Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (1986)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Computer Applications To Chart Processing
Author(s): Ted J. Glazebrook
Abstract/Introduction:
Most of us are familiar with the orifice meter and the orifice chart. We recognize that the chart is the key to determining the amount of gas used or produced. However, somewhere between the meter and the volume statement the Information on the chart must be Interpreted and calculated. It Is important to bear in mind that the orifice chart does not contain all the Information necessary for that final volume. Gas measurement would be quite simple if all we had to do was go into the field, read a little black box, assign a monetary value to the amount and then send a check or a bill. Unfortunately, there Is no single instrument which can measure all of the different types of information needed to calculate a volume or an MMBTU value. Some of the Information which is required and the associated instruments used to capture that data are:
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Document ID: E2869833

Light Hydrocarbon Measurement
Author(s): James P. Black
Abstract/Introduction:
Mass measurement is used when the combination of hydrocarbons are too complex for general volumetric measurement to be used. Volumetric measurements require temperature and pressure corrections to net to the 60 F and equilibrium pressure basis. These corrections tables are not available for the complex combinations of hydrocarbons. fi typical product combination requiring mass measurement would be Ethane/Propane. Outputs from gasoline plants where liquids are recovered from natural gas represent another mass measurement application. A simple mass measurement system would consist of a meter and a density recorder. the following relationship outlines the mass measurement calculations for the simple system.
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Document ID: 93995FD2

Understanding Basic Electronics
Author(s): James H. Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronics in Orifice Measurement has only recently become more prevalent for on-site use. When gas was inexpensive the need for accurate measurement was not there. Historically, mechanical circular charts have filled the need to record flows, pressures and temperatures. But today we in the gas measurement business have seen an ever increasing demand to know what the true volume is at the site. With this demand comes electronics in the form of transducers and flow computers. The purpose of this paper is to make you- the field measurement operator- more aware of electronics and how it relates to our future field measurement systems. Over the past few years it has been more practical to use electronic systems to duplicate the control effects that can be produced with pneumatics. With the refinement of solid state electronics to the commonly know Integrated Circuit (IC) came the advantage of lower cost and higher reliability. In addition to the lower cost and higher reliability, the electronics has the advantage of almost instant transmission of signals to remote locations, and the signal is easily adapted to a variety of control systems. Customers of these systems have realized a quick payback of lower operational costs and real time data.
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Document ID: EEDDCF8E

Mikeing And Inspecting Meter Tubes
Author(s): Lonnie R. Grady
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas prices are once again on the slide. Most companies, both producers and transporters, are looking for ways of cutting overhead, Measurement is an area that is often one of the first to suffer. I agree that cost consciousness is important and some cuts in measurement services may be justified. An area that should not be cut is the inspection of meter tubes. This paper will attempt to present the methods used to insure that meter tubes meet ANSI/API 2530 (AGA3) requirements.
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Document ID: 49E4AFD9

Orifice Recorder Testing
Author(s): Robert L. Fojt
Abstract/Introduction:
The principal reason for recorder testing in the custody transfer of any product, is to insure accuracy and validity of the physical tests on the measurement equipment. Since the product measured represents money, the physical test is comparable to an audit by an accountant. The tester should not only be of high integrity but be knowledgeable of the technical skills required to properly conduct the test. Being well versed in the use of the required test equipment is also an asset.
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Document ID: 87B947E3

Training Field Measurement Personnel
Author(s): James W. Sutton
Abstract/Introduction:
Reasons for providing adequate measurement training have been presented in numerous articles and publications. Most companies involve upper management in meetings designed to resolve the problems associated with this technical training. Unfortunately the conclusions reached in most of these meetings result in one of two things happening: (1) the good intentions, like a politicians promise, seem to evaporate with time or (2) a program is initiated using non-technical instructors who can only convey information read from a book. Good training, like good whiskey, takes a lot of time and is expensive. Many managers thrash this problem around in an effort to justify the expense of providing training when, in reality, it is more difficult to justify the expense of not providing the training.
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Document ID: 3C75DF68

Economics Of Electronic Measurement
Author(s): Jim Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
It is the intent of this paper ta seek an understanding of the standard method vs. electronic measurement systems and their respective costs. The electronic systems referred to in this paper are mainly the type that stand alone and have inputs of differential pressure, static pressure, temperature, and can retain an audit trail similar to the chart recorder except in a digital form. These systems operate on a battery which is recharged via solar or thermoelectric or other conventional means. Most of the cost analysis shown later refer to gas transmission conpanies. Many producer companies require additional data gathering and control systems such as tank gauging, well head pressure readings, well control, and surveillance, which may require a higher intelligent type of device located at the well site.
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Document ID: 179CCA55

Pulsation Effects On Orifice Metering, Theoeietical And Practical Aspects
Author(s): Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice meters are the most accepted and commonly used device for industrial measurement of large volume gas flows. Supported by a long history of use, and in accordance with the many published codes and guides, orifrlces can be relied upon for gas metering If properly utilized and maintained. One well recognized problem, however. Is that pulsations or transients in the flow affect the measurement accuracy of an orifice meter. Although the potential adverse effect of pulsations is well recognized, the nature of the resulting error mechanisms, and what should be done to correct problems, has not been well publicized. Discrepancies in orifice flow measurements are often reported by operating companies and in the open literature, but the amplitude of the associated pulsations and the resultant errors are seldom measured or considered. This paper will attempt to correct this shortcoming by describing types of pulsation-induced errors and measurements that should be made to identify pulsation effects on orifice metering.
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Document ID: E914E9E9

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Robert W. Carson
Abstract/Introduction:
How many times in the recent past has your conversation turned to the cost of natural gas? What I would give to be a fly on the wall of a measurement superintendents office when he or she sits down to balance the books or to determine if the sales volume equals the purchase volume. According to the most recent AGA Gas Facts publication the average residential gas bill in 1960 was 104.46. Today it is close to 600.00 and according to my own gas bills, this seems conservative. No doubt about it we are talking about an expensive commodity. Measurement accuracy is a must. Invariably when the word measurement is mentioned, most measurement types immediately turn their thoughts to the meter. The meter certainly contributes to the science of measurement but it is not the only consideration. Besides metering there is instrumentation, pressure and temperature correction, and the rate structure. Natural gas is a compressible fluid, changing its volume with changes in pressure and temperature but not always uniformally depending on the composition of the gas. Generally the basic gas laws can be used for the application of correction factors, but there are also deviations from the basics called supercompressibility factors or super-expansibility factors. These factors are based on the chemical composition of the gas and the actual flowing temperature and pressure experienced at the meter.
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Document ID: E2CEE158

Overview Of Odorization
Author(s): Curtis Dale Martin
Abstract/Introduction:
To our gas industry, odorant is a very important part of our operation. Naturally no one would disagree that safety is important. Because natural gas is odorless and colorless, we must add odorant to the gas for the protection of our customers. The Federal and State governments have recognized the safety advantages of having odorant in the gas and have set down regulations for the gas companies to follow. Inspectors are sent around periodically to make sure the proper ratios are being kept and will hand down fines if those ratios do not meet the right standards. We in the gas industry can benefit ourselves and our customers by educating them about why odorant is put into the gas system and what steps to follow when they smell gas. Not only will this keep them safe, but it will also tell the gas company personnel the approximate location of leaks. In todays market environment, where the price and availability of gas is critical, more importance has been given in locating all areas where gas can be lost.
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Document ID: FB9550CA

Electronic Chart Integrators
Author(s): Bryan Billeaud
Abstract/Introduction:
In the natural gas industry, measurement and calculation of gas volumes have long been accomplished through the use of orifice meter chart records. Machines which make the calculation from these records dre a common sight to most companies involved in gas measurement. Electronic equipment, especially, have brought about substantial improvement to measurement and calculations due to their ever increasing speed, accuracy and mathematical abilities. There are many variables and methods used in the volume calculations generated from these chart records. One important consideration is the pressure extension. The pressure extension is derived directly from a chart record. It is computed from two independent curves on the chart which depict the pressure, in psi, found in an orifice meter tube and the differential pressure, in inches of H2O, of the opposite sides of the orifice. In accordance to the Bernoulli theorun, these two curves are considered as continuous records over a specified period of time.
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Document ID: FAA032F3

Gas THEFT-CHECK It Out
Author(s): John E. Cox
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years, gas companies in the United States had a fairly complacent attitude towards as theft. They felt, It cant happen here! In general, that attitude was correct. Gas did not cost enough to tjarrant much effort to steal it. It simply was not that valuable a commodity. Then came the upheaval of the seventies. The oil embargo, gas shortages, spiraling energy prices, inflation, and unemployment. Very quickly, the issues changed. Gas theft was seen, and it even hit the newspapers. Why? Because a heretofore missing variable in the equation that defines when people steal suddenly appeared. All of a sudden, there was economic incentive. The system has always been vulnerable, and detection has always been difficult, so this one key factor made a significant difference.
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Document ID: 69B008C9

Water Vapor Determination And Effects On Gas Measurement
Author(s): Douglas E. Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
The determination and the effect of water vapor on gas measurement is of importance to the gas pipeline industry because of the necessity for accurate gas measurement and for the maintenance of quality control. The following discussion covers typical methods which are used by the gas industry for water vapor determination. Each of the dew point instruments discussed use a specific method for water vapor measurement, and all are designed for use as either portable or fixed location instrumentation. In addition to a discussion of the typical methods for water vapor determination, the effects of water vapor on gas volume and heating value measurement is reviewed.
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Document ID: 2ADBAB1C

Fundamemtals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Fred Debusk
Abstract/Introduction:
The Instrument Engineer has a wider choice of flowmeter types than ever before. It is estimated that at least one hundred different types of flowmeters are commercially available, and new types are being continually introduced. This paper will present a stimmary of selection, principle of operation, basic construction, performance, and application of just one of those types, the gas turbine meter.
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Document ID: 7BEEF46B

Frcm Pen Tip To Volume Statement
Author(s): John D. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
As gas measurement people we nust realize that the fruit of our labor is the volume statement and the seed is planted by the pen tip, we will consider the problems encountered and the effect on the volume statement.
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Document ID: 277AC520

Effects On Entrained Liquid On Orifice Measurement
Author(s): C. V. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
In the measurement of natural gas in field operations using the conventional orifice meter, all of the factors used in the calculation of flow are based on the assumption that the gas is dry. This condition is rarely the case in field measurements. The A.G.A. Committee Report Wo, 33 (l)s does not give any information or data regarding the effect water and/or distillate may have upon gas measurement by the orifice meter. It was in this area of gas measurement that graduate-engineering students at Texas A&I University, Kingsville, Texas have conducted research operation in the laboratory and in the field.
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Document ID: C39E5B9C

Fundamentals Of Orifice Recorders
Author(s): David E. Pulley
Abstract/Introduction:
What is an orifice meter? What is being referred to when the expression orifice meter is used? The answer usually depends upon who you are talking to. The term orifice meter is used to mean everything from the orifice meter gauge recorder to the entire meter station. The American Gas Association defines the orifice meter as the complete measuring unit comprised of primary and secondary elements. The secondary elements consist of the differential pressure recorder, static pressure recorder, flowing temperature recorder, and any other required recordings such as specific gravity and heating value.
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Document ID: E0F553C4

Operational Procedures Of Electronic Chart Processor
Author(s): Ron Green
Abstract/Introduction:
The UGC Chart Processor is a microprocessorbased system designed to translate orifice meter chart records into accurate billing-compatible data of integrated flow (chart extension), flow time and average pressure. It will handle American (Westcott) and Foxboro charts as the pens can be mounted so as to pivot in the same geometric paths as the recording pens of these types of meters. As an option, the Chart Processor can be fitted with pen mounts for Taylor and/or Rockwell charts. The operator directs the pens to follow the records by moving the trace handles as the chart rotates. The rotational speed of the chart table is governed by a variable foot control. The chart is secured to the chart table so its rotation and the motion of the pens by the operator simulate the actions in the recording meter. The Chart Processor computes and prints (for each chart) the chart extension, average pressure and flow time. It also stores and prints batch totals on command.
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Document ID: E631BF9F

Fundamentals Of Gas Pressure Regulation
Author(s): Richard J. Golomb
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is a fluid that is compressible. When gas is compressed it creates a pressure which, except for very low pressures, is measured as LBS/lN (PSl). This resulting pressure acts as the force which moves the natural gas through the pipeline. Without this pressure (force), there could be no utilization of natural gas. Natural gas is taken from field-processing facilities, compressed, and transported over long distances thru large diameter, relatively high pressure gas transmission pipelines. At different points in the gas transmission pipeline this natural gas is reduced In pressure and is transferred to distribution pipelines,which are generally smaller in diameter and lower in pressure than the transmission pipelines. Finally the natural gas is reduced in pressure again from the distribution pipeline, to a near-atmospheric pressure, at the point of use. At each point when the gas is reduced in pressure, this pressure reduction is accomplished by a gas regulator. These gas regulators provide an automatic, safe, efficient, and stable way of reducing the gas pressures and flow requirements in the pipeline, so the gas can be measured and finally consumed efficiently. To understand how these regulators accomplish the reduction of pressures and flows we must understand the basic fundamentals of a regulators design and operation.
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Document ID: 6F959815

Periodic Inspectiona - District Regulators And Relief Valves
Author(s): Ben Wilder
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years the gas regulator has been taken for granted. It has become such a familiar sight we dont stop to realize the importance of this piece of equipment. With the complex pipeline systems of today, every cubic foot of gas passes through many regulators before it is consumed in some process or customer appliance. One of the roost important regulating facilities in the gas industry is the district regulator station. It is the source of gas supply to industrial, commercial, and domestic customers from transmission and distribution pipeline systems.
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Document ID: BB7B2997

Various Applications Of Telemetering In Gas Distribution
Author(s): Robert F. Schwartz
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the problems faced by gas distribution companies is to maintain low point system pressures in the gas distribution system. The distribution system itself is a complex network of piping with a given area fed by one or more district regulators. The far ends or low points of the system must maintain a minimum pressure in order to furnish an adequate service of gas to the customers in that particular area. Since the system low point is fed by one or more regulators, the regulator setting must be changed periodically to maintain the desired pressure at this system low point. Increase in the system load between the regulator and the low point will cause the low point pressure to drop, requiring that the regulator setting be increased in order to maintain adequate pressure. The pressure in the system must also be kept as low as possible and still maintain adequate service to prevent excess leakage loss in the distribution system between the regulator and the low point.
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Document ID: 812C0AE6

Application Of The Annubar Measurement In Gas Production And Processing
Author(s): Jim Martin
Abstract/Introduction:
Just because a flow measurement device is complex and/or expensive does not automatically mean that it is the best or most accurate. Oftentimes the most simple device is just as good and accurate and frequently even better. Economic pressure encourages the emergence of better all-around devices with greater reliability and accuracy. Tliese and other factors have brought to the fluid flow measurement industry the Multiport Averaging Pitot Primary Flow Measurement Device. This refined version of the basic pitot tube, the same as the orifice and other head-type primaries, is based on the same standard hydraulic equation, continuity equation and Bernoullis Theorem. Thus, an extension and improvement of proven concepts and device makes available to the industry a primary flow measurement device which offers many benefits, including a simple design, with equal or better performance for fluid flow measurement and process control applications.
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Document ID: 819C8C17

Interpretation Of Wide Differential Patterns
Author(s): Lloyd Pettlcrew
Abstract/Introduction:
Probably one factor which contributed more to the entry into the market place of recent innovations Such as turbine meters and/or flow computers is the difficulty in resolution of an accurate gas volume from an oscillating differential pattern on the orifice meter chart. Most knowledgeable measurement personnel will concede that an orifice meter station, when properly designed, installed, and maintained, will do an excellent job of inferring onto a circular chart the true volume of gas passing through the station. Unfortunately, this is only part of the success story, since an accurate reading of the recorded chart values must be accomplished to achieve a true volume report. Electronic gadgetry and computer utilization have greatly enhanced the ability of our modern chart departments to compute volumes from orifice meter charts. We are still faced, however, with the same interpretation problems we encountered with mechanical integrators, or with sight-read charts. The wide wash charts are still being produced and we still are generating arbitrary volume computations from these charts.
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Document ID: 8511B070

Operation And Maintenance Of Calorimeters
Author(s): C. L. Rousseau
Abstract/Introduction:
Heating value of gas is now of major importance to the gas industry, while at one time the cubic foot was the standard used for measurement and the heating value was generally assumed to be 1000 B.T.U. per cubic foot. In order to determine the efficiency of gas burning equipment, heating value must be known. Natural gas prices also vary with quality. Since large sums of money are often involved, the measurement of heating value must now be accurate and reliable, The Recording Calorimeter is a precision instrument designed to measure and record heating value expressed in B.T.U. (British Thermal Unit) per standard cubic foot. While other methods of B.T.U. measurement are available and used extensively in the gas industry, this discussion will be confined to the Cutler-Hammer combustion type calorimeter. In order to obtain accuracy and reliability from this type calorimeter, proper installation and subsequent inspections and maintenance by qualified technicians cannot be overemphasized.
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Document ID: D5067DBC

Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): m. J. Sergesketter
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will provide information for use in selecting, applying, and checking the orifice metering system, with emphasis on gas measurement. The primary reference for mechanical tolerances of the orifice meter tube, plate holder and plate is American Gas Association Report No, 3, Orifice Metering of Natural Gas, now published as ANSI/API Standard 2530. Much of this information is also published in a simpler, condensed format by orifice meter manufacturers. An excellent reference is Singer American Meter Division Handbook E-2. Meter tube and orifice plate information is contained in the Daniel Industries Flow Products Division Catalog, and recommended installation practices for differential pressure instruments are contained in the ITT Barton Model 202A Flow Recorder Manual.
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Document ID: 770911C7

Spot Sampling Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Carl G. Hefley
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays increased world demand for energy, it has become mandatory to have extremely accurate measurement and sampling stations, On todays market, losses of significant quantities of natural gas and liquid products would be a disaster. The management of most companies, if not now, soon will be requiring the most accurate and reliable performance of all measurement and sampling systems- To meet these requirements, improvements have to be made on the way measurement and sampling systems operate, The deteriorating energy situation is well known to all here. Good, sweet, high pressure, shallow natural gas wells are but a fond memory, and today although we may be experiencing a temporary situation of high reserves with supplies that are exceeding current demands, the exploration for new gas sources continues with companies battling for gas of a quality that would have been ignored a few years ago. For this reason, the sampling and analysis of natural gas and natural gas liquids becomes more and more critical.
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Document ID: 20EB9037

Charts, Pens, And Inks
Author(s): Joe Hawkins
Abstract/Introduction:
More and more everyday the accounting of natural gas is being done by electronics. Its ability to sense, calculate and store information will some day dominate in our industry. But until that day comes, we have work to do with charts, pens, and inks. There is no doubt in this writers mind that electronic measurement wil1 be better overal1 than our current method wi th the charts. The electronics industry is working hard to duplicate the permanent record aspect of the chart, some times called, audit trail. Companies involved in a dispute over measurement need only to pul1 the chart from a storage file and look at it to solve most measurement disagreements. The quality of the recording is vital to accurate measurement. For instance, suppose the most up-to-date equipment and techniques are employed at a flow station and for some reason the ink pen fai1s to record static pressure, differential pressure, or both. It will be necessary to estimate the volume. This papers purpose is to give aid to those who want to know more about charts, pens and inks and help stop estimating volumes.
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Document ID: ECFAC457

Field Testing By Transfer Proving
Author(s): Kevin C. Beaver
Abstract/Introduction:
The escalating cost of natural gas, and greater emphasis on accurate measurement by gas companies has enhanced the need for better methods of field testing meters. There are presently three methods for field testing meters: 1. Low Pressure Flow Prover 2. Critical Flow Prover 3. Transfer Prover The low pressure flow prover and the critical flow prover involve the measurement of several variables which in turn may cause the compounding of errors before the final accuracy can be calculated. The transfer prover requires only the sending of temperate and pressure differences between the prover and the meter under test. Results obtained from a transfer prover should be more accurate and repeatable and compare more favorably to the accepted standards of the bell and piston provers.
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Document ID: 0B6A7AA8

Measurement Problems Dealimg With And Detecting HS
Author(s): A. B. Pender
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most objectionable impurities found in natural gas from certain producing areas is hydrogen sulfide (chemical formula HS). In addition to imparting an objectionable odor to natural gas, HgS is corrosive and deadly. It reacts readily with water or water vapor to form hydrosulfuric acid. In the presence of iron and water, It combines to form iron sulfide and atomic hydrogen. Hydrogen embrittlement of the steel pipe ensues as atomic hydrogen is absorbed into the grain which could lead to a fracture. The iron sulfide itself can produce electrolytic corrosion which will result in deep pitting of the steel. An understanding of H2S is important to those whose duties are associated with quality control. The gas quality provision in our customer service agreements specify a maximum of a quarter of a grain of H2S per 100 cubic feet. In order to assure our gas is within this limit, we have installed HaS analyzers to monitor the H2S content at treating plant outlets and at various points on our main transmission lines.
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Document ID: 82979791

Design Considerations For Orifice Measurement Installations
Author(s): Harry Harrison
Abstract/Introduction:
The design of a metering station should be of the utmost importance to anyone involved in the transmission, production, purchase or sale of fluids. A sound design based on known criteria, past history, industry standards and common sense will yield not only an accurate station but also one that is reliable. The standard most U.S. companies adhere to for their orifice measurement is the American National Standards Institute, Orifice Metering of Natural Gas. This one publication encompasses three previously independent publications, namely the American Gas Association Report No. 3 (AGA#3), the American Petroleum Institute No. 2530 (API 2530) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI/API 2530).
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Document ID: AD125741

Trouble Shooting Gas Dehydrators
Author(s): George S. Leachman
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the beginnings of the Natural Gas Industry, the removal of water vapor (or dehydration) has been found necessary to properly operate the systems required to produce, distribute and utilize this commodity. It was found that water (which is always present in produced gas) and hydrocarbons react to form gas hydrates. These compounds exhibit much higher freezing points than pure water itself. Excellent early research showed that these hydrates only formed when free (or liquid phase) water was present in the system. Thus, it was discovered that hydrate formation, which blocked flow lines when formed, could be prevented if the water vapor content of gas was lowered to a point such that cooling could not result in water condensing to liquid. There are a large number of methods to remove water vapor from gas streams, but we have found through usage that three ways offer the best results. They are:
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Document ID: 74F98D4F

Flow Measurement By Insertion Turbine Flow Meters
Author(s): Ben Wagner
Abstract/Introduction:
The insertion turbine meter is well suited for large pipeline measurement. It is presently used in many applications such as compressor efficiency and surge control, pipeline leak detection, pacing odorizers, pacing samplers and checking throughput. As a Custody Transfer measurement device, the insertion turbine meter not only measures with high accuracy, but allows the user cost saving advantages at initial purchase, installation and during pipeline maintenance.
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Document ID: B66D5A67

Field Applications Of Composite Samplers
Author(s): Jerry T. Grimes
Abstract/Introduction:
As an alternate to spot sampling natural gas, field people are faced with installing and maintaining composite samplers. The increasing demand for a more accurate determination of the chemical and physical properties of natural gas flowing through transmission and distribution pipelines, as well as in other gas handling facilities, has resulted in the development and perfection of composite samplers. A very important consideration is the comparative cost of obtaining a representative sample of the source gas by mechanical means, as compared with that of attempting to obtain the equivalent sample by the daily or periodic sampling.
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Document ID: BC7AA351

Pressure Gauges And Deadweight Testers
Author(s): Robert V. Liddle, H. Ray Heit
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many reasons why it may be necessary to measure the pressure of a gas such as air or carbon dioxide, or a liquid such as water or oil. While in some applications only a rough indication of the pressure is needed, In others an accurate measurement may be required to avoid endangerment of personnel and equipment. Pressure gauges were designed and are used for the following reasons: 1. Provide Operating Information 2. Provide Test Data 3. Measuring Quantity 4. Indicating Operational Readiness 5. Measuring Force
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Document ID: D40E4312

Chart Editing And Integrating
Author(s): Cindy S. Murdock
Abstract/Introduction:
Have you ever had the occasion to watch or participate in soccer? Those who have, recognize it as an exciting, fast moving sport. Each team has players which fill the positions of forwards, right and left wings, halfbacks, fullbacks, and goalies. As the ball originates in the center of the field, each player is given the responsibility to perform certain defensive and offensive plays for his position. It is such an invigorating feeling to have watched a team come from playing bunch-ball to a team with strategy and direction where the ball is passed with precision and expertise with the idea in mind, make a goal, make a goal. What a disenchanting position it can be, though, when you are the goalie. As you, the goalie, sit back in the box protecting your area, you can see the opponents whizzing the ball by your forwards, slipping past the left wing, then the right wing, over the halfbacks, under the fullbacks and, suddenly, zapping the ball in at the goalie, scoring a point for the opponents. To add insult to in jury , the teammates bombard the goalie with low comments like Gosh, why did you miss that? or, Hey, stupid or, Thanks a lot pal or, the worst, Why dont you go play with the girls?
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Document ID: 7FA0EC9A

Instrumentation Of Distribution Meters
Author(s): Richard J. Ensch
Abstract/Introduction:
Metering devices measure natural gas at line conditions. Gas volumes vary with changes in pressure and temperature. Base conditions provide a common reference for measuring gas, and any variance in pressure or temperature requires a calculation to correct the gas line volume to base volume.
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Document ID: 45BC0A27

Relief Valve Design Fundamentals
Author(s): Robert Bonsignore
Abstract/Introduction:
A pressure relief valve is a safety device designed to protect a pressurized vessel or system during an overpressure event. An overpressure event refers to any condition viich would cause pressure in a vessel or system to increase beyond the specified design or maxiiron allowable working pressure. Since pressure relief valves are safety devices, there are nany Codes and Regulations written to control their design and application. The purpose of this discussion is bD familiarize you with the various paraneters involved in the design of a pressure relief valve and provide a brief introduction to seme of the Codes and Standards which govern the design and use of pressure relief valves. Excerpts of various Codes and Standards are included in other sections of this manual.
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Document ID: 47D33677

1985 Changes In AGA-3
Author(s): R. G. Teyssandier
Abstract/Introduction:
The basic flow measurement document for natural gases and other hydrocarbon fluids has been revised and affirmed as an American National Standard. This paper is a brief overview of the changes made between the first and second editions of the standard. AN3I/API-2530, or as more commonly called in the gas Industry AGA-3, has been extensively revised. The extent of the revision has been primarily in the format rather than in the substance of the document since very little new information was available at the time of revision. This revision of AGA-3 was made primarily to conform to ANSI regulations which require either a revision or reaffirmation of a U.S. standard every five years. In this revision several general considerations were always in the forefront.
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Document ID: 1A4034B6

Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): John m, Schnitzer
Abstract/Introduction:
The fifty-million gas meters currently in service with the different phases of the gas industry in the United States, plus the majority of a similar number of meters installed elsewhere in the world, use two different physical principles to measure gas volumes. These two physical principles are positive displacement, compromising the large majority, and inferential meters, used primarily for large volume flows. Meters incorporating the positive displacement principle of measurement, are of the diaphragm and rotary types.
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Document ID: FC03CD3A

The Fundamental Principals Of Calorimetry
Author(s): A.F. Kersey
Abstract/Introduction:
One definition of calorimeter is an apparatus for measuring quantities of heat. This discussion will include three gas industry instruments currently used for precision measurement of the quantity of heat resulting from the combustion of a unit volume of gas. The instruments are the Honeywell HVT 100, the Therm Titrator by Precision Measurement, Inc. of Duncanville, Texas, and the Cutler-Hammer. Recording calori meter now produced by Fluid Data, Inc. The British Thermal Unit (BTU) is used by the United States gas industry. It has been defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit from 58.5F to 59.5F. (The International table BTU is 1055.05585262 Joules.)
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Document ID: 1D8A0624

Operation Of On Une Chromatograph
Author(s): Lou Cox
Abstract/Introduction:
The operation of on line chromatographs for BTU measurement of natural gas depends on the following: 1. Installation A. Sample Probe B. Sample Line C. Power Source 2. Sample Conditioning System A. Proper Design of Sample Conditioning System for Your Application 3. Carrier Gas System A. Quality of Helium B.- Method of Changing Carrier Gas Bottles 4. Calibration Gas A. Correct Concentration of Components for Your Measurement B. Dewpoint of Calibration Gas C. Ambient Temperatures of Calibration Gas 5. Basic Knowledge of the Chromatogaph A. Separation - Column B. Valves - Switching C. Detector - Thermal Conductive 6. Basic Knowledge of the Microprocessor Controller A. Programming B. Troubleshooting 7. Training A. Operator B. Service Technicians If the above items are not considered, the on line chromatograph will be very troublesome.
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Document ID: 58F39802

Regulatory Commission Safety Evaluation And Training
Author(s): m. L. Fegenbush
Abstract/Introduction:
The Texas Legislature has given the Railroad Cotmilssion of Texas express power to promulgate, adopt, and enforce minimLgn pipeline safety standards in Texas. The Railroad Conmission assigned jurisdiction over natural gas and hazardous liquids pipelines to its Pipeline Safety Section in the Gas Utilities Division. This is an awesocK responsibility for the section, considering Texas has approximately 1300 distribution systems, 3200 transmission and gathering systems, and 3000 hazardous liquids systems. This means the pipeline safety engineers and engineering technicians must, on an ongoing basis, inspect over 80,000 miles of distribution mains and service lines, 60,000 miles of traiismission and gathering lines, and 80,000 miles of liquids lines.
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Document ID: 597CFC6E

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Mike Mckay
Abstract/Introduction:
For several years gas men have been giving more thought to aerodynamic turbulence within their pipeline systems and, in particular, the turbulence that is a result of pressure regulation. Considering the noise from a measurement or regulating station, it is generally conceded that measurement facilities alone will rarely be a major source of noise, since we can design the pipe to give a desired and normally tranquil velocity. On the other hand, we must expect that in a regulator station control of the gas velocity is possible only up to the inlet side of an active regulator. At the point of regulation within the regulator body, the velocity of the gas may be expected to increase greatly, perhaps up to sonic velocity. Now the question becomes, what is the best way to handle gas when it is traveling at high velocities?
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Document ID: F24C5C79

Design Of High Pressure Measuring Regulating Station
Author(s): Ed Ostrovich
Abstract/Introduction:
A high pressure measuring regulating station is comprised of pipe, valves, fittings, meters, and control valves. Its function is to transfer and measure natural gas from one pipeline to another. Transmission companies, distribution companies, power plants, and industrial customers are major parties involved with high pressure measuring regulating stations. There are numerous ways a high pressure measuring regulating station can be designed. This paper can be used as a guide in assisting the designer to achieve the basic goals of a safe and dependable station which accurately measures and controls gas. A high pressure measuring regulating station can be generally defined as a station which has a minimum inlet pressure of approximately 60 psig to maximum inlet pressure in excess of 1000 psig. Pressure drops through the station may vary from a few to several hundred pounds per square inch. For the remainder of this paper, a high pressure measuring regulating station will be referred to as a measuring station.
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Document ID: D56A9A98

Electronic Chart Scanning And Related Equipment
Author(s): T. Y. Tramel, Bill Horner, R. L. Pointer
Abstract/Introduction:
With the ever-increasing cost of natural gas, more emphasis is being placed upon the speed and accuracy of all gas measurement systems. Our objective is to present to you an overview of the state-ofthe- art equipment and procedures currently used in gas measurement offices. We will illustrate three major points of interest which include field preparation, equipment, and operations.
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Document ID: B6FED808

Training Chart Processing Office Personnel
Author(s): Mildred Moore
Abstract/Introduction:
Before getting to the business of training, I would like to go over the flow chart with you all for just a minute. This is the United Gas Pipe Line Company work flow for the office group. Measurement work is both important and interesting however, unlike most other work or jobs, the new employee has stepped into what appears to him or her a very mysterious world. Why is this? Because there is little or no formal training for measurement type work. Therefore, we as supervisors should plan and prepare to enlighten our people, thus remove some of the mystery as early as possible.
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Document ID: 499C4554

Meter Selection For Various Load Requirements
Author(s): George L. Bell
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the first gas meter, because of technical advances, improved material, economics, and energy conservation, the measurement of natural gas has seen many changes. These changes have occurred in both the theory and practices of measurement, as well as the actual physical meter itself. The first meter, a positive displacement meter, has seen only physical changes over the years which allows the positive displacement meter to measure at an increased volume rate and higher pressure. This meter is still widely used in the industry today. Expanding from this fundamental meter, the industry has come to a point where natural gas can not only be measured In more ways, but also, more accurately. In selecting a specific type of meter for a required load type, the Measurement Engineer should consider all types of meters. The basic types of meters available to the Measurement Engineer and a brief description follr.v.s.
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Document ID: 7DBA4B98

Auditing Of Gas Measurement Computer Systems
Author(s): Michael J. Mazoch
Abstract/Introduction:
A primary goal within the natural gas industry is to derive and maintain accurate measurement volumes. Accuracy of volume calcualtion involves all areas of a gas company organization, i.e. the field, the measurement office, and the data processing organization. The specific functions involved include calibration of field equipment, test and inspection of equipment, audit of charts, calibration of scanners and analyzers, and the calculation of measurement volumes. An area that is often not fully understood by user personnel but is critical to this goal is the data processing or computer-, environment. Information must be managed, as are other key assets belonging to the company. Integral to this management function is the task of protecting the data from intentional or inadvertent misuse and loss, so that it can provide the information required for the successful operation of the company.
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Document ID: 4B772612

Fundamentals Of Gas Chromatograph For On-Line Analysis Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Jimmy L. Shafer
Abstract/Introduction:
Measuring the energy content of natural gas in an on-line fashion requires a self-contained instrument that is programmable and rugged. Programmability allows the unit to run stand-alone, collecting and analyzing data unattended. Ruggedness allows the unit to be operated on location whether it be outdoors or in an air conditioned control room. The gas chromatograph is not only capable of meeting the needs for on-line applications, but also provides several additional features. Technological advancements in both micro-packed columns and microprocessors have allowed the development of very powerful and flexible on-line gas chroraatographs.
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Document ID: EFCEAA92

Fundamentals Of Rotary Metering
Author(s): Kevin C. Beaver
Abstract/Introduction:
The first positive displacement rotary gas meters were built around the year 1920 by the PH & FM Roots Company and the Connersville Blower Company, both located in Connersville, Indiana. In 1966 this gas meter operation was renamed Dresser Measurement Division. However, these rotary meters today are still known as ROOTS Meters. Rockwell International entered the market in the early 1960s with a rotating vane design known as the ROTO-Seal Meter, and in the late 1960s Singers American Meter Company introduced still another rotating design known as the CVM gas meter.
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Document ID: 593C0162

Problems In Offshore Gas Measurement
Author(s): B.G. Duke
Abstract/Introduction:
In the next 45 minutes we will cover some of the problems we encounter in offshore gas measurement, such as: the different requirements with gas measurement in State waters vs. Federal waters, show some slides of platforms, meter hook-ups and then discuss some problems encountered and solutions to them.
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Document ID: CED8749C

Negotiation Of The Gas Comtract
Author(s): Donald T. Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
The Contract Negotiator or Gas Buyer is quite often questioned about the steps involved in negotiating the gas contract. It almost always begins with a telephone call. If Initiated by the Seller, its because he has seen Buyers pipeline in the vicinity of his well or because he has seen it indicated on a map. If initiated by the Gas Buyer, its because he has read about Sellers well in some publication or because the pipelines field personnel have seen the drilling rig and passed the information along to the Gas Buyer.
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Document ID: DB22FDC9

Fundamental Gas Laws
Author(s): Rogers G. Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
We as gas measurement people are concerned with gas laws. To become proficient in all phases of gas measurement, one must fully understand what natural gas is and the theory of its properties. The theories about natural gas properties are the gas laws, and their application is essential to gas measurement. Quantities of natural gas for custody transfer are stated in terms of standard cubic feet. To arrive at standard cubic feet from actual flowing conditions requires application of correction factors that are defined by the gas laws.
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Document ID: A02580A8

Total Energy Measurement
Author(s): Carl H. Griffis
Abstract/Introduction:
As the price of natural gas increases and the energy content becomes more vari able due to an increasing number of supply sources, the need for accurate measurement of total energy flow becomes more apparent. Existing total energy flow measurement techniques combine the measurements of a volumetric flow measurement device ana an energy content measurement device to measure total energy flow. The Gas Research Institute (GRI) has initiated two projects to develop a total energy flow meter that combine both volumetric and energy content measurement into one device. One oevice is an adaption of the coirmercially available Therm-Titrator, while the second devices based on optical techniques that measure the energy flow in a nonintrusive manner. Field test results and future plans are discussed in this paper.
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Document ID: 45E6A48A


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