Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (1988)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Pressure Gauges & Deadweight Testers
Author(s): Robert V. Liddle, Charles J. Reed
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many reasons why it may be necessary to measure the pressure of a gas such as air or carbon dioxide, or a liquid such as water or oil. While in sane applications only a rough indication of the pressure is needed, in others an accurate measurement may be required to avoid endangerment of personnel and equipment. Pressure gauges were designed and are used for the following reasons: 1. Provide Crating Information 2. Provide Test Data 3. Measuring Quantity 4. Indicating Operational Peadiness 5. Measuring Force
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Document ID: 3D005577

Fundamentals Of Gas Pressure Regulation
Author(s): Richard H. Schieber
Abstract/Introduction:
A discussion of pressure regulators should begin with what is expected of a regulator and what it does. Regulators feed gas to appliances at some desired pressure (within limits) and supply enough flow to satisfy the demands of the appliance. The regulator serves the appliance its as simple and as difficult as that. The appliance says to the regulator, I need a supply of gas at a relatively constant pressure, regardless of how much or how little gas Im using. Dont tell me its hard to maintain a constant pressure over a wide range of flow rates. Thats not my problem! Then the appliance says, And I dont want to hear that the gas company doesnt control your inlet pressure and that makes it really hard to control your outlet pressure. I couldnt care less...I need a constant supply pressure or I cant do my job efficiently.
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Document ID: D862E1A7

Field Experience With Composite Sampling Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Lonnie R. Grady
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years measurement technicians and measurement depart ments were concerned only with MCF measurement. Gas composition was not critical and samples were only occasionally taken. The gas industry changed and the MCF has been replaced by the MMBTU. Accurate analysis are only possible if representative samples of the flowing streams are collected. The best wav to do this is with a composite sampler, This paper addresses the selection, set up, operation and maintenance of composite samplers.
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Document ID: C41DC551

H2S, Total Sulfur And Sulfur Chromatograph Systems
Author(s): D. Marshall Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
Sulfur In its various forms is found In the oil and gas industry as well as in the pharmaceutical, insecticide, and food industries. Detection of sulfur can be done using a variety of methods, A survey of the various types of sulfur compounds, their uses, and means of detection will be made. Even though the number of sulfur detectors is numerous, only the lead acetate detector is truly specific. A survey of the operation and application of a lead acetate detector for HS, total sulfur, and sulfur Species analysis will be made,
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Document ID: E657DE41

Meter Selection For Various Load Requirements
Author(s): George L. Bell, Sr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the first gas meter, because of technical advances. Improved material, economics, and energy conservation, the measurement of natural gas has seen many changes. These changes have occurred In both the theory and practices of measurement, as well as the actual physical meter itself. The first meter, a positive displacement meter, has seen only physical changes over the years which allows the positive displacement meter to measure at an increased volume rate and higher pressure. This meter is still widely used in the Industry today. Expanding from this fundamental meter, the Industry has come to a point where natural gas can not only be measured in more ways, but also, more accurately. In selecting a specific type of meter for a required load type, the Measurement Engineer should consider all types of meters. The basic types of meters available to the Measurement Engineer and a brief description follows.
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Document ID: F3D4804A

Gas Research Institute Update
Author(s): Carl H. Griffis
Abstract/Introduction:
The efficient transport and distribution of natural gas involves accurate measurement of large quantities of flowing fluid. As gas prices rise, increased economic importance is attached to accurate gas measurement. The Gas Research Institute (GRI) is a not-for-profit membership organization of natural gas pipeline and distribution companies that plans, manages and develops financing for a research and development program designed to advance gas supply options, end-use and operations technologies and to conduct related basic research. Research into new methods of measuring natural gas volume and energy flow and improving existing measurement methods is a part of this research and development program. This paper is an update of the current projects that address both new measurement technologies and improvements of existing measurement techniques in both distribution and transmission areas.
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Document ID: 8E7D64B6

Economics Of Electronic Measurement
Author(s): James H. Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
During the past years the management of the measurement departments in many of the gas transmission conpanies across the United States and Canada, have been in a quandary about what to do with electronic metering systems vs. the use of cherts in gas metering. Abundant questions have been asked about electronic measurement such as:
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Document ID: C41F7124

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Mike Mckay
Abstract/Introduction:
For several years gas men have been giving more thought to aerodynamic turbulence within their pipeline systems and, in particular, the turbulence that is a result of pressure regulation. Considering the noise from a measurement or regulating station, it is generally conceded that measurement facilities alone will rarely be a major source of noise, since we can design the pipe to give a desired and normally tranquil velocity. On the other hand, we must expect that in a regulator station control of the gas velocity is possible only up Co the inlet side of an active regulator. At the point of regulation within the regulator body, the velocity of the gas may be expected to increase greatly, perhaps up to sonic velocity. Now the question becomes, What is the best way to handle gas when it is traveling at high velocities?
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Document ID: 3E827B5A

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): E. H. Jones, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The accuracy of oil field measurements varies from a few tenths of one percent to hundreds of percent. For example, a LACT unit will generally provide high accuracy measurements of a custody transfer oil flow while production allocation measurements sometimes are very inaccurate. The level of obtainable accuracy for a given measurement effects many parties other than the responsible measurement technician. Sales personnel, auditors, and reservoir engineers all must concern themselves with measurement accuracy of petroleum products.
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Document ID: 1D7FAD9A

Design Considerations For Orifice Measurment Installations
Author(s): Harry Harrison
Abstract/Introduction:
The design of a metering station should be of the utmost importance to anyone involved in the transmission, production, purchase or sale of fluids. A sound design based on known criteria, past history, industry standards and common sense will yield not only an accurate station but also one that is reliable. The standard most U.S. companies adhere to for their orifice measurement is the American National Standards Institute, Orifice Metering of Natural Gas. This one publication encompasses three previously independent publications, namely the American Gas Association Report No. 3 (AGAS), the American Petroleum Institute No. 2530 (API 2530) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI/API 2530).
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Document ID: C9792955

Instrumentation And Volume Calculation Of Pd And Turbine Meters
Author(s): Alan Hess
Abstract/Introduction:
To understand the need for instrumentation and volume calculation of diaphragm, rotary, and turbine meters, one must define two essential units of measure: 1. Actual Cubic Foot, and 2. Standard Cubic Foot. Actual Cubic Foot, ACF, would be the amount of gas that would be contained in an area that measures a foot in height, a foot in width, and a foot in depth. The measurements of this cube, would be a constant, and would not change due to pressure, or variations in temperature. A Standard Cubic foot, SCF, in contrast, to an ACF, is measured under defined temperatures and pressures. This defined unit of measure can vary from company to company. For this discussion, I ivould like to establish a standard cubic foot to be a foot in height, a foot in width, and a foot in depth as measured under the following conditions:
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Document ID: F544145E

Field Inspections And Calibration Of Measurement Instruments
Author(s): Carl Rousseau
Abstract/Introduction:
Positive displacement and turbine type metering is commonly used in the measurement of natural gas by distribution, transmission and production companies. These meters would be self sufficient if they could always work at base pressure and base temperature conditions. Unfortunately, this is not the case. When large volumes of gas are to be measured and transported to distant points where it is to be consumed, it must often be done at elevated and varying pressure conditions and varying temperature conditions. When this is the case, adjustments must be made to metered volumes to correct them to the base conditions according to the basic gas laws. This may be done by manual calculation or by auxilliary instrumentation. This instrumentation may be of a data gathering type or a mechanical or electronic integrating type. Since large sums of money may be effected by the accuracy of this type instrumentation, it is important that periodic tests and inspections be performed by qualified personnel.
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Document ID: 6A304CF1

Effects On Entrained Liquid On Orifice Mfjisurement
Author(s): C. V. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
In the measurement of natural gas in field operations using the conventional orifice meter, all of the factors used in the calculation of flov are based on the assumption that the gas is dry. This condition is rarely the case in field measurements. The A.G.A. Committee Report Ho. 3, (l), does not give any information or data regarding the effect water and/or distillate may have upon gas measurement by the orifice meter. It was in this area of gas measurement that graduate-engineering students at Texas A&I University, Kingsville, Texas have conducted research operation in the laboratory and in the field. Schuster, (2) has conducted full range field tests of gas-liquid mixtures at 600 and 1,000 pounds per square inch pressure using the orifice meter. In these tests a U-inch meter run Nas used to meastire the dry gas. After this measurement, water and/or distillate in varying amounts was introduced and the two-phase stream was then measiired first through a Ji-inch meter run and then by a 3-inch meter these tests covered liquid-gas ratios up to 600 barrels of liquid per million cubic feet of gas.
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Document ID: 392CA58A

Fundamentals Of Energy Management
Author(s): Richard L. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
The most precise method of managing energy in any form fron any source is direct, ie., the continuous measuranent of the associated variables. In the natural gcis industry, instrumentation exsists that will directly measure natural gas energy as delivered. At this time this instrumentation is under field test axid is not cotmercially available.
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Document ID: C4B60B4F

Light Hydrocarbon Measurement
Author(s): Ronald E. Beaty
Abstract/Introduction:
Traditional volumetric measurement has proven ineffective for mixed natural gas liquid streams containing significant percentages of ethane. Measurement errors of more than seven percent can be experienced using API or other generally accepted tables to correct volumes of natural gas liquids containing 50% ethane and 50% heavier components. This is due to the effect of nonideal mixing, compressibility, and Intermolecular adhesion of the various hydrocarbon molecules. Settlements are normally made for product volumes at 60F and equilibrium vapor pressure. Traditional volumetric measurement requires definition of the physical properties of the hydrocarbon product in order to accurately determine the appropriate correction factors to adjust the volume for deviations in temperature and pressure from 60F and equilibrium vapor pressure. Volumetric correction tables for temperature and pressure can be developed for specific mixtures of hydrocarbons as their physical behavior is predictable. When ethane is mixed with other hydrocarbons, volumetric correction can be accomplished accurately if the component composition changes only within a very limited range.
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Document ID: DD83BAED

Spot Sampling Techniques
Author(s): Jerry Bernos
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1978 the United States Congress passed the Natural Gas Policy Act. This legislation required that natural gas be priced according to its energy content rather than by volume alone. At the same time, the economics of the natural gas industry caused natural gas prices to soar. These two factors resulted in a vast increase in the demand for accurate analyses of natural gas systems. Since it was not economically feasible to place analytical instruments at each and every location requiring BTU determinations, a corresponding increase occurred in the need to obtain spot samples of these systems. This paper is intended to present the problems that arise in spot sampling and to introduce the industry accepted methods which can overcome these problems.
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Document ID: ED038C3E

Operational Procedures Of Electronic Chart Processor
Author(s): Chuck Gray
Abstract/Introduction:
The UGC Chart Processor is a microprocessor based system designed to translate orifice meter chart records into accurate billing-compatible data of integrated flow (chart extension), flow time and average pressure. It will handle American (Westcott) and Foxboro charts as the pens can be mounted so as to pivot in the same geometric paths as the recording pens of these types of meters. As an option, the Chart Processor can be fitted with pen mounts for Taylor and/or Rockwell charts. The operator directs the pens to follow the records by moving the trace handles as the chart rotates. The rotational speed of the chart table is governed by a variable foot control. The chart is secured to the chart table so its rotation and the motion of the pens by the operator simulate the actions in the recording meter. The Chart Processor computes and prints (for each chart) the chart extension C fHP), average pressure and flow time. It also stores and prints batch totals on command.
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Document ID: 89EC31C6

Periodic Inspection District Regulators And Relief Valves
Author(s): Conrad Gruber
Abstract/Introduction:
Periodic inspection of regulators and relief valves is one of the most important ways to insure the safe transport of natural gas. In addition to satisfying government regulations these inspections can be used to establish and maintain company standards, providing safe pressure reduction and gas delivery- This is a short outline of procedures and inspection functions that we use at Entex to maintain our pressure reducing facilities in a safe operating condition. The Department of Transportation and the Texas Railroad Commission require that pressure limiting and regulating stations be inspected at least once each calendar year, but at Intervals not exceeding fifteen months. This includes all district regulators, monitoring regulators, relief valves, pressure limiting valves and automatic shut-off devices in each district station. These test are to determine:
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Document ID: 7517BBF7

Regulatory Commission Safety Evaluation And Training
Author(s): Carl Nordstrand
Abstract/Introduction:
The Texas Legislature has given the Railroad Carmission of Texas express power to promulgate, adopt, and enforce minimLim pipeline safety standards in Texas. The Railroad Coinnission assigned jurisdiction over natural gas and hazardous liquids pipelines to its Pipeline Safety Section in the Gas Utilities Division. This is an awescme responsibility for the section, considering Texas has approximately 1300 distribution systems, 3200 transmission and gathering systems, and 3000 hazardous liquids systems. This means the pipeline safety engineers and engineering technicians must, on an ongoing basis, inspect over 80,000 niiles of distribution mains and service lines, 60,000 miles of transmission and gathering lines, and 80,000 miles of liquids lines.
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Document ID: 6B3BA072

Rotary Meters
Author(s): James A. Jackson
Abstract/Introduction:
The first positive displacement rotary gas meters were built in 1920 by the PH & FM ROOTS Company and the Connersville Blower Company, both located in Connersville, Indiana. In 1966, this gas meter operation was renamed Dresser Measurement Division. However, these rotary meters today are still known as ROOTS Meters. Rockwell International entered the market in the early 1960s with a rotating vane design known as the ROTO-Seal* Meter, and in the late 1960s Singers American Meter Company introduced still another rotating design known as the CVM gas meter. There are several foreign competitors who also manufacture a lobed rotary meter.
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Document ID: 68406A1B

Water Vapor Determination And Effects On Gas Measurement
Author(s): Douglas E. Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
The determination and the effect of water vapor on gas measurement is of importance to the gas pipeline industry because of the necessity for accurate gas measurement and for the maintenance of quality control. The following discussion covers typical methods which are used by the gas industry for water vapor determination. Each of the dew point Instruments discussed use a specific method for water vapor measurement, and all are designed for use as either portable or fixed location instrumentation. In addition to a discussion of the typical methods for water vapor determination, the effects of water vapor on gas volume and heating value measurement is reviewed.
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Document ID: 182692E9

Low Power Field Flow Computers
Author(s): Don Drapp
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents an introductory discussion of field-mounted gas flow computers in general and the low-power variety in particular. What makes the low-power category different is that these instruments use disposable batteries. There is no need for solar panels or an alternating-current power line. And what makes non-recha-rgeable batteries practical for this purpose is extremely low power consumption. A pair of ordinary alkaline lantern batteries typically lasts well over a year.
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Document ID: E22B79FA

Pulsation Effects On Orifice Metering Considering Primary And Secondary Elements
Author(s): Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of orifices for commercial flow measurement has a long history dating back more than 50 years. Orifices are extensively used in the United States natural gas, petroleum, and petrochemical industries and are important as one of the most practical ways to meter large volumes of gas flow. These meters are very reliable and cost effective and if properly used, can be relied upon to give accurate results. Proper use normally requires the steady flows for which orifices were intended and for which the orifice coefficients were developed. In actual field installations, flow is often not steady but subject to the periodic changes in pressure and velocity that are referred to as pulsations. Pulsations can be caused by compressors, pressure regulators, control valves, fluctuating loads, or by flow-induced phenomena within the piping. It is known and well recognized that pulsations cause errors in orifice meter results. In fact, A.G.A. Report No. 3 on Orifice Metering of Natural Gas, which is also ANSI/API 2530, clearly states that: Reliable measurements of a gas flow with an orifice cannot be obtained when appreciable pulsations . . . are present at the measurement point.
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Document ID: D8CCF1AE

Electronic Vs. Mechanical Correcting Devices
Author(s): Daniel R. Fulton
Abstract/Introduction:
Correcting devices, used with positive displacement and turbine meters, correct the gas volume measured at meter conditions of pressure and temperature to the standard volume measured at base conditions of pressure and temperature. Both mechanical and electronic correctors can accomplish this important function with th-e high degree of accuracy required to produce billable volumes at the sale or purchase point of natural gas.
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Document ID: 1D707186

Electronic Chart Integrators
Author(s): Bryan Billeaud
Abstract/Introduction:
In the natural gas industry, measurement and calculation of gas volumes have long been accomplished through the use of orifice meter chart records. Machines which make the calculation from these records are a common sight to most companies involved in gas measurement. Electronic equipment, especially, have brought about substantial improvement to measurement and calculations due to their ever increasing speed, accuracy and mathematical abilities. There are many variables and methods used in the volume calculations generated from these chart records. One important consideration is the pressure extension. The pressure extension is derived directly from a chart record. It is computed from two independent curves on the chart which depict the pressure, in psi, found in an orifice meter tube and the differential pressure, in inches of H2O, of the opposite sides of the orifice. In accordance to the Bernoulli theorum, these two curves are considered as continuous records over a specified period of time.
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Document ID: E5F77293

Fundamental Principles Of Positive Displacement Meters
Author(s): Ed Stebbins
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1792 the process of manufacturing gas from coal was introduced in England. It was normal that the first gas meters were developed in England after the founding of the first gas company in London in 1808. In 1817 the first gas company was chartered in the city of Baltimore and gas was introduced commercially to the United States. In those so called good ole days, meters were unknown and gas was sold more or less on an hourly basis by contract. Gas company inspectors would tour the city at night and rap on the walk or curbs outside of the homes to indicate to gas light customers that their contract time had expired and the lights were to be extinguished. If the customer ignored the warning, the inspector would turn the service off. This practice was then changed and the gas light customers were charged for the quantity of gas used based on the number, and possibly the size of light burners in the homes. Thus, the first gas meters developed were rated as Five Light, Ten- Light, etc. A gas light burner was based on a consumption of 6 cubic feet per hour.
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Document ID: 55411598

Determination Of Calorific Values Of National Gas By Combustion Instruments
Author(s): A.F. Kersey
Abstract/Introduction:
One definition of calorimeter is an apparatus for measuring quantities of heat. This discussion will include three gas industry instruments currently used for precision measurement of the quantity of heat resulting from the combustion of a unit volume of gas. The instruments are the Honeywell HVT 100, the Therm Titrator by Precision Measurement, Inc. of Duncanville, Texas, and the Cutler-Hammer. Recording calorimeter now produced by Fluid Data, Inc. The British Thermal Unit (BTU) is used by the United States gas industry. It has been defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit from 58.5F to 59.5F. The International table BTU is 1055.05585262 Joules.)
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Document ID: 181C1A31

Electronic Instrumentation For Orifice And Turbine Meters
Author(s): Ed Ostrovich
Abstract/Introduction:
Mechanical chart recorders and mechanical pressure and/or temperature eoprectors have been used to measure natural gas for many years. From the 1970s, the start of the computer era, to the present, electronic equipment has been more and more widely used throughout the gas industry. Due to competition from other fuels, open access, and new transportation agreements, it is increasingly more important that gas be measured accurately and on a timely basis. Electronic measurement will provide the needed accuracy and timeliness required. Increased accuracy is the result of real time measurement. Live specific gravity, BTU, COg and Ng as well as pressure, differential, and temperature are inputted into the measuring device to yield real time measurement. Real time measurement is offered by many flow computers in todays market. The latest advances in electronic technology provide more accurate and more reliable natural gas measurement at a cost which is becoming more competitive with mechanical devices.
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Document ID: D40B9384

Field Testing By Transfer Proving
Author(s): Thomas H. Loga
Abstract/Introduction:
The escalating cost of natural gas, and greater emphasis on accurate measurement by gas companies, has enhanced the need for better methods of field testing meters. There are presently three methods for field testing meters: 1. Low Pressure Flow Prover 2. Critical Flow Prover 3. Transfer Prover The low pressure flow prover and the critical flow prover involve the measurement of several variables which in turn may cause the compounding of errors before the final accuracy can be calculated. The transfer prover requires only the input of temperature and pressure differences between the prover and the meter under test. Results obtained from a transfer prover should be more accurate and repeatable and compare more favorably to the accepted standards of the bell and piston provers.
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Document ID: 5824535B

Orifice Rfcorder Testing
Author(s): Leonardo B. Chapa
Abstract/Introduction:
The objective of this paper is to present one method to completely insure that all transactions based upon orifice recorder testing will meet the allcwable tolerances and accuracies specified by AGA No. 3 or the contract to satisfy all parties involved.
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Document ID: EB07B71D

Chart Auditing
Author(s): Bonnie L. West
Abstract/Introduction:
Columbia Gulf audits not only stations that are input points directly into our own pipeline, but offsystem locations for Columbia Gas Transmission Corporation as well. These locations are audited on a monthly, semi-annual or annual basis. The criteria, set up by management, for determining audit priority are as follows: 1) Locations where Columbias share of gas is 25 MMcfd or greater are audited monthly. 2) Locations where Columbias share of gas is 2 MMcfd - 25 MMcfd are audited semi-annually. 3) Locations less than 2 MMcfd are audited annually. All locations are reviewed twice a year and an update is done to conform to the above criteria. At present, we are auditing 12 locations monthly, 30 semi-annually and 200 annually,
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Document ID: C364ECF2

Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): m. J. Sergesketter
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will provide information for use in selecting, applying, and checking the orifice metering system, with emphasis on gas measurement. The primary reference for mechanical tolerances of the orifice meter tube, plate holder and plate is American Gas Association Report No. 3, Orifice Metering of Natural Gas, published as ANSI/API Standard 2530. Much of this information is also published in a simpler, condensed format by orifice meter manufacturers. An excellent reference is Singer American Meter Division Handbook E-2. Meter tube and orifice plate information is contained in the Daniel Industries Flow Products catalog, and recommended installation practices for differential pressure instruments are contained in the ITT Barton Model 202E Flow Recorder Manual.
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Document ID: 173AF895

Training Chart Processing Office Personnel
Author(s): Dianne G. Gilbert
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry is experiencing a challenging period because of the many changes occurring in our industry and business. The companies that continue to prosper in this sensitive era will be those who can operate the most efficiently. Measurement Departments play an important part in the efficiency of any pipeline company,
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Document ID: C7A83995

Trouble Shooting Triethyiene Glycol Dehydrators
Author(s): Jerry Carson
Abstract/Introduction:
The dehydration of natural gas with glycol is accomplished by contacting-the gas with concentrated glycol (usually triethylene glycol with less than 1% water). The water vapor in the gas is absorbed by the glycol, diluting the glycol.. The diluted glycol then flows to the reboiler where it is reconcentrated to the original concentration. A schematic of a typical glycol type gas dehydration unit with six bubble cap trays, an integral inlet scrubber and a glycol talanced pump is shown in FIG. 1. This schematic includes a flash separator (Pump Gas Separator) which is In many cases an optional item. Wet gas enters the scrubber section through the wet gas inlet nozzle.
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Document ID: EDE0C133

From Pen Tip To Volume Statement
Author(s): Philip C. Morris
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate and reliable gas measurement depends on a combination of efforts and investments. In large companies these efforts include the legal department for contracts, the engineering department for specifying equipment and the purchasing department for buying that equipment. The field services department must then install the equipment. By the time the meter pen tip records the first gas production, there will have been literally dozens of people involved, from land men and geologists to drilling and production people. An investment of thousands of dollars will also have occurred. Regardless of company size there is always a major investment of time and money before the actual measurement process begins.
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Document ID: A42ADB35

Flow Measurement By Insertion Turbine Flow Meters
Author(s): Ben Wagner
Abstract/Introduction:
The insertion turbine meter is well suited for large pipeline measurement. It is presently used in many applications such as compressor efficiency and surge control, pipeline leak detection, pacing odorizers, pacing samplers and checking throughput. As a Custody Transfer measurement device, the insertion turbine meter not only measures with high accuracy, but allows the user cost saving advantages at initial purchase, installation and during pipeline maintenance.
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Document ID: C741B6B3

Mikeing And Inspecting Meter Tubes
Author(s): Lonnie R. Grady
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas prices are once again on the slide. Most companies, both producers and transporters, are looking for ways of cutting overhead. Measurement is an area that Is often one of the first to suffer, I agree that cost consciousness is important and some cuts in measurement services may be justified. An area that should not be cut is the inspection of meter tubes. This paper will attempt to present the methods used to insure that meter tubes meet ANSI/API 2530 (AGA3) requirements.
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Document ID: 34E7734B

Fundamental Gas Laws
Author(s): Rogers G. Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
We as gas measurement people are concerned with gas laws. To become proficient in all phases of gas measurement, one must fully understand what natural gas is and the theory of its properties. The theories about natural gas properties are the gas laws, and their application is essential to gas measurement. Quantities of natural gas for custody transfer are stated in terms of standard cubic feet. To arrive at standard cubic feet from actual flowing conditions requires application of correction factors that are defined by the gas laws.
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Document ID: FD02370C

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): James A. Simpkins
Abstract/Introduction:
Rockwell introduced the gas turbine meter to the U.S. market in 1963. The original units were 6 flanged meters with a capacity of 30,000 CFR at 4 ounces inlet pressure and 125 pound working pressure cast aluminum bodies. Due to the rapid acceptance of the relatively new gas metering concept by all phases of the gas Industry, development of additional sizes and working pressures of gas turbine meters has been fairly rapid. Today, turbine meters are available in 2 through 12 sizes and working pressures.
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Document ID: 7F1401D8

Relief Valve Design Fundamentals
Author(s): Robert Bonsignore
Abstract/Introduction:
A pressure relief valve is a safety device designed to protect a pressurized vessel or system during an overpressure event. An overpressure event refers to any condition vfcLch would cause pressure in a vessel or system to increase beyond the specified design or maximum allowable working pressure. Since pressure relief valves are safety devices, there are many Codes and Regulations written to control their design and application. The purpose of this discussion is to familiarize you with the various paraneters involved in the design of a pressure relief valve and provide a brief introduction to sate of the Codes and Standards vhich govern the design and use of pressure relief valves. Excerpts of various Codes and Standards are included in other sections of this manual.
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Document ID: 1D2679B8

Determination Of Specific Gravity By Various Methods
Author(s): E. D. Woomer, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper deals with the determination of specific gravity via various methods and pieces of equipment. Also covered are definitions, relationships, and effects of specific gravity. The information presented herewith is applicable to United Gas Pipe Line Co. and conforms to accepted standards of the natural gas transmission industry.
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Document ID: 9B65AF54

Design Of High Pressure Measuring Regulating Station
Author(s): Ed Ostrovich
Abstract/Introduction:
A high pressure measuring regulating station is comprised of pipe, valves, fittings, meters, and control valves. Its function is to transfer and measure natural gas from one pipeline to another. Transmission companies, distribution companies, power plants, and industrial customers are major parties involved with high pressure measuring regulating stations. There are numerous ways a high pressure measuring regulating station can be designed. This paper can be used as a guide in assisting the designer to achieve the basic goals of a safe and dependable station which accurately measures and controls gas.
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Document ID: 5ACAC7EC

Negotiation Of The Gas Contract
Author(s): Donald T. Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
The Contract Hegotiator or Gas Buyer is quite often questioned about the steps involved in negotiating the gas contract. It almost always begins with a telephone call. If initiated by the Seller, its because he has seen Buyers pipeline in the vicinity of his well or because he has seen it indicated on a map. If initiated by the Gas Buyer, its because he has read about Sellers well in some publication or because the pipelines field personnel have seen the drilling rig and passed the information along to the Gas Buyer.
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Document ID: 31169FC8

Problems In Offshore Gas Measurement
Author(s): B.G. Duke
Abstract/Introduction:
In the next 45 minutes we will cover some of the problems we encounter in offshore gas measurement, such as: the different requirements with gas measurement in State waters vs. Federal waters, show some slides of platforms, meter hook-ups and then discuss some problems encountered and solutions to them.
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Document ID: 23E88D13

Odorization
Author(s): William H. Ryan
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject of odorization stirs debate regardless of which sector of the natural gas industry in which one broaches the subject. The individual approaches to natural gas odorization are as diverse as the styles and colors of new automobiles. Regardless of whether one is associated with the transmission or distribution side of the natural gas business the one common factor is safety. Safety should be the primary concern of any odorization program. From the residential customer, to the commercial user, to the natural gas transmission or distribution employee, the need for a documented and structured odorization program is essential for the safety of both persons and property.
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Document ID: CFFF8A0D

Applying Process Gas Chromatography For Natural Gas Use
Author(s): Wayne 0. Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of process chromatography by the natural gas industry started in the 1960s. These early uses were primarily in gas processing plants. During the late 1970 gas companies began looking for more accurate methods of determining the Btu than the traditional calorimeter. Chromatography became the choice of many gas companies. Process gas chromatography is a special application of the more widely used laboratory chromatographs. The primary difference is process chromatographs are designed to operate with a minimum of operator intervention while laboratory chromatographs are typically controlled directly by the operator.
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Document ID: 7C9C9979

Electronic Transducers And Transmitters
Author(s): John Carsey
Abstract/Introduction:
Last year the session with this same title started, This session is devoted to the electronic transducer or transmitter its general uses, the knowledge necessary to use it, and its place in the measurement field. In the hands-on section of Electronic Pressure and Tertperature Transmitters, there was no paper written but the session started something like this, were here to talk about Electronic Pressure and Tenperature Transmitters and how to get the most out of them.
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Document ID: E6031349

Understanding Basic Electronics
Author(s): James H. Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronics in Orifice Measurement has only recently become more prevalent for on-site use. When gas was inexpensive the need for accurate measurement was not there. Historically, mechanical circular charts have filled the need to record flows, pressures and temperatures. But today we in the gas measurement business have seen an ever increasing demand to know what the true volume is at the site. With this demand comes electronics in the form of transducers and flow computers. The purpose of this paper is to make you- the field measurement operator- more aware of electronics and how it relates to our future field measurement systems.
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Document ID: 133E30C0

Application Of The Annubar Measurement In Gas Productiun And Processing
Author(s): Darrell Pebley
Abstract/Introduction:
Just because a flow measurement device is complex and/or expensive does not automatically mean that it is the best or most accurate. Oftentimes the most simple device is just as good and accurate and frequently even better. Economic pressure encouratjes the emeryence of better all-around devices with greater reliability and accuracy. These and other factors have brought to the fluid flow measurement industry the Hultiport Averaging Primary Flow Measurement Device. This refined version of the basic pitot tube, the same as the orifice and other head-type primaries, is based on the same standard hydraulic equation, continuity equation and Bernoullis Theorem. Thus, an extension and improvement of proven concepts and device makes available to the industry a primary flow measurement device which offers many benefits, including a simple design, with equal or better performance for fluid flow measurement and process control applications.
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Document ID: FC0E3BDB

Computer Applications To Chart Processing
Author(s): Ted J. Glazebrook
Abstract/Introduction:
Most of us are familiar with the orifice meter and the orifice chart. We recognize that the chart is the key to determining the amount of gas used or produced. However, somewhere between the meter and the volume statement the information on the chart must be interpreted and calculated. It Is important to bear in mind that the orifice chart does not contain all the information necessary for that final volume.
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Document ID: D9BD8558

Chart Editing And Integration
Author(s): Gary P. Menzel
Abstract/Introduction:
The title assigned to us for this presentation may imply that we can define specific means to reduce errors and thereby irtrove measurement accuracy. Certainly we hope that our observations may contribute to that purpose but there is something unique about each corpanies operations which prevents the application of a single procedural formula to everyone, and we will make no attempt to do so. However, a substantial part of our business is auditing gas purchasers, and we believe the statistics obtained in that process provide a representative cross section of the kinds of errors experienced by most chart departments. Defining a problem may be the first step toward its resolution, and it is that which we shall address in this report.
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Document ID: B07EAB09


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