Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (1987)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Operational Procedures Of Electronic Chart Processor
Author(s): Chuck Gray
Abstract/Introduction:
The UGC Chart Processor is a microprocessor based system designed to translate orifice meter chart records into accurate billing-compatible data of Integrated flow (chart extension), flow time and average pressure. It will handle American (Westcott) and Foxboro charts as the pens canbe mounted so as to pivot in the same geometric paths as the recording pens of these types of meters. As an option, the Chart Processor can be fitted with pen mounts for Taylor and/or Rockwell charts. The operator directs the pens to follow the records by moving the trace handles as the chart rotates. The rotational speed of the chart table is governed by a variable foot control. The chart Is secured to the chart table so Its rotation and the motion of the pens by the operator simulate the actions In the recording meter.
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Document ID: 67A75030

Mikeing And Inspecting Meter Tubes
Author(s): Lonnie R. Grady
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas prices are once again on the slide. Host companies, both producers and transporters, are looking for ways of cutting overhead. Measurement is an area that is often one of the first to suffer. I agree that cost consciousness is important and some cuts in measurement services may be justified. An area that should not be cut is the inspection of meter tubes. This paper will attempt to present the methods used to insure that meter tubes meet ANSI/API 2530 (AGA3) requirements.
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Document ID: 90A7FB90

Field Inspections And Calibrating Measurement Instruments
Author(s): Mike Eads
Abstract/Introduction:
The rising cost of gas has placed accurate measurement the number one prioirity on most companies list. Most companies management are willing to spend much more money to accomplish good measurement than in past years. In the past, the phrase unaccounted for gas related mostly to leaks. Management is now looking to measurement supervisors for assistance in reducing unaccounted for gas.
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Document ID: F39C21B1

Meter Selection For Various Load Requirements
Author(s): George L. Bell
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the first gas meter, because of technical advances, improved material, economics, and energy conservation, the measurement of natural gas has seen many changes. These changes have occurred in both the theory and practices of measurement, as well as the actual physical meter itself. The first meter, a positive displacement meter, has seen only physical changes over the years which allows the positive displacement meter to measure at an increased volume rate and higher pressure. This meter is still widely used in the industry today. Expanding from this fundamental meter, the industry has come to a point where natural gas can not only be measured in more ways, but also, more accurately. In selecting a specific type of meter for a required load type, the Measurement Engineer should consider all types of meters. The basic types of meters available to the Measurement Engineer and a brief description follows.
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Document ID: 5B35BF37

Spot Sampling Techniques
Author(s): Jerry Bernos
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1978 the United States Congress passed the Natural Gas Policy Act. This legislation required that natural gas be priced according to its energy content rather than by volume alone. At the same time, the economics of the natural gas industry caused natural gas prices to soar. These two factors resulted in a vast increase in the demand for accurate analyses of natural gas systems. Since it was not economically feasible to place analytical instruments at each and every location requiring BTU determinations, a corresponding increase occurred in the need to obtain spot samples of these systems. This paper is intended to present the problems that arise in spot sampling and to Introduce the industry accepted methods which can overcome these problems.
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Document ID: 207A98EA

Fundamental Principles Of Self-Operated Regulators
Author(s): W. Scott Follln
Abstract/Introduction:
A gas pressure regulator is a device utilizing mechanical and pneumatic principles designed to reduce varying high pressure to a constant lower pressure throughout a range of flows. Originally, the regulators primary function was to reduce high pressure to a more usable lower pressure. Today, much more is required of a simple spring loaded regulator and several operating functions are being satisfied. They are no longer just pressure reducing devices but are an integral instrument of measiirement and have the internal ability to satisfy the stringest modern safety codes of D.O.T. Regulators must be selected and sized to match measurement and safety requirements.
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Document ID: 3F443213

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted-For Gas-Distribution
Author(s): Darryl Gallaher
Abstract/Introduction:
It was leakage from ill fitting pipes and the resultant danger of explosions, fires, and asphxiation that delayed for a long time the use of gas in private homes. The industry has solved the problem of ill fitting pipes but safety, profits, and the conservation of a natural resource still demands a keen concern over leakage and unaccounted-for gas.
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Document ID: C15AC77C

Problems In Offshore Gas Measurement
Author(s): Don R. Olivier
Abstract/Introduction:
A major portion of gas and oil used in the United States comes from off shore. Keeping this in mind and that the goal for accurate measuratient offshore is imperative to conpany profits, solutions to problans must be dealt with on a daily basis between producers and transmission companies. The following will be a broad discussion of these problans and various methods for solving them.
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Document ID: DFAB3197

Chart Editing And Integration
Author(s): Gerald A. Fillman, Gary P. Menzel
Abstract/Introduction:
The title assigned to us for this presentation may Imply that we can define specific means to reduce errors and thereby improve measurement accuracy. Certainly we hope that our observations may contribute to that purpose but there is something unique about each companys operations which prevents the application of a single procedural formula to everyone, and we will make no attempt to do so. However, a substantial part of our business is auditing gas purchasers, and we believe the statistics obtained in that process provide a representative cross section of the kinds of errors experienced by many chart departments. Defining a problem should be the first step toward its resolution, and it is that which we shall address in this report.
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Document ID: C2679B33

Gas Measurement By Insertion Turbine Flow Meters
Author(s): B. J. Kemperman
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry has had a requirement for many years for a simple and rel iable meter, by means of which gas flows can be measured in a variety of non-custody transfer applications. Despite the differences in application of such devices, a wish list of commonly desired features can be made up: 1. Accuracy: In the intended applications, errors of 3% are acceptable. 2. Repeatability: Repeatability of O.S% or better is generally deemed acceptable. 3. Rangeability: The meter must have a rangeability equal to or better than differential pressure generators.
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Document ID: E94031B4

From Pen Tip To Volume Statement
Author(s): Philip C. Morris
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate and reliable gas measurement depends on a combination of efforts and investments. In large companies these efforts include the legal department for contracts, the engineering department for specifying equipment and the purchasing department for buying that equipment. The field services department must then install the equipment.
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Document ID: 49F65C5D

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Richard H. Schieber
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry is fortunate in having a wide variety of measurement equipment available to satisfy nearly every application need. Metering is no exception there are quite a few types of flowmeters in service. The bulk of gas measurement in North American, however, is handled by four basic types of meters diaphragm, rotary, turbine and orifice meters. As with any other choice, there are trade-offs to be made in selecting one type of meter over another in order to obtain the specific characteristics required for a specific application. Knowing the strengths and weaknesses of each type of meter is fundamental to the gas measurement engineer. This paper reviews the fundamental principles of turbine meters and compares them to diaphragm, rotary and orifice meters.
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Document ID: EFAEC37F

Fundamental Gas Laws
Author(s): Rogers G. Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
We as gas measurement people arfr concerned with gas laws. To become proficient in all phases of gas measurement, one must fully understand what natural gas is and the theory of its properties. The theories about natural gas properties are jthe gas laws, and their application is essential to gas measurement. Quantities of natural gas for custody transfer are stated in terms of standard cubic feet. To arrive at standard cubic feet from actual flowing conditions requires application of correction factors that are defined by the gas laws.
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Document ID: 01DBB1BA

Annubar Flow Heasurenent In Gas Production & Processing
Author(s): John Gannett
Abstract/Introduction:
Annubar averaging pitot tubes, as insertion-type meters, should be considered for measurement points throughout the hydrocarbon industry. They can offer real advantages, particularly economic, when applied properly. The oil and gas industry has become more competitive over the last few years, and as it has, flow measurement has become more important. The technology appl ied to flow measurement must be reviewed to ensure that the most economical and accurate devices are applied. Economic pressures on the industry are a result of lower oil prices and changing government regulations.
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Document ID: 8FB1342B

Gauges And Deadweight Testers Hydraulic( And Pneumatic)
Author(s): A. R. Kahmann
Abstract/Introduction:
The Deadweight Gauge is the most accurate instrument available for the measurement of pressures. Repeatable readings with accuracies of 0.1% to .02% gi measured pressure are obtainable. The device does not require recalibration unless the components have excessive wear or weights are replaced. It is easily transported and set up in the field, requires minimum maintenance, and is simple to operate. Tripod mounting is available for most instruments .
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Document ID: 2556AE7C

Certification Of Calibration Standards
Author(s): Dennis P. Norris
Abstract/Introduction:
Commercial calibration gases are presently prepared by several speciality gas procedures. The quality and technical support of these gases varies with the supplier. Todays highly advanced and sophisticated instrumentation require carefully prepared calibration gases to optimize accuracy.
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Document ID: 02B60F4A

Design Considerations For Orifice Meter Tubes
Author(s): Kenneth E. Embry
Abstract/Introduction:
The most widely accepted device for the measurement of natural gas and other fluids is the orifice meter. The primary element of the orifice meter is the orifice plate and orifice meter tube consisting of the orifice fitting, or flanges, adjacent piping, and flow conditioner or straightening vanes. The properly designed meter tube should follow the guidelines for manufacture as established by the American Gas Association (AGA) Report No. 3 or American National Standard/American Petroleum Institute (ANSI/API) Report No. 2530, herein referred to as AGA i3. This paper will address the tolerances, design, and meter tube inspection according to the guidelines of AGA #3.
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Document ID: 177EF3B9

Regulatory Commission Safety Evaluation And Trainiiig
Author(s): m. L. Fegenbush, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The Texas Legislature has given the Railroad Comnission of Texas express power to promulgate, adopt, and enforce niiiiiiiLiiii pipeline safety standards in Texas. The Railroad Coninission assigned jurisdiction over natural gas and hazardous liquids pipelines to its Pipeline Safety Section in the Gas Utilities Division. This is an awesceie responsibility for the section, considering Texas has approximately 1300 distribution systems, 3200 transmission and gathering systems, and 3000 hazardous liquids systans. This means the pipeline safety engineers and engineering technicians nust, on an ongoing basis, inspect over 80,000 miles of distribution mains and service lines, 60,000 miles of transmission and gathering lines, and 80,000 miles of liquids lines. The Pipeline Safety Section enjloys two major approaches to enforcement: training of Industry members and inspecting pipeline facilities. Training and Inspection are effectively ccmfcined so that operators have contact with many of our specialists, both as Instructors and as inspectors.
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Document ID: 6F892374

Overview Of Odorization
Author(s): Curtis Dale Martin
Abstract/Introduction:
To our gas industry, odorant is a very important part of our operation. Naturally no one would disagree that safety is Important. Because natural gas is odorless and colorless, we must add odorant to the gas for the protection of our customers. The Federal and State governments have recognized the safety advantages of having odorant in the gas and have set down regulations for the gas companies to follow. Inspectors are sent around periodically to make sure the proper ratios are being kept and will hand down fines if those ratios do not meet the right standards. We in the gas industry can benefit ourselves and our customers by educating them about why odorant is put into the gas system and what steps to follow when they smell gas. Not only will this keep them safe, but it will also tell the gas company personnel the approximate location of leaks. In todays market environment, where the price and availability of gas is critical, more importance has been given in locating all areas where gas can be lost.
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Document ID: 0590ACBF

Orifice Recorder Testin
Author(s): Leonardo B. Chapa
Abstract/Introduction:
The objective of this paper is to present one method to completely insure that all transactions based upon orifice recorder testing will meet the allowable tolerances and accuracies specified by AGA No. 3 or the contract to satisfy all parties involved.
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Document ID: 4BF9F073

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): R. G. Teyssandier
Abstract/Introduction:
The theoretical uncertainty of a meter is simply just one portion of a complex equation which results in good f1ow measurement. In most instances the more important aspects are the maintenance and application of the orifice and turbine meter. That results in true overall measurement accuracy. i In this paper, however, the emphasis will be on the theoretical. It should be kept in mind that the numbers generated by any mathematical studies only help to indicate where the effort should be placed and do not change the accounting quantities.
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Document ID: AE9008C8

Electronic Instrdmentation For Orifice And Turbine Meters
Author(s): Ed Ostrovich
Abstract/Introduction:
Mechanical chart recorders and mechanical pressure and/or temperature correctors have been used to measure natural gas for many years. From the 1970s, the start of the computer era, to the present, electronic equipment has been more and more widely used throughout the gas industry. Due to competition from other fuels, open access, and new transportation agreements, it is increasingly more important that gas be measured accurately and on a timely basis. Electronic measurement will provide the needed accuracy and timeliness required. Increased accuracy is the result of real time measurement. Live specific gravity, BTU, CO2 and N2 as well as pressure, differential, and temperature are inputted into the measuring device to yield real time measurement. Real time measurement is offered by many flow computers in todays market. The latest advances in electronic technology provide more accurate and more reliable natural gas measurement at a cost which is becoming more competitive with mechanical devices.
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Document ID: 06814E2F

Master Meter Proving Orifice Meters In Dense Phase Ethylene
Author(s): James E. Gallagher
Abstract/Introduction:
Shell Pipe Line Corporation, cognizant of the importance of highly accurate orifice measurement for polymer-grade ethylene, embarked on a development program to improve the overall uncertainty of orifice metering. The programs goal was to successfully apply master meter proving techniques to dense phase ethylene orifice meter facilities operated on a mass basis. This paper presents the techniques and results of mass proving concentric, square edged, flange tapped orifice meters. All data were obtained on commercially operated metering facilities which are in compliance with ANSI 2530 requirements. Results Indicate an overall orifice meter uncertainty tolerance of approximately + 0.31 percent is attainable when orifice meters are mass proved In situ using master meter proving techniques.
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Document ID: CDF30EB6

Fundamentals Of Rotary Metering
Author(s): Richard H. Schieber
Abstract/Introduction:
Rotary meters are one of the four common types of volumetric measuring devices used in the natural gas industry, the others being diaphragm, turbine and orifice meters. The versatility of the rotary meter has made it useful in all phases of gas measurement at the wellhead in gas fields, in gas processing plants, in transmission line compressor stations and in coiranercial and industrial distribution measurement. Rotary meters also find application in the measurement of Industrial gases such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon and hydrogen. This wide acceptance is based on a history of reliable, accurate performance, a high capacity to size ratio and generally low maintenance.
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Document ID: 114FB037

Negotiation Of The Gas Contract
Author(s): Donald T. Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
The Contract Negotiator or Gas Buyer is quite often questioned about the steps involved in negotiating the gas contract. It almost always begins with a telephone call. If initiated by the Seller, its because he has seen Buyers pipeline in the vicinity of his well or because he has seen it indicated on a map. If initiated by the Gas Buyer, its because he has read about Sellers well in some publication or because the pipelines field personnel have seen the drilling rig and passed the information along to the Gas Buyer. The initial contact is for one of two reasons - Seller currently has gas available for sale or has a drilling program that will begin in the near future. The Seller is interested in the kind of contracts Buyer is currently making and Buyer is interested in the quantity of gas Seller has or may have available for sale. The Seller will request that Buyer furnish to Selley a map that shows the location of Buyers pipeline in relation to Sellers well and may request that Seller be furnished a copy of Buyers current basic or form contract. Buyer will request that Seller furnish to Buyer any available well data, which would include well logs, deliverability tests, gas analysis tests, well plats, etc., or In the absence of test data, the prospective purchaser would like an opportunity to review all available geological data. This data is then used to obtain the estimated reserves of gas involved and the estimated cost for any facilities that may be required to enable Buyer to receive Sellers gas. Management approval can then be obtained to make a contract offer.
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Document ID: 1B7AAA38

Measurement Problems Dealing With H2S
Author(s): Gene Tiemstra
Abstract/Introduction:
NOVA is a major Canadian shareholder-owned energy company headquartered in Calgary. The company was formed in 1954 to build, own and operate a province-wide natural gas transportation system. In recent years, NOVA has expanded its business base.
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Document ID: 0D17706C

Trouble Shooting Triethylene Glycol Dehydrators
Author(s): Ted Klima
Abstract/Introduction:
The dehydration of natural gas with glycol is accomplished by contacting the gas with concentrated glycol (usually triethylene glycol with less than 1 % water). The water vapor in the gas is absorbed by the glycol, diluting the glycol. The diluted glycol then flows to the reboller where it Is reconcentrated to the original concentration. A schematic of a typical glycol type gas dehydration unit with siK bubble cap trays, an integral inlet scrubber and a glycol balanced pump Is shown in FIG. 1. This schematic includes a flash (Pump Gas Separator) which is in many cases an optional item. Wet gas enters the scrubber section through the wet gas inlet nozzle. In this section, entrained liquids are separated from the gas and are removed from the system by the action of the liquid level controller on the distillate dump valve. The gas flows upward through the mist extractor and hat tray into the contactor section of the vessel. As the gas flows upward from tray to tray it is brought Into contact with the glycol on each tray. The glycol absorbs the water vapor from the gas and the dry gas passes upward through the mist extractor and through the glycol to gas heat exchanger to the dry gas outlet nozzle.
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Document ID: FB09F3D7

Operation Of On Like Chromatograph
Author(s): A. F. Kersey
Abstract/Introduction:
The on line gas chromatograph is an excellent measurement device that will give precision results with a minimum of attention for BTU and specific gravity measurement. To achieve this performance several important points must be considered in the selection and use of the instrument: 1. The chromatograph must be able to measure all components in the gas which effect the BTU and specific gravity measurement. 2. A representative sample of gas must be extracted from the pipeline and must be delivered to the chromatograph in the same representative form. 3. The calibration gas must be a precision gas and must have the same components as the gas being measured. 4. There should be a minimum of sample line time lag. 5. The instrument should be in an environment suitable for maintenance and to permit the Instrument to perform properly and safely. 6. The operators should understand the operating principals in order to achieve optimum performance. 7. The operators should understand whatever maintenance and trouble shooting tools are offered by the manufacturer.
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Document ID: E2871445

Training Field Measurement Personnel
Author(s): David E. Pulley
Abstract/Introduction:
Growth of the natural gas industry has increased not only in size and industrial importance, but in new and greatly improved equipment and technical advancements. With this growth, the duties and requirements of the employees in the industry have become numerous and more complex, demanding much more information and knowledge of the task to be performed. The field measurement personnel are no exception. Today, a good meter man is, or should be, a skilled technician, competent to deal with the large number of instruments and devices now used in the industry. He should already have or acquire, a good working knowledge of the underlying principles and theory of measurement. Today a field meter man is actually performing his role as a field engineer in hydrocarbon measurement whether or not this is designated.
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Document ID: EEEE6C5F

Various Applications Of Telemetering In Gas Distribution
Author(s): Robert F. Schwartz
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the problems faced by gas distribution companies is to maintain low point system pressures in the gas distribution system. The distribution system Itself is a complex network of piping with a given area fed by one or more district regulators. The far ends or low points of the system must maintain a minimum pressure in order to furnish an adequate service of gas to the customers in that particular area. Since the system low point is fed by one or more regulators, the regulator setting must be changed periodically to maintain the desired pressure at this system low point. Increase in the system load between the regulator and the low point will cause the low point pressure to drop, requiring that the regulator setting be increased in order to maintain adequate pressure. The pressure in the system must also be kept as low as possible and still maintain adequate service to prevent excess leakage loss in the distribution system between the regulator and the low point.
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Document ID: 10B8BE84

Fundamental Principals Of Diaphragm Displacement Meters
Author(s): Richard C. Sekerchak
Abstract/Introduction:
A displacement type meter is one that measures volume directly without regard to temperature, pressure or density. It accomplishes this by physically displacing a fixed volume of gas by pure mechanical movement. A diaphragm displacement meter utilizes flexible diaphragm assemblies to form the measuring chambers and driving members of the meter to accomplish the physical displacement of the fixed volume.
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Document ID: 028E57D6

Economics Of Electronic Measurement
Author(s): Jim Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
It is the intent of this paper to seek an understanding of the standard method vs. electronic measurement systems and their respective costs. The electronic systems referred to in this paper are mainly the type that stand alone and have inputs of differential pressure, static pressure, temperature, and can retain an audit trail similar to the chart recorder except in a digital form. These systems operate on a battery which is recharged via solar or thermoelectric or other conventional means. Most of the cost analysis shown later refer to gas transmission corrpanies. Many producer companies require additional data gathering and control systems such as tank gauging, well head pressure readings, well control, and surveillance, which may require a higher intelligent type of device located at the well site.
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Document ID: 181214FF

Determiration Of Calorific Values Of Natural Gas By Combustion Instruments
Author(s): Robert Van Meter
Abstract/Introduction:
Calorific value is a way of defining a quantity of gas in terms of heat per unit volume. The units most often used in this country to specify calorific value are BTU and cubic foot. The BTU is defined by Websters Dictionary as The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit at or near 39.2 V. There are two methods of determining 13TU value which require that the fuel be burned as part of the measurement. The Cutler Hammer calorimeter produces BTU values by measuring the temperature of a volume of air, heating the air by burning a volume of gas, and measuring the temperature of the air again. The temperature rise of the air is proportional to BTU and is recorded on an analog strip chart or digitally on a printer. Another method of BTU measurement is based on the stoichiometric principal- Both the Precision Measurement instrument and the Honeywell analyzer implement this principal of measurement.
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Document ID: 6404FFDC

Fundamentals Of Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Louis N. Cox
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Chromatography is a physical method of separation where the components to be separated are distributed between two phases - a stationary bed of large surface area and a fluid that moves through the stationary bed. A gas or vaporized liquid mixture is physically separated into its Individual components through this stationary bed.
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Document ID: 4C16FF68

Pulsation Effects On Orifice Metering Considering Primary And Secondary Elements
Author(s): Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice meters are the most accepted and commonly used devices for industrial measurement of large volume gas flows. If properly used and maintained in accordance with codes and standards, orifices can be expected to provide accurate flow measurements. Orifices are intended for use in steady flow, and it is well recognized that pulsations or transients in the flow can affect the measurement accuracy of an orifice meter. Field conditions are not the same as laboratory conditions, and pulsations or unsteady flow conditions are often present at field meter sites. Pulsations caused by compressors, control systems, regulators or flow induced phenomena cause errors at the orifice plate and in the secondary system. The user needs to know about any pulsations in the differential pressure that represents the orifice flow rate. Figure 1 shows a common situation in which pulsations are present at the orifice, but do not appear on the chart. In this situation, the average chart differential does not correspond to the average flow. Some of the causes of pulsation-induced errors at orifices are well known and others are not, but it is recognized that pulsations cause errors at orifices. A.G.A. Report No. 3 on Orifice Metering of Natural Gas, which is also ANSI/API 2530, clearly states that: Reliable measurements of a gas flow with an orifice cannot be obtained when appreciable pulsations ... are present at the measurement point.
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Document ID: 56B551C5

Field Testing By Transfer Proving
Author(s): Tern Brocirb
Abstract/Introduction:
Fbr years, the industry lacked the capability to satisfactorily field test the accuracy of large capacity (up to 80,000 cfh) rotary and turbine gas meters. Differential and spin test methods for testing rotary and turbine meters in the field were only indications of the meters mechanical condition, not the meters proof. The last resort, vdien dealing with a large volume custoners high bill ccmplaint, was to return the large rreter to the factory for testing. This was expensive, time consuming and very inconvenient. Based on this reasoning, Piedmont Natural Gas Ccitpany decided to develop a large volume portable prover capable of testing both rotary and turbine type meters. This paper describes the unique design vtiich allows the prover to accurately test rotary and turbine rteters frran low flow to full cjacity flow. In addition, the procedure for certifying the prover accuracy and the basic operation involved in performing a test are discussed.
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Document ID: 854EF1B2

Chart Auditing
Author(s): Bonnie L. West
Abstract/Introduction:
Columbia Gulf audits not only stations that are input points directly into our own pipeline, but offsystem locations for Columbia Gas Transmission Corporation as well. These locations are audited on a monthly, semi-annual or annual basis. The criteria, set up by management, for determining audit priority are as follows: 1) Locations where Columbias share of gas is 25 MMcfd or greater are audited monthly. 2) Locations where Columbias share of gas is 2 MMcfd - 25 MMcfd are audited semiannually . 3) Locations less than 2 MMcfd are audited annually. All locations are reviewed twice a year and an update is done to conform to the above criteria. At present, we are auditing 12 locations monthly, 30 semi-annually and 200 annually.
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Document ID: 6F298778

Pressure Relief Valve Comparison And Sizing Guide
Author(s): Chris Buxton
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure relief devices are a necessary piece of equipment in almost any processing facility, Relieving devices such as rupture discs or safety relief valves are closed and inoperative during normal operating conditions. However, when a process upset occurs, it is imperative that the rupture disc or the safety relief valve, normally the last defense of a catastrophic accident, operates correctly. The following is a comparison of the various types of safety relief valves (SRV) as well as highlighting important points in sizing the valves. This information should be used only as an outline during valve selection. All applications are unique, and there is not one single SRV suitable for all services. The SRV manufacturer should be contacted when more detailed and specific data on a particular valve is required.
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Document ID: 31E01F73

Master Meter Proving Orifice Meters In Dense Phase Ethylene
Author(s): James E. Gallagher
Abstract/Introduction:
Shell Pipe Line Corporation, cognizant of the importance of highly accurate orifice measurement for polymer-grade ethylene, embarked on a development program to improve the overall uncertainty of orifice metering. The programs goal was to successfully apply master meter proving techniques to dense phase ethylene orifice meter facilities operated on a mass basis. This paper presents the techniques and results of mass proving concentric, square edged, flange tapped orifice meters. All data were obtained on commercially operated metering facilities which are in compliance with ANSI 2530 requirements.
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Document ID: 9A630223

Computer Applications To Chart Processing
Author(s): Ted J. Glazebrook
Abstract/Introduction:
Most of us are familiar with the orifice meter and the orifice chart. We recognize that the chart is the key to determining the amount of gas used or produced. However, somewhere between the meter and the volume statement the information on the chart must be interpreted and calculated. It is important to bear in mind that the orifice chart does not contain all the information necessary for that final volume. Gas measurement would be quite simple if all we had to do was go into the field, read a little black box, assign a monetary value to the amount and then send a check or a bill. Unfortunately, there is no single instrument which can measure all of the different types of information needed to calculate a volume or an MMBTU value.
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Document ID: FF639078

Electronic Chart Integrators
Author(s): Bryan Billeaud
Abstract/Introduction:
In the natural gas industry, measurement and calculation of gas volumes have long been accomplished through the use of orifice meter chart records. Machines which make the calculation from these records are a common sight to most companies inovlved in gas measurement. Electronic equipment, especially, have brought about substantial improvement to measurement and calculations due to their ever increasing speed, accuracy and mathematical abilities.
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Document ID: 482B0EC3

Design Of High Pressure Measuring Regulating Station
Author(s): Ed Gstrovich
Abstract/Introduction:
A high pressure measuring regulating station is comprised of pipe, valves, fittings, meters, and control valves. Its function is to transfer and measure natural gas from one pipeline to another. Transmission companies, distribution companies, power plants, and industrial customers are major parties involved with high pressure measuring regulating stations. There are numerous ways a high pressure measuring regulating station can be designed. This paper can be used as a guide in assisting the designer to achieve the basic goals of a safe and dependable station which accurately measures and controls gas. A high pressure measuring regulating station can be generally defined as a station which has a minimum inlet pressure of approximately 60 psig to maximum inlet pressure in excess of 1000 psig. Pressure drops through the station may vary from a few to several hundred pounds per square inch. For the remainder of this paper, a high pressure measuring regulating station will be referred to as a measuring station.
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Document ID: F7B9F534

Electronic Vs-- Mechanical Correcting Devices
Author(s): Richard J. Ensch
Abstract/Introduction:
Metering devices measure natural gas at line conditions. Gas volumes vary with changes in pressure and temperature. Base conditions provide a common reference for measuring gas, and any variance in pressure or temperature requires a calculation to correct the gas line volume to base volume.
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Document ID: A40FCF0F

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Mike Mckay
Abstract/Introduction:
For several years gas men have been giving more thought to aerodynamic turbulence within their pipeline systems and, in particular, the turbulence that is a result of pressure regulation. Considering the noise from a measurement or regulating station, it is generally conceded that measurement facilities alone will rarely be a major source of noise, since we can design the pipe to give a desired and normally tranquil velocity. On the other hand, we must expect that in a regulator station control of the gas velocity is possible only up to the inlet side of an active regulator. At the point of regulation within the regulator body, the velocity of the gas may be expected to increase greatly, perhaps up to sonic velocity. Now the question becomes, What is the best way to handle gas when it is traveling at high velocities?
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Document ID: 882CD24C

Effecots On Entrained Liquid Or Orifice Measurement
Author(s): C. V. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
In the measurement of natural gas in field operations using the conventional orifice meter, all of the factors used in the calculation of flow are based on the assumption that the gas is dry. This condition is rarely the case in field measurements. The A.G.A. Committee Report Ho. 3, (1), does not give any information or data regarding the effect water and/or distillate may have upon gas measurement by the orifice meter. It was in this area of gas measurement that graduate-engineering students at Texas A&I University, Kingsville, Texas have conducted research operation in the laboratory and in the field. Schuster, (2) has conducted full range field tests of gas-liq.uid mixtures at 60O and 1,000 pounds per square inch pressure using the orifice meter. In these tests a U-inch meter run was used to measure the dry gas. After this measurement, water and/or distillate in varying amounts was introduced and the two-phase stream was then measured first through a -inch meter run and then by a 3-inch meter these tests covered liquid-gas ratios up to 6OO barrels of liquid per million cubic feet of gas. A cubic foot of gas in this paper is measured at lh.63 pounds per square inch absolute and 60 Fahrenheit.
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Document ID: 0E6CF511

Calculating Of P.D. And Turbine Meter Charts
Author(s): James L. Hamlin
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to offer one point of view about electronically calculating variables recorded on displacement and/or turbine measurement charts. Instead of comparing methods, discussing pros and cons, weighing benefits and asking general questions that dont have answers, time and space are best used by presenting a significant advancement in reading and evaluating measurement charts on an industry-wide scale. I As a preface, it is important to briefly explain the corporate entity of Metrology One. Metrology One is a wholly owned subsidiary of Cascade Natural Gas Corporation, whose principal areas of business are conducted in the states of Washington and Oregon. Cascade Natural Gas distributes natural gas to over 86 communities and approximately 90,000 customers. All gas is delivered through one pipeline system that stretches from the Canadian border to the fourcorner states of Arizona, Utah, Colorado and New Mexico.
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Document ID: E58BB585

Instrumentation For Distribution Meters
Author(s): Daniel R. Fulton
Abstract/Introduction:
The local distribution system of the gas industry network is the means for delivering natural gas to the ultimate users of this valuable energy commodity. Users are classified as either residential, commercial, or industrial accounts and for each of these types of consumers, the distribution company must have proper measurement equipment in place. Residential metering is quite simple because the gas pressure is very low, just enough to get it to flow into the house and provide gas to the furnace, the water heater, range, dryer, or other appliance. Most commercial metering is equally simple. The meter may be larger in size, but the metering pressure again is very low, amounting to approximately 1/4 psi which is equivalent to 4 ounces gauge or 7 inches water column pressure. Industry practice is to read the meter index for metered volume and render the bill to the customer.
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Document ID: 43BCB74C

Low Power Field Computer
Author(s): Paul E. Kizer
Abstract/Introduction:
When oil prices become more competitive with gas prices, gas sales volumes usually go down. When gas sales volumes go down, gas production costs go up. When costs go up, prices must go up to maintain the profit to stay in business. When prices go up, usually, gas sales volumes drop even more. So when the oil crunch hit, it also rippled to the gas industry. Something has to be done to stop this cost/price spiral. What we have seen, in most instances, is companies cutting their staffs to reduce costs, since costs on capital goods are constant, and the industry tax load tends, only to go up. Automation has been a method for cutting the costs of operations for twenty years. With the advent of low powered microprocessor electronics, that can be installed in hostile environments, this automation can now be justified on smaller, lower gas volume stations and producing wells. In addition, the added efficiency of mass production now allows electronic flow computers (EEC) to be priced competitively with the standard orifice charts. Now the time has come to the gas industry when the prudent operator must seriously consider installing these electronic devices which have always given equivalent or better measurement while improving operating efficiencies, since the price for these units is down to a point that makes payouts.attractive to conservative comptrollers.
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Document ID: C26BE9B3

Gas Research Institute Update
Author(s): Carl H. Griffis
Abstract/Introduction:
The efficient transport and distribution of natural gas involves accurate measurement of large quantities of flowing fluid. As gas prices rise, increased economic importance is attached to accurate gas measurement. The Gas Research Institute (GRI) is a not-for-profit membership organization of natural gas pipeline and distribution companies that plans, manages and develops financing for a research and development program designed to advance gas supply options, end-use and operations technologies and to conduct related basic research. Research into new methods of measuring natural gas volume and energy flow and improving existing measurement methods is a part of this research and development program. This paper is an update of the current projects that address both new measurement technologies and improvements of existing measurement techniques in both distribution and transmission areas.
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Document ID: 696F3070

Electronic Transducers And Transmitters
Author(s): Fred Debusk, m. J. Sergesketter
Abstract/Introduction:
This session is devoted to the electronic transducer or transmitter - its general uses, the knowledge necessary to use it, and its place in the measurement field. To be sure we all understand what an electronic transmitter is, let us look at a definition from the Instrument Engineers Handbook, Volume 1, Process Measurement, by Bela G. Liptak.
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Document ID: 1D2F4A58

Understanding Basic Electronics
Author(s): James H. Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronics in Orifice Measurement has only recently become more prevalent for on-site use. When gas was inexpensive the need for accurate measurement was not there. Historically, mechanical circular charts have filled the need to record flows, pressures and temperatures. But today we in the gas measurement business have seen an ever increasing demand to know what the true volume is at the site. With this demand comes electronics in the form of transducers and flow computers. The purpose of this paper is to make you- the field measurement operator- more aware of electronics and how it relates to our future field measurement systems. Over the past few years it has been more practical to use electronic systems to duplicate the control effects that can be produced with pneumatics. With the refinement of solid state electronics to the commonly know Integrated Circuit (IC) came the advantage of lower cost and higher reliability. In addition to the lower cost and higher reliability, the electronics has the advantage of almost instant transmission of signals to remote locations, and the signal is easily adapted to a variety of control systems. Customers of these systems have realized a quick payback of lower operational costs and real time data.
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Document ID: 4980D7A9

Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): m. J. Sergesketter
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will provide information for use in selecting, applying, and checking the orifice metering system, with emphasis on gas measurement. The primary reference for mechanical tolerances of the orifice meter tube, plate holder and plate is American Gas Association Report No. 3, Orifice Metering of Natural Gas, published as ANSI/API Standard 2530. Much of this information is also published in a simpler, condensed format by orifice meter manufacturers. An excellent reference is Singer American Meter Division Handbook E-2, Meter tube and orifice plate information is contained in the Daniel Industries Flow Products catalog, and recommended installation practices for differential pressure instruments are contained in the ITT Barton Model 202E Flow Recorder Manual.
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Document ID: 18721E47

Water Vapor Determination And Effects On Gas Measurement
Author(s): Douglas E. Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
The determination and the effect of water vapor on gas raeasurejnent is of importance to the gas pipeline industry because of the necessity for accurate gas measurement and for the maintenance of quality control. The following discussion covers typical methods which are used by the gas industry for water vapor determination. Each of the dew point instruments discussed use a specific method for water vapor measurement, and all are designed for use as either portable or fixed location instrumentation. In addition to a discussion of the typical methods for water vapor determination, the effects of water vapor on gas volume and heating value measurement is reviewed. The determination of the water vapor content within a gas pipeline system is essential for the maintenance of quality control. Poor gas quality can produce both operational problems and measurement errors. Water vapor determination Is important because of the following
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Document ID: 4D997048


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