Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (1987)

Computer Aided Dispatch System Utilizing Data Transmission To Mobile Data Terminals
Author(s): Edward W. Bercofski
Abstract/Introduction:
The Philadelphia Gas Works is dedicated to providing excellent service to its customers at the lowest possible cost. Service calls from customers must be communicated accurately to the appropriate serviceperson. Unfortunately. traditional voice radio dispatching can be affected by channel congestion including emergency situations when efficient communications are particularly important. Moreover, extensive paperwork further slows down the communication flow. A computer aided dispatching system utilizing data transmission to mobile data terminals is the most complete solution to these problems. Installation and implementation of this type of system will result in an increase in productivity for both the service force and the dispatching function along with a substantially higher level of service to the Philadelphia Gas Works customers.
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Document ID: 16DA7687

Nbs Research On In-Situ Flowmeter Calibrations
Author(s): G. E. Mattingly, K. m. Kothari
Abstract/Introduction:
The paper presents strategy through which flowmeter performance can be predicted for non-ideal, in-situ meter installations. This strategy is based on measuring or understanding pertinent pipeflow conditions in-silu and using these to produce performance predictions for meters in non-ideai locations relative to upstream elbows, reducers, valves, etc. The research results presented pertain to the elbowsout- of-plane configuration, Pipeflow results - produced using laser velocimetry in an industry- government consortium NBS project -are given, and the strategy is demonstrated by use of a turbine-type flowmeter.
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Document ID: C69D39C9

Union Gas Storage & Transmission System Operation In Peak And Near-Peak Conditions
Author(s): J. A. Korol
Abstract/Introduction:
Union Gas is a distribution and a storage and transportation company operating in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. In planning its storage and transportation operations. Unions Gas Control considers both short-term and seasonal operation factors in guiding its operation during peak demand conditions. Although forecasting supply and system demands is important in anticipating changes in its operation it is the continuous feedback from Unions Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System that is the key to controlling Unions operation.
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Document ID: 07204767

Turbine Meter Accuracy In Air Vs. Natural Gas
Author(s): Winston F. Z. Lee
Abstract/Introduction:
It is very desirable to know the accuracy of a gas turbine meter that is operating in natural gas but calibrated in air. This paper presents the theory and laboratory verification test and field evaluation test data to show that a well-engineered gas turbine meter (single rotor or tandem rotors) has the same accuracy in natural gas as in air, operating at the same Reynolds number. The unique self-check and self-adjust outputs of an Auto-Adjust TUrbo-Meter are capable of determining separately the effect on meter accuracy due to different flow media (air vs. natural gas) and the effect due to different test facilities themselves. Evaluation test data of Auto-Adjust TUrbo-Meters calibrated in air at Rockwell Internationals DuBois test facility and tested in natural gas against critical flow Venturis at British Gass Bishop Auckland test facility. Natural Gas Pipelines Johet test station, and United Gass Arnaudville test station provide further evidence of verification of this conclusion.
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Document ID: E5D969AE

Effect Of Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion On Underground Steel Gas Piping
Author(s): Raymond A. Day, James R. Frank
Abstract/Introduction:
In January 1986, the Gas Research Institute (GRI) initiated a research project at the Midwest Research Institute (MRI) to determine the nature and extent of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of underground steel gas transmission pipelines. In 1986, working with cooperating pipeline companies, GRI/MRI investigators visited more than twenty field sites where pipeline excavations had been made. The researchers obtained samples of water, liquids, soil, corrosion products, and pipe for testing. Results of the examinations showed the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) could not necessarily be correlated to the occurrence of corrosion. However, on the basis of biological, chemical, and metallurgical data that have been obtained, it was shown that acidproducing bacteria (APBs) may be contributing to internal and external MIC on some pipelines and underground gas storage piping. Continuing research by GRI will focus on the development of effective MIC mitigation methods.
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Document ID: BBE7AA1C

System Protection At Northern Illinois Gas Company
Author(s): Charles F. Walshon
Abstract/Introduction:
Our territory ranges from very rural to the concentrated suburbs of Chicago (see Figure 1). We have mains in parkways, alongside rural roads, and in areas of wall-to-wall concrete in builtup downtown areas. The majority of our customers are on high-pressure mains with the meter and regulators outside alongside the home, but some older areas still have lowpressure services with the meters inside. The Company system consists of approximately 25,000 miles of main. The bulk of the main is steel (96 percent). The remainder is cast iron (3.5 percent) and plastic (0.5 percent). There are approximately 1.5 million customers with approximately 20,426 miles of service pipe. The bulk of the services are steel (60 percent), copper and aluminum-lined plastic (38 percent), and plastic tubing (2 percent). We are currently adding between 20,000- 30,000 customers per year.
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Document ID: F5048E0B

Operation Of Oil-Free Seal And Bearing Systems For Centrifugal Compressors
Author(s): Roel R. Lancee
Abstract/Introduction:
Booster compressors on a natural gas pipeline system have long been plagued by the problems associated with oil entrainment in the natural gas stream and the inherent maintenance problems associated with oil systems. The use of dry gas seals and active magnetic bearings will effectively eliminate the further use of oil systems in gas compression. The paper deals with the history of Trans- Canada PipeLines past experiences with oiifree seals, the theory of dry gas seals and active magnetic bearings, the effects of magnetic bearings on rotor dynamics, and the recent installation and operation of a set of dry gas seals and active magnetic bearings in a booster compressor unit operating on the TransCanada PipeLines system.
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Document ID: A28B0445

Use Of Electronics In Industrial Measurement
Author(s): Phillip J. Murdock
Abstract/Introduction:
A discussion of state-of-the-art electronic equipment available for natural gas measurement and related functions at industrial customer measurement facilities. Various electronic measurement devices are described and compared with mechanical measurement devices traditionally installed. Numerous factors in todays natural gas industry, including competition from other fuels, a general economic down turn, open access, and transportation/carriage agreements, have made it increasingly important that natural gas delivered to industrial customers be measured accurately and on a timely basis. However, economics dictate that accurate measurement and timely billing be accomplished at the lowest cost possible while maintaining the integrity of an overall measurement system. From a gas suppliers standpoint, maximum revenues may be generated by installing accurate measurement devices which provide real-time flow measurement. Real-time flow measurement can provide accurate measurement while minimizing the time span between gas delivery and the rendering of bills to customers. For the industrial customer, real-time flow measurement may provide a basis for establishing comprehensive energy management and plant optimization programs.
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Document ID: 80F419FB

Testing An Underground Storage Tank And Product Handling System
Author(s): George S. Lomax
Abstract/Introduction:
Tfesting an underground storage tank and product handling system begins with a good general knowledge of the storage system being tested, the environment in which the system operates, and the test method being used. This paper will address problem areas related to the mechanics of an underground storage system, environmental factors that affect tank volume during an integrity test, and the necessary components of a valid tank tightness test. To better understand some of the problems encountered with the mechanical components of a product handling system, it is necessary to review selected components of what would be considered the perfect tank. Entrapped vapor or air in a vessel or the associated piping can be a major cause of inaccurate test results. The perfect tank should be level and have an opening to the vent line or fill pipe at either end to prevent the entrapment of any volume of air or vapor and to allow any amounts of air or vapor that could remain in the tank, after fill-up, to go to the atmosphere.
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Document ID: 4176FAA6

Baltimore Biogas: After The New Wears Off
Author(s): W. C. Peterson
Abstract/Introduction:
The Baltimore Biogas plant is a privately financed sewer-gas recovery project. It employs innovative compressor controls that allow unattended operation. The plant was started in December 1983 and has accumulated 23,000 operating hours, an on-line factor in excess of 90 percent. The Baltimore Biogas plant is a privately financed sewer-gas recovery project. It employs innovative compressor controls that allow unattended operation. The plant was started in December 1983 and has accumulated 23,000 operating hours, an on-line factor in excess of 90 percent.
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Document ID: C763AD0F

Polyethylene Pipe Squeeze-Off
Author(s): Thomas P. Crean
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper reflects the concerns of the gas utility distribution companies (users) over the longterm effect of squeeze-off of polyethylene pipe. It addresses installation methods, effects of temperature, types of tools, squeeze-off specifications, and methods of minimizing danger of pipe damage after squeeze-off. The information reflects data solicited from many gas utilities in various parts of the country. Plastic pipe has a relatively short history in our industry when compared to that of metallic or other piping materials. Although there has been considerable theoretical age-life testing done, the long-range results are not yet totally predictable. This paper addresses methods of squeezeoff, identification of squeeze-off areas, and results of leakage in pipe after squeeze-off. The concern voiced most frequently by users is What will be the long-term effects of squeeze-off?
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Document ID: CC470F95

Transportation Management
Author(s): Howard J. Berg
Abstract/Introduction:
Transportation! What is it? What does it mean to you? To some it means rail transportation others air transportation to the electric, gas, and telephone industry it means cars, trucks, aerial units, digger derricks, trenchers, backhoes, and much more. No matter how large your fleet of vehicles and equipment is, your basic aim is efficiency which is obtained only by alert management, watchful cost control, good maintenance programs tailored to your use, and a very important vehicle and equipment selection program.
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Document ID: 97432274

Lateral Drilling Technology: Short-Radius Technique
Author(s): Jeffrey Duff Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Lateral drilling, or drainhole drilling as it was initially called, is a completion technology that has been regaining interest in the last 6-8 years. The concept has been around for about 50 years and was initially tooiced upon simply as a means of increasing the productivity of old, or marginally productive, wells located in tar sands and other low-pressure, easy-to-drill formations. Most of these early drainholes were less than 100 ft in length. Since 1979, however, design changes in the hardware used to drill lateral welibores and more favorable economic results from horizontal completion projects have heralded a resurgence of interest in the technology. Lateral drilling technology is now considered a valuable and versatile completion technique. This presentation will discuss Eastman Christensens shortradius lateral drilling system and the drilling procedure for the technique several case histories will be reviewed.
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Document ID: CCFD540C

Problems Of Absorptive Insulation
Author(s): W. D. Johnston, P. G. Fannan
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the problems inherent in absorptive thermal insulation used in both below and above ambient service. In low temperature service, water vapor may condense within an absorptive insulation. Even in high temperature service, water intrusion from an occasional rainfall will be partially retained. In either case, thermal performance will be seriously degraded. The absorption of hydrocarbon liquids can create a serious fire hazard. These problems can be addressed through the use of impermeable insulation or specific insulation systems that are based on impermeable insulation.
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Document ID: 4D8818E4

Energens Coalbed Degasification Project
Author(s): J. Thomas Raines
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes Energens Coalbed Degasification Project. The project is located in Alabamas Warrior Basin, between Birmingham and Tuscaloosa. It involves wells drilled into the coalbeds, fracturing, water removal, gathering system, compression, dehydration, and transport. The paper gives an overview of the project and follows up with detailed information. From distributing natural gas . . . to exploring for oil and natural gas . . . to using nonconventional water well drilling techniques . . . Energen Corporation is fast becoming synonymous with innovation. Headquartered in Birmingham, Alabama, Energen Corporation is a young, diversified energy holding company with operations and investments in more than five states including: Alabama, West Virginia, Wyoming, Texas, and Georgia.
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Document ID: 76BD33EE

Gris Interior Piping Program-Multifamily Field Test Results
Author(s): Michael L. Wilkey
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Research Institute (GRI) is investigating ways to develop materials, components, piping systems, and installation techniques that will enable those involved in the construction of homes, apartments, condominiums, and commercial buildings to install safe and cost effective interior gas piping systems throughout new or existing residential/ commercial structures at a cost competitive with other energy systems. This paper details the results of GRIs multifamily field test (MFFT) of copper and corrugated stainless steel tubing (CSST) interior piping systems.
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Document ID: 5308F7E3

Radio-Transmitted, Microcomputer-Based Telemeter System
Author(s): Virgil B. Hammond
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1983, Northern Illinois Gas began a project to replace a telemetering, or SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition), system it had used more than 20 years to transmit storage and supply data. The selection of new equipment was to be based on three objectives: it had to be reliable, readily expandable, and reduce operating costs. A microprocessor-based system that uses solid-state modules for various control operations was chosen. With this equipment, data are transmitted by radio rather than by the conventional method over telephone tines. Each of the systems 13 cells has a central microcomputer, which monitors the stations within that cell. Sequentially, a master central processing unit (CPU) records and relays data from the cell microcomputer to Nl-Gas Gas Control computer. The system monitors nearly 500 separate data items at 70 stations. In addition, it provides flow-control capability at 14 stations and on/off control for two line valves and five odorizers. Ultimate plans include closed loop flow and odorant control. Future expansion will occur by adding stations to existing cells and creating new cells. Satellite radio transmission is also a viable option.
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Document ID: A923FAB2

Advanced Gas Meter Proving Systems
Author(s): Harry W. Fisher
Abstract/Introduction:
The emphasis in metering over the past decade or more has been on achieving higher accuracies in the measurement of natural gas. Several advanced proving systems resulting from efforts addressing this industry desire are presented. These systems are directed toward the needs and peculiarities of proving both lowflow (domestic) and high-flow (transmission and distribution) metering equipment.
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Document ID: 7BC851E0

Vehicle Accident Prevention
Author(s): Gregory D. Martin
Abstract/Introduction:
In many companies, the Transportation Department has little direct involvement in accident prevention. When the topic is raised, a typical response might be Oh, Corporate Safety takes care of that. We dont do too badly with accidents, but Im not really sure of the facts and figures. Regardless of whether our Transportation Departments have any responsibility for vehicle accident prevention programs, we all are responsible for repairing the accident damage, and that means that vehicle accidents are costing us a lot of money. It was this realization that caused the topic to get an awful lot of attention at Bahimore Gas & Electric in the last few years. In 1983, The Company realized that our vehicle accident record had been getting dramatically worse over the years. Figure I shows that in 1980 we had 391 recordable vehicle accidents by 1982 that number had increased by 40 percent. We wondered whether this phenomenon was also occurring in other utilities.
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Document ID: 688FBD06

Rolling On Natural Gas
Author(s): Wallace P. Parker, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Im here today to tell you about natural gas vehicles, or NGVs for short, which is one of the more popular subjects these days in the Gas and Transportation industry. In fact, it is a subject that is getting more and more attention on a local, national, and international level. Unlike many other things in todays rapidly expanding technological world, the science of using compressed natural gas in vehicles is not all new. In fact, it goes back quite a few years. The first NOV was developed in the mid-1800s by Mr. J. Lenoir. Soon after that, Mr. Nicholas Otto of the Otto-Benz Company, the same man who invented the basic spark plug engine in the 1870s, used natural gas to power his cars. At that time, no method for compressing natural gas into small tanks had been developed, so large bags were used to carry natural gas alongside, on top, or behind the vehicle.
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Document ID: 8068D0FF

Compositional Variations In Landfill Gas
Author(s): R. Eric Zimmerman
Abstract/Introduction:
Methane produced during anaerobic decomposition of urban refuse in sanitary landfills is an immediately available alternative fuel. Landfill gas, which is predominantly composed of methane (50-60 percent) and carbon dioxide (40-50 percent), contains 1-2 percent of organic and inorganic constituents that are of potential operational and environmental significance. The gas collected from a landfill represents many of the constituents within that landfill. At least 350 trace components have been identified positively in landfill gas at the part-per-billion or greater level. The sources and magnitudes of variation in the composition of landfill gas are discussed in this paper. The emphasis is on the minor constituents of the gas, which have been found to show large variations between sites. The importance of these landfill gas constituents to both the transmitter and end user is reviewed. Potential acceptance criteria are discussed.
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Document ID: 202C2684

Recent Development And Application Of Advanced Japanese Gas Detectors
Author(s): Akihiko Seki, Akifumi Kobayashi, Tetsuo Omote
Abstract/Introduction:
Osaka Gas recently has begun to use several new types of gas detectors, some of which we have developed jointly with electrical manufacturers for our own use. We have also begun to sell gas-leak alarms for domestic use to our customers. These have all been smoothly accepted by the crew of Osaka Gas and customers, and we feel certain that our goals have been achieved. In this paper, we would like to introduce our (1) discriminative vehicle-mounted FID, (2) hand-held gas-leak detector, (3) discriminative portable gas detector/meter, (4) portable CO detector/meter, and (5) gas-leak alarm for domestic use. This paper describes the features, specifications, detection principles, and functions of these detectors and alarm.
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Document ID: B47F9568

Welder Training And Qualification Programs
Author(s): Quenten D. Wagoner
Abstract/Introduction:
Northern Illinois Gas Company is a gas distribution company serving more than 1,500,000 customers in the northern one-third of the state of Illinois (excluding the city of Chicago). NI-Gas has over 23,000 miles of steel main, 12,000 miles of steel services, and 8,000 miles of P/AC services serving these 1.5 million customers, The work force of approximately 2,600 employees at NI-Gas includes about 375 employees trained in oxyacetylene welding and about 50 welders, trained in micro-wire and manual arc welding. NI*Gas continues to utilize steel pipe as its primary material for all sizes of distribution and transmission mains. Welding, therefore, continues to be a skill essential to the proper construction and maintenance of our system.
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Document ID: FF00F32B

Gas-Coal Cofiring In Utility Boilers
Author(s): John m. Pratapas, Richard C. Booth
Abstract/Introduction:
Cofiring gas on coal in utility boilers encompasses using gas as an ignition and/or warmup fuel was well as some portion of base load fuel. Although this concept is not new, cofiring is believed to offer a number of important environmental and operational benefits to boiler owners and operators. The Gas Research Institute (GRI) is supporting limited research and testing to document these benefits in fullscale applications. This paper reports on the results of a test program at a 570 MW pulverized coal utility boiler recently modifed with gas cofiring capability. Findings regarding effects on boiler operations and air emissions characteristics are presented. Perspectives on cofiring economics are also discussed.
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Document ID: 0697167D

Power Cylinder Deactivation For Reduced Fuel Consumption Under Part Load
Author(s): A. J. Smalley, S. Vinyard, B. R. Evans
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents an investigation of the effect of part load operation on a Cooper GMV-10 integral engine compressor, together with predictions of reduced disablement of one or more power cylinders. Based on results for this particular unit, guidance is presented for applying this method of fuel savings to other units. The paper Includes a summary of user experience with power cylinder deactivation, including both observed fuel savings and some minor problems. Results show that misfiring can be a major contributor to increased fuel consumption under part load, and thai observed fuel savings from deactivation are directly attributable to more consistent achievement of fuel combustion in ail active cylinders.
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Document ID: BC53AA73

Development Of New Orifice Flow Equation
Author(s): W. A. Fling, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Petroleum Institute (API) and the Gas Processors Association (GPA) have completed development of a new data base of coefficients of discharge for concentric flangedtapped, square-edge orifice meters. This paper describes the effort and method that established a revised flow equation that has the potential to be accepted on an international basis.
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Document ID: 6B997548

Controlling Acid Deposition By Seasonal Gas Substitution In Coal- And Oil-Fired Power Plants
Author(s): Gary Galeucia, Dan Golomb, James A. Fay
Abstract/Introduction:
We analyze a variant of a receptor-oriented acid deposition control strategy: selective summer substitution of natural gas in power plants that contribute most of the acid deposition in the ecologically sensitive Northeast. Recently, several proposals have been advanced that move away from broad-based reduction of acid rain precursor emissions toward more efficient policies that recognize the spatial relationship between emission sources and the areas sensitive to the acid deposition caused by these emissions. This paper proposes that acid rain policy should step beyond the spatial relationship toward a recognition of the temporal relationship between emissions and depositions namely, that there are significant seasonal variations in deposition rat despite a relatively constant rate of emissions. Just as it is more efficient to exert greater control of emissions from sources that are relatively close to sensitive areas, it is also more efficient to impose greater control of emissions at times when the deposition rates are higher.
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Document ID: ACD70435

The Importance Of Hydraulic Considerations In Gas Main Replacement
Author(s): Thomas E. Richwine, Steven K. Sorem, Gregory B. Metzger
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper introduces the importance of considering gas system hydraulics when making decisions regarding main repair, replacement, or retirement. Equations are presented describing the nature of gas flow and the importance of key terms. In addition to considering the capacity of single mains, this paper outlines the impact of the repair/replace/retire decision on the total gas network.
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Document ID: 86BB0E99

Measuring The Effectiveness Of Damage Prevention Programs
Author(s): David V. Voigt
Abstract/Introduction:
While damage prevention has always been a priority at Consumers Power Company, a formal, state-wide campaign to control damage was begun in 1970. Before discussing the results of this effort, I would like to describe the elements of our damage prevention program. There are four basic elements to this program: engineering preplanning a one-call notification system a responsive, facility-locating effort and a program of excavator education and inspection. Engineering preplanning describes an exchange of information where the designer of the new facilities, such as sewer, water, roads, etc, receives the locations of our existing gas and buried electric lines prior to his final design. Knowing the locations of our lines gives the designer the opportunity to design his locations to avoid our facilities where he can and gives us the knowledge of conflicts that cannot be avoided. We can then plan our work accordingly. Each year during the past five years, our engineering departments have reviewed the proposed construction plans of others that potentially involve 800-1,200 miles of our buried lines.
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Document ID: FEBF0965

Fundamentals Of Bar Coding And Applications At E. I. Du Pont
Author(s): Franklin W. Oglesby
Abstract/Introduction:
Competitive forces in the marketplace have generated the need at E. I. Du Pont for greater operating efficiency and improved quality control. Automatic warehousing, mechanized materials handhng, and electronic data collection systems have the potential for addressing these needs and are being implemented in many innovative applications across the country and around the world. Computer-based electronic identification systems are necessary to obtain efficient computerized control of work-inprogress, inventory management, and quality control. Electronic identification systems that are in use today are: Bar code Optical character recognition Machine vision Voice recognition Radio frequency/microwave Magnetic stripe
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Document ID: 9ABBBB9C

Specifying Reciprocating Machinery Pulsation And Vibration Requirements Per API-618
Author(s): Alexandar Lifson, John C. Dube
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended as a guide that will allow a user to specify and enforce reciprocating machinery pulsation-induced vibration and stress control requirements per the API-618 Standard. Specific emphasis will be placed on the most common and comprehensive API-618 Third Edition, Design Approach 3. Recommendations are given on what type of technology must be available to the design services performing the study in order to design trouble free installations according to the API618 standard relevant quotations from this standard are presented to reinforce these recommendations. Description of required digital or analog simulation tools for performing forced dynamic piping response are reviewed, including prediction of resonant mode and frequencies, excitation forces and damping, and vibration and cyclic stresses. Results from field studies, laboratory tests, and computer simulations are presented to show how the inability to model accurately the flexibility properties of compressor cylindermanifold components (branch connections, crosshead-guide and distance piece, clamps, flanges, and baffles) can lead to erroneous results and potential equipment failures. Required component modeling techniques, which must be based on comprehensive laboratory testing or advanced analytical tools, for determining the flexibility characteristics of these components are also examined.
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Document ID: 03F063ED

A Novel Concept For Enhanced Gas Utility Operations A Better Connection At The Main
Author(s): Laruie T. Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
For several years, Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation of Syracuse, New York, and Perfection Corporation of Madison, Ohio, have worked together to develop a new product, which is being introduced this May. What is unique about this product is the method by which the tee affixes itself to the gas main. The product is called the PermaLock Mechanical Tipping Tee, due to the fact that the installation and tapping are done mechanically without the need for heat fusion to the polyethylene gas main. The PermaLock is a mechanical tapping tee for affixing and tapping into a polyethylene gas main for the purpose of installing a residential or commercial gas service. Niagara Mohawk is a firm believer in heat fusion, specifically butt fusion of polyethylene pipe in larger sizes. However, in the smaller service sizes, mechanical joining is the most reliable and cost-effective method of joining polyethylene gas piping. Previously, in our installations of polyethylene service laterals, all joints were mechanical except the joint at the main. The objective of this research program was to develop an improved method of mechanically joining a service to a main, making it possible to install an entire service without need for operator qualifications, fusion irons, fusion joining jigs, generators, and the additional auxiliary equipment required for heat fusion. It was at this point that we became aware of Perfections reputation in the industry as an innovative research group that was developing new hardware for the gas distribution industry. Perfection was called to join with us in a research project to develop this improved main connection.
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Document ID: 85A77036

Traceability To Standards: Basic Verification For Gas Measurement
Author(s): K. E. Starling, C. m. Sliepcevich, m. Mannan
Abstract/Introduction:
Traceability to standards as it applies to gas measurement is discussed. Presently used methods of Basic Verification of gas flow measurement are discussed and a novel procedure for Basic Verification is suggested. A typical calibration procedure for large volume meters is presented. Uncertainty estimates for meter calibrations are also discussed.
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Document ID: 3E9E51EC

Weather Forecasting For Gas Operations Past, Present, And Future
Author(s): Dennis W. Trettel
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the various phases that weather forecasting has gone through from the start of hourly weather forecasts beginning in 1954 and continuing through the present time plus a look into the future. The past, present, and future of weather forecasting are discussed with emphasis on their effect on Gas Utility Operations. The paper starts with the first radiosonde transmission (1939) and progressively describes the evolution of weather forecasting and data transmission through WWII (1941-46) into the present (1987) and projects into the future. It describes the beginning of facsimile maps, the impact of radar, the use of satellite data, and the advent and thorough involvement of the current day computer facilities in the preparation and transmission of weather forecasts and data. Detailed descriptions of forecast situations with examples are provided. The general purpose of the paper is to give an overview of the development of the meteorology profession in its effort to provide the Gas Utility industry with not only the type of weather forecasts needed but also the type of information that can be professionally provided within the limits of the current status of the science of Meteorology.
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Document ID: 61D1848B

Advanced Communication Systems
Author(s): Christopher J. Ziolkowski, Kiran Kothari, William R. Rush
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the state-of-the-art in communications technology as applied to automated meter reading (AMR) systems for gas utilities. The communications links that are described include radio frequency, telephone, and fiber optics. Currently, commercial AMR systems for the gas industry are based on one of two technologies: radio frequency (RF) and telephone. The development of long-life lithium batteries and low-power consumption circuits have eliminated many of the obstacles that retarded the development of AMR systems. There are two manufacturers of RF-based systems and six manufacturers of telephone-based systems in the United States. There are also two telephonebased Japanese systems, but these are not marketed in the United States. The units are relatively easy to install and generally cost between 55 and 75.
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Document ID: 7427E7EE

Electronic Chart Reading: A New Way
Author(s): James L. Hamlin
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to offer one point of view about electronically calculating variables recorded on measurement charts. Instead of comparing methods, discussing pros and cons, weighing benefits, and asking general questions that dont have answers, time and space are best used by presenting a significant advancement in reading and evaluating measurement charts on an industry-wide scale. As a preface, it is important to explain briefly the corporate entity of Metrology One. Metrology One is a wholly owned subsidiary of Cascade Natural Gas Corporation, whose principal areas of business are conducted in the states of Washington and Oregon. Cascade Natural Gas distributes natural gas to over 86 communities and approximately 90,000 customers. All gas is delivered through one pipwline system that stretches from the Canadian border to the four-comer states of Arizona, Utah, Colorado. and New Mexico.
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Document ID: 9E4E94A3

Drive-By Meter Reading- A Space Age Solution To A Century-Old Problem
Author(s): Victor C. Rice
Abstract/Introduction:
Minnegasco, Inc., has begun a Remote Meter Reading program to read most of its 600,000 customer meters by simply driving down the street. Implementation began in December, 1986, and to date 15,000 meters have been equipped with EnScans AccuRead System. This paper reviews the considerations given prior to the beginning of implementation and highlights the benefits already experienced. Using EnScans AccuRead System, Minnegasco can read accurately in excess of 99 percent of these meters. One person can read 15,000- 24,000 in an eight hour day compared to about 250 using manual methods. Many things may cause a company to evaluate methods, procedures, and practices looking for ways to reduce the cost of service. The competitive marketplace has certainly done this in the gas industry during the past several years.
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Document ID: FDDFED29

A Critical Review Of The Electrofusion Joining Process
Author(s): K. G. Toll, J. L. Husted, J. J. Scanlon
Abstract/Introduction:
While the electrofusion process provide the gas engineer with a simple, reliable field joining method, the fusion process is complex and requires careful control of the key variables (time, temperature, and pressure) through fitting design and energy input control. Based on actual laboratory measurement of temperature and pressure in the fusion melt zone of 4-inch coupling joints, the paper describes the key conditions that relate to the melt fusion process under conditions of melt containment. Plots of pressure and temperature in the melt zone vs. time and energy input are included as well as a heat energy balance estimate. The paper also reviews the role of field procedures, performance testing, and future development in providing a reliable joining system for low installed-cost installation of PE gas distribution systems.
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Document ID: B5444596

Canadian Perspective On North American Gas Trade
Author(s): Robert Skinner
Abstract/Introduction:
Three themes are related to bilateral energy trade, energy security, and the state of the petroleum industry in North America: First, notwithstanding the progress of energy deregulation and the withdrawal of governments from the market place, still there seems to be a demand to hear fromgovernment officials-while industry wants governments out of its boardrooms, some still seem to want some governmental guidance and approval. In the current world energy price environment, it seems that the only growth industry is energy seminars. This suggests not only the confusion in the oil business as a result of a rapidly changing market but also the need for good communication and understanding of the issues between and among producers and consumers. Finally, and perhaps most serious, the importance of Canadian energy exports to North American energy security is either being forgotten or ignored and lately, in our view, has been abused in the midst of legitimate re-emerging concerns about U.S. energy security.
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Document ID: 320F76B9

Updating Piping And Vessel Insulation With Composite Systems
Author(s): Stanley T. Kastanas
Abstract/Introduction:
In most cases, replacement of damaged, lost, or missing insulation in older (LNG, SNG, LPG-Air, or similar) facilities meant resurrecting original design specifications and then, assuming a proposed budget was approved, forwarding these specifications to a qualified insulation contractor for eventual installation. This paper presents a perspective on insulating systems that should be considered by engineering, safety, operating, or maintenance personnel responsible for facility updating, maintenance, safety, and material selection. Emphasis is given to insulating systems, particularly, composites of insulating systems. These composites, when sandwiched together in an appropriate manner, result in an insulating system superior to any one of its individual constituents. For reasons noted in this paper, the treatment of materials found within these insulating systems will be limited to inorganic and organic cellular foam type glass and fiberglass insulations. The introduction explains the restrictions and associated disclaimers involved in these discussions.
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Document ID: 7DD39101

Reducing Nox Exhaust Emissions On Existing Spark Ignited Integral Gas Engines
Author(s): John P. Ealy
Abstract/Introduction:
Exhaust emissions from stationary internal combustion gas engines have been subject to federal and/or local governmental regulations for over a decade. Each area of the Country can have dramatically different regulations governing exhaust emissions from new and/or existing engine-compressor installations. This discussion does not deal with specific environmental regulations or interpretation of these regulations. It concerns methods of reducing the primary pollutant on spark-ignited gas engines, Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx). These methods can be evaluated on a case-by-case basis by users confronted with specific environmental regulations. They can be implemented to reduce NOx emissions from existing compressor stations or existing surplus equipment being relocated to new or different locations. This presentation relates primarily to medium-large-bore, spark-ignited, slow-speed, four-stroke integral gas engine compressors. Many of the NOx reduction techniques discussed are also applicable to the broad category of gas engines, including two-stroke and highspeed engines.
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Document ID: 50F05EA8

Pacific Gas And Electric Company Warehouse Management System- Use Of Bar Code Technology
Author(s): Gordon R. Swallow
Abstract/Introduction:
Pacific Gas and Electric Company is a public utility serving natural gas and electric energy to 7 million customers in Northern and Central California. In October 1984, a new centralized materials distribution center was opened by PG&E in Fremont, California, to help meet the companys material distribution needs. This Distribution Center has a narrow-aisle storage configuration with storage heights to thirty feet. It uses wire guided picking and storage equipment to move material into and out of the high density storage areas. An on-site computer locates and tracks all items in the inventory whenever they may be located within the 90,000 square feet of warehouse or the 26.8 acre storage yard. The storage locations are assigned to products for putaway as empty locations of the appropriate type and size become available - locations are not dedicated to a certain product. There are in excess of 20,000 individually identified locations in the complex.
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Document ID: 6825C996

Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection For Combined Sox And Nox Control
Author(s): B. Folsom, W. Bartok, F. R. Kurzynske, m. Heap
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injeaion (GR-SI) involves co-firing pulverized coal with natural gas in combination with sorbent injection and/or coal cleaning to allow for cost effective reduction of acid rain precursor emissions (NOx and SOx) from pre-NSPS coal fired utility boilers. This would provide the utility industry with flexibility in fuel selection to satisfy potential acid rain control legislation. This paper describes a demonstration project that will be funded cooperatively by the Department of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, and the State of Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources, to demonstrate GR-Si on three coal fired utility boilers located in the State of Illinois. Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection will be applied to one each of wall, corner, and cyclone fired boiler types with overall reduction targets of 60 percent in NO, and 20 percent in SOx emissions. The overview of the planned demonstration project is discussed, including design consideration and economic projections for GR-SI applications.
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Document ID: 67549DFB

Guidelines-Technician Certification Program For Veliicle Mounted Hydraulic Systems
Author(s): Donald R. Ashton
Abstract/Introduction:
On January 26th and 27th, 1987, the American Gas Association A.G.A.) Automotive and Mobile Equipment Committee and the Edison Electric Institutes (EEI) Transportation Committee convened a joint workshop in Tampa, Florida. The workshop subject was the examination of Professional Certification for technicians working on vehicle mounted Hydraulic Systems. The selected subject was a follow-up from interest expressed at earlier meetings and the concerns voiced by numerous utility fleet managers over the need to objectively evaluate technicians knowledge in this area. Workshop attendees reviewed existing programs and discussed the various tasks a hydraulic technician working on utility equipment would be expected to perform. The attendees then developed the following guidelines to provide direction for a working task force to use in formulating a meaningful hydraulic certification program.
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Document ID: 95CA923E

Generating Electricity With A Letdown Gas Compressor
Author(s): Michael R. Hale
Abstract/Introduction:
San Diego Gas & Electric has been operating a turbo-expander-driven generator on its natural gas transmission system since April 1983. This system is capable of recovering the energy that is normally lost in the process of reducing gas pressure as it flows from a high pressure system into a low pressure system. San Diego Gas & Electrics system is installed at a city gate station. A turbo-expander is routinely described as a centrifugal compressor operating backwards. This description is very useful in visualizing the equipment and the process. Rather than putting energy into a gas stream and compressing it, an expander is capable of recovering the energy available in a pressure drop such as takes place in a regulator station. This energy is converted into shaft horsepower, which then can be used to drive a generator.
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Document ID: DDAECFD9

Drugs In The Workplace- Management Options And Considerations
Author(s): Charles S. Pendleton
Abstract/Introduction:
Drug abuse cuts across every ethnic group, all trades, professions, salary ranges, and educational backgrounds in every pan of our Country. Drugs are one of the largest social problems in the United States today and have entered the workplace in alarming proportions. Illicit drug traffic is estimated to be billions of dollars annually. The cost to industry is staggering in losttime accidents, low productivity, absenteeism, civil suits for huge money damages, workmans compensation, increased health and medical costs, damaged and destroyed property, theft, security risks, as well as other more subtle forms of damage to the corporation and its public image. The dangerous drugs that cause problems for industry are divided into the following broad categories: alcohol, marijuana, stimulants, depressants, narcotics, hallucinogens, and inhalants.
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Document ID: 014F1FE4

Selection Process For An Amr System
Author(s): John W. Welch
Abstract/Introduction:
The age of electronic automatic meter reading and data retrieval has become a reality in the gas industry. The improvement in minicomputer technology and related software along with the recent deregulation of the telephone industry are a few of the outside factors that contributed to the development of cost-effective and efficient data-retrieval systems. We at Equitable have spent a great deal of time and effort in the evaluation, testing, and further development of a data-retrieval system. Several of the available systems offer technology well beyond the realm of remote meter reading. In this paper we have established evaluation criteria and identified many of the advantages as well as the disadvantages associated with the various technologies. In addition, we have stressed the importance of implementing a data-retrieval system that can accommodate the data required to operate a gas utility during this period of intense competition and customer awareness.
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Document ID: 1437B9CA

LNG Siting-You Can Do It! If( Youre Careful)
Author(s): Richard R. Hoffmann, Robert K. Arvedlund
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the review process that a proposed interstate LNG facility undergoes when filed at the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and specifically as it applies to the environmental/engineering design review conducted by the staff. The paper covers the review process for both import/export and peakshaving facilities however, baseload LNG import/ export facilities always mean additional detailed review and usually greater controversy.
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Document ID: 5C2404CA

The Southern California Gas Company Plastic Pipe And Fitting Quality Assurance Program
Author(s): Mark Otrhalek
Abstract/Introduction:
The Southern California Gas Company (SoCal Gas) serves over 4,000,000 customers in Southern and Central California. SoCal Gas began using medium density polyethylene plastic pipe in 1967 and today has over 30,000 miles of polyethylene main and services. Beginning in 1975, SoCal Gas has had a formalized quality assurance program for plastic pipe and fittings. This paper will describe the SoCal Gas current and future plastic pipe and fitting quality assurance program.
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Document ID: B66AA6C3

Shop Manpower And Productivity Standards
Author(s): John E. Douce
Abstract/Introduction:
Work standards can be used to schedule work in and out of our vehicle maintenance facilities. Work standards are comprised of realistic repair times for tasks performed in our operations. The elements of work standards are Work skills Work habits Work knowledge Dexterity in performing the task Sequence of events in task performance How to perform the elements of a task We gather labor hours from shop repair orders similar to that illustrated in Figure 1. We measure the elements of work standards and publish a realistic time frame for expected performance for example:
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Document ID: 63F04FE3

Sunshine Employee Teams
Author(s): D. Hanna, G. Haines, J. Hill, S. Lazanis, R. Mollick, R. Niemi, D. Rathbun, A. Strauss, R. Tamblyn, J. Wortman
Abstract/Introduction:
Quick success items are small problems in the immediate area of job responsibility and expertise of the involved Team and for which the Leader has the authority to authorize the solution. To qualify as a Quick Success Item, the solution must be obvious to the Team. For example: the problem does not require in-depth analysis or the use of a variety of problemsolving techniques because the solution is so readily apparent, it jumps out at the Team. Since the Team was formed in December of 1984, four Quick Success Items have been implemented in the Ashtabula Service Center:
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Document ID: A97C8F60

Training Of Utilization Engineers And Technicians
Author(s): Robert H. Regester
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for training Utilization Engineers and Technicians became apparent in the early 1980s. It was realized that gas supply had improved immeasurably. The trained engineers and technicians of the 50s and 60s had been retired and were not replaced during the supply shortage era of the 1970s. A task group from the Operating Section was formed with a group of people from Customer Service and Utilization Committee. They put together Technical Note CSU-83-il-l, Gas Utilization Requirements in the Gas Distribution Companies. This technical note was a basis for developing questionnaires and programs for future training.
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Document ID: 24D2C3DD

Horizontal Boring Of Two Crossings
Author(s): Thomas m. Steinbauer
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses ANR Pipeline Companys recent experience with two horizontally drilled crossings near Morgan City, Louisiana. These are by no means significant crossings in terms of size and length. The longest crossing that my brief research was able to uncover was a 4,700-foot, 12-inch crossing of the Magdalena River in Colombia, which was completed in 1982. The largest diameter was a 1,700-foot crossing of the Houston Ship Channel with 40-inch pipe in 1979. Now that you know what some of the more significant horizontally drilled crossings have been, Id like to tell you about two eight-inch crossings one is a 774-foot crossing under the Southern Pacific Railroad and U.S. Highway 90, the other a 1424-foot crossing beneath Bayou Teche. Both of these crossings are located between Patterson, Louisiana, and the Wax Lake Outlet.
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Document ID: 8695CAD1

Gri Plans For A Meter Research Facility
Author(s): K. m. Kothari, R. S. Norman
Abstract/Introduction:
The increasing need for technical information on gas metering accuracy, performance parameters, and system effects has produced a number of research programs in recent years both in the United States and Europe. Major programs dealing with the performance of orifice meters have been developed by the European Economic Community (EEC), the American Petroleum Institute (API), and GRI. Although the results of these programs are not yet fully analyzed, they are expected to improve gas measurement accuracy at custody transfer stations. However, it has been recognized that many metering R&D questions still remain. For orifice meters, additional testing will be required to include larger meter tube diameters, high Reynolds numbers, and the sensitivity of coefficient data to parameters such as flow asymmetries, system effects, tube roughness, etc. Current facility limitations do not permit experimental programs to address these problems. Uncertainties can be caused by nonideal flow conditions, such as pulsations, swirl, and profile distortions due to flow conditioners that can occur at field installations. These so-called systems effects have historically resulted in differences between metering accuracy achieved under laboratory conditions and metering accuracy achieved in the field.
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Document ID: 95EC7BA7

Foreign Pipe Procurement
Author(s): John J. Parker
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to give the Materials Specialist a current summary of the pipe procurement Market and to detail the recent political history of foreign imported steel products. After a brief introduction, the details of political actions including the period of Trigger Pricing and current Volunlary Restraint Agreements (VRAs) are discussed in detail. The final section provides recommendations and suggestions on how to deal with overseas manufacturers and describes the process of making a major overseas pipe purchase. Everyone engaged in tubular procurement has been and must be concerned with the available future sources of tubular goods for our project work. Over the past decade most of us have experienced both the shortage and oversupply conditions that existed at our main steel supply centers. During this time, there has been the viable alternative of purchasing our needs from foreign suppliers as well as domestic and Canadian sources. The decision to purchase overseas has usually been of a political nature dictated by our top managements.
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Document ID: 40830383

Multi-Channel Casing Inspection Instrument
Author(s): Stephan A. Mato, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The present state of the art in casing corrosion analysis is represented by the Vertilog survey. This tool provides accurate information regarding the extent and depth of anomalies in casing in a well. Advances in instrumentation have been made that can increase the ability to define and interpret anomalous responses in this type of downhole measurement. Studies have been performed relative to these advances. An experimental tool that incorporates these advances into its design has been built and commercially run. Independent research by Southwest Research Institute, in studies sponsored by the A.G.A. (PRC Projects PR-15-411 and PR-15- 614), has also demonstrated these advances and further demonstrated the next generation of technology needed to exploit more fully these advances in defining the complete condition of the casing in a well.
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Document ID: 28D22556

Utility Fleet Experience With Minivans
Author(s): Karl H. Kittelberger
Abstract/Introduction:
Up until about three years ago, vans have served our fleets mainly as small trucks or buses. However, the use of a relatively new term in automotive lore became popular at that time- minivan. A diminutive version of the full-size van came on the market. Minivans caught the attention of fleet managers and became an alternative replacement vehicle for full-size vans, station wagons, pickup trucks, and passenger cars. Many people looked at the minivan as a new vehicle, when actually the first compact van appeared more than 30 years ago. It was in the form of the Volkswagen Bus. Shortly after, it was followed by a Falcon-based van from Ford, a Valiant-based van from Chrysler, a Corvairbased, rear-engine van from Chevrolet, the Corvan and the Greenbriar. Many utility fleets utilized the compact vans in the late fifties and early sixties. But all three American-made compact vans died a quiet death after a short production life. The public and fieet operators just were not ready for these miniaturized vans.
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Document ID: 3304208B

Effects Of The Use And Misuse Of Supercompressibility On Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Jim Novacek
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper explains the basic physics behind the concept of supercompressibility and how the supercompressibility is used in the gas industry. After this background material has been discussed, the major emphasis of the paper is to compare the recently developed OU/GRI method discussed in A.G.A. Report No. 8 to the standard NX-19 method for calculating supercompressibility factors. The results show that the OU/GRl method gives increasingly better results as the pressure of the gas increases. The paper recommends that, under sufficiently high pressures, the OU/GRI method may be worth using. The paper also states that, as the gas industry becomes more competitive, the emphasis on better accuracy in measurement will become greater. The OU/GRI method is one way to help meet this need.
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Document ID: 5A3BD416

Fuel Efficiency Controls And Monitoring Systems
Author(s): Charles Ward
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years the attempt by Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America (Natural) to compute a specific fuel consumption was rather cumbersome. An average horsepower was determined from operating sheets. The parameters used included an average time operated, average daily pressures (suction, discharge), and an average loading step. The average horsepower was taken from horsepower capacity curves, The horsepower was multiplied by hours operated. Daily fuel consumption was determined from main engine fuel charts. By dividing these values, a specific fuel consumption was determined. The determined value was for several engines, so data were not available for individual units. In 1960, Natural began a program to supercharge most of the mainline compressors. This program included extensive performance testing. A positive meter was installed to measure fuel to the test units. It was decided that all supercharged units would have an individual orifice setting installed in the fuel run. After orifice installation, instrumentation was added to calculate and provide a fuel torque readout. This readout was in percentage of rated load. These torque values then could be compared with those for other units of the same type and running at the same loading conditions. These fuel torque readings could also be compared to curve torque readings from horsepower/ capacity curves.
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Document ID: 9DF83A19

Gas Appliance Technology Center Gatc()
Author(s): Robert J. Hemphill
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1981, the Gas Research Institute (GRI) determined that an accelerated effort in appliance technology development was needed to quickly develop new systems to meet the needs of gas utilities, ratepayers, and appliance manufacturers. GRI perceived that a Gas Appliance Technology Center (GATC) would meet this growing need for a focused, reliable, comprehensive source of appliance technology, The primary objective of the GATC is to introduce and accelerate the development of improved energy-efficient, gas-fired utilization equipment for residential and commercial consumers. The GATC will accomplish this objective by evaluating equipment performance improvements obtained with new technologies and working with manufacturers to apply these new technologies to advanced appliances and related equipment.
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Document ID: CC44BAF0

The Insurance Crisis And The Risk Management Of Contractor/Supplier Liability
Author(s): R. W. Wilcox
Abstract/Introduction:
Before I address the specifics of the Materials Management Departments role in the Risk Management of Contractor/Supplier Liability, I think it is essential that we take a few moments to discuss the current crisis in the Property/ Casualty Insurance marketplace. Such a review will perhaps give all of us a greater sensitivity to the complexity of this current crisis and the role thai all of us can play in an effort to control corporate losses. If youve been paying attention to the news lately, you probably have heard many stories regarding what has come to be known as The Insurance Crisis. Your doctor has been complaining loudly about the cost of malpractice insurance. Your municipal government has been compelled to cut services and close playgrounds because of the same so-called Insurance Crisis. Businesses all over the nation have been reportedly forced to close their doors for the lack of insurance protection.
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Document ID: D5E78BE3

Gas Identification By Geochemical Fingerprinting
Author(s): Dennis D. Coleman
Abstract/Introduction:
Geochemical fingerprinting of natural gas involves determining a characteristic set of chemical and isotopic compositions that can be used to distinguish gases from different sources. Bacterial gases such as landfill gases, marsh gases, and the gases typically found in soils and ground water can be readily distinguished from pipeline gas or storage gas by carbon isotope analysis of methane. Petroleum related gases from different sources can also be differentiated through the use of chemical and isotopic analyses. Therefore, if pipeline gas is being stored in a producing area, geochemical fingerprinting can be used to distinguish storage gas from native gas and to identify gas that has migrated from the storage reservoir. In some cases, one can even distinguish old injection gas from recent injection gas.
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Document ID: 860C5DB0

Development And Operation Of The Piedmont Natural Gas Company 80M Transfer Prover
Author(s): Tom Broome, Alan Higgins
Abstract/Introduction:
For years, the industry lacked the capability to field test satisfactorily the accuracy of large capacity (up to 80,000 CFH) rotary and turbine gas meters. Differential and spin test methods for testing rotary and turbine meters in the field were only indications of the meters mechanical condition, not the meters proof. The last resort, when dealing with a large volume customers high bill complaint, was to return the large meter to the factory for testing. This was expensive, time consuming, and very inconvenient. Under these circumstances. Piedmont Natural Gas Company decided to develop a large volume portable prover capable of testing both rotary and turbine type meters. This paper describes the unique design, which allows the prover to accurately test rotary and turbine meters from low flow to full capacity flow. In addition, the procedure for certifying the prover accuracy and the basic operation involved in performing a test are discussed.
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Document ID: DC032123

The Outlook For The Petroleum Industry, 1987-91
Author(s): Gene T. Kinney
Abstract/Introduction:
The outlook for the oil and gas industry depends to a marked degree on the policy choices made by the U.S. Congress over the next 18 months. Demand for oil is growing once more, but domestic supply of oil and gas is declining steadily. Those trends will continue unless policy changes are made to reverse them, restraining the rising tide of imported oil required to fill the supply-demand gap. The Department of Energy has offered a program to do just that. However, adoption depends entirely on Congress, which in prior years has rejected every major proposal in the government package. The title of this speech is a misnomer. It should read, The Outlooks for the Petroleum Industry, 1987-91. Any particular outlook used to describe the environment of the next few years must be heavily qualified. Uncertainty remains the dominant condition of the marketplace, but it doesnt stop there. It extends to the energy policy that the President and the Congress will choose for this Country. Depending on the policy choices made over the next 18 months, sharply contrasting futures await the oil and gas industry in the United States.
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Document ID: BA27BF75

Feasibility Analysis And Development Of A Foam-Protected Underground Natural Gas Storage Facility
Author(s): R. A. Witherspoon, C. J. Radke, Y. Shikari, K. Pruess, P. Persoff, S. m. Benson, Y. S. Wu
Abstract/Introduction:
Underground storage of natural gas has been practiced for over 40 years as a cost-effective means of meeting peak demand. However, the volume of gas that must remain in the storage aquifer (base gas) is typically large compared to the quantity that is available for withdrawal (working gas). One way of improving the efficiency of gas storage operations is to keep the working gas closer to the withdrawal wells and to create a thicker gas saturated region. To achieve this, the mobility of the injected gas must be controlled. We are investigating the feasibility of using foam as a mobility control agent for gas storage operations. Specific concepts for using foam to improve gas storage operations range from improved injection/ withdrawal well performance to the potential for creating isolated underground storage regions. This paper describes the efforts of the first year of the three-year research program that is being sponsored by the Gas Research Institute. Laboratory studies for identifying suitable foams and for improving our knowledge of foam behavior are being carried out. In addition, a mathematical model for simulating foam-protected gas storage operations and for designing foam-protected storage operations is being developed.
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Document ID: 650475FD

Computer-Aided Service Dispatching Using The Motorola KDT-480 Mobile Data System
Author(s): Armand L. Monfort
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper deals with the technical operation of computer-aided dispatching. The aim and goal of this system is to meet todays demands in the competitive world. These demands are viewed as customer satisfaction and an increase in productivity from the workforce.
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Document ID: 9D924E2C

Some Contentious Aspects Of Cathodic Protection
Author(s): Maurice A. Riordan
Abstract/Introduction:
Recently, NACE Task Group TlO-l distributed for review and comment some proposed revisions to the existing Criteria for Cathodic Protection. It is apparent from the response that a large segment of the gas industry opposed the intended revisions. This situation focuses attention on the controversies that presently exist with respect to the field practice of cathodic protection. The following presentation is intended to identify some contentious aspects of cathodic protection and to shed some light on the nature of, and basis for, the contention.
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Document ID: 62D142C2

Leaks And Blowouts Caused By Pitting Can Be Controlled In Gas Pipelines
Author(s): J. D. Tarver, R. G. Asperger, J. E. Davis
Abstract/Introduction:
The type of corrosion that leads to most leaks and blowouts of gas gathering pipelines is internal corrosion. More specifically, the corrosion is a pitting attack on the bottom of the pipeline near the 6:00 position. The most severe areas of pitting are in sags or dips, particularly on the downsteam riser, where trapped hquids repeatedly mechanically wash the pipe. In the early stages of the pipeline corrosion, its pits are isolated from one another. They generally are growing in the continuously, water-wet zones of the pipeline. These conditions are common in lines with stratified flow and less common in lines with annular flow. A pipeline that shows leaks from pitting is already severely harmed by corrosion and will be very difficult to protect from further pitting damage. PUs have thinned the metal so badly that even low, general corrosion rates of 1-2 mpy (0.0254-0.0508 mm/y) are too high to stop leaks.
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Document ID: 8754C417

The History Of Sng
Author(s): Stanley Pennington
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper examines the history of substitute natural gas (SNG) from its beginnings in California to the present time. SNGs greatest growth period was in the early 1970s. The reasons for this, together with the process used for the expansion, are discussed. Currently, SNG appears to be in a long-term decline. The author has no comment to make on when this will end, but he is certain that eventually it win.
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Document ID: 36354647

Flow Control In Polyethylene Gas Piping Systems By Squeeze-Off Techniques
Author(s): William L. Adams
Abstract/Introduction:
Squeeze-off has been used for many years as a flow control technique for polyethylene gas piping systems. Also known as pinch-off, the technique is widely used to reduce gas flow to safe levels in the event of an emergency, or to allow repairs or additions to polyethylene gas piping systems. This paper addresses the limitations of the technique, tool guidelines, squeezeoff procedure, the performance of squeezed pipe, and field problems.
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Document ID: C6A97B20

Applications Of Downhole Borehole Video Camera For Geotechnical And Geophysical Investigations Of Underground Gas Storage Facilities
Author(s): Joel S. Barbour, David Cummings
Abstract/Introduction:
The high resolution downhole video camera provides an economical and effective means for obtaining valuable subsurface geotechnical data for investigations of underground gas storage facilities. Such investigations can be done during exploratory, construction, and postconstruction phases. In an open hole, the borehole camera will provide data to determine orientation, frequency, and openness of fractures, bedding planes, faults and cavities. The extent of oxidation or reduction can also be observed. In a cased hole, the borehole camera will identify areas and severity of corrosion and/or encrustation. Additionally, the instrument will provide data for evaluation of casing defects, perforations, collars, or fishing operations. The video camera has proved to be capable of providing data unavailable from other logging instruments and has been used to verify the validity of geophysical logging instruments. The real-time video image is provided during the logging operation for preliminary assessments of the geologic and engineering properties. A color or black and white video tape that allows for in-depth evaluation of the data is generated. Video tapes from successive logs can be compared to assess changes in the borehole characteristics.
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Document ID: 58DF0D0B

Mechanical Pipe Connections- Dollars And Sense
Author(s): G. D. Ward
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is a summary of Panhandle Eastern Pipe Line Companys 20 years of experience with mechanical pipe connections, specifically the swaged tube/interference fit designs. This paper will: Explore the historical development of mechanical pipe connections Explain the advantage and disadvantages of the swaged tube designs Demonstrate the cost savings achieved by Panhandle Eastern Pipe Line Company by using mechanical joints Discuss applications that favor mechanical pipeline connections Reveal the development of a revolutionary new mechanical joint configuration called the DX design The DX, double expanded, design is a product of Panhandle Easterns Engineering Research and Development Department. The DX connection represents a radical departure from prior state-of-the-art mechanical joint designs. The DX connection is an advanced form of the swaged tube bell and pin configuration it has strength exceeding the absolute limits of the pipe from which it was made.
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Document ID: BDB57AFD

A.G.A. Plastic Pipe Assessment Update
Author(s): Theodore J. Zabel
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of the survey has been to review plastic gas piping performance over a period of time to determine arty trends, to compare plastic systems performance to alternate gas piping systems, and to communicate the results of the review to the gas industry.
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Document ID: 11AF79E9

Predicting The Service Life Of Cast Iron Mains
Author(s): James m. Iocca, Robert D. Pehlke
Abstract/Introduction:
There are hundreds of thousands of miles of buried cast iron pipe stili in service in the United States, serving mainly to distribute natural gas and water. Most of this pipe is over 50 years old, with some of it well in excess of 100 years old. It has provided excellent service over the years, but now, because of the gradual deterioration, pipe breaks and joint leaks are occurring with increasing frequency. These failures are mainly attributable to the combined effects of soil type, pipe and joint material, methods used to support the pipe, traffic, weather (particularly where frost action is prevalent), and the age and size of the pipe. Because of the increasing number of cast iron pipe breaks and joint leaks, gas utility management is faced with difficult choices - whether to repair and renovate, replace (which would require very large sums of capital), or consider a combination of the two. In some systems, mains may have already reached critical age (when failures tend to increase). In others, the critical age may be far into the future. Management, therefore, must have a complete understanding of the current status of their systems as well as of the probable future condition to make prudent and cost-effective repair/replacement decisions.
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Document ID: 58619439

Computerized Weather Forecast Data Link
Author(s): Kenneth P. Foley
Abstract/Introduction:
For several years, Northern Indiana Public Service Company received daily weather forecasts over the telephone from a Chicago-area consulting meteorologist firm. The forecasted values of hourly temperatures and wind speeds were used to calculate manually the heatsensitive portion of the estimated natural gas supply needs for the upcoming gas day. When NIPSCOs new gas dispatch SCADA system was installed last year, the telephone dialogue was replaced by a new computerized dial-up data link. The link uses off-the-shelf hardware and custom software, which was developed jointly by personnel at NIPSCO, the meteorologist firm, and the gas dispatch system contractor. Weather data may now be reviewed by gas dispatchers via CRT displays and heat-sensitive load is calculated by a load forecasting program resident in the gas dispatch computer system. The program uses weather forecast data that are transferred directly into the computers memory.
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Document ID: 448E196C

Bar Coding
Author(s): William F. Eckles
Abstract/Introduction:
The A.G.A. Managing Committee has authorized guidelines for the use of bar codes in the natural gas industry. The symbology is Code 39 with a density of 3.0 to 5.7 characters per inch. The bar code label is divided into a minimum of four sections, which will contain a human readable description, the manufacturers code number, quantity and units, and the manufacturers catalog number. A.G.A. has joined Industry Bar Code Alliance (IBCA), who wilt assist in instituting and maintaining the bar coding system by publishing the guidelines in conjunction with guidelines for other industries. In conjunction with A.G.A. and regional gas associations, IBCA will be conducting seminars in the fall of 1987 and spring of 1988 to familiarize gas utilities and their suppliers with the guidelines. The Managing Committee of the Operating Section of the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) authorized guidelines for the use of bar codes between gas equipment manufacturers and LDCs in interfacing with their warehouses. Figure 1 shows the standard guidelines approved by the Managing Committee.
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Document ID: AE7EDB8E

White Pigeon Compressor Station- An Automated Unattended Compressor Station
Author(s): Roger W. Haifley
Abstract/Introduction:
White Pigeon Compressor Station came on line in 1963 designed as an automated unattended station. This station has increased in size from two units in 1963 to 12 units in 1970. Staffing level has varied from 4 to 15 people depending on operating level. A 40-hour work week has been the practice since operations began. The facility is protected by an ESD system that can be operated from the control center or locally by gas detectors, fire detectors, or by the manual stations. Equipment is protected by various devices to detect unusual conditions and initiate a shutdown if operating limits are exceeded.
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Document ID: 7C0E2897

Development Of A Sonic Nozzle Prover For Domestic Meter Testing
Author(s): James E. Koester
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past decade, a significant body of practical knowledge related to meter proving with sonic-flow nozzles has been accumulated. With the advent of the microcomputer, application of these very repeatable flow rate reference standards is becoming commonplace. The development of a sonic nozzle prover for testing domestic-capacity meters is presented in this paper. A brief history and discussion of sonic nozzle principles are included for the benefit of those having no prior knowledge of the devices. Major aspects of the design including the computer and instrumentation hardware are considered. Results of direct comparison of the sonic nozzle prover to a number of bell provers is presented as a means of establishing traceability of the sonic nozzle as a standard. The paper concludes that sonic nozzle provers are worthy of further development as a successor to the bell prover.
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Document ID: 512F8BDB

Design Of Steel Gas Piping On Bridges
Author(s): Robert J. Zlokovitz
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas utilities often find that bridge crossings are the most desirable means of crossing highways, railroads, and waterways. This paper, prepared by a Distribution Design and Development Tksk Group, provides guidance for the design of such crossings, reviews some common installation practices, and discusses interest in the use of plastic pipe insertion. Examples of design calculations for some simple but common situations are included herein. Although thermal stresses are more severe than for buried installations, most distribution mains installed on bridges require no elaborate provisions or special designs. This paper is intended to assist the designer for most routine crossing situations.
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Document ID: BAC48207

Summary Of Federal Environmental Programs Affecting Natural Gas Transmission And Distribution Companies
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas transmission and distribution companies do not have the obvious environmental impacts of large centralized smokestack industries. Why then should these companies be concerned about environmental issues? The main reason is that environmental regulations have become so comprehensive, technically detailed, and strict that few (if any) businesses are not affected. This paper outlines the federal environmental requirements most commonly applied to natural gas transmission and distribution companies. It is not intended as a comprehensive guide for complying with specific laws and regulations. Standards for air emissions, wastewater discharges, solid and hazardous waste disposal, land use, and so on, may not apply in die same way to different companies. Regulations are constantly being reviewed and revised, so that requirements change over time. In addition, state and local environmental requirements are also beyond the scope of this outline, This does not mean that tliey are any less important than federal requirements. It is in any companys best interest to identify all current legal and regulatory obligations, understand how these obligations affect their business, and undertake necessary compliance actions.
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Document ID: B8B600C6

The Impact Of Electric Field Theory On Cathodic Protection Criteria
Author(s): Maurice A. Riordan
Abstract/Introduction:
Some controversial aspects of cathodic protection are reviewed. Exception is taken to some technical concepts that have widespread acceptance in the present-day practice of cathodic protection. These concepts include: Polarization of the cathode to the open circuit potential of the anode as being essential to cathodic protection Positive current Ohms law in electrolytic circuits IR drop. The application of electric field theory to the energy systems of corrosion and cathodic protection is discussed. Power as a fundamental criterion for cathodic protection is considered. It is concluded that energy concepts and electric field theory offer sound bases from which less controversial concepts and a sounder technical philosophy can be developed.
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Document ID: 0772A85A

New Ideas And Developments In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Paul J. Ziegler
Abstract/Introduction:
Several new ideas are presented, primarily in the areas of distribution measurement and meter shop applications along with a few new ideas dealing with large measurement and regulating facilities. Ideas related to meter shop/distribution measurement include a meter index tester to test indexes that have damaged gear teeth, an improved dip tank meter case leak tester. Robotics to automate meter cleaning and painting, a computer based inventory storage and retrieval system, a method to verify meter number data entries, and a computerbased program improving meter change out efficiency, Large measurement and regulating ideas include a method to inspect turbine meters in line, field testing inactive TC rotary meters, and skid mounted measurement and regulating stations.
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Document ID: 93841A72

Manning Maintenance For Productivity
Author(s): Fred J. Flihan
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the first truck was built and operated, it has been the responsibility of someone to keep that vehicle in good operating condition. The overall complexity and sophistication of fleet trucks and work equipment have evolved into expensive units to both purchase and maintain. We, as fleet managers, have to become more versatile in utilizing new techniques of sizing garage crews to meet these new challenges appropriately. Top management from all companies are now tending to show greater focus on the overall operating costs associated with transportation departments. Although most of them are aware that this expense is necessary for conducting business, more and more justification will be required on the part of fleet organizations to obtain operating budget dollars for providing essential and necessary support services to the corporation.
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Document ID: 20C8426A

Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Survey By Electromagnetic Spectrum Analysis-A Practical Application
Author(s): David A. Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
Operators of natural gas transmission pipelines are required by law to perform periodic leakage surveys along the entire length of the pipeline. The current practice is to patrol the line by foot and use senses of sight and smell combined with a gas detection device. A new method of leakage detection has been developed which allows the survey to be performed by use of helicopter or light aircraft and a sophisticated technique called Multi-Spectrum Analysis. This paper describes a demonstration of this new method on a 90-mile stretch of pipeline for Standard Pacific Gas Line Incorporated, a subsidiary of Pacific Gas & Electric Company. From this demonstration, it appears that this new technique is more efficient and effective than current practice.
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Document ID: 10511114

What Every Natural Gas Operations Person Should Know About Polymer Science And Plastic Gas Distribution Piping
Author(s): George W. Davis
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas engineers who already are proficient in the applications engineering of plastic pipe will find this paper useful in explaining certain basic concepts of polymer science. The mechanical behavior of polymers is also reviewed with emphasis on stress, time, and temperature considerations. The term plastic usually refers to a wide class of synthetic organic materials, often high in molecular weight, that can be shaped or formed during manufacture by application of heat or pressure. Essentially, plastics or polymers are structured of large, very long chain-like molecules buih up by repetition of small, simple chemical units called monomers. The word polymer is of Greek origin and means literally a molecule that consists of many (poly) parts (mer) the units that build up a polymer are called monomers or one (mono) part (mer). It is important to remember that the term plastic is a generic term and denotes a very large class of materials with varying properties. The generality of the term plastic may be likened to the terms metal, wood, gas, or even fish. Obviously, there are many types of metals, woods, gases, and fish as there are many types of plastics.
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Document ID: A5311A5E

Environmental Considerations At Manufactured Gas Plant Sites
Author(s): Ann Hegnauer, Andrew Middleton
Abstract/Introduction:
From the 1800s to just after World War Il manufactured gas plants were widely used to produce gas from coal or oil to provide energy for lighting and heating. Introduction to interstate natural gas pipelines that could move gas inexpensively caused many plants to cease production in the early 1950s. As a result, many abandoned or nonoperating gas manufacturing sites have become part of our environmental legacies. Because gas plant wastes and byproducts were disposed of on many of these sites, the utility industry, regulatory agencies, and general public are becoming increasingly concerned about the environmental risks and associated liabilities posed by these sites.
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Document ID: 894F01EB

What Benefits Automatic Meter Reading Amr() Can Produce For Philadelphia Gas Works
Author(s): Joseph G. Hornan
Abstract/Introduction:
Currem considerations of decHning customer perception and confidence, regulatory restrictions, and consumer challenges bring into focus the need for utilities to take positive action to provide more effective, efficient, and economical service to their subscribers. Nowhere has this become more critical than in the area of timely and accurate billings. The increase of estimated bills and the problems associated with them have been at the forefront of customer dissatisfaction. The current process from meter read to billing at Philadelphia Gas Works is described, but the economic impact on the firm is not limited to the meter-reading function. The problems experienced with estimated bills have rippled all through the utilities customer activities areas, and the economic impact of an automatic meter reading (AMR) system solution ripples its way through areas such as customer relations, customer accounting, collections, customer service, and a host of other financial and administrative operations. Following through on this ripple effect produces significantly greater cost savings than would be initially imagined.
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Document ID: AE104081

Nbs Research On The Effects Of Pipe Roughness And Flow Conditioners On The Orifice Discharge Coefficient
Author(s): Charles F. Sindt, James A. Brennan, Susan E. Mcfaddin
Abstract/Introduction:
The National Bureau of Standards at Boulder, Colorado, has been investigating the effects on the orifice discharge coefficient of the location of flow conditioners and of the surface roughness of orifice meter tubes. This investigation has been conducted using a 4-inch meter. The flow conditioners investigated were a tube bundle and a Sprenkle and were located at seven pipe diameters upstream of the orifice plate. Surface roughness from 0.7 to 6.9 m (30 to 270 (in) were used in the tube upstream of the orifice plate. The impact of the flow conditioner was to decrease the orifice discharge coefficient. At surface roughness above 3.8 iim (150 pin) the effect of the surface roughness was an increase in the orifice discharge coefficient, especially at high beta ratios.
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Document ID: D8D342E4

Replacement Of 17-inch Steel With 12-inch Polyethylene Pipe
Author(s): Lee Wagner
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1924,10 miles of 17 bare steel gas main was installed by PSE&G utilizing gas and electric arc welding. Over the years, all but 1.4 miles of the original installation was replaced with 16 coated and cathodically protected steel gas main. This article describes the replacement of the final 1.4 miles of the 17 steel main utilizing 12 polyethylene plastic pipe. Features of the article include the type of plastic pipe selected, engineering and economic considerations, and insertion construction details.
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Document ID: 73E5D114

Engine/Station Efficiency Monitoring
Author(s): Brad A. Grieves
Abstract/Introduction:
To stay competitive in todays market, gas companies must maintain operating and transportation costs at the lowest levels possible. Inasmuch as fuel expenses impact heavily on this effort, engines must be set up to run efficiently. They must also be monitored to assure that performance is maintained at a consistently high level. To realize these goals, engine torque must be maintained at 100 percent, and horsepower and speed must be adjusted accordingly. This method not only optimizes power end efficiency but also improves compressor performance. Compressor efficiency can be calculated with BWR techniques and monitored with a computer. Once obtained, this information can be utilized to decide which units should be operated. Unit efficiency, expressed as the Energy Conversion Rate (ECR), combines both power and compressor end efficiencies. Together the two provide a measure of the fuel required to operate the system versus the gas that is available for delivery to consumers.
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Document ID: 02296934

The Effect Of 49 Cfr Part 193 On LNG Plant Siting
Author(s): Benjamin H. Bakerjian
Abstract/Introduction:
I believe it is safe to say that the Federal Safety Standards that were issued on February 11, 1980, as a result of the 1979 amendments to the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act, have had a profound effect on the siting of the LNG plants in the United States. Facilities for which application had been made prior to March 1, 1978, or which were under construction before the Standards were issued were exempt from the new siting standards. These earlier plants conformed to the appropriate version of NFPA 59A in existence at the time. Since the new Federal Standards (Part 193) have been issued, there has been only one interstate facihty built and that is the peakshaving facility of Southwest Gas Corporation. There have been no import facilities built or planned. There are at least two new intrastate LNG peak-shaving plants that have been or are to be built and a number of intrastate plants that have been or are being expanded or modified.
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Document ID: EB734698

Strength Through Understanding
Author(s): William m. Laub
Abstract/Introduction:
However modestly you may view your own accomplishments, the fact of the matter is that the men and women gathered here today are the very backbone of Americas gas industry. And, believe me, thats a fact thats worthy of great respect. I could spend all the time 1 have with you saluting your many achievements, but, if I did so, Id have no time left for any other remarks. That being the case, Ill just call attention to a few of your more significant programs, and then pass on to the subject Ive chosen for today-Strength through Understanding. Among your many ongoing efforts, nothing is of greater importance to the industry than your consistent emphasis on improving operational safety. To be sure, accident prevention and employee safety have always been of major concern to this industry. But the efforts of you and your colleagues, over the past 40 years, have made it possible to decrease the rate of fatal accidents by 90 percent and to cut the injury rate by 50 percent - despite the fact that the industrys workforce has more than doubled from 95,000 to 218,000 since 1945. These safety gains were made during a period of major expansion and technological change and merit the highest praise.
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Document ID: CBF6B843

Modified Molecular Sieve For LNG Pretreatment
Author(s): Jack Sudduth
Abstract/Introduction:
Molecular sieve systems with open loop regeneration that uses gas once through are common types of liquefied natural gas (LNG) pretreatment systems. However, there are LNG plants with stringent flow-by and Cd concentration requirements that preclude the use of this type of sieve system. A Union Carbide/CBI designed modified molecular sieve pretreatment system that utilizes the principles of molecular sieve adsorption but has closed loop cooling and semiclosed loop heating can, in certain instances, meet these stringent pretreatment requirements. A general discussion of why this modified system is required and how it is designed is given.
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Document ID: A8DD3DF6

Whats Happening On The International Scene Of Gas Measurement
Author(s): Paul A. Hoglund
Abstract/Introduction:
In the immediate future, as well as in the long range, we here in the United States are going to see international actions having an ever increasing impact on gas measurement. Our American industry measurement practices have been accused of being provincial and resistant to change, yet change we must. Like our national automotive and heavy industries, we are in danger of being passed by. And, like those industries, the actions of others are not always in our best interest. Recognition of this concern has accelerated measurement research and development here in the United States. Changes are occurring, but we are just beginning to feel the impact of this effort. Future changes will be occurring at an even more accelerated rate! If we go back to the days of manufactured gas, the meter man was concerned with how many gas lights you had and the true test of the accuracy of the large positive displacement plant meters was the amount of system unaccounted for. Each gas company was self contained from production to utilization. Not totally unlike the medieval cities of the 1200s, each gas company literally operated within a set of walls.
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Document ID: 79158479

An Update On Gain- The Gas Applicance Improvement Network
Author(s): J. Robert Hudson
Abstract/Introduction:
The A.G.A.-sponsored Gas Appliance Improvement Network GAIN) had another successful year in 1986. GAIN increased its participating utilities to 84 members. The quality of reports not only remained high, but they generated a significant number of milestones, our term for valuable and positive actions on the part of the manufacturers. Those actions assure improved customer satisfaction with a variety of gas appliances in the years ahead. Another plus by GAIN is the growing number of young coordinators, as more and more old-timers move on either to positions of greater responsibility or to their well-deserved retirement status. New blood infuses new enthusiasm, and enthusiasm is one of the ingredients that makes GAIN most effective. We welcome any and alt new as well as continuing GAIN program participants.
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Document ID: 79BF1A2E

Techniques For Accidental Damage Prevention
Author(s): Steven W. Gauthier
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry has a very successful record of maintaining and operating a safe distribution and transmission system. However, accidental damage to underground gas distribution pipes by excavation equipment does occasionally occur and can be a costly and dangerous problem for the gas industry. Various methods are being used to try to prevent accidental, or third party, damage unfortunately these efforts have not been completely successful. In response to this, the Gas Research Institute is funding the development of several new concepts to help prevent accidental damage by excavation equipment. The projects being sponsored generally can be divided into two categories: (1) Pipe Avoidance Systems to help equipment operators avoid hitting underground gas lines during excavation and (2) Soft Excavation Tools, which have the ability to excavate a gas pipe without causing severe damage if it should come in contact with the pipe while digging. This paper briefly describes projects being sponsored by GRI in the area of Accidental Damage Prevention.
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Document ID: 3E1E1F37

Gas Allocation And Measurement In A Deregulated Environment
Author(s): David m. Mazurek, Blair A. Becker
Abstract/Introduction:
Deregulation and open access of pipelines to transportation customers present some unique challenges to the natural gas industry. The anticipated dramatic increase In numbers of transportation contracts and transporters for open access pipelines is discussed, along with transporter supply-demand balancing. The nomination process and alternative methods of allocation of capacity and priority of service are presented. Ownership declaration of commonstream measured volumes and a reconciliation of daily estimated to actual measured allocations is required. The paper includes some considerations of billing design, pipeline design, dissemination of information, and computer system support.
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Document ID: 1A04EEB5

Ambitrol Heat Transfer Fluids
Author(s): J. L. Dunn
Abstract/Introduction:
Stationary engines on gas transmission lines, line heaters, stand-by electrical generating systems, utility combustion air preheaters, and hydrocarbon vapor recovery units are just a few of the many industrial applications for heat transfer fluids. Frequently, these units must be protected against both freezing and overheating while providing maximum protection against corrosion and scale formation. To meet these special requirements, The Dow Chemical Company has a family of specialty heat transfer fluids formulated for use in the above applications. These products are the AMBITROL heat transfer fluids plus the AMBITROL inhibitor concentrate. Most of these products were developed approximately 26 years ago and have stood the test of time.
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Document ID: 360BF244

Theory And Design Of Micropower Electronic Instrumentation
Author(s): Richard J. Ensch
Abstract/Introduction:
With the coming of age of micropower electronics and the concentrated effort to acquire accurate measurement, a comprehensive evaluation of electronic instruments is underway. Extensive use of micropower electronics is occurring throughout the designs, enabling the instruments to be battery powered for long durations without requiring frequent battery changes. The sheer number of capabihties of the new high tech devices is one of the forces that is driving the integration of electronics into gas distribution instrumentation. The rapid development of the devices creates competitive struggles for market share that reduce costs and increase the available options. The integrated circuits of today require far less power than their predecessors, making possible long life operation with existing battery technology. The circuits themselves are smaller, more reliable, faster, and better able to withstand temperature, humidity, and electrical interferences.
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Document ID: 42592F7B

Repair Versus Replace Analysis- Guidelines For Existing Gas Mains
Author(s): Thomas H. Padley
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper was to develop guidelines for distribution engineering personnel to use in making repair versus replace decisions regarding existing gas mains. Many companies have attempted to develop objective guidelines for these decisions, but several subjective factors are usually involved in the decision making process. Most repair versus replace decisions cannot be made solely on the basis of economics because often there are other factors which are more critical than unit costs. Several of these subjective factors are discussed in this study, and a method of economic evaluation of alternatives is presented. The Companys leakage history is also analyzed in order to quantify the magnitude of the problem and to identify trends. Based on this information, several guidelines and an evaluation form were developed. The form combines a simple economic analysis and appropriate judgmental factors in a logical format to assist in making repair versus replace decisions. These guidelines and evaluation forms are currently used at lowa-Illinois Gas and Electric Company. They have helped provide uniformity in decisions in addition to justification and documentation for those decisions.
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Document ID: 5AFC3E8A

Developing An Internal Environmental Audit Program
Author(s): Henrietta E. Mosley
Abstract/Introduction:
Environmental audits have become an essential component of an adequate environmental compliance program as regulatory complexities multiply, statutory penalties increase, and public scrutiny intensifies. Audits identify problems so they can be corrected before they are cited as violations or become public emergencies. To minimize the risk that sensitive information will be disclosed before corrections can be made, the audit program should be structured from its inception so that the information it generates is subject to the attorney-client privilege. An ongoing program that provides for prompt remediation of whatever discrepancies are uncovered can nevertheless be operated with minimal attorney involvement.
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Document ID: 6B37A26A

New Fundamental Research Program On Flowmetering At Gri
Author(s): Max Klein
Abstract/Introduction:
In this paper we describe the basic research program in flow metering phenomena, which was recently started at GRI and which complements a larger applied research program of earlier but also relatively recent origin. The basic research projects are too new to have produced results. Our purpose in presenting this paper is to keep interested elements of the gas industry aware of the direction that fundamental research in metering at GRI is taking at this time. We restrict our discussion to the basic research program. The applied research program is being described in other papers at this meeting. We justify the expenditure of gas industry resources on this problem in terms of the cost of metering errors and the consequent need for very high metering accuracy, realizing that such cost cannot be precisely assigned or exactly calculated.
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Document ID: 099DBA1A

Public Service Electric And Gas Companys Customer Dispatch Support System Cdss()
Author(s): R. C. Rayner
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Transmission and Distribution (T&D) Department of Public Service Electric and Gas Company is responsible for serving approximately 1.4 million customers in the State of New Jersey, Within Gas T&D, a Customer Service Group provides response to gas leaks and emergency calls, service to all gas-burning appliances, the installation of gas meters, the tuming-on and discontinuance of gas and electric service to customers that are moving, the restoration of gas and electric service in conjunction with non-payment of bills, the installation of repair parts on gas appliances, and Company-originated work such as the periodic replacement of gas meters and inspection of gas-fired heating equipment. All totaled, the average number of service requests per year amounts to over 2,000,000. This is an extremely cyclic work load that is affected by monthly variations in customer turn-ons and shut-offs, time of year, and weather conditions.
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Document ID: 2762FAD7

Quality Assurance Program For An Automotive Services Department
Author(s): Kenneth R. Mitchell
Abstract/Introduction:
Statistics published by the California Highway Patrol revealed that California alone had 735 truck accidents caused by mechanical failures in 1985. The number decreased in 1986 by 48 however, fatalities caused by mechanical failures increased in 1986 by 55 mounting to 184 truck equipment failure related deaths. The liabilities associated with mechanical failures and the desire to improve user satisfaction with garage department performance has had the most influence in the development of Southern California Edisons Automotive Services Department Quality Assurance Program. User dissatisfaction could result in the demise of the vehicle maintenance department thus causing user organizations to control the maintenance of their vehicles by contracting the work to vendors and possibly eliminating the entire vehicle maintenance department. On the other hand, liabilities associated with mechanical failures could result in enormous legal costs leading to the possible destruction of the maintenance department.
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Document ID: A5348C68

Corrosion Damage Assessment In Gas Storage Well Casing By Means Of Advanced Magnetic Perturbation Logging
Author(s): R. K. Swanson
Abstract/Introduction:
Corrosion damage in gas storage well casing is particularly serious because these wells are frequently flowed through casing to improve the gas delivery rate. Penetration of the casing wall by corrosion flaws can result in serious product loss as well as unacceptable safety hazards. As an aid in assessing corrosion damage in well casing, corrosion logs have been available to the industry for many years. These, however, have not received wide acceptance as definitive for making repair decisions. The effort described in this paper was designed to investigate the effectiveness of commercially available corrosion logs, and to demonstrate improvements which would increase the confidence of operators in this procedure. The results of the investigation suggested that considerable improvement could be obtained by the application of modern digital data acquisition techniques to one common type of corrosion log, namely flux leakage or magnetic perturbation measurements. In conjunction with a commerical logging company, an experimental electronic package has been developed and demonstrated. This instrumentation transmits the full set of signal information from an array of downhole magnetometers to the surface. From these data sets, relatively simple interpretation techniques make it possible to size individual corrosion pits. Analysis shows that the sizing of such pits is essential to the accurate assessment of casing damage.
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Document ID: 84AB3705

Automated Mapping/Facilities Management (AM/FM) Questionnaire By Member Companies Of The Distribution Design And Development Committee
Author(s): Don D. Courtney
Abstract/Introduction:
In the fall of 1986, the Computer Applications in Engineering & Operations Tksk Group of the A.G.A. Distribution Design & Development Committee conducted a survey of member gas distribution companies to determine the status of their particip3tion in Automated Mapping/ Facilities Management. A total of 25 companies from 16 states and Canada responded to the survey. The survey was rather lengthy, consisting of 85 questions, many of which had several parts. Consequently, the results of the questionnaire are presented here in a summary tabulation. Speaking solely from the viewpoint of one former member of the DD&D Committee, the questionnaire was very useful and may very well change the course on which we have been proceeding. The Committee might consider reissuing a briefer version of the questionnaire periodically so that others can benefit from the experiences of those who have preceded them.
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Document ID: 840FEA26

Materials Management As A Profit Center
Author(s): Forrest J. Maier
Abstract/Introduction:
At Southern California Gas Company, we look at materials management as a profit center basically in terms of our management of active and inactive/excess materials. This paper focuses on inventory investment, service to our user organizations, and identification and disposal of inactive/excess materials.
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Document ID: A84DB20B

CO2 Removal Prior To Natural Gas Storage Injection
Author(s): Thomas J. Kresse
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America has experienced Cd corrosion in the gathering system lines in several of its storage fields. At two of the storage fields. Natural has intalled CO2 removal plants to treat the natural gas before injection into the storage field. The reduction of the CO2 content will reduce the corrosiveness of the wet withdrawal gas. The two CO2 removal plants have operated during the 1985 and 1986 injection seasons. Although design conditions have not been obtained, the CO2 content of the withdrawal gas has been reduced significantly.
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Document ID: 412C3EEF

Joint Vendor Locating Update
Author(s): Anthony J. Morrison
Abstract/Introduction:
The concept of having a single entity perform the locating and markout functions for several utilities was first suggested at The Connecticut Light and Power Company (CL&P) in November of 1982. CL&P is an operating company of Northeast Utilities which provides service to approximately 1,000,000 electric and 162,000 gas customers in the State of Connecticut. At CL&P, as with most utilities, both the Gas and Electric Departments were being faced with an ever-increasing burden of locating and marking our underground facilities in response to requests received from the Connecticut One- Call System (Call Before You Dig). It seemed obvious that a joint venture with other interested utilities could result in significant cost savings for the participants. For this reason, in February 1983, representatives of CL&P Gas and Electric Departments solicited interest from a number of other neighboring utilities. While several of these utilities indicated some interest in the concept, only two -Southern New England Telephone Company (SNETCO) and AT&T Communications (AT&T)-indicated a willingness to explore the possibilities further.
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Document ID: C28181E0

Squeeze-Off . . . An Industry Effort
Author(s): William F. Ogilvie
Abstract/Introduction:
Squeeze-off . . . whats happening? As in other aspects of gas distribution and polyethylene pipe technology, practices come into use before mdustry-wide standards are prepared and adopted. This is the situation with flow control by squeeze-off for polyethylene pipe in gas distribution systems. Utilities, pipe producers, equipment manufacturers, and consultants have been continuously working in this area. Work has been done both independently and cooperatively through such vehicles as the A.G.A. Plastic Materials Committee and the American Society for Tfesting and Materials (ASTM). In 1982, the need to formalize and expand the body of knowledge regarding squeeze-off was recognized by the A.G.A. Plastic Materials Committee The committee made a request of ASTM to develop standards on the subject.
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Document ID: 4CBF155A

Pipeline Safety-Past, Present, And Future
Author(s): Cindy Douglass
Abstract/Introduction:
This occasion presents an opportunity to engage you who represent the gas distribution and transmission industry in a dialogue about the safety of gas pipelines and to present my views and those of the Administration I represent on our Federal Pipeline Safety Program. Your industry has long provided the businesses and consumers of our country with a cost efficient means of transporting natural gas which is necessary to our present quality of life. And, despite the hazardous characteristics of natural gas and many liquid products, pipeline transportation is by far and away the safest and most environmentally acceptable mode of transportation in existence today.
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Document ID: B0987438


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