Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (1987)

Download collection of documents about ISHM 1987 including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, etc.


International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Other Flow Measurement Devices
Author(s): John Garnett
Abstract/Introduction:
Insertion flow meters, as typified by averaging pitot tubes, vortex shedders and insertion turbines, should be considered for measurement points throughout the hydrocarbon industry. They can offer real advantages, particularly economic, when applied properly. Averaging pitot tubes will be discussed in detail because they also offer many of the benefits of head-type devices.
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Document ID: C027D46D

Program For Training A Measurement Technician
Author(s): m. C. Mckinney
Abstract/Introduction:
Training of measurement personnel has become increasingly important during the past few years due to increased energy costs. Because of this increase in energy costs and the loss of many experienced employees due to retirement and work force reductions, Lone Star Gas Companies management has placed top priority on the proper training of measurement personnel. In the past, our Company used the on-the-job approach with equipment manufacturers supplying some specialized training on specific equipment. This method was time consuming and often the bad habits of the trainer were passed on to the trainee. We also found that operating and maintenance procedures were not consistant throughout our system. In addition, the constant advances in measurement technology have made it difficult for each individual district to stay abreast of new techniques. In order to have a more consistant training program our Company constructed a Transmission Technical Training Center which was completed in the early part of 1981. Approximately 250,000 was spent initially on construction and materials with new equipment being added constantly. A similar Distribution Technical Training Center was constructed in 1982 for our Distribution Division employees. The Transmission Technical Training Center is shown in Figure 1.
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Document ID: B1381437

Causes And Cures Of Regulator Instability
Author(s): William H. Earney
Abstract/Introduction:
T h i s paper w i l l a d d r e s s the gas p r e s s u re r e d u c i n g r e g u l a t o r i n s t a l l a t i o n and the i s s ue o f e r r a t i c c o n t r o l of the downstream p r e s s u r e. A gas p r e s s u r e r e d u c i n g r e g u l a t o r s j o b is to m a n i p u l a t e flow in o r d e r to c o n t r o l p r e s s u r e. When the downstream p r e s s u r e is n o t p r o p e r ly c o n t r o l l e d the term u n s t a b l e c o n t r o l is a p p l i e d . Figure 1 is a l i s t of o t h e r terms u s e d for v a r i o u s forms of downstream p r e s s u re i n s t a b i l i t y . This p a p e r w i l l n o t a d d r e s s the m a t h e m a t i c a l methods of d e s c r i b i n g the a u t o m a t i c c o n t r o l system of the p r e s s u re r e d u c i n g s t a t i o n , b u t w i l l d e a l w i t h more of t h e components and t h e i r a f f e c t on the s y s t em s t a b i l i t y
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Document ID: 47DD0AA2

High Pressure Regulators
Author(s): Scott Follin
Abstract/Introduction:
High pressure regulators are available in many sizes, shapes and configurations. The functions which they perform are equally varied. In this discussion, we will examine types of regulators, positive and negative aspects to be considered in the selection process, and basic theories of operation.
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Document ID: 751BB8F9

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement - III Fundamental Gas Laws: Equations Of State
Author(s): Rex T. Ellington
Abstract/Introduction:
A myriad of equations of state (EOS) exists. The engineer and support technician should recognize this and realize that there is no single EOS that will serve all needs. But, as discussed elsewhere, a very accurate new equation has been developed for gas measurement. Widely used forms are reviewed and the simpler relations obtained from them.
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Document ID: 9B471E89

Marine Crude Oil - Terminal Measurement System
Author(s): Douglas L. Arrick
Abstract/Introduction:
Large amounts of crude oil are loaded and unloaded at marine terminals throughout the world. As the amount of foreign crude used in the U.S.A. increases, the amount of crude oil measured at marine terminals also increases. The discovery of o i l on Alaskas North Slope and the construction of the Trans Alaska Pipeline has also increased the amount of domestic crude moved through terminals.
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Document ID: 18B8BD9B

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement I
Author(s): D. A. Tefankjian
Abstract/Introduction:
In any field of endeavor for a person to completely understand the endeavor, he must have a knowledge and an understanding of the fundamentals involved. People can do well in the performance of their work without knowing the basic principles, but to excel and progress knowledge of the fundamentals is necessary. This is particularly true if ones work is technical in nature
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Document ID: 10952108

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): R. H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbulence anywhere in a pipeline system is no asset. However, immediately downstream of pressure regulation, its effect can be especially harmful due to the high velocities that are set up within the regulator body. Design engineers and field men alike will be equally interested in keeping turbulence to a minimum. Both are thinking of maximum throughput with the least amount of noise, plus the best site for analytical instruments such as calorimeters, chromatographs or dew point instruments and a steady sense point for control. In addition, we should be fully aware of the effect of harsh noise on the working efficiency of operating personnel. A person with normal hearing will have a tendency to rush his work in a noisy environment and the result of this is a lowering of the quality of the work.
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Document ID: 35BB3816

Techniques Of Gas Sampling
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
The sampling of natural gas has become decidedly more important in the last few years. The variations of the components of natural gas, and the vast differences in the heating value of different streams of gas, make the proper sampling of the product an operation that can no longer be left to chance. Gas is a fragile product and without proper care, can be difficult to handle effectively. It is no longer practical to send just anyone to a location to grab a sample. It behooves us to send trained personnel to collect gas samples that are representative of the gas flowing in the pipeline.
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Document ID: 03FFAD4F

Determination Of Specific Gravity Of Gas
Author(s): E. D. Rusty Woomer
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper deals with the determination of specific gravity via various methods and pieces of equipment. Also covered are definitions, relationships, and effects of specific gravity. The information presented herewith conforms to accepted standards of the natural gas transmission industry.
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Document ID: B84C153F

Operational Experience With Small Volume Provers
Author(s): Gary L. Case
Abstract/Introduction:
As an independent third-party contractor it is mandatory that we provide our customers with the most accurate results possible in arriving and calculating measurement errors. It is also our objective to continue to search for costeffective means in which to achieve those results. This paper will address one of those means we have identified by utilizing Small Volume Provers and our experience with them as it applies to Contract Meter Proving.
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Document ID: 3A9D62C8

Carbon Dioxide Measurement Experience
Author(s): Robert m. Ross
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of CO2 as an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technique and its transportation has become very important to us today.
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Document ID: FE77C206

Operation Of Orifice Meter Chart Integrators
Author(s): John D. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
As operators of the 2000K chart integrator, we will discuss this equipment from that view point so that we may utilize all the capabilities of this equipment.
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Document ID: A94571D2

Orifice Meter Calibration Using Portable Digital Pressure Indicators
Author(s): David B. Avells
Abstract/Introduction:
ACCURACY AND PROPER PERFORMANCE OF PRESSURE ELEMENTS IN ORIFICE MEASUREMENT IS CRITICAL TO THE CORRECT SUMMATION OF FLOW AND RATE IN RECORDERS AND COMPUTING SYSTEMS. AS THE SAYING GOES GARBAGE IN - GARBAGE OU
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Document ID: 40FD60AF

Determination Of Hydrogen Sulfide & Total Sulfur
Author(s): Garey L. Cooper
Abstract/Introduction:
Sulfur monitoring is usually undertaken for one of four reasons safety, economics, governmental regulation and contract compliance. Correct application for accomplishing these tasks requires obtaining an instrument in the correct configuration, and a working knowledge of the instruments operation. This paper will attempt to explain the importance of monitoring, principles and operations of the electrolytical sulfur titrator, and some instrument configurations for specific applications in the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: C871E1BF

Crude Oil Sampling For Custody Transfer
Author(s): Clarence L. Strance
Abstract/Introduction:
As stated in Chapter 8 of Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards, samples of petroleum and petroleum products are examined by various methods of test for determination of physical and chemical characteristics. The test results are often used for custody transfer and price determinations. The samples must be representative of the petroleum or petroleum products in question. The precautions required to ensure the representative character of the samples are numerous and depend upon the type of material sampled the tank, carrier, container, or line from which the sample container and the sampling procedure used.
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Document ID: 298457E6

Energy Measurement Utilizing On-Line Chromatograph
Author(s): A. F. Kersey
Abstract/Introduction:
Today there are several types of ETU measurement devices in use by the gas industry for on-line energy measurement. The process gas chromatograph which is used in great numbers in the U.S.A. is available from approximately six different manufactures .
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Document ID: D901BA90

Energy Measurement Utilizing On-Line Chromatographs
Author(s): Louis N. Cox
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of process gas chromatographs for on-line energy measurement has increased considerably due to the requirements established by the gas industry. In the past, gas was primarily sold, purchased or transferred by volume only. Today, in addition to volume, the energy content (BTU per cubic foot) is included in the calculations for total energy measurement.
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Document ID: E7CEA035

Odorization
Author(s): Michael D. Beall
Abstract/Introduction:
Odorization programs, equipment, and odorants of today are much different, more refined and more comprehensive than in the past.
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Document ID: E80B1544

Odorization
Author(s): G. m. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
Odorization in the United States is separated into two basic groups, Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) Odorization and Natural Gas Odorization. Ethyl Mercaptan is used as the Odorant for LPGs. Natural Gas Odorants are generally a blend of two or more components with the occasional exception of Thiophane. It is important for each odorant user to first determine their odorization objective or goal. Odorant blend selection along with compatibility to equipment and gas composition is the next important factor in determining your odorization requirements. This paper will give you a basic outline of the major components and blends in use today.
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Document ID: B8571244

Mechanically Driven Electronic Correction Devices
Author(s): Thomas R. Comerford
Abstract/Introduction:
There is a great deal of interest in applying electronic measurement and computing techniques to gas volume correction. What are the advantages of digital electronics which have caused so much anticipation? What benefits can really be expected? Here are the major benefits:
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Document ID: 04149774

Mechanical Driven Electronic Correction Devices
Author(s): Richard J. Enoch
Abstract/Introduction:
In this era of high technology, why do we see so many mechanical integrators still being utilized? The primary reason is a matter of economics. Until recently, economical electronic integrators were not available. The technology to produce electronic integrators has been around for a long time (since the mid-70s) but the cost of manufacturing to meet the harsh environmental conditions that this equipment must operate in has been out-of-sight. Commercially available products will not stand up to the desert environments of the southwest, nor to the frigid environments of some of the northern areas. Industrial grade electronics are required and have only recently become economically feasible to use. Electronic integrators must maintain high levels of accuracy under severe environmental conditions and still be able to be manufactured at a reasonable cost.
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Document ID: C622BD7A

Mechanically Driven Electronic Correction Devices
Author(s): Richard H. Schieber
Abstract/Introduction:
Computation of measured volume to base conditions at the meter site has long been the exclusive domain of mechanical correcting devices. Until recently, electronics have been slow to penetrate this area of measurement, and for good reason. Mechanical correctors must operate in a wide variety of climates, under severe temperature conditions and without an external source of power. These are stringent conditions for any product, especially for a device whose primary property is accuracy. While digital computers and advanced transducer technology have made base volume computation not only feasible but highly accurate, their use has generally been restricted to protected areas where electrical power is readily available. Recently, battery powered and solar assisted instruments have been introduced which offer a solution to the power supply problem
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Document ID: B900C93A

Orifice Meters - Operation And Maintenance
Author(s): J. B. Jim Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter has, for years, been a standard in the gas industry, and with proper operation and maintenance has proven to be an accurate method to measure natural gas. In the last few years, with the increase in natural gas prices, it has become apparent that errors in measurement are more costly than ever and need to be reduced to a minimum. Therefore, care should be taken as to the proper design, installation, operation and maintenance of the orifice meter. In the following paragraphs, we will briefly discuss the primary and secondary elements that make up the orifice meter
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Document ID: A97A5A2C

Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Chuck Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow measurement with todays state of the art liquid turbine meter combines the mechanical aspects of the meter and electronics to measure total flow and/or flow rate within a piping system. The liquid turbine meter is a volumetric measuring instrument. By sensing the linear velocity of the fluid flowing through the open cavities of the meter, the volumetric flow rate can be determined. The flow or linear velocity of the fluid is sensed by the rotation of the rotor which is supported within the meter housing. The rotor is designed so its rotational speed is proportional to the linear velocity of the flowing fluid. Since the linear velocity of the fluid flowing through a given area is directly proportional to the volumetric flow rate, it follows that the rotational speed or RPM of the rotor is also directly proportional to the volumetric flow rate. Therefore, by electronically measuring the rotation of the turbine meter rotor, the flow of the fluid through the meter can be accurately determined. This principle of flow measurement has been accepted by many industries because the liquid turbine meter provides accurate flow measurement over a very wide range of flow rates on many fluids with a variety of physical properties
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Document ID: 8436F52C

Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Steve Stone
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays computer world of high technology, where precision is a must, the turbine meter fits right in. Though the turbine flowmeter has been around since the early 1940s, its simple construction and operation allows it to be used in many different applications.
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Document ID: A450F83C

Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Christopher B. Laird
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of Turbine Meters for truck loading and to discuss some of the more important factors that come into play in this application. In order to accomplish this, it will be necessary to develop a basic understanding of Turbine Meters in general and to become familiar with the peculiarities of loading rack meters.
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Document ID: 6B4B6438

Ethylene Measurement
Author(s): C. W. Wilkerson
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate custody transfer of ethylene through pipelines has become increasingly important since it began in the mid-1960s because: 1. The volumes transported have increased dramatically to approximately 30 billion pounds per year. 2. The cost of ethylene has increased more than 10-fold from 2c per lb. to more than 20c per lb.
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Document ID: 261921FF

Electronic Chart Scanning And Related Equipment
Author(s): James L. Hamlin
Abstract/Introduction:
THE PURPOSE OF THIS PAPER IS TO OFFER ONE POINT OF VIEW ABOUT ELECRONICALLY CALCULATING VARIABLES RECORDED ON MEASUREMENT CHARTS. INSTEAD OF COMPARING METHODS, DISCUSSING PROS AND CONS, WEIGHING BENEFITS AND ASKING GENERAL QUESTIONS THAT DONT HAVE ANSWERS, TIME AND SPACE IS BEST USED BY PRESENTING A SIGNIFICANT ADVANCEMENT IN READING AND EVALUATING MEASUREMENT CHARTS ON AN INOUSTRY-WIDE SCALE
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Document ID: C09E69D3

Theory And Applications Of Pulse Interpolation To Prover Systems
Author(s): Wyman Hammock
Abstract/Introduction:
The volume represented by each number of a meters register and each pulse of a meters signal generator has always been of major concern among measurement personnel. In the past, better resolution of each volumetric unit indicated by the measurement device was achieved by taking larger liquid samples. This made each unit represent a smaller percentage of the whole meter reading. Therefore, the loss or inaccurate reading of a single unit was of less consequence. In order to obtain an adequate number of units for proper resolution, the prover volume had to be of sufficient size.
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Document ID: 14D236B1

Testing And Monitoring Sediment And Water In Crude Oil
Author(s): Jane Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of crude oil includes quantity and quality determinations. Sediment and water is considered a quality type of measurement although it also effects the quantity. The amount of sediment and water determined by test is deducted from the quantity of total fluid measured, resulting in the quantity of crude oil sold. For example, if a pipeline gager measured 100 barrels of crude with 2% BS&W (sediment and water) entrained, the pipeline received and would credit the producers account for 98 barrels of crude oil. This quantity is also utilized to determine the amount of royalties and taxes which should be paid by the producer. Consequently, both the producer and the purchaser have a vested interest in assuring that these measurements are performed consistently and accurately.
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Document ID: 5A54A4EE

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted-For-Gas - Distribution
Author(s): C. m. Spriggs
Abstract/Introduction:
Many misnomers are used throughout the gas industry. For instance, the term heat sensitive load is a misnomer. Actually, heat sensitive load refers to gas usage as a result of the lack of heat-cold weather rather than warm. Another misnomer is the term, unaccounted-for gas. Unaccounted for gas is truly accounted for gas-but it is missing! It is the difference between the amount of gas accounted into a system and the amount of gas accounted out. Many factors cause unaccounted for gas. Each should be examined before the missing gas is all attributed to leakage, a single cause of unaccounted for gas. Factors I would suggest evaluating are the following: 1. Measurement conditions 2. Accounting methods 3. Meter errors 4. Gas used for construction and operations 5. Major damage and relief valve trips 6. Meter reading errors, stolen gas, etc. 7. Leakage
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Document ID: 517C77AF

Elements Of Natural Gas Liquids Contracts
Author(s): Roland V. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
The market for natural gas l i q u i d s (IJGL) is characterized by many buyers and s e l l e r s where supply, demand, and prices are constantly changing - it approaches a commodity market. There are thousands of NGL transactions on a d a i ly basis.
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Document ID: FD565C54

Light Hydrocarbon Liquid Sampling
Author(s): Mike Mckay
Abstract/Introduction:
Driven by the price and demand for natural gas liquids, the measurement and sampling of the natural gas liquid product has had to become a precise operation.
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Document ID: 111C1D40

Auditing Gas Measurement And Accounting Systems
Author(s): Philip C. Morris
Abstract/Introduction:
To audit or not to audit, that is the question. If you believe that gas and liquid measurement is an exact science and not subject to mechanical and human error, then read no further. If on the other hand you agree that machines and people make mistakes it follows that you should have some system in place to protect yourself from these mistakes. The basic purpose of an audit is to insure that you are properly paid for the product you delivered.
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Document ID: C952134A

Pressure & Temperature Transducers Installation(, Calibration U Repair)
Author(s): Warren E. Meyer
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 7DC090DF

Positive Displacement Liquid Meters
Author(s): Christopher B. Laird
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will examine P.D. Meters for liquid measurement. The emphasis will be on providing a basic understanding of the factors influencing its design and performance. Although the focus will be on petroleum liquids, these factors can be applied to other applications and other liquids as well.
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Document ID: 3A760DBA

Research And Development For The Gas Industry
Author(s): Carl H. Griffis
Abstract/Introduction:
The efficient transport and distribution of natural gas involves accurate measurement of large quantities of flowing fluid. As gas prices rise, increased economic importance is attached to accurate gas measurement. The Gas Research Institute (GRI) is a not-for-profit membership organization of natural gas pipeline and distribution companies that plans, manages and develops financing for a research and development program designed to advance gas supply options, end-use and operations technologies and to conduct related basic research. Research into new methods of measuring natural gas volume and energy flow and improving existing measurement methods is a part of this research and development program. This paper is an update of the current projects that address both new measurement technologies and improvements of existing measurement techniques in both distribution and transmission areas.
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Document ID: E38D130C

Determination Of Energy Flow In Natural Gas Pipelines: Direct Measurement Vs Chromatography
Author(s): W. H. Clingman
Abstract/Introduction:
The calorific value of gaseous fuels is more variable than in the past. Thus it is desirable to charge customers for the energy delivered rather than the volume delivered. The present approach used in the gas industry is to separately measure the volume delivered and the calorific value and then combine these two quantities to obtain delivered energy. Because of the large gas volumes and costs, measurements are required with as high an accuracy as possible. Continuous and precise volume measurement at a custody transfer site has always been a goal of the industry. This is now well achieved with orfice meters and positive displacement meters. (1) Energy delivered is the product of the volumetric flow and calorific value. This paper discusses alternative methods for measuring calorific value with emphasis on the requirements for accuracy in each case
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Document ID: 8F932E89

Pressure And Temperature Measurement Device, Liquid
Abstract/Introduction:
In looking at the subject of pressure and temperature measurement devices, there are many aspects of the subject that could be considered. Technology, application, installation and maintenance are several such aspects. The purpose of this discussion is to look at transmitter specifications and at what manufacturers are telling us about these important subjects in their product data sheets. Most importantly, we will learn how to evaluate what those data sheets tell us. As a facet of evaluation we will take a close look at teating-how to test and how to interpret test results.
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Document ID: E6660AD9

Odorization
Author(s): L. S. Price
Abstract/Introduction:
Our Company has always considered odorization of natural gas to be one of the most important functions in our day-to-day operations. The primary objective of any odorization program is to provide life and property protection, assist with detecting small leaks and to comply with federal and state regulations.
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Document ID: 1C3A4DE7

Tlanual Chart Calculation
Author(s): Robert Hay
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry has changed dramatically just in the 1980s. Developments in technology have made it possible for a person with limited training to walk up to a meter and extract current static pressure, differential pressure, flowing temperature, flow rate, and even a history of this information, and more, stored in an on-site computer. On-site computers have been in existence for at least twelve years but, until recently, have not been cost effective except at very large measurement stations.
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Document ID: BD83743E

Witnessing Orifice Meter Calibration And Field Testing
Author(s): Ned Batchelder
Abstract/Introduction:
The International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement is a must for the person witnessing orifice meter calibration and field tests. There are various classes offered that pertain to the existing conditions that he or she may encounter as a witness tester. This class will mainly deal with the effort exerted in witnessing wellhead orifice gas measurement.
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Document ID: 4634AB8B

Remote Collection And Transmission Of Measurement Data
Author(s): Steve Darsquo
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays changing world, it is necessary to have more and more information available to adequately manage any business. Certainly, this is no less true for a gas utility than it is for any other commercial business. Until recently however, it has been uneconomical for the utility to obtain all of the information it needs for efficient system operation because of the diversity of its customers. Now, because of recent advances in technology, it is becoming more and more feasible to collect the information needed. Several different communications technologies are currently maturing into economically justifiable systems.
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Document ID: AC4CA51E

Installation And Operation Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): A. F. Kersey
Abstract/Introduction:
The Cutler-Hammer recording Calorimeter measures the total calorific value of combustible gas. It continuously samples, indicates, and records BTU per cubic foot.
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Document ID: AFAA0978

Gas Theft And Means Of Prevention
Author(s): Joseph A. Becia
Abstract/Introduction:
Following World War II, a building boom created a large demand for natural gas, which was low priced and plentiful. The growth of the interstate natural gas market was effectively governed by the Natural Gas Act of 193b until 1954. In that year the Supreme Court handed down its decision to have the FPC regulate the wellhead price a producer could charge for interstate sales of natural gas. The FPC adopted the policy of keeping prices for consumers low, which prevented prices from rising to match levels of other fuels. Producers were unwilling to drill at these prices and by 1.967 the rate of new discoveries fell below the rate of consumption. Inflation had increased the costs of exploration and drilling. There was little or no incentive to search for new supplies. Proven reserves, in the lower 48 states, dropped from 22 times annual use in 1956 to 11 times annual use in 1974.
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Document ID: D5F723B1

Fixed Factor Pressure Measurement
Author(s): Benedict J. Sherman
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is measured by volume. Since gas density is affected by pressure and temperature, a standard unit of measure is defined at a specified pressure (standard base pressure) and temperature (standard base temperature). A cubic foot of gas at standard base pressure and temperature conditions is called a standard cubic foot. Measured gas quantities are converted to standard cubic feet by applying the Ideal Gas Laws
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Document ID: BE74D031

Other Flow Measuring Devices ( Gas & Liquids )
Author(s): Don Griffies
Abstract/Introduction:
The insertion turbine meter is well suited for large pipeline measurement. It is presently used in many applications such as compressor efficiency and surge control, pipeline leak detection, pacing ordorizers, pacing samplers and checking throughput. As a Custody Transfer measurement device, the insertion turbine meter not only measures with high accuracy, but allows the user cost saving advantages at initial purchase, installation and during pipeline maintenance.
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Document ID: ED22264B

Fundamental Principles Of Pilot Operated Regulators
Author(s): John m. Kruse
Abstract/Introduction:
Prior to discussing the fundamental principles of pilot operated regulators, lets first define a pressure regulator. A pressure regulator is an automatic device which controls the media flow and maintains a desired media pressure while reducing the media supply pressure.
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Document ID: AE9D1FE3

Fundamental Principles Of Diaphragm Displacement Meters
Author(s): Richard C. Sekerchak
Abstract/Introduction:
A displacement type meter is one that measures volume directly without regard to temperature, pressure or density. It accomplishes this by physically displacing a fixed volume of gas by pure mechanical movement. A diaphragm displacement meter utilizes flexible diaphragm assemblies to form the measuring chambers and driving members of the meter to accomplish the physical displacement of the fixed volume.
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Document ID: DE83D016

Operating Principles Of Self Adjusting Turbine Meters
Author(s): John Schnitzer
Abstract/Introduction:
Accuracy retention and accuracy verification are the two main functions performed by the Self Adjusting Turbine Meter. These Self Adjust and Self Check capabilities allow the Self Adjusting Turbine to perform the following operational functions: 1. Improved accuracy at initial calibration. 2. Automatic adjustment of meter accuracy to initial calibration parameters despite meter component wear. 3. Self Checking of meter mechanical or electrical condition. 4. Advance warning of deteriorating condition well before meter failure occurs. 5. Ability to make the meter virtually insensitive to deviations in upstream flow conditions. 6. A solution to the problem of proving turbine meters in the field at operating conditions. 7. Improved overall measurement accuracy at base conditions when used with a flow computer.
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Document ID: ACA4F90B

Conversion From Volume To Energy Measurement
Author(s): J. W. Kilmer
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is generally measured by volume (MCF) but is increasingly sold by energy measurement (MMBtu). Conversion from one basis to the other is relatively simple but requires certain precautions if accurate results are to be obtained.
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Document ID: 3412C3D9

Methods Of Field Testing Large Displacement Meters
Author(s): Henry A. Hubbard
Abstract/Introduction:
For years the accuracy of gas meter measurement has been recognized as being important, but in recent years the shortage of gas and higher prices have renewed interest in field testing of meters.
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Document ID: 8815D16D

Development Of Orifice Meter Standards Past(, Present And Future)
Author(s): Paul A. Hoglund
Abstract/Introduction:
The topic, The Development of Orifice Metering Standards has the potential of being extremely dry. Particularly if we apply one of the dictionarys definitions of Standards - Something set up and established by authority as a rule for the measure of quantity, weight, extent, value or quality. This definition, however, is only appropriate to define units, such as mass, time or length. Our measurement standards are not that precise and can be better defined as - Something that is established by custom or general consent as a model, or example to be followed. When we understand the basic differences between established by authority and established by consent, we can begin to accept the evolutionary process of orifice meter standards.
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Document ID: 9AA63338

Temperature Measurement For Orifice Flow Measurement
Author(s): R. F. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice metering of natural gas is a common method of measuring large volumes for custody transfer. Accurate measurements of these volumes are an absolute necessity for both the buyer and seller, and therefore any adjustments or factors effecting the total amount can have a large impact. Temperature is one such factor that has a significant influence on the orifice metering of natural gas, and will be discussed in greater detail.
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Document ID: FAF26B8D

The Use Of Manometers In The Gas Industry
Author(s): T. J. Hulsmann
Abstract/Introduction:
A c c u r a t e gas measurement depends on p r e c i se measurement of small pressures and d i f f e r e n t i a l p r e s s u r e s . Large volumes of gas are bought and s o l d every day. Therefore, the utmost accuracy i s d e s i r e d in our measurement of these volumes. For t h i s reason the manometer is of prime importance to the gas i n d u s t r y . The s i m p l i c i t y , i n h e r e n t accuracy and v e r s a t i l i t y of manometers l e n d them to broad a p p l i c a t i o n in c a l i b r a t i o n, t r o u b l e s h o o t i n g and meter maintenance leak t e s t i n g.
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Document ID: 56DCDC90

Fundamentals Of Pneumatic Controllers
Author(s): Jeffrey J. Spence
Abstract/Introduction:
Prior to the miniaturization of electronic components which use electricity as their functioning medium, there was a more practical medium in use for the process control arena - air. This is not to say that pneumatics have disappeared in lieu of microprocessor technology, they havent but pneumatics have begun to sag slightly due to the relative cost and functionality of electronic controllers. However, there are many advantages to pneumatics that sustain their survival. a) Pneumatic systems are inherently safe in volatile conditions - no barriers, no explosion-proof housings, and no air-conditioned control rooms are necessary. b) Pneumatics are easily repairable at the parts level, not at the functioning component level. c) Confidence factor - pneumatics have been around for 50 years. d) Most plants have air-actuated valves already installed - no signal conversions necessary and air compressor and dryer already exist.
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Document ID: 44F757F0

Flow Measurement By Vortex Shedding Meters
Author(s): m. Oliver
Abstract/Introduction:
Vortex flowmeters measure the flow of fluids by monitoring induced vortices caused by the fluid impinging on a nonstreamlined element mounted in the meter body. Vortices are rotational flow zones that are similar to natural whirlpools. They may be seen in the flow of a stream near to and just downstream of an intruding rock. The effects of vortices produce the fluttering of a flag in the breeze. The flagpole causes the vortices to form and then move along the length of the flag, creating high and low pressure areas on both sides.
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Document ID: B3F9883B

Critical Flow Testing Of Gas Wells
Author(s): Steve Hughes
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss back-pressure testing of natural gas wells using a Bureau of Mines type critical flow prover. There are two sections in this document. Section one discusses the Bureau of Mines type critical flow prover, the definition of critical flow, and problems related to volume calculation. Section two discusses problems related to back-pressure testing of natural gas wells and calculation of open flow potential using a back-pressure curve.
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Document ID: 9459B57C

Effective Use Of Deadweight Testers Pneumatic( And Hydraulic)
Author(s): Mike S. Morrison
Abstract/Introduction:
The Deadweight Gauge is the most accurate instrument available for the measurement of pressures. Repeatable readings with accuracies of 0.1% to .02% of measured pressure are obtainable. The device does not require recalibration unless the components have excessive wear or weights are replaced. It is easily transported and set up in the field, requires minimum maintenance, and is simple to operate. Tripod mounting is available for most instruments.
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Document ID: E76EF88F

Fundamental Principles Of Rotary Displacement Meters
Author(s): Richard H. Schieber
Abstract/Introduction:
Rotary meters are one of the four common types of volumetric measuring devices used in the natural gas industry, the others being diaphragm, turbine and orifice meters. The versatility of the rotary meter has made it useful in all phases of gas measurement at the wellhead in gas fields, in gas processing plants, in transmission line compressor stations and in commercial and industrial distribution measurement. Rotary meters also find application in the measurement of industrial gases such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon and hydrogen. This wide acceptance is based on a history of reliable, accurate performance, a high capacity to size ratio and generally low maintenance.
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Document ID: 8CD5B90E

Fundamentals Of Turbine Meters
Author(s): R. H. Schieber
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas turbine meter, unlike diaphragm and rotary meters which divide the gas flow into incremental segments of volume, has an output which is proportional to the flowing gas velocity. For this reason, the turbine meter cannot be strictly classified as a positive displacement meter. However, since rotor speed is directly proportional to the rate of flow turbine meters measure volumetrically. This paper will cover the theory of operation of gas turbines, calibration standards, gas density effects on performance, piping considerations and field test methods.
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Document ID: 721C5785

Correction And Recording Instruments Applied To Displacement And Turbine Gas Meters
Author(s): Winston L. North
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas meters such as diaphragm, rotary and turbine meters measure gas at pipeline conditions, registering volume in actual cubic feet (or cubic meters). Hovever, since gas is elastic and compressible, the heating content of an actual cubic foot varies considerably with changes in pressure and temperature. Correcting devices and recording instruments are used to convert actual volume, measured at pipeline conditions, to standard units of volume at base conditions, and thus provide equitable billing.
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Document ID: 4C42B036

Instrument For Determining Specitic Gravity II
Author(s): A. R. Kahmann
Abstract/Introduction:
C o m p u t a t i o n of n a t u r a l gas f l ow volume, when measured by o r i f i c e m e t e r , is made by u s i n g the formula Qv C X hwPf where Qv is t h e q u a n t i t y , hw i s t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l , and Pf t h e a b s o l u t e s t a t i c p r e s s u r e, w i t h C being a c o n s t a n t . The c o n s t a n t C is o n l y c o n s t a nt for a c e r t a i n s p e c i f i e d s e t of c o n d i t i o n s , and in p r a c t i c e is made up of numerous f a c t o rs i n c l u d i n g the b a s i c o r i f i ce f a c t o r , the R e y n o l d s number f a c t o r , t h e e x p a n s i o n f a c t o r, t h e p r e s s u r e base f a c t o r , temp e r a t u r e base f a c t o r , flowing t e m p e r a t u r e f a c t o r , s p e c i f ic g r a v i t y f a c t o r , s u p e r - c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y f a c t o r and manometer f a c t o r . In order to d e t e r m i ne t h e s e f a c t o r s t h e v a l u e s of t h e q u a n t i t i e s from which they a r e d e r i v e d must e i t h e r be a s s u m e d or m e a s u r e d . This p a p e r w i l l d e a l w i t h t h o se i n s t r u m e n t s measuring s p e c i f ic g r a v i t y . (For f u r t h e r d e t a i ls of the flow computation r e f er t o t h e l a t e s t A.G.A. Gas Measurement Report.
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Document ID: 7C9CABBC

Gas Service Regulators Slection, Installation, And Operation
Author(s): Chris A. Carmichael
Abstract/Introduction:
A p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r is an automatic device which reduces the media supply p r e s s u r e while c o n t r o l l i n g the flow and maintaining a d e s i r ed p r e s s u r e . The most common p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r in use today is the f e r v i c e Regulator. They normally reduce *as p r e s s u r e from pounds p r e s s u re to a d e l i v e r y p r e s s u r e of 7: water column O . C ). Their primary use is to provide gas s e r v i c e to an assortment of a p p l i a n c e s.
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Document ID: 2B1A64D4

Application Of Micro Processors To Flow Recorders
Author(s): Russ A R S L A N I An
Abstract/Introduction:
With the present trends in the cost of n a t u r al gas, it is easy to see where the measurement and a c c o u n t i n g for gas w i l l receive much more a t t e n t i on i n the years ahead. When the p r i c e of n a t u r al gas was low it was d i f f i c u l t to j u s t i f y the use of good measuring equipment however, since new c o n t r a c t gas p r i c e s are sometimes more than 10 times e a r l i e r rates t h e r e is a d e f i n i t e need for more accurate and convenient methods of d e t e r mining gas volumes
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Document ID: 90F4EACF

Meter Shop Equipment Techniques And Operations
Author(s): R.J. Crawford
Abstract/Introduction:
AGA Gas Measurement manual part #14.1 covers in great detail meter testing and repair. Part #14.5 of the same manual has a section on meter shop design which includes considerations for equipment selection.
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Document ID: EFE86B59

Btu Reduction In Gas Plants
Author(s): Weldon m. Glidewell
Abstract/Introduction:
The determination of BTU and volume reduction in gas processing plants is a method of accounting for the difference between the inlet MMBTU and the outlet MMBTU in any facility that conditions or processes a natural gas stream. With the current market situation in the natural gas industry, reduced operating margins make rigorous accounting for MMBTU and volume reduction imperative. To insure the validity of data used for this determination, care must be taken so that all methods used are representative of the time period for which you are accounting.
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Document ID: 105B34A7

Devices For Floistlre Measurement In Natural Gas
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many problems associated with the measurement of moisture in natural gas. These problems can be placed in two general categories. First are the problems associated with measurement calibration, and preventative procedures. The second category concerns problems associated with the design of measurement and calibration instruments. New equipment and instruction material is being developed to help overcome these problems
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Document ID: E5592D1D

Micrometer Measurement Of Orifice Meter Tubes
Author(s): Kenneth E. Embry
Abstract/Introduction:
The most widely accepted device for the measurement of natural gas and other fluids is the orifice meter. The primary element of the orifice meter is the orifice plate and orifice meter tube consisting of the orifice fitting, or flanges, adjacent piping, and flow conditioner or straightening vanes. The properly designed meter tube should follow the guidelines for manufacture as established by the American Gas Association (AGA) Report No. 3 or American National Standard/American Petroleum Institute (ANSI/API) Report No. 2530, herein referred to as AGA #3. This paper will address the tolerances, design, and meter tube inspection according to the guidelines of AGA #
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Document ID: 65483398

Devices For Moisture Measurement In Natural Gas
Author(s): T. Y. Trarael
Abstract/Introduction:
Importance of Moisture/Water Detection Natural gas is produced from deep wells and is usually transmitted over great distances to the point of ultimate use. The raw gas may contain any number of contaminants, but it is almost always saturated with water. Also, an infinite number of hydrocarbon combinations in the gas mixture is possible, so it may or may not be saturated with condensable hydrocarbons.
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Document ID: 923195CF

Devices For Moisture Measurement In Natural Gas
Author(s): G. Folmer
Abstract/Introduction:
1.Introduction The objective of this paper is to present a specific system for on-line monitoring of the water dewpoint in natural gas. The described analyser is based on a conductivity measurement of an hygroscopic glycerol solution. This system is specifically designed for natural gas measurement without the need for extensive sample conditioning to protect the sensor.
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Document ID: B463DB78

Moisture Analysis In Natural Gas
Author(s): Lee m. Gates, Michael J. Scelzo
Abstract/Introduction:
T h e p u r p o s e of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s to p r e s e n t an o v e r v i e w of t h e p r o b l e m s most c o m m o n l y e n c o u n t e r e d in t h e a n a l y s i s of n a t u r a l gas f o r w a t e r v a p o r c o n t e n t , and t o p r o v i d e d e t a i l s on t h e s u c c e s s f ul a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e t h i n f i l m a l u m i n um o x i d e m o i s t u r e s e n s o r t o t h i s t y p e of m e a s u r e m e n t .
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Document ID: 6B3244EC

Devices For Moisture Measurement In Natural Gas
Author(s): A. R. Kahmann
Abstract/Introduction:
Of a l l t h e d e v i c e s a v a i l a b l e for measuring water vapor cont e n t in g a s e s . Bureau of Mines Type Dew Point T e s t e r s a r e t he most w i d e l y used. These T e s t e r s d e t e r m i n e water c o n t e n t in numerous n a t u r a l and i n d u s t r i a l g a s e s , p r o v i d e an accur a c y b e t t e r t h a n 0.2F (Bureau o f Mines t e s t s ) , e n a b l e d e t e r m i n a t i o n s in t h e f i e l d under a d v e r s e l i g h t i n g , need not be r e c a l i b r a t e d , and a r e e a s i ly t r a n s p o r t e d and s e t up i n t he f i e l d
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Document ID: 8C0ABA22

Devices For Moisture Measurement In Natural Gas
Author(s): William R. Barnes
Abstract/Introduction:
m s u r e most of you know more about these u n i t s than I l l ever know however, I would l i ke to present t h i s paper with an open d i s c u s s i o n of some of the symptoms and various checks of the u n i t . Also, I would l i k e to d i s c u s s a sample system which has proven to prolong c e l l l i f e in most cases.
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Document ID: C0487662

High Pressure Measuring And Regulating Station Design
Author(s): Perry m. Moreau
Abstract/Introduction:
The goals in designing a high pressure measuring and regulating station are accurate measurement and pressure control. Major station design considerations are cost, flexibility of operation, ease of maintenance, potential for future expansion, contract obligations, company and industry standards, and governmental requirements. Industry standards and government requirements include design, operating and safety specifications set forth in American Gas Association reports and in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 49, Part 192. While site-specific and individual contractual considerations cannot be discussed here, this paper summarizes general design criteria for a high pressure measuring and regulating station.
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Document ID: 38F6597A

Liquid Meter Proving Techniques
Author(s): Lennie Zeringue
Abstract/Introduction:
The proving of a liquid meter is the actual test conducted on a meter to determine its accuracy and performance. Meter performance is the relationship of the amount of liquid or throughput registered on the meters counter to the actual quantity of liquid which passed through the meter. The only way to ascertain this relationship is to calibrate the meter against a known volume. The terms calibration, proving, and prover are used in the industry when referring to the means of establishing the accuracy of a meter. The goal of a meter proving is to obtain the greatest accuracy possible under the circumstances and environment surrounding the meter.
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Document ID: F25FD126

Economics Of Domestic Meter Repair
Author(s): Patricia R. Pascal
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to discuss (1) the importance of periodically preparing an economic analysis on meter repair, (2) the meter repair and its cost elements, and (3) the factors and costs to include in an economic analysis or repair/replace analysis
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Document ID: F70FCC29

Economics Of Domestic Meter Repair
Author(s): A. R. Christman
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this session is to help you identify the costs of domestic meter repair, and economics. So I am going to explain how we identified our costs. It is a way and hopefully, it will be beneficial.
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Document ID: 4622A31D

Economics Of Domestic Meter Repair
Author(s): A. R. Christnan
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this session is to help you identify the costs of domestic meter repair, and economics. So I am going to explain how we identified our costs. It is a way and hopefully, it will be beneficial.
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Document ID: 445FA159

Conditioning Natural Gas For Measurement And Transportation
Author(s): Larry C. Swindle
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas was at first considered as a necessary by-product to produce crude oil. Occasionally it is used as fuel for equipment in the immediate area. After World War I, natural gas became valued for what it is. The evolution of the gas industry began. Natural gas today symbolizes a clean burning and efficient fuel. The fact is, when produced, gas is usually accompanied by one or more of the following: crude oil, condensate, sand, water, inhibitors, brines, dirt from pipelines, salt crystals, dispersed corrosion particles and much more. Gas may also be mixed with one or more lethal contaminates such as hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, mercaptans, etc. It may also contain nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, helium, water vapors, and other gases, some of which do not burn and therefore drastically reduce the gross heating value of natural cas.
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Document ID: 6FA0E34D

Economics Of Domestic Meter Repair
Author(s): Edwin R. Kasner
Abstract/Introduction:
It is essential, for a meter shop supervisor or manager, to analyze the costs associated with domestic gas meter repair. The last few years, and even today, domestic gas meters remain relatively inexpensive. With increasing labor and parts costs, one needs to know what level of repair is cost effective. This will also vary depending on meter type. There are probably as many different processes or systems to determine repair costs as there are shops. These range from very meager attempts to sophisticated inhouse computer systems. It is possible to get so sophisticated that one gets bogged down with unnecessary detail. This too could be expensive. Whatever system is developed, it most likely will reflect meter flow and repair operations within the shop.
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Document ID: F0412BB2

Effects Of Abnormal Conditions On Accuracy Of Orifice Measurement*
Author(s): Susan E. Mcmanus, James A. Brennan, Charles F. Sindt
Abstract/Introduction:
The flowrate (Qh) through an orifice meter can be calculated from the pressure (pf), temperature, differential pressure (hw) and an empirical discharge coefficient (C1) 1 by Qh - C J hw Pf (D The discharge c o e f f i c i e n t s in AGA-3 1 were e x p e r i m e n t a l l y determined in normal flow cond i t i o n s , where there there was no s w i r l , p u l s a t i o n s and the v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e was symmetric. In abnormal flow c o n d t i o n s , the discharge coe f f i c i e n t can be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t i n g in major e r r o r s in measurement.
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Document ID: 77A95BCB

Liquid Measurement Station Design
Author(s): Larry Pitts
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid Measurement Stations consist of many and varied components. Rather than discuss each of these items very briefly, this paper will focus on liquid characteristics and the selection process of turbine meters versus positive displacement meters, sphere provers versus piston provers, and bidirectional provers versus unidirectional provers. It is not the intent of the author to be dogmatic, but rather to offer some possible guidelines that may be helpful in the decision process of selecting measurement equipment.
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Document ID: 6812AA4A

Mass Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): R. J. Kalivoda
Abstract/Introduction:
The hydrocarbon industry represents a unique part of the process industry in that it supplies much of the energy and raw feed stock used in many other processes. Historically, vast volumes of crude oil had to be drawn from all corners of the earth, transported, refined and delivered to consumers and other industries. Therefore, exact standards of accuracy had to be established and flow meters were developed to provide highly accurate custody transfer of these products. Premium grades of positive displacement meters and turbine meters are now widely used on crude and refined product measurement because of their potential for highly accurate flow measurement: typically 0.15% linearity over a 10:1 turndown with 0.02% repeatability at constant operating conditions. While many hydrocarbon measurements are for well defined fluids at near constant conditions, other fluids may vary widely from product or process variables. For these latter applications, Coriolis Mass Meters may be highly desirable.
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Document ID: 786E66A3

Fundamental Principles Of Self-Operated Regulators
Author(s): Doug Butler
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside, and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a tendency to take them for granted. Even the gas man who handles regulators every day as part of his job frequently tends to view the regulator simply as a piece of hardware which fits in the line and regulates pressure. The fact that it will do precisely that, for months on end without human intervention, makes it easy to maintain such a view. Its only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application, that we need to look more deeply into the fundamentals of the regulators operation.
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Document ID: 87CFCFEA

Calibration Of Liquid Meter Provers
Author(s): Daniel m. Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid provers are those provers used to prove meters in liquid service. The basic types of provers used are volumetric tank provers and pipe provers. The purpose of the calibration of a liquid prover is to determine its certified base volume, with traceability to recognized standards and accepted practices. The base volume is the gross operating volume corrected to standard conditions (such as 60 degrees F and 0 PSIG in U.S. Customary units). The gross operating volume of a prover is the base volume of the prover corrected to the operating temperature and pressure and is the actual volume of the prover at operating conditions.
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Document ID: AF27CC42

A Different Approach To Total Energy Management
Author(s): W. H. Clingman
Abstract/Introduction:
The calorific value of gaseous fuels is more variable than in the past. It is therefore desirable to charge customers for the energy delivered rather than the volume. The present approach being used in the gas industry is to measure separately the volume delivered and the average calorific value and then to combine these two to obtain energy delivered. The Gas Research Institute (GRI) has been funding the development of a new approach to this measurement. This is an energy flowmeter which measures energy delivered directly.
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Document ID: 4B0359EA

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted-For-Gas Transmission
Author(s): Dan York
Abstract/Introduction:
Unaccounted-for-gas is the difference of gas measured into and out of the pipeline. Determination of unaccounted-for-gas must start with measurement. Other areas effecting unaccounted-for-gas are leaks, cyclic b i l l i ng periods, and equipment usage. The f i r s t area of discussion w i l l be measurement errors and possible s o l u t i o n s .
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Document ID: 36016903

Selection Of Control Valves And Associated Instrumentation
Author(s): Dannie Mercer
Abstract/Introduction:
A control valve is a device placed in a fluid stream, gas or liquid, to control fluid flow based on demand
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Document ID: 21D5F19A

Instrument Calibration Using The Pneumatic Deadweight Tester
Author(s): Charles J. Reed
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most difficult problems facing the instrument engineer is the accurate calibration of orifice plate flow meters, particularly at remote or inaccessible locations. The objective of this paper is to present a unique solution to this problem, an automatic pneumatic tester utilizing the floating hall principle. Also included are suggested procedures for using the floating ball tester for calibrating chart recorders and flow computers.
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Document ID: 9F5E7463

Basic Applications Of Telemetering Systems S. Flow Computers
Author(s): Robert F. Schwartz
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will be a basic paper illustrating the various types of telemetering and flow computing systems as utilized in the Gas Industry. The paper will be general in nature, as the subject matter represents an entire field of endeavor. Therefore, only basic fundamentals of the various types of flow computing and telemetering systems will be covered in this paper.
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Document ID: DB067125

Fundamentals Of Liquid Turbine Meters
Author(s): Marty Brickner
Abstract/Introduction:
In the 1940s and 1950s, the aerospace industry demanded compact, reliable and accurate flow metering equipment to measure the flow of jet fuels and rocket propellants. This demand was met successfully by the instrument industry by developing the precision turbine flowmeter. Turbine meter designs soon spread to meet applications in many areas of industrial flow measurement.
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Document ID: 075E3BFD

Odor Level Testing: Instruments And Applications
Author(s): Gordon R. Plunkett
Abstract/Introduction:
Odor level test instruments are widely used in the natural gas industry. Nevertheless, the amount of importance placed upon their use varies greatly from company to company. Why these instruments remain so controversial after over thirty five years of use is difficult to understand.
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Document ID: 1344E063

Large Capacity Gas Regulators
Author(s): C H R I S T I A N D. Peterson
Abstract/Introduction:
Northern I l l i n o i s Gas Company (NI-Gas) is a n a t u r a l gas d i s t r i b u t i o n company c u r r e n t ly serving approximately 1,500,000 customers r e s i d i n g in a 17,000 square mile area throughout the northern t h i r d of I l l i n o i s . NI-Gas, with a workforce of approximately 2600, serves these customers through a combination of aquifer storage f i e l d s , n a t u r a l gas transmission l i n es and an i n t r i c a t e d i s t r i b u t i o n piping network.
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Document ID: EC28087A

Determination Of Water Vapor Content And Hydrocarbon Dew Point In Natural Gas
Author(s): Douglas E. Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
The determination of water vapor content and hydrocarbon dew point in natural gas is of major importance for the maintenance of quality control between gas supply points and ultimate end use. The following discussion will cover those methods used by the natural gas transmission industry for the determination of water vapor and hydrocarbon dew point.
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Document ID: 3D2FD3A3

Fundamentals Of Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Louis N. Cox
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Chromatography is a physical method of separation where the components to be separated are distributed between two phases - a stationary bed of large surface area and a fluid that moves through the stationary bed. A gas or vaporized liquid mixture is physically separated into its individual components through this stationary bed.
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Document ID: 4125C8F8

Measurement Fundamentals - Crude And Refined Products
Author(s): m. J. Joe Sergesketter
Abstract/Introduction:
All liquids expand and contract with changes in temperature. Water varies almost 2% per 100F, while a typical crude oil varies 2% per 40F and a gas condensate varies 2% per 35F. Corrections for changes in volume with changes in temperature must be made for accurate measurement because the price of liquid hydrocarbon products, whether crude oil or refined products, is based upon the volume that exists at a standard temperature, either 60F or 15C. Thus we have two major terms in liquid hydrocarbon measurement, gross volume and net volume
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Document ID: F070C6E4

Advanced Application Of Flow Computers And Telemetering Systems
Author(s): Fred Debusk
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow computer applications in a companys measurement system have an impact far greater than simply another kind of measurement device. The reason for this impact is the many different groups of people that use information from the metering site. This list includes: 1. Measurement Group 2. Maintenance Group 3. Operations Group 4. Accounting Group 5. Management
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Document ID: FAE485E6

Orifice Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Marsha C. Yon
Abstract/Introduction:
The theoretical foundation for the measurement of fluid flow by orifice meters was laid near the start of the 17th century and the development work for the use of the concentric orifice dates back to the early 1900s. Today research efforts continue to expand our knowledge of orifice measurement and to increase the data base from which more accurate calculations can be determined. Efforts by such organizations as the American Petroleum Institute, American Gas Association, Gas Processors Association and others have resulted in a standard for orifice metering issued by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI 2530). The latest revision of the document was released in 1985. Other documents on orifice measurement include one by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME MFC-3M-1985) and another by the International Standards Organization (ISO-5167). There are variations among these documents, notably different equations for the calculation of the discharge coefficient, therefore, a choice must be made as to which one is to be the reference for measurement practices.
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Document ID: AEBB266D

Economics Of Electronic Flow Measurement
Author(s): Jim Griffeth Houston, Tx. -
Abstract/Introduction:
During the past few years the management of the measurement departments in many of the gas transmission companies, production and distribution companies across the United States and Canada, have been in a quandary about what to do with electronic metering systems vs. the use of charts in gas metering. Many questions have been asked about electronic measurement such as:
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Document ID: B3C06FAA

Application Of Flow Computers For Gas Measurement And Control
Author(s): S. R. Cree
Abstract/Introduction:
Power conserving electronic flow conputers are rapidly coning to the forefront in orifice gas measurement. While the reasons are manifold, all of them relate to economics. These devices and the systems based upon them, provide improved measurement and allow less frequent site trips to collect data. Some electronics have the capability tor direct communication to an office location, using radio or telephone line modem. With direct communication, site trips are necessary only when the need is indicated by an alarm or any other operational condition requiring timely response.
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Document ID: 71EC5099

Understanding Basic Electronics For The Field Technician
Author(s): James H. Griffeth -
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronics in Orifice Measurement has only recently become more prevalent for on-site use. When gas was inexpensive the need for accurate measurement was not there. Historically, mechanical circular charts have filled the need to record flows, pressures and temperatures. But today we in the gas measurement business have seen an ever increasing demand to know what the true volume is at the site. With this demand comes electronics in the form of transducers and flow computers. The purpose of this paper is to make you- the field measurement operator- more aware of electronics and how it relates to our future field measurement systems.
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Document ID: 46D2803B

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Bill Liq
Abstract/Introduction:
Fluctuating costs of hydrocarbon products, both liquid and qas, have created a growing concern for accurate measurement. This accuracy begins with a signal from the primary element consisting of the o r i f i c e f i t t i n g , o r i f i ce plate, and meter tube. The ANSI/API 2530 on the o r i f i ce metering of natural gas, states that these (3) items are each important to measurement, and has specifications that they must be made in conformance with in order to achieve accurate, repeatable measurement. The tolerances and specifications outlined in this report and other handbooks are there so that the technical data may be used for measurement. If the meter tubes do not conform to them, then each primary element would have-to have a specific co-efficient calculated for i t.
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Document ID: D9A0899B

Determination Of Calorific Values Of Natural Gas By Combustion Instruments
Author(s): Robert Van Meter
Abstract/Introduction:
Calorific value is a way of defining a quantity of gas in terms of heat per unit volume. The units most often used in this country to specify calorific value are BTU and cubic foot. The BTU is defined by Websters Dictionary as The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit at or near 39.2 F.
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Document ID: 7AB7C18D

Determination Of Calorific Values Of Natural Gas By Combustion Instruments
Author(s): Robert Van Meter
Abstract/Introduction:
Calorific value is a way of defining a quantity of gas in terms of heat per unit volume. The units most often used in this country to specify calorific value are BTU and cubic foot. The BTU is defined by Websters Dictionary as The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit at or near 39.2 F.
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Document ID: F7200EEC

Automated Truck Loading Systems
Author(s): R. Gary Barnes
Abstract/Introduction:
Loading petroleum products at loading racks date back to the early 1900s. In those days, there were no meters, only the filling of a tank. The first meters used for totalizing flow were positive displacement (PD) and included only a totalizing counter. After the totalizing counter, the mechanical printer was invented that permitted a ticket be printed to show the amount of product delivered. The printed ticket was the first step toward Automated Truck Loading Systems
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Document ID: 4E836680

Proving & Repairing Domestic Meters
Author(s): Edward J. Bergin
Abstract/Introduction:
Domestic meters are diaphragm type meters with a capacity rating of 500 c.f.h. or less with a 1/2 w.c. pressure drop across the meter when passing gas. Domestic meters are proved or tested by passing a measured quantity of gas or air through the meter and comparing this known volume to the volume passed and registered by the meter.
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Document ID: 2263AE03

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement II
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
A knowledge of the Fundamentals of Gas Measurement is essential for all technicians and engineers that are called upon to perform gas volume calculations. These same people must have at least a working knowledge of the fundamentals to perform their everyday jobs including meter calibrations, specific gravity tests, collecting gas samples, etc.
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Document ID: 00326DDB

What The Field And Office Groups Expect From Each Other
Author(s): J. F. Shiflet
Abstract/Introduction:
Field groups are prone to look upon the office group as Pencil Pushers, Paper Chasers, or just plain pests who expect them to write all this stuff in those skinny little blocks so it can be keyed into a computer system and automated.
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Document ID: 070B19C4

Gas Measurement Laboratory
Author(s): David A. Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
In the late 1970s and into the 1980 operations was centering on the determination of the heating value (BTU) of natural gas samples. This data has become an important part of various gas purchase, gas billing, and gas volume calculations. Today, many gas measurement laboratories are testing hundreds of natural gas samples monthly to furnish this data. Consequently, we will describe the gas measurement laboratory devoted mainly to the determination of the heating value (BTU) of natural gas samples, related activities, and innovations.
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Document ID: 704DC240

Problems Unique In Offshore Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jm L. Hollingsworth
Abstract/Introduction:
Drilling activity began in the Gulf of Mexico in the late 1940s, and the first gas production was initiated in 1951. From that date until the present, problems inherent in offshore operations have plagued gas measurement personnel.
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Document ID: 8D198591

Calibration Of Storage Tanks
Author(s): M.J. Yeandle
Abstract/Introduction:
This discussion will deal with five different methods of calibrating storage tanks. Two are well established, commonly used procedures, and the other three are relatively new advanced technological methods that have been used successfully in tank calibration.
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Document ID: 2AD945FD

Design Of Distribution Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Charles D. Dolezel
Abstract/Introduction:
It has been said that the meter is the cash register of the gas industry. With this in mind, it makes sense that careful consideration should be given to the design of distribution metering and regulating installations.
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Document ID: 790B61FF

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement - IV
Author(s): Kenneth E. Starling
Abstract/Introduction:
It is shown that for low gravity, low carbon dioxide content natural gases A.G.A. Report NX-19 is reasonably accurate in comparison to A.G.A. Report No. 8. For natural gases which have high gravities, due either to carbon dioxide or ethane plus heavier hydrocarbons, A.G.A. Report No. 8 is dramatically more accurate than A.G.A Report NX-19.
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Document ID: 2E99EE2B

Calibration Of Liquid Density Meters
Author(s): Ronald E. Beaty
Abstract/Introduction:
Mass Measurement is now the accepted method for custody transfer of mixed natural gas liquids. Prior to the time that significant industry demand existed for ethane, volumetric measurement was used almost exclusively for all liquified petroleum gases. As ethane production increased, inaccuracies were detected in volumetric measurement. When ethane, along with relatively small amounts of methane and carbon dioxide, is mixed with heavier hydrocarbons, volumetric shrinkage occurs. The magnitude of the shrinkage is dependant upon composition. Mass measurement utilizing density meters is used to eliminate this problem.
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Document ID: 42B37338

Measurement Of Liquified Petroleum Gas
Author(s): Ron Brunner
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement of Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) is a complex subject, ranging from the measurement of propane into a 20 pound cylinder for your barbeque grill, where the product changing hands is worth less than five dollars, to the measurement of a 100 MBPD mixed LPG stream feeding a large fractionator, where the product changing hands is worth in excess of 1 million dollars per day. LPG is used In this paper to refer to any one or a mixture of light liquid hydrocarbons including ethane, propane, butane, or natural gasoline. This paper deals with some of the fundamentals of LPG measurement.
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Document ID: 45514C79

Chromatographic Analysis Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): Chris m. Wilkins
Abstract/Introduction:
Various aspects involving the measurement of natural gas liquids, including custody transfer and various fractionation and refining processes, have placed a high demand upon accurate chromatographic analysis. These natural gas liquids, which are simply that liquid product fraction customarily removed from natural gas, often include hydrocarbons methane (C) through dodecane (C), and the inert components nitrogen (M2)i carbon dioxide (CO2), and oxygen (O2).
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Document ID: 8380085A

Characterization Of Heavy Components In Ngl And Natural Gas Extended( Analysis)
Author(s): Patrick m. Mccann
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement of Natural Gas and Natural Gas Liquids has evolved to place a high demand upon identifying and quantifying functional hydrocarbon groups, or individual components beyond the customary hexanes plus or heptanes plus. This information is often utilized in product custody transfers and various process studies. The purpose of this paper is to point out reasons why a characterized heavy end component analysis is desirable, to briefly touch on gas chromatographic techniques related to an extended hydrocarbon analysis, and finally to explain why close attention to detail is a must for any chromatographic application.
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Document ID: D8FC18A7

Measurement With Battery-Powered Field Flow Computers
Author(s): Fred Debusk
Abstract/Introduction:
Since 1980 the industry has had battery powered flow computers available for gas measurement in remote areas where commercial power was not available. It has taken time for the industry to realize that faster and more accurate data is required due to the cost of gas and the changes in regulations. In addition to the need to automate their systems and to get their data, the battery powered field flow computer must be adaptable with telemetry systems.
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Document ID: D5F620FA

Installation And Operation Of Densitometers
Author(s): Nghieu Q. Pham, Chuck Gray
Abstract/Introduction:
Objective As the use of a densitometer becomes a dominant picture in liquid measurement, its accuracy performance has been an ultimate goal to many of its users. The key to accomplish this goal, is to obtain a clear understanding of the densitometers operation and establish the proper installations for them. This paper will concentrate on these two areas, and furthermore, share with you our field experiences from many of the densitometer users.
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Document ID: EEC33977

Application Of Densitometers To Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Nghieu Q. Pham, T. Y. Tramel
Abstract/Introduction:
In recent years the use of a densitometer has played an increasingly significant role in liquid measurement, from light ethane to mixtures of heavier hydrocarbons, crude oil and carbon dioxide (C02) recovery.
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Document ID: F8EBA62E

Computer Applications Ih Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Tom Moughon
Abstract/Introduction:
Stripped to its barest essentials, the function of a computer is to gather data, extract information from it, and present that information to the user. The distinction drawn between data and information is not merely semantic. Information is obtained as the result of manipulating data in some fashion. Often the data may be manipulated, or filtered, in several different ways to obtain varying forms of information, depending on the needs (and the imagination) of the user. Most often, in liquid measurement, the information desired is a simple How much - the data comprise pressures, temperatures, and pulses, but may also include densities, chemical analyses, index of refraction, or other measures that characterize the fluid.
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Document ID: E7EDEEB1

Computers For Liquid Meter Proving
Author(s): Paul A. Ward
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the evolution of computers as they apply to liquid meter proving. Microprocessor circuitry has found its place in virtually every area of instrumentation. From simple field transmitters to control room mounted central processing units, these powerful integrated circuits offer reliability, speed, convenience, and cost effective methods of saving work. Today these computer/controllers provide prompt, efficient control of meter proving systems, precise detailed calculation of quantities measured and rapid two-way data communications to remote devices.
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Document ID: 334DE102

Office Application Of Computers For Flow Calculation
Author(s): David m. Beasley
Abstract/Introduction:
What is the volume on this chart? How many times have we heard this question? Our answer should be, Let me run it through the system. The chart recording is only the beginning step in the process of the gas measurement volume calculation. The next step is to determine the value of the chart trace or meter registration. Once the machine extension is known, then the volume of gas that passed through the meter can be easily calculated. The most widely used method is the A.G.A. Report #3 - May 16, 1985. For one chart, the total process can be accomplished by hand, but when dealing with thousands of charts the need for a computer system becomes apparent.
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Document ID: C9D214E7

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Giles m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
Accuracy is defined in Webster as freedom from mistake or error. This is contrary to the widespread use of this term since an accuracy statement is usually given as 0.5% accuracy while the real meaning is 0.5% inaccuracy.
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Document ID: 97C3FE36

Fundamental Principles Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): Giles m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
To many people, the term orifice meter has come to mean the instrument, built into a rectangular black case, which records (or computes) the flow which occurs through the meter run and orifice plate. Strictly speaking, this is not correct the orifice meter actually consists of the combination of the meter run, orifice plate and gage lines- together with the instrument which senses the characteristics from which the flow rate is computed.
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Document ID: AD7CA588

Theoretical Uncertainty Of Orifice Flow Measurement
Author(s): R. G. Teyssandier
Abstract/Introduction:
The theoretical uncertainty of an orifice meter is simply just one portion of a complex equation which results in good flow measurement. In most instances the more important aspects are the maintenance and application of the orifice meter. In this paper, however, the emphasis will be on the theoretical. It should be kept in mind that the numbers generated by any mathematical studies only help to indicate where the effort should be placed and do not change the accounting quantities.
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Document ID: 6AFFD091

Field Experience With Charts, Pens And Ink
Author(s): William R. Rackley, J R.
Abstract/Introduction:
ONE CANNOT SAY THAT EITHER CHARTS, PENS OR INK IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN THE OTHER TO A RECORDING SYSTEM. IF ANY ONE OF THESE COMPONENTS IS NOT COMPATABLE WITH THE OTHER OR ONE LOSES ITS DESIRED QUALITY OVER TIME OR WITH USE, THE RESULTS WILL BE POOR MEASUREMENT.
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Document ID: D2ED3A49

Liquid Flow Provers Conventional()
Author(s): Larry W. Pitts
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter provers are necessary for accurate measurement because custody transfer meters produce errors that are inherent in their design. These errors are the result of meter wear, and product characteristics such as flow rate, specific gravity, temperature, viscosity, etc. These inherent characteristics result in inaccurate output registration.
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Document ID: 524FB9E3

Prevention Of Freezing In Measuring And Regulation Equipment
Author(s): Don Day
Abstract/Introduction:
Freezing has been a problem faced by gas men since the birth of the industry. This problem will continue for all time but there are ways to minimize the effects of the phenomenon. There are two areas of freezing. The first is the formation of ice from free water within the gas stream. The second is hydrate formation. This paper will dwell on ice formation. Information on hydrate formation is available in Gas Engineers Handbook and other publications.
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Document ID: 72EAD0CB

Basic Devices And Techniques For Supervisory Control And Systems
Author(s): William F. Peters
Abstract/Introduction:
Most of the basic devices and techniques for supervisory control and systems can be described by taking a close look at what is commonly known as SCADA, which stands for supervisory control and data acquisition. Since the concept of SCADA brings together many different aspects, it is most accurately referred to as a system. A SCADA system would generally include computers, remote telemetry units (RTUs), alarms, reports, calculations, event tracking, and the like-all designed to make operations more efficient and provide that important competitive edge.
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Document ID: DE2DFD2F

Operation And Maintenance Of Regulators
Author(s): Larry D. Rogers
Abstract/Introduction:
The operation and maintenance of gas regulators is very important to the gas company, and its customers. The responsibility for the safe utilization of gas regulators lies not only with the manufacturer but also the gas industry. The manufacturer must provide sufficient information for the proper selection, operation and maintenance of the regulator. Gas company personnel have the responsibility to select, install and maintain the regulators properly, using guidelines provided by the manufacturer .
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Document ID: 5FB6B218

Over Pressure Protection Methods
Author(s): Donald W. Irwin
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss the methods of overpressure protection. The pressure reducing regulator in Fig. 1 is the basic device used to reduce the pressure from a high pressure source such as a transmission line to a lower pressure such as a distribution piping system. The regulator has a history of very reliable service, but because it is mechanical it can fail. A regulator can fail in two worst case conditions, wide open or fully closed. The fully closed regulator failure requires an alternate source of gas to supply the system needs. This situation is complex in its own right and will not be discussed further in this paper.
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Document ID: E18460A0

About Ishm 1987
Abstract/Introduction:
Collection of documents about ISHM including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, exhibitor and sponsor information, etc.
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Document ID: 127EF831


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