equipment is connected. This apparatus has made it possible to detect a gas leak position in less than one hour without excavating the pipe even where the pipe is buried. Tokyo Gas Co. has already put 36 sets of this device into use with a resultant improvement in the efficiency of locating positions of gas leaks.
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Document ID: 7E3EF6C8

Pressure Losses In Compressor Yard Piping Systems
Author(s): A. J. Green, S. G. Armstrong, D. S. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Compressor yard piping is often complex with pipeline components, such as tees and bends, in close proximity. Pressure losses in compressor yard piping are the most concentrated in the whole gas transmission system and are dependent on the spacing and orientation between components. An experimental programme to determine pressure losses of individual bends and tees (combining/dividing) and of combinations of bends and tees has been carried out. Loss coefficients and interaction coefficients that take account of the close spacing of components and their orientation were determined. The results of the extensive experimental programme have been combined with reliable information from the literature to produce an Engineers Design Handbook for compressor yard systems. The importance of the results to pressure loss prediction and to the design of compressor yard piping is stressed. An outline of how the results can be applied to real compressor yard systems is included.
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Document ID: 7DE8A669

Pavement Restoration
Author(s): A. B. Schloemer
Abstract/Introduction:
Iowa-Illinois Gas and Electric Company obviously is a combination utility. We serve several districts in both Iowa and Illinois in some we supply gas only. The company provides electric service to 191,000 customers and has 226,000 gas customers. The Quad City area where I am based is situated on the Mississippi River, where the river runs east and west instead of north and south. (This is quite confusing to strangers in the area.) We are right at the big bend on the east end of Iowa. Gas was first manufactured in Davenport, one of the Quad Cities, in 1855, and natural gas was introduced in 1934, so you see we are an old company. The company serves some 32 communities in the Quad City area alone, and consequently we are faced with a multiplicity of city ordinances. One common rule or request that permeates throughout all these towns and cities is the avoidance of traffic disruptions. Over the years, a number of city ordinances have been established pertaining to traffic flow, barricading, permitting procedures, pavement restoration, and the like as a result of utility and other street excavations. Because of our volume of pavement restoration work, we have been required to do our own backfilling and patching.
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Document ID: 2730A4C6

Federal Motor Carrier Safety Act 1986-Survey And Update
Author(s): Joseph D. Joy
Abstract/Introduction:
On February 4, an eleven-item questionnaire was sent to members of both the E.E.I. TVansportation Committee and the A.G.A. Automotive and Equipment Committee in an effort to determine the ratent to which the states and Federal D.O.T. are enforcing the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (FMCSR) with regards to the pubhc utility industry. The questionnaire was sent to approximately one hundred fifteen member companies, of which forty-two responded by the March 5, 1988, due date. The states represented by the responding utility companies are hsted below and diagrammed in Figure 1:
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Document ID: FF086299

Michcons New Meter Intest Program
Author(s): Robert W. Sirkle
Abstract/Introduction:
Prior to 1984, Michigan natural gas utilities were required to adhere to a meter-testing rule that primarily established a quantitative process for removing meters on the assumption that it improved the quality of the overall meter population. The old rule specified that the percentage of meters to be tested in a given year and maximum on-premise meter life was to be based on the percentage of meters tested the previous year that fell within an acceptable accuracy range. The old rule merely determined the workload for a utility. It was not aimed at systematically correcting the deficiencies identified through meter tests. Consequently, it provided no incentive for a utility to improve the level of meter accuracy by identifying and removing poorperforming meters. ReaUzing that the old rule had become detrimental to customers need for accurate metering, Michigan Consolidated Gas Company (MichCon), the Michigan Utilities Association, and the Michigan Public Service Commission developed a new rule that rewards a qualitative process of identifying and removing poor-performing meters. Under the new rule, a utility is required to divide its total meter population in a service into meter classes and to grade each meter by a test point system, which quantifies the extent by which meters tested fall outside the acceptable accuracy range.
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Document ID: 503E2D7B

Computer-Aided Dispatching: Operational Experience And Benefits Utilizing The Mdi Mobile( Data International) System
Author(s): Jack D. Rea
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses some of the benefits Oklahoma Natural Gas Company has derived from the implementation of a Mobile Data International field order dispatching system and the interfacing of i1 with our existing customer information system. But first, lets discuss some of the radio communication conditions experienced between our field and office personnel and how our problems expanded. In 1954, ONG operated a mobile radio-equipped fleet with about 50 mobile radios on one low-band frequency. By 1985, we had expanded that fleet to more than 1,000 radios, on six frequencies, in four bands. And, the demand by ONG and other companies for air space or frequency slots had become critical, especially in our two major metropolitan areas of Tulsa and Oklahoma City.
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Document ID: 7ABAEC52

A Redesigned Customer Service Training Package
Author(s): J. C. Bugg
Abstract/Introduction:
Northern Indiana Public Service Company (NIPSCO) began training gas servicemen in the late 1930s. In 1965, a four-year apprentice program was developed, and in 1986 the apprentice program vras redesigned to a Performance Based TVaining format. Performance Based Training requires competencies (acceptable levels of performance) to be specified in advance. The apprentice will know what he should be able to do what is needed to accomplish objectives how well he must perform the objective and the conditions to perform. To accomplish this, detailed procedures must be written. Performance Based Training provides a program that is job related with an audit trail to provide the apprentice the opportunity to learn all phases of the job. The result is a highly qualified journeyman trained in a minimum of time.
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Document ID: 66E35608

A Comparative Review Of High Temperature Protective Clothing
Author(s): Stephan J. Asthalter. m. Bucky Sutton, T. Olen Nelson
Abstract/Introduction:
A foundation in the basics of textile development is essential when fabrics designed to protect workers from high temperature and fire hazards are being compared. Part one of this paper gives the reader a basic knowledge and vocabulary needed to understand part two, which discusses the benefits of fabrics made with PBI blend fabrics over those made with Nomex III Aramid and FR cotton. Part three gives a statistical comparison of laboratory tests, and part four discusses an extreme field test of PBI/Kevlar, Nomex, and FR cotton coveralls.
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Document ID: BF3F32A5

Inert Base Gas Use In U.S. Underground Natural Gas Storage Reservoirs
Author(s): Yusuf A. Shikari, Stephen E. Foh
Abstract/Introduction:
Effective utihzation of an underground gas storage reservoir requires, in most cases, a substantial volume of gas as base gas, a minimum volume to be maintained in storage at all times. For any particular storage reservoir, base gas requirements may vary from 15 percent to 75 percent of its capacity. At the end of 1987, of the 6.3 Tcf of total gas in storage, as much as 3.6 Tcf was required as base gas. If base gas requirements can be reduced by only 10 percent, over 350 Bcf of gas could be recovered (on a one-time basis). The use of an inert gas to substitute all or a portion of the base gas requirements in underground natural gas storage reservoirs has been successfully demonstrated in France. This paper describes the results of a research effort designed to provide a sound database of technical and economic information for a possible field test of inert base use in the United States. Specifically, relevant geological, reservoir, and operational criteria for selecting a suitable site are described datacollection requirements and engineering-analysis needs for formulating a viable field test plan are explained via an illustrative example.
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Document ID: 92168F25

88-DT-84 Presentation By R.D. Walker
Author(s): R. D. Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
First, I want to welcome all of you who have come to Toronto to participate in this 1988 A.G.A. Distribution/Transmission Conference. I especially want to welcome the American participants. Before I became chairman of the Canadian Gas Association, 1 had met and worked with many people in the U.S. Natural Gas Industry, but as chairman over the past two years- 1 have one month to go the the end of my second term -1 believe I really have come to know so many of you as good friends and as close business and professional colleagues. That contact and the satisfaction of working on such joint projects as the task force on long-term U.S./Canadian natural gas trade, have meant a great deal to me. 1 will look back on this international aspect of the job with great nostalgia. Naturally, I have a special affection for pipeliners -the people in the distribution and transmission segments of the business who build and maintain the infrastructure of our industry. We bury our work in the ground. All too often the consumers who benefit from it are hardly aware its there.
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Document ID: 523AB9B4

Benefits Of Gri LNG Safety Research
Author(s): Ted A. Williams, Steve J. Wiersma
Abstract/Introduction:
Consistent with the mission of the Gas Research Institute (GRI), GRI liquefied natural gas (LNG) safety research is conducted for the mutual benefit of the gas industry and its present and future customers. Benefits of the GRI research program are realized chiefly through the following mechanisms: Reducing uncertainty regarding LNG storage and transport safety Providing more effective and/or less costly safety approaches and technologies This paper discusses the results and potential benefits of several completed GRI research projects in LNG safety. The following projects are covered: Crack-arrest properties of 9 percent nickel steels used in LNG storage tanks Storage dike insulation materials Human factors design criteria and checklists for LNG control rooms Thermal radiation modeling Simple-terrain vapor dispersion modeling. Also brief mention is made of related ongoing research in these areas.
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Document ID: 13F291D5

Ozone Non-Attainment Policy Vs. The Facts Of Life
Author(s): Vittorio K. Argento
Abstract/Introduction:
How ozone levels are controlled in major urban areas is a controversial topic. This controversy is a result of very honest differences of opinion between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and at least some state and local regulatory agencies as well as some environmental scientists. However, in most cases, everyone agrees that there is a need to work toward reducing the most extreme ozone concentrations that are periodically found in some cities. A review of basic concepts together with a presentation of the actual relationships between measured concentrations of precursor pollutants and elevated ozone concentrations will be made. These relationships will be examined to determine the potential for reductions of hydrocarbon emissions to result in lower ozone concentrations. Additionally, other potential control strategies, which air quality data suggests may provide reductions in measured ozone levels, will be examined. Unlike most other air pollutants, ozone is not emitted from stacks of industry or tailpipes of automobiles. It is a pollutant that is manufactured in the atmosphere by reactions of other pollutants called precursor pollutants. These precursor pollutants are thought to be principally made up of oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons. Oxides of nitrogen result generally from high temperature combustion sources-industrial furnaces, electric utility boilers, and motor vehicle engines.
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Document ID: 77031F3D

Measurement Modernization- A Canadian Gas Transmission Company Approach
Author(s): Raymond V. Barham
Abstract/Introduction:
NOVA Corporation of Alberta is undertaking a program of measurement modernization. The concept and development of real-time measurement at NOVA is reviewed followed by an overview of our Measurement Modernization Program. The importance of the integration of electronic flow measurement systems with related business and operational systems for gas transportation is discussed.
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Document ID: 3A4AA638

Status Of Pipe Fittings Manufacturers
Author(s): J. A. Bamberger
Abstract/Introduction:
Ladish Co., Inc. was founded in 1905 as a custom forge shop. It has since become one of the largest integrated metal working companies in the world. The Forging Division of Ladish produces large forgings both in weight and size and in materials that range from carbon steel to exotic high strength alloys. Typical customers are the jet engine manufacturers such as General Electric and Pratt & Whitney. Others include Caterpillar for large crankshafts and Rockwell for rocket and missile casings. Also produced are large seamless rings for nuclear reactors and other uses. The other major division of Ladish is the Industrial Products Division-for which I work. Ladish entered the fittings and flange business in the early 1940s. The line was expanded to make Ladish one of the five major domestic full-line manufacturers in the United States. As of this date, Ladish is the only remaining full-line manufacturer producing these products.
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Document ID: EA383AB2

Presentation By Administrator, Research And Special Programs Administration
Author(s): Cindy Douglass
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Distribution and Transmission Industry has long provided the businesses and consumers of our country with a cost efficient means of transporting natural gas, which is necessary to our present quality of life. Despite the hazardous characteristics of natural gas and many liquid products, pipeline transportation is by far and away the safest and most environmentally acceptable mode of transportation in existence today. Your industry has an excellent safety record. In fact, 1987 was the safest year ever. There were no fatalities caused by transmission pipeline failures and only eight fatalities on distribution lines. There were 96 injuries, the fewest ever. Of those, 48 were due to third-party damages, not to improperly maintained or operated pipelines. I believe this safety record, despite a network of more than 1.5 milhon miles is the result of a partnership between your industry, the states, and the federal government and a commitment to placing safety first in the line of priorities. This is the perspective I place before Congress, the Secretary, the 0MB, and the Office of Pipeline Safety of the Research and Special Programs Administration (RSPA) when our budget for pipeline safety and our positions on legislation or regulations are considered and in setting policy directions for our federal/state program.
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Document ID: 8C4392B6

Truck-Mounted Backhoes And Horizontal Boring-Safety
Author(s): Marlin W. Benson
Abstract/Introduction:
Southern California Gas Company initiated the use of small backhoes mounted on a crew truck chassis approximately twenty-eight years ago. The first attempt was accomplished by modifying a small backhoe taken from a combination backhoe/trencher unit and installing it on the truck chassis of a 1960 Chevrolet six-cylinder crew truck. The success and acceptance of this concept has perpetuated over the years to the point that seventy-five percent of our 442 crew trucks are now equipped with small backhoes. In fact, the ratio in some of our Divisions is as high as ninety percent. Why did we initiate this type of equipment application? Like the majority of improvements, the concept was motivated by cost reduction. It provided for the following: Reduction from a 3-man to a 2-man service crew Improved excavation time in medium to hard soil areas Improved efficiency during emergency incidents Ability for short trench applications and multiple excavation activity for leak repairs, cathodic protection, and other routine maintenance work Applications where large backhoes are not feasible to use or cost-effective
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Document ID: 7B139721

Status Report On The Gri Metering Research Facility
Author(s): Cecil R. Sparks, Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
In February 1987, the Gas Research Institute initiated a long range program at Southwest Research Institute for development of a Metering Research Facility. It is GRIs intent that this facility support research and testing needs of the natural gas industry in a concerted and systematic program to improve the state of the art gas flow measurement at field installations. Inherent within this overall objective is the concern for improving and expanding the capabilities of metering devices available to the gas industry in areas such as intrinsic accuracy, rangeability, calibration, maintenance/service requirements, energy measurement, metering automation, and data documentation. Of equal importance, however, is the recognized need to assure that field flow conditions, installation configurations, and station design guidelines are sufficient to minimize field-induced errors within acceptable limits. The intended role of a Metering Research Facility in achieving such objectives is that of providing an effective testing capability to define experimentally the performance of a variety of meter types over the ranges of flow conditions and configurational variations of interest to the gas transmission, distribution, and production industries. To service this role, the MRF must possess absolute accuracy and traceability sufficient to define meter accuracy under carefully controlled laboratory conditions.
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Document ID: DC66F8A0

The Use Of Fiber Optic Controls In Aerial Lifts
Author(s): William K. Holmes
Abstract/Introduction:
Frequently, aerial-man lifts operate in close proximity to high voltage power lines, creating a potential hazard to personnel in the platform (see Figure I). For the safety of personnel, a control system was developed that had controls at the ground, controls at the platform. The control system was designed to move and position the tower platform accurately and reliably without overshoot. The control system, developed by Hi-Ranger, Inc of Waukesha, WI, uses state-of-the-art electronics as well as electro-hydraulic technology to control aerial lifts. The system transmits fiber optic control signals from the platform. These fiber optic signals are transmitted in the form of light pulses, which arc first interpreted and then signal the machines electro-hydraulic lower control valve to operate the respective functions.
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Document ID: AD26795B

Operating Gas Storage Fields In Urban Environments
Author(s): Richard m. Morrow
Abstract/Introduction:
Southern California Gas Company (SoCal Gas), the nations largest gas distribution utility, currently serves over 13 million people through 4.2 million meters in Southern and Central California. Providing reliable, safe, and efficient natural gas service to meet this vast and fluctuating energy demand requires a highly responsive Transmission and Distribution system. SoCal Gas operates approximately 3,800 miles of transmission line and 38,000 miles of distribution main with over 210,000 horsepower of mainline and storage compression. Vital to the effective operation of this extensive transmission network are the Companys six underground storage fields. Combined, these fields have a working storage capacity of over 116 Bcf and an aggregate maximum deliverability of over 4,300 MMcfd. Today, these fields are located in or adjacent to sensitive urban or suburban environments. The operation of a storage field in these areas presents many unique and sometimes difficult obstacles that are not associated typically with the underground storage of natural gas. This paper describes how SoCal Gas copes with the unique operating obstacles that are faced in operating gas storage fields in these sensitive environments.
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Document ID: 7C74D15B

New Materials For Gas Transportation In Ttie 1990s And Beyond
Author(s): Steven R. Kramer
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past half century, an extensive network has evolved to transport gaseous fuels from supply sources to distribution utilities, to the endusers premises, and finally, to the burner tip of the gas appliance. The major components of this network are 350,000 miles of transmission and gathering pipeline, underground storage systems, peak shaving facilities for liquefied natural gas, and 1.5 million miles of distribution mains and services. This system is supported by an extensive array of compressor stations, regulator stations, and custody transfer facilities. While the existing piping system delivers natural gas safely and reliably, there are many areas where the overall network could be enhanced. Is there a material or materials that would not place any constraints on supply services, end users, or gas operators? With the many advancements in material science, it may be possible to adapt or design a new or alternative material that can meet the varying present and future needs of all customers, carries a multitude of gaseous fuels, and integrates into the existing system.
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Document ID: 57469825

Joint Trenching
Author(s): Mark Maass
Abstract/Introduction:
Competitors also can be partners, as evidenced by a successful joint program undertaken by Washington Natural Gas Company (WNG), a non-combination company. The gas company has worked for more than two years with power, telephone, and cable-TV companies to organize, coordinate, and implement a very cost-effective joint-trench program. This paper describes the process followed to begin the program and obstacles encountered along the way. The costs savings and various other benefits, such as reduced underground damage, landdeveloper satisfaction, and improved working relationships, are discussed.
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Document ID: 3C963B9D

Socket Fusion Tools . . . The New Astm Specification
Author(s): William F. Ogilvie
Abstract/Introduction:
Although there appeared to have been no field failures of socket fusion joints attributable to inconsistent geometry of fusion fittings and tools, there is an obvious benefit in relating the geometry of the tools to that of the fittings and thus improving the integrity of the socket fusion joints. This was one of the results from an A.G.A. Plastic Materials Committee report in 1978. Based on this report the A.G.A. Plastic Materials Committee requested ASTM (American Society for Testing and Material) to develop a standard for socket fusion tools.
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Document ID: BE0BE023

Summary Of Pavement-Restoration Questionnaire
Abstract/Introduction:
Minimum Openings (1 ft xl ft) Ten companies report that they perform no C & M operations in minimum openings. Most companies backfill with excavated material if it is judged to be suitable. Three companies report that they backfill with other than excavated materials 80 to 90 percent of the time. The use of soil stabilizers is minimal: Four companies are testing. One company has tested and discontinued use. The hand-held air/hydraulic tamper (pogo stick) is used universally for tamping minimum openings. Three companies report testing for compaction. One company performs its own testing. Two companies report selective testing by state and local agencies. Tamping is performed in 4 to 18 increments with 6 lo 12 as the norm.
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Document ID: 43F236D1

Coping With Diesel Fuel Waxing
Author(s): Raymond B. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
Diesel engines, because of their efficiency, are frequently used in the type of equipment operated by major utilities, transportation divisions, and vehicle services departments. Average performance of #2 diesei fuel in the use of diesei equipment that is expected to encounter temperatures below the diesei fuels natural cloud point is desirable. In order to attain this performance, the use of additives, selected through careful testing and evaluation of the fuel, is essential. Any operator of diesel-powered equipment who anticipates temperatures below the natural cloud point of the #2 diesei fuel should be concerned with the possibility of diesei fuel waxing. The major advantage of using diesei-powered equipment is the consumption of less fuel than a comparable gasoline engine. Additionally, #2 diesel fuel has a higher latent heat energy per unit volume than does gasoline. In order for the operators of diesel-powered equipmept to gain the full advantage of diesei efficiencies, potential problems inherent in the use of #2 diesei fuel at temperatures below its natural cloud point are best addressed through careful attention to prevention of fuel filter plugging and other potential performance detractors that prevent such machinery from operating at the efficiency for which it was selected.
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Document ID: 883B4F80

Intelligent Pigging Of Pipelines-A British Approach
Author(s): R. W. E. Shannon
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline metal loss inspection entered a new era with the introduction by British Gas of a technologically advanced magnetic flux leakage system. This equipment is capable of detecting and sizing defects accurately and can be used with confidence to provide a lower cost, technically superior assessment of pipeline condition than that achieved through hydrostatic testing. The inspection of pipelines for stress corrosion cracking also has been the subject of much research by British Gas. Prototype inspection equipment has been developed and operated under live gas conditions in pipelines to date the results prove that a crack-detection sensitivity equal to pressure testing has been achieved. Some pipeline steels however, are highly responsive to elastic waves of ultrasonic frequency, and current research is directed towards the development of improved computer based data analysis systems. This work will enable acceptable levels of defect detection to be adopted whilst the risk of generating false indications is avoided. The development program undertaken by British Gas to date will be reviewed along with operating experiences over the last ten years. The technical and financial benefits of employing such an advanced system of pipeline surveillance will be indicated.
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Document ID: 32339638

Update On Status Of Gri Research Projects In Gas Operations
Author(s): Raymond A. Day
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1988, Gas Research Institute (GRI) is funding a 14.55-million research and development (R&D) program consisting of 51 projects related to gas industry operations. Approximately 60 percent of the funding is for projects in gas distribution operations about 40 percent deals with gas transmission pipeline and underground gas storage operations in 1988. The GRI research program focuses on the development, demonstration, and commercialization of new or improved construction and maintenance equipment, metering instruments, piping materials and systems, and advanced technologies. The overall objective of the research program, being directed by the GRI TVansport and Storage Research Department, is to aid US. gas utilities and pipeline companies in improving the efficiency and reducing the cost of gas transmission, distribution, and storage operations.
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Document ID: 6D6CA7A4

Innovative Methods For Residential/Commercial Interior Gas Distribution
Author(s): Marlon Mcclinton, Robert A. Campbell
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to make the utilization of natural gas more economically attractive through the development of improved gas equipment and innovative gas appliances and to maintain the attractiveness of the gas option to residential and commercial customers, it is essential to develop an efficient, economical, and safe gas distribution system that can be installed easily in a commercial structure or any single or multifamily dwelling by builders and/or contractors. The interior gas distribution system must contribute to a total gas energy package that is attractive and cost competitive compared with similar electric service. Gas Research Institute has been involved in the conduc* of research to develop improved methods for distributing gas in residential and commercial buildings since approximately 1984. Prior work has focused on a review of the state-of-the-art of interior gas piping systems to determine the most viable systems for application to the U.S. market. It was determined that semi-rigid gas piping systems (i.e-, corrugated stainless steel tubing from Japan and small diameter copper tubing operated at elevated pressure) had the greatest potential for reducing installation labor and cost in residential and commercial buildings compared to conventional interior gas distribution methods (i.e., black steel pipe).
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Document ID: 94F06B73

River Crossings With 88.9 mm Plastic Pipe By The Direct Burial Method
Author(s): Brian R. Hahn
Abstract/Introduction:
In the summer of 1985, Canadian Western Natural Gas Company Limited, an investor-owned utility serving southern Alberta, saved 200,000 CDN while installing three major river crossings to expand its service territory. The savings resulted from the use of the direct burial ploughing technique to install 88.9 mm (3 inch nominal size) polyethylene pipe at an invert of 2.0 metres (6 ft.) beneath the river bed. The river crossings were required as part of the installation of over 240 kilometres (150 miles) of intermediate pressure (550 kPag, 80 psig) gas mains and service lines to serve some 4(X)+ new customers on the Blackfoot Indian Reserve.
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Document ID: A9C10F3A

Same-Day Paving-The Road To The Future
Author(s): George Ragula
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years. The Brooklyn Union Gas Company operated under one basic paving philosophy: excavations were backfilled by whomever made the excavation (Brooklyn Union crew or contractor) and then topped with a temporary cold asphalt mixture. A record of the cut was then routed to the paving contractor, who scheduled the job for permanent restoration. With the number of excavations approaching 50,000 annually and trenching operations approaching 100 miles, the liabilities and public concern in a congested metropolitan area the size of New York City were a matter of serious concern to the Company. This system no longer served a positive public image. In 1975, the concept of same-day paving was formulated with our paving contractor. Under this new procedure, excavations were to be filled and brought to within 1 of final grade with permanent binder pavement installed on the same day of backfilling. With the excavation now requiring only the final 1 of asphalt topping, contractors scheduled final paving or topping as their schedule permitted. This minimized undue hardships to the public while greatly reducing Brooklyn Unions liability due to open holes or depressions.
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Document ID: 7DC4129F

Development Of A Mouse System To Inspect Underground Gas Distribution Pipes
Author(s): Steven W. Gauthier
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Research Institute (GRI) is the U.S. gas industrys research management organization. It is an engineering and scientific research organization, which sponsors a comprehensive research and development (R&D) program in the supply, transmission and distribution, storage, and end use of gaseous fuels. The program, which is designed to benefit the natural gas industry and gas consumers nationwide, consists of over 400 active research projects. Support for this R&D program comes through a funding unit authorized annually by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). The funding unit is applied to the gas sold by GRIs 31 interstate pipeline company members to gas distribution utilities and others. GRi strives to conduct a cooperative R&D program by pooling the expertise, knowledge, and resources of those who stand to benefit from its program. These include the gas industry, end users of gaseous fuel, R&D contractors, and equipment manufacturers. By doing this GRI is better able to leverage its R&D resources and develop a program that more accurately identifies the needs of the gas industry and the gas consumer, and focus on projects that will satisfy those needs. The general thrust of the GRIs R&D subprogram in Gas Operations is to provide safe, reliable gas service at the lowest possible cost and with minimum adverse environmental impact, for the benefit of both the gas industry and the general public. Technologies that address this objective are selected on the basis of their abiUty to minimize costs associated with the safe, reliable, and long-term operation of the gas transport and storage system and their ability to increase service options for the gas consumer.
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Document ID: 346A6A32

Revised Alternate Characterization Methods For Fast Computation Of Supercompressibility Factors For Natural Gas Flow Rate Calculations
Author(s): K. E. Starling, m. Mannan
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary and most accurate method for characterization of natural gas for computations of compressibility/supercompressibility factors using equation-of-state methods is a complete compositional analysis where mole fractions of all components are accurately known from experimental measurements. However, when complete compositional analysis for a natural gas is not available, alternate characterization methods are used. This research presents methods for gas mixture characterization when compositional analyses are not available. These methods reduce computation times dramatically, while maintaining high levels of accuracy for the compressibility/supercompressibility factor predictions.
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Document ID: 00C73247

Review Of Nace RP0169-Control Of External Corrosion On Underground Or Submerged Metallic Piping Systems
Author(s): V. D. Miller, T. S. Lee
Abstract/Introduction:
The consensus approval process used by NACE to promulgate voluntary industry standards is reviewed. The background and current status of the presently active review of NACE RP0169 Control of External Corrosion on Underground or Submerged Metallic Piping Systems is described.
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Document ID: 20E4AD50

Tennecos Efforts For Verifying Pipeline Integrity
Author(s): Michael J. Davis
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the greatest challenges facing the Natural Gas TVansmission Industry is the operation of a fail-safe, cost-effective pipeline system. Tenneco Gas Transportation Company remains one of the leaders in this industry due to a continuing commitment to pipeline integrity. The overall objective of Tennecos Pipeline Integrity Program is the removal of all anomalies detrimental to the integrity of the pipeline system. This is accomplished by effective use of intelligent pigging and hydrostatic testing, coupled with a reliable evaluation and correction program. The key to the success of Tennecos current twenty-year plan is prioritization of the pipeline system through the Pipeline Index program. This powerful computer program, which was developed in-house, utilizes Tfennecos vast pipeline database to rate every single valve section in the 15,000 mile system. This allows Tennecos integrity efforts to be focused on the sections that require the most attention.
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Document ID: 39B10AFE

Transportation Deregulation: Searching For The Gold
Author(s): Philip G. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
A recent study cites transportation deregulation as one of the opportunities seized by purchasing professionals to help them assume an increased role in the corporate structure. Unfortunately, utilities continue to deregulate transportation responsibility to their vendors. Vendors dictate the terms of sale and select the carriers. Transportation costs are not usually a separate item in the bidevaluation procedure. Utilities are unable to predetermine freight costs and are generally unable to compare quoted freight charges either between vendors or against a known standard. Vendors view transportation as a profit center and are not obligated to pass negotiated rates and discounts on to the utility. Utilities must take charge of transportation rates and carrier selection. The potential savings are in the hundreds of thousands of dollars.
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Document ID: 50511F4C

An Ldcs Perspective On The Impact Of Order 436/500
Author(s): John P. Rudiak
Abstract/Introduction:
Connecticut Natural Gas Corporation is a local distribution company with approximately 135,000 customers and annual requirements of 30 BCF. It is located near the end of the interstate pipeline systems and is served by two pipelines: Tennessee Gas Pipeline and Algonquin Gas Transmission. Approximately three years ago, when the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission issued the plan to deregulate natural gas (known as Order 436), an opportunity was recognized by Connecticut Natural. The goal of this plan was to provide all parties equal access to pipeline gas transportation. It also provided for quick approval of new services and construction projects if the pipeline was willing to accept sufficient risks. Customers of a pipeUne electing to operate under Order 436, which is a voluntary program, would have originally been entitled to reduce or convert their sales contracts with a pipehne to a firm transportation service. This would enable Local Distribution Companies (LDCs) such as Connecticut Natural to purchase gas supplies directly from producers.
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Document ID: 0F3BA61A

Feasibility Of Fluidic Oscillators As Residential Gas Flow Meters
Author(s): H. Mansy, D. R. Williams, K. m. Kothari
Abstract/Introduction:
The performance of conventional fluidic oscillators based on the Coanda principle are compared with the performance of the new Trapped-Vortex Pair fluidic oscillator. It is shown that the new design is better suited for use as a residential gas flow meter than other fluidic oscillators.
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Document ID: 7F109A1D

Computer Control And Diagnostic System For Reciprocating Engines
Author(s): Milton Gibbs, Ross Fisher
Abstract/Introduction:
Columbia Gulf Transmission Company (Columbia Gulf) is an open access, interstate natural gas pipeline company headquartered in Houston, Texas. Columbia Gulf transports gas from the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana Gulf Coast area to the Kentucky-West Virginia border. The Columbia Gulf system has a capacity of more than 2 billion standard cubic feet per day. Columbia Gulf and the Bendix Engine Controls Division of Allied- Signal Inc. have worked together for the past seven years to investigate and develop a Control System to improve the performance of gas fired reciprocating compressor engines. This paper has been jointly prepared by Columbia Gulf and Bendix personnel. It discusses the result of the development program, the evolution of the Control System, and the operational experience with the Control System.
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Document ID: F9E29E5E

Role Of Optimization Models In Dispatching Gas Supplies
Author(s): Edward A. Mcgee
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas planners and controllers currently have good information on the demand side. On the supply side, however, they need a tool to assist in the selection of gas suppliers. With least-cost regulations now spreading across the U.S., this need is becoming more acute. Linear programming optimization techniques, implemented on a standard personal computer through spreadsheet software with user-friendly menu commands, provide a low-cost but high-level analysis and appropriate dispatching priorities.
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Document ID: 68BB6852


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