Measurement Library

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (1985)

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course

Chart Office Automation
Author(s): Vernon W. Downing
Abstract/Introduction:
Given the recent advances in computer system technology, gas measurement and chart offices are now excellent candidates for computer-based automation. These operations involve highly repetitive tasks which, traditionally, are good targets for automation. They also involve specialized gas calculations and extensive record-keeping, both of which require a computer. But above all, there is need for people to have control over the information they are collecting and interpreting each month - to have the information presented on their terms, both quickly and effectively. The comprehensive solution, however, does not lie with traditional office automation, but rather with technical office automation: a melding of data structuring and presentation with comprehensive, built-in support functions to address the specific requirements of the gas measurement operation.
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Document ID: 302530D0

Selection And Sizing Regulators
Author(s): Eugene J. Escolas
Abstract/Introduction:
Insight into selection and sizing regulators for use at City Gate, District, Large Volume Sales and Local Production Delivery Stations. Basically 2 size and larger. Brief overview of the three basic pressure control systems available for pressure regulation. Brief overview of some operating considerations in selecting and sizing regulators for specific applications.
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Document ID: 851E25E7

Basic Gas Laws
Author(s): Nicholas m. Russak
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject Basic Gas Laws should be no stranger to us since they are the basic fundamentals upon which our industry operates. In every phase of operation within the gas industry, from the point where the gas is produced - the well head, to the tip of the burner, where the energy of the gas is converted to useful heat, the gas laws have been applied in one form or another many times. In sizing a pipe, or laying out a gathering system, in designing a compressor station or building a pipeline, in adding to a distribution system or designing a regulator station, and most importantly, in measuring the gas at the many locations between the well head and burner tip. the gas laws provide means to achieve the proper system design and the basis for measurement of the product - natural gas.
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Document ID: 50EFE9E5

Relief Valves
Author(s): Lawrence P. Sipsky
Abstract/Introduction:
The relief valve has been used by the gas industry as a way of providing overpressure protection in transmission, distribution systems, and for individual customer installations. Acting as a self-contained, independent device, a relief valve works by limiting pressure downstream of a gas regulator to a specific, tolerable set point. This of course, should only happen in the event of failure of the regulator to function mechanically, or due to foreign matter in the supply not allowing positive shut off to occur. This would lead to an increase in outlet pressure, possibly to a dangerous level. The relief valve would open, thereby allowing excess gas to be discharged into the atmosphere, thus maintaining safe pressure in the system.
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Document ID: 81DA0AE6

Accuracy And Reliability In Production Gas Measurement
Author(s): Joseph P. Lofink
Abstract/Introduction:
Although accuracy and reliability in Distribution gas measurement is expected by natural gas utilities with guidelines set for penodic testing of meter accuracy, it would seem that in Production gas measurement just the opposite is expected by many. There is no question that Production gas measurement is one of the most difficult and costly areas of gas measurement for the independent producer as well as the gas utility. Through proper design and meter selection, accuracy and reliability can become the rule rather than the exception.
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Document ID: 7FFD9F23

Computerized Appalachian Basin Accounting Gas Measurement And The Ngpa Challenge
Author(s): Charlotte Shaffer
Abstract/Introduction:
In this paper I will share with you how the NGPA has been a challenge for Gas Measurement people. I will also show how our Gas Measurement Department has handled these challenges.
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Document ID: C2014E28

Theory And Operation Of Pneumatic Controllers
Author(s): George French
Abstract/Introduction:
The first step in evaluating a piece of equipment is to assess the need for the device. In the case of the pressure controller, we are looking for a device that will accurately, safely and economically control pressure. The alternative we have is to place an operator on a manual valve and have him throttle that valve to attain the desired downstream pressure. Although the operator, gifted as he may be, tries to control this pressure, he will not satisfy the criteria of accurate economic control. In essence, the reason for automatic control is to improve on the manual techniques available.
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Document ID: C9A040B9

Electronic Transducers For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Gerald V. Yost
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic transducer, electronic transmitter, as far as we are concerned here, they are one and the same, i A definition from Websters Dictionary states a transducer is a device that is actuated by power from one system and supplies power, usually in another form, to a second system. Electronic is relating to, or utilizing devices constructed, or working by the methods, or principles of electronics. The Instrument Engineers Handbook says that a transmitter is a device that senses a process variable through the medium of a primary element and that has an output whose steady state value varies only as a predetermined function of the process variable. The primary element may or may not be integral with the transmitter. This definition states that a primary element is required and that the transmitter interprets the physical changes caused by the process variable and primary element to an output signal that is proportional to predetermined values of the process variable.
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Document ID: 4D7FB304

Flow Measurement By Vortex Shedding Meters
Author(s): Alfredo Echeverria
Abstract/Introduction:
Vortex flowmeters have been commercially available for flow measurement for more than 10 years. However, documented observations of the vortex shedding principle date back to the late 19th century. In 1878, F. Strouhal observed the vortex shedding phenomenon, which showed that the shedding frequency of a wire vibrating in the wind was related to the wire diameter and wind vetocity and, in 1912, Von Karman documented observations of resulting areas of alternating high and low pressure. Since the first vortex flowmeters were initially introduced to the market, advanced technological improvements have made todays vortex flowmeters a viable alternative to orifice plates and turbine meters for fluid flow measurements. Their versatility and accurate flow measurement of liquids, gases, and steam, and their simple design and low installation costs are just some of the reasons why vortex meters have been so widely accepted on routine flow measurements as well as on custody transfer applications.
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Document ID: 7C296F94

An Update On Remote Meter Reading
Author(s): Raymond G. Kremer
Abstract/Introduction:
Im amused when every once in a while I pick up a newspaper or magazine and come across an article by some science editor proclaiming the latest thing in technology to be the remote reading of utility meters, be they water, electric, gas or whatever. My thoughts inevitably stray to the Remote Reading Device patented on May 27th, 1890 (Figure 1). So whats new under the sun? Not very much Im afraid!
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Document ID: 9AE64F70

Calculation Of Gas Lost Due To Breaks, Ruptures, Or Third Pary Damage
Author(s): Michael D. Frederick
Abstract/Introduction:
The increasing value of natural gas in recent years has placed greater emphasis on the use of a good method for the calculation of gas lost due to various instances. This paper will deal with the basic methods used by Consolidated Gas Transmission Corporation for the calculation of gas lost due to line breaks or ruptures. There are several equations that may be used for this calculation. The basic equations and the conditions that indicate their use are outlined below.
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Document ID: 489E54EA

Orifice Metering Of Natural Gas And Other Related Hydrocarbon Fluids
Author(s): Edgar E. Buxton
Abstract/Introduction:
American National Standard ANSI/API 2530 Orifice Metering of Natural Gas, First Edition published in 1978 was revised in 1984. This standard was previously published as A.G.A. Report No. 3 and later as API 2530. The new title of the Second Edition of ANSI/API 2530 is: Orifice Metering of Natural Gas and Other Related Hydrocarbon Fluids. As of March 20, 1985 the second edition of ANSI/API 2530 is still undergoing approval by ANSI. This report endeavors to document the paragraphs etc. of ANSI/API 2530 which were changed in the second edition. The first part presents a subject correlation between the First Edition and the Second Edition. The second part of this report contains a brief explanation of the changes and additions made to each numbered paragraph but does not attempt to substantiate, justify or defend the changes. It is believed that a thorough study of the 1984 revision will provide the understanding necessary for the technical and practical acceptance for its use in the measurement of the various fluids related to production, processing, transmission and distribution of natural gas.
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Document ID: FBA55AC3

Hands On Calibration And Operation Of Ugc Electronic Chart Processor
Author(s): W. E. Lamont
Abstract/Introduction:
The UGC Chart Processor is a microprocessor based system designed to translate orifice meter chart records into accurate billing - compatible data of integrated flow (chart extension), flow time and average pressure. The Processor will handle American (Westcott) and Foxboro charts as the pens can be mounted so as to pivot in the same arc as the recording pens of these types of meters. The operator directs the pens to follow the records by moving the trace handles as the chart rotates. The rotational speed of the chart table is governed by a variable foot control. The chart is secured to the chart table so its rotation and the motion of the pens by the operator simulate the actions in the recording meter. The Chart Processor computes and prints (for each chart) the chart extension, average pressure, and flow time, It also stores and prints batch totals on command.
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Document ID: 3627BE28

Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): Cliff Samples
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice flow meter has been used extensively in industry for high pressure, high volume pipeline transmission applications since the early 1900s. Simple forms of the orifice meter were in existence as early as the 14th century. Popularity of the orifice meter can be attributed in part to the development of coefficient data in the 1930s that permits the user to have confidence that a meter system (tube and plate) fabricated within specified tolerances will produce acceptable measurement accuracy without requiring a flow calibration. The American Gas Association (AGA) initiated this coefficient development work and continues to provide this data as a common reference source for flow meter design and calibration.
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Document ID: 8627C720

Experimental Test Results Presented For Field-Damaged Orifice Meter Plates
Author(s): Raymond G. Teyssandier, William E. Chisman III
Abstract/Introduction:
Normally, all natural-gas metering is conducted at differential pressures which are well below the region where permanent deformation of the orifice occurs. There are times when due to unusual operating conditions, the pressure difference across the plate will be above the elastic limit, causing permanent damage. This resulting deformation could exceed the flatness limits of 0.010 x D - 6)12 in. allowed In the current standard ANSI/API-2530. If this occurs, it is possible that either the flow coefficient or the basic orifice factor and Reynolds number factor will no longer conform to the predicted values of that standard. This would mean that the throughput of the orifice meter could be somewhat different than that indicated. At least two attempts have been made to predict this additional uncertainty or bias in the coefficient. But these predictions have not been globally tested. Thus actual coefficient determination requires flow calibration.
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Document ID: 987CFC45

Meter Run Sequencing - Multiple Runs
Author(s): John L. Gerwig
Abstract/Introduction:
Multiple run gas measurement stations are installed because one meter is incapable of handling the required high and low flow rates. Also, some company policies may dictate that a particular meter type (i.e. rotary meter) must be installed with a parallel meter. This reasoning has developed because of the fear of single meter failure in a manner that would block downstream delivery. When possible, it is best to install one accurate meter.
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Document ID: 70D066EF

Temperature Compenstaion Diaphragm Meters
Author(s): James Kobetis
Abstract/Introduction:
Temperature compensation of diaphragm meters was introduced in 1957, A revolutionary concept at the time, years of experience have varified both the accuracy and value of temperature compensation for diaphragm meters. The development of internal temperature compensation for diaphragm meters was the result of a number of influences. Both the value and the consumption of gas was increasing markedly during the 1950s. Heating loads were being added to existing cooking and hot water loads creating a seasonal variation not generally experienced before. A growing trend toward outdoor sets with the availability of synthetic diaphragms placed the meter in a varying environment. It is the environmental effects - greatest consumption when the weather is coldest - that spurred adoption of temperature compensated diaphragm meters by gas distribution companies.
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Document ID: 1B653757

Fundamentals Of Diaphragm Type Positive Displacement Meters
Author(s): John Esola
Abstract/Introduction:
The Positive Displacement Meter principle is applied on both diaphragm type and rotary type meters. Although the operational principle is different, the fact remains that both types measure by means of sealing off a known quantity of gas, and subsequently releasing it. The bulk of the meters in use today are of the positive displacement type. Over 40 million gas meters are employed in measuring gas volumes by positive displacement in the U.S. Of this total, the large majority are used to measure gas volumes consumed by domestic residential customers. Other measurement principles are applied in the case of the Turbo-Meter, Orifice Meter or Swirl Meter.
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Document ID: 28220E86

The Importance Of Accurate Measurement To Storage Deliverability
Author(s): Gregory W. Theirl
Abstract/Introduction:
The relationship of measurement to storage deliverability is a close and vital aspect to a gas storage operation. Storage deliverability is taken to mean the rate at which gas can be withdrawn at a given book inventory of gas in storage. Accurate measurement provides the basis for determining and projecting meaningful deliverability information. GAS MEASUREMENT Measurement of gas in the most general sense consists of the following three areas: Meters Data People
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Document ID: F7AD5C03

Fundamentals Of Flow Computers
Author(s): E. J. Dupuis
Abstract/Introduction:
A digital flow computer is much like a large scientific computer scaled down and streamlined to perform specific functions and calculations. It contains special circuitry that allows it to receive electronic signals from other devices representing flow conditions, ambient conditions, or other process variables. The flow computer uses this information to perform calculations and will output the final calculation data by some means to allow human interface. Some computers even use the calculated data to perform some type of process control via special output circuitry. Prior to beginning a discussion on flow computers, it is necessary to define common terminologies related to the subject.
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Document ID: 6E09C972

The Basics Of Pressure Pulse Proving
Author(s): William S. Follin
Abstract/Introduction:
A discussion of the theory and practical application of Pressure Pulse Proving equipment to the gas meter shop operation. It has been learned through extensive testing of both 3 and 4 chamber positive displacement gas meters that the energy absorbed to operate a meter has a fixed vave form for each particular meter. This wave form represents differential pressure across the meter. Also, it has been determined that this wave form is extremely repeatable from one cycle of the meters mechanism to the next, Each cycle of the meters mechanism represents a portion of a cubic foot of gas by design. If a particular meter required 9 revolutions per cubic foot, then one revolution of a perfect meter would be equal to 1/9 of a cubic foot.
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Document ID: B5AEBA5E

Testing And Repair Of Large Capacity Diaphragm Meters In The Shop
Author(s): Frank m. Koch
Abstract/Introduction:
The year 1820 was probably the birth of large capacity displacement meters. It was the year that Samuel Crosby improved the revolving drum water sealed wet gas meter. This improvement in large sizes became known as the Hinman Drum, One of these meters was 16 feet in diameter and proportionately long. A size 16 station meter had 24 connections and a capacity of 173,000 C.F.H, at 1 in, differential and 215,000 C.F.H. at 1.5 in. differential. The weight of the meter was 95,000 pounds with an additional 136,000 pounds of water.
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Document ID: 05E29781

Applications And Installation Of Rotary And Turbine Meters
Author(s): William H. White
Abstract/Introduction:
There are four basic types of meters used in the gas industry. These are the orifice, diaphragm displacement, rotary displacement, and turbine meters. Each of these meters has varying installation requirements and performance characteristics. These factors need to be evaluated when selecting a meter for a specific application. This paper will review the installation requirements and application for two of these meters, the rotary and turbine meters.
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Document ID: CB093C21

Inspection, Maintenance, And Testing Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): Robert L. Richardson
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement has had many years to advance and refine itself. Improvements have been made and sources of potential errors have been eliminated. Yet the orifice meter remains as the standard for gas measurement, and will probably see many more years of service. The orifice meter system is divided into two parts. The primary element consists of the meter tube, straightening vanes and orifice plate. All other equipment, such as the differential, recorder, static pressure element and temperature gauge, is called the secondary element. To insure that the data recorded on the meter chart is correct, some basic guidelines must be followed to make certain the orifice meter operates within tolerance,
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Document ID: 7A41A421

Handling Brine In Gas Production & Storage
Author(s): Ronald R. Walsmith
Abstract/Introduction:
As the general public of the United States becomes increasingly aware of enviromental concerns even to the point of becoming obsessed, possessed, and preoccupied with the subject, the efficient handling of brine becomes a major concern to gas producing companies. The state of mind of the public concerning environmental issues and the gas/oil industry is reflected by a school teacher friend who telephoned this writer early one morning. She relayed a concern about a rather grubby looking man from a local well servicing and producing company with a pickup truck parked near a creek at the edge of town. Her concern centered around the possibility that this man might be dumping nuclear waste into the creek. This person, who is usually intelligent and reasonably logical considered that someone who ordinarily handles such toxic and hazardous substances such as natural gas, crude oil, and brine would touch just about anything.
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Document ID: CCD69C53

Flow Measurement By Insertion Turbine Flowmeters
Author(s): Jerry Mcintosh
Abstract/Introduction:
Insertion turbine meters are designed to offer a cost effective means of measurement of gas or liquids in large area ducts and pipelines. Measurement is achieved with a small rotor mounted on a strut giving a pulse output each time a rotor blade passes the pickoff. This turbine rotor rotates at a rate directly proportional to the velocity of the media being measured. The retractable insertion turbine meter can be installed or retracted from the line through an isolation valve which has been mounted on a riser. A conventional hot tap tool is normally used to cut an opening in the line through which the probe Is inserted.
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Document ID: 4D8A1841

Composite Sampling Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
The sampling of natural gas has been discussed and studied for many years. Serious testing on the proper sampling methods has been done in a number of locations in the recent past. From these tests, it has been determined that the sampling procedures must be carefully prepared and followed. For a person to collect a representative sample of natural gas, the procedures learned in spot sampling operations must be followed. Continuous sampling is described as a method by which a representative portion of product is removed from a flowing stream and pumped into a sample container during a specific time or volume. The object of the continuous sampler is to collect the sample in the sample container without ctianging the chemical composition, heating value, or physical characteristics of the products being sampled.
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Document ID: 88030252

Gauges And Correctors For Production Meters
Author(s): James A. Holmes
Abstract/Introduction:
Rotary, turbine and large diaphragm meters are used in the production process to measure gas. Good measurement practice dictates that the meter be equipped with meter mounted instrumentation to measure the volume of the metered gas correctly. Natural gas, being a compressible fluid, responds to changes in temperature and pressure according to the basic gas laws. So to correctly measure gas, the pressure and temperature of the gas must be taken into consideration. The instrument mounted on the meter must be able to sense these varying conditions so that the proper correcting factor can be developed and applied to the meter volume reading. There are two basic categories of meter mounted instruments used in gas measurement recorders and automatic correcting devices.
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Document ID: 5A7D80C0

Fundamentals Of Instruments
Author(s): Daniel R. Fulton
Abstract/Introduction:
The instruments used in gas measurement and pressure regulation are classified in two basic categories (1) indicators and (2) recorders. As the name implies, an indicator shows the value of what is being sensed at the time you look at it. For instance, your wrist watch indicates the time of day. A meter index indicates the total amount of gas which has gone through a meter. A pressure gauge indicates the pressure in a gas line it could be a manometer or a dial gauge. Temperature gauges indicate the temperature of the gas and could be the glass stem thermometer or the dial gauge thermometer. Volume indicators may be something as simpie as a meter index or a more complex volume correcting instrument such as a BPI, Emcorector or Mercor III.
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Document ID: 371941A4

Applications For Single-Loop Microprocessor Controls
Author(s): Richard H. Cadmus
Abstract/Introduction:
The world of electronic controls has seen some dramatic changes in the last 5 years. It used to be fairly simple to assemble a control system. By using controllers, computing and signal conditioning modules, alarm modules, sensors, etc., a control system could be designed and implemented by specifying, purchasing, and installing the modules. In fact, most systems could have been either electronically or pneumatically based, since the functions of the various modules were available in either electronic or pneumatic versions. The early electronic control systems were the functional equivalents of what had been available as pneumatic modules.
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Document ID: 57D81601

The Use Of Manometers In The Gas Industry
Author(s): T. J. Hulsmann
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate gas measurement depends on precise measurement of small pressures and differential pressures. Large volumes of gas are bought and sold every day. Therefore, the utmost accuracy is desired in our measurement of these volumes. For this reason, the manometer is of prime importance to the gas industry. The simplicity, inherent accuracy and versatility of manometers lend them to broad application in calibration, trouble shooting, and meter maintenance leak testing. Because manometers are basically simple, they are often overshadowed by newer, more sophisticated devices or methods. However, there is more to manometry than is universally recognized. A review of manometer principles and practices is in order. Unless we know those factors affecting accuracy, we cannot utilize the manometer and its advantages to the fullest. Also, by understanding manometers more completely, we are able to apply a manometer even though the specific application may not have been described to us previously.
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Document ID: 3852AF7D

Basic Conditioning Of Production Gas
Author(s): William Nutter
Abstract/Introduction:
Water normally found in field lines is entrained in the gas, most often i n vapor form if water concentration is even moderately high. Gas purchasers are now requiring that the water content must be held down to a minimum standard and perform test sample measurements to determine water content. This method of measurement is commonly known as dew point. With the dew point known it is now possible to refer to tables that establish how many pounds of H2O are in each million cubic feet of gas. This can range from 3# to 200#/MMCF on production gas. A typical contract limit by gas purchasers is 7#/MMCF. The purpose of a dehydration is to remove saturated water from produced gas to a low enough levei to be acceptable to the purchaser, whereas a separator is sufficient to the point of removal of solid liquid forms only.
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Document ID: 58B99CE8

Fundamentals Of Rotary And Turbine Meters
Author(s): Richard H. Schieber
Abstract/Introduction:
In the United States and Canada, the bulk of natural gas measurement is handled by four types of meters diaphragm, rotary, turbine and orifice. Figure 1 illustrates the overlapping capacity ranges for the four types of meters, suggesting that for any given application, a choice of at least two and perhaps three meters is possible meter capacity was the only criteria used for selection. The meters in Fig. 1 can be broadly categorized into two groups, the positive displacement type and the inferential type. This paper will review the differences between these groups as they relate to rotary and turbine meters and discuss the operating principles, characteristics and advantages of each.
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Document ID: C009E9F5

Fundamentals Of Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Ray A. Parker
Abstract/Introduction:
Chromatography is a physical method of separating the various components of a mixture into pure fractions or bands of each component. Gas chromatography performs this separation on a gaseous or vapor mixture. The separation is effected by distributing the mixture between two phases referred to as the stationary phase and the mobile phase. This separation technique may be used for many organic and inorganic mixtures. The basic requirement of the sample mixture is that it can be in the vapor phase at the time of separation and detection. The separation is performed by passing the mobile phase over or through the stationary phase. The mobile phase consists of the sample mixture and a carrier gas such as nitrogen, helium, or hydrogen. The stationary phase consists of a fixed bed of liquid, solid, or liquid coated solid with a large surface area. Components of the mobile phase are retained temporarily through adsorption (surface) and absorption (in depth) on and in the stationary phase.
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Document ID: DC3AEEE7

High Accuracy Domestic Meter Prover
Author(s): Peter J. Hanowich
Abstract/Introduction:
The advancement of science and technology is generally paced by commercial needs to be filled. Development of gas meters and the means of proving them illustrate the point. The Gas Meter Repair Manual, printed in 1957, states under the section on proving techniques that generally speaking, gas meters which are built today are constructed with more accuracy than we can possibly prove them. That statement is even more true today as improvements during the intervening years have continued in domestic meter design with little or no attention given to improving the prover. Recognizing that a calibrating device should be an order of magnitude better than the instrument to be calibrated, in both accuracy and repeatability, the manufacturer initiated a study in 1976 to determine ways of employing new technology to develop a high accuracy laboratory domestic gas meter prover. The study was a joint effort between Rockwells Municipal & Utility Division in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and the Rockwell Science Center in Thousand Oaks, California.
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Document ID: 2E4A8C38

Electronic Custody Transfer
Author(s): John J. Mullaney
Abstract/Introduction:
On July 1,1982, Algonquin Gas Transmission Company commenced using on-line computers for custody transfer. The system was provided by Teledyne Geotech of Garland, Texas in January 1982- This presentation includes a general description of Algonquin, system planning and implementation, system design, and advantages/disadvantages of the system. ALGONQUIN GAS TRANSMISSION COMPANY Algonquin, headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts, serves 18 customers in the five northeastern states of New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island and Massachusetts. The Company has approximately 1,000 miles of pipeline, 82 delivery points, 3 compressor stations (with a total of 38,560 horsepower), an SNG plant with a capacity of 120,675 MMBtu/day and a 600,000 bbl. LNG facility. Annual sales are 162,000,000 MMBtu with a peak day of 875,000 MMBtu.
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Document ID: 57CEA09B

Effects Of Entrained Liquid On Orifice Measurement
Author(s): C. V. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
In the measurement of natural gas in field operations using the conventional orifice meter, all of the factors used in the calculation of flow are based on the assumption that the gas is dry. This condition is rarely the case in field measurements. The A.G.A. Committee Report No. 3, does not give any information or data regarding the effect water and/or distillation may have upon gas measurement by the orifice meter. It was in this area of gas measurement that graduate engineering students of Texas A&l University, Kingsville, Texas, have conducted research operations in the laboratory and in the field. Schuster, has conducted full range field tests of gas-liquid mixtures at 600 and 1,000 pounds per square inch pressure using the orifice meter. In these tests a 4-inch meter run was used to measure the dry gas. After this measurement, water and/or distillate in varying amounts was introduced and the two-phase stream was then measured first through a 4-inch meter run and then by a 3-inch meter, these tests covered liquid-gas ratios up to 600 barrels of liquid per million cubic feet of gas. A cubic foot of gas in this paper is measured at 14.65 pounds per square inch absolute and 60 Fahrenheit.
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Document ID: 9FFA28E1

Production Measurement With Rotary And Turbine Meters
Author(s): Craig A. Caldwell
Abstract/Introduction:
Production measurement offers some unique problems not particularly found in residential, commercial or industrial measurement. There are four common methods of measuring production gas: the orifice, diaphragm, rotary or turbine meter. All of these meters work well under certain circumstances and are inappropriate under some other conditions. This paper will review installation considerations and maintenance procedures for two of these metering devices, the rotary and turbine meters.
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Document ID: 2FC41052

Intrinsic Safety Primer
Author(s): Alexander B. Anselmo
Abstract/Introduction:
This primer is intended for use by engineers and technicians interested in the fundamentals of intrinsic safety. It is also for others, who must make decisions with regard to the use of intrinsically safe systems. The question-and-answer format presents information covering the most frequent inquiries regarding intrinsic safety. Question 1: What is intrinsic safety? Answer: Intrinsic safety is a design technique applied to electrical equipment and wiring for hazardous locations. The technique is based on limiting energy, electrical and thermal, to a level below that required to ignite a specific hazardous atmospheric mixture.
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Document ID: 44DC865E

Automation Of Natural Gas Measuring And Regulating Stations Using Turbine Meters
Author(s): Edward A. Reustle
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of turbine meters in natural gas measuring and regulating stations has increased due to both measurement service criteria and economic considerations. Seasonal variations in station pressure and throughput necessitate measuring equipment which is adaptable to varying conditions. In addition, the increased cost of natural gas has placed increased emphasis on measurement accuracy. The measurement equipment associated with a natural gas transmission or distribution system is often used in combination with pressure or flow regulating equipment. To integrate measurement and regulating facilities into a transmission or distribution system and to best coordinate the entire operation, these stations must be automated. Although there are similarities between the operation and installation of stations using turbine meters and those employing more commonly used flow metering devices, the use of turbine meters may require additional safeguards to insure equipment integrity and continuity of service.
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Document ID: D32C0279

Pulsation And Turbulence And Their Effect On Measurement And Sampling Operations
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
The foremost concern of all operating companies is revenue, Cash flow is generated by accurate measurement and heating value determination. Accuracy can only be achieved by using the latest technology and methods of measurement and sampling. This paper will briefly discuss the cause and effect of pulsation and turbulence in measurement operations. Pulsation is described as a variation in flow or pressure in a fluid that travels at a speed equal to the velocity of sound in that medium. The velocity of the pressure wave is independent of the velocity of the fluid in the line. Pulsation occurs at a uniform frequency rate. This rate is measured in hertz or cycles per second. The amount of pulsation is referred to as the amplitude or the difference between the high and low peaks. The amplitude affects both the static and differential pressure sensing devices in a measurement system.
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Document ID: 664470CF

A Detailed Look At Volume Calculation
Author(s): Steven T. Demers
Abstract/Introduction:
CALCULATION OF DISPLACEMENT METER FLOW Displacement meters measure quantities of gas in volume units at the pressure and temperature conditions at the meter. In order to convert the volume units to contractual base conditions of pressure and temperature, Boyles and Charles laws for ideal gases must be applied. The equation for converting the volume units at measured conditions (m) to contractual base conditions (b) is:
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Document ID: D5A2657F

Unaccounted For Gas: A Rational Approach To Its Quantification
Author(s): Erwin O. Rossbach
Abstract/Introduction:
Unaccounted for Gas (UFG) is a term used historically to describe the difference between gas bought and gas sold and used. This difference can be small or fairly large, depending on the make up of the gas companys distribution system, it geographic location, its accounting practices, and many other factors. However, is this UFG really unaccounted for?? Let us examine the elements. Again, UFG is the difference between the quantity of gas that a company buys from the supplier, be it well owners or transmission companies, and the sum of the registration on customers meters, plus its own company gas usage. This difference costs money, but generally, not the gas companys. The customers usually pay for this UFG in their rate structure. Any effort to reduce UFG will not result in more profit to the company, but will help reduce the rates and improve customer relations.
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Document ID: 7FD2E845

A Systematic Approach To Trouble Shooting A Faulty Regulator System
Author(s): Stephen P. Czaikowski
Abstract/Introduction:
The phrase experience is the best teacher was probably first uttered by a regulator technician. Experience is truly the best trouble-shooting tool any technician can possess. No one knows a regulator station better than the technician who maintains it, because he must first gain experience of how the regulator performs when it is working property, so that he will be better able to recognize when it is not doing its job. Trialand- error, hunt-and-peck, and lets-try-this-and-see-whathappens techniques have no place when troubleshooting a pressure-loaded live regulator system, although these troubleshooting methods often result in a most impressionable lesson.
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Document ID: 49A54E86

Field Testing With A Transfer Prover
Author(s): Joseph G. Fabrizi
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for an accurate, reliable, and portablefield transfer testing system has resulted from the growth of the gas industry. The growth has brought about the desire for better methods of field testing meters. There are presently available three methods for field testing meters 1. Low-Pressure Flow Prover 2. Critical Flow Prover 3. Transfer Power The low-pressure flow prover and the critical flow prover involve the measurement of several variables which in turn may cause the compounding of errors before the final accuracy can be calculated. The transfer prover requires only the sensing of temperature and pressure differences between the prover and the meter under test. Results obtained from a transfer prover should be more accurate and repeatable and compare more favorably to the accepted standards of the bell and piston provers.
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Document ID: F4993A5E

Minimizing Noise And Vibration At Large Volume Regulator Stations
Author(s): Richard K. Cole
Abstract/Introduction:
Regulation stations are used in a pipeline system to reduce the internal pressure in acontrolled manner. When large flow rales and pressure drops are required, it is very important at the design stage to examine methods of minimizing the amount of noise and vibration created in a regulation run. Noise can easily be predicted with the sound power level (SPL) formula now available from most valve manufacturers. This should never be overlooked in the selection of a control valve, If noise and vibration are to be minimized, two important criteria to consider are 1) the selection of the control valve, and (2) the configuration of the piping system entering and exiting the regulator setting(s). Optimum design within these areas will limit the noise, the velocity and the turbulence in the gas stream. Before going further with the design considerations, lets take a closer look at noise and vibration.
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Document ID: 6D92EEC3

Interpreting Meter Charts
Abstract/Introduction:
Because of the many variables that can, and do, affect the recording or production on a chart there are a great many instances where personal interpretation is a necessity in order to achieve accuracy in measurement. The ability to recognize a problem and the correct interpretation of the problem is not only important for measurement accuracy but can also be a useful tool for production personnel in the field. There are several areas that must be considered when interpreting meter charts. These areas include defective instruments in thefield, sudden and unpredictable changes in the weather, human error and the problems caused by the peculiarities of a well in production. If all of the above variables are not taken into account during the measurement process, there is no chance of accuracy.
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Document ID: 190A9B28

Freeze-Up Protection For Instrument And Pilot Gas Lines
Author(s): A. J. Kerr, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Many natural gas systems suffer from time-to-time from bothersome equipment failures or line shut-off due to freezeup. Instrument and regulator pilot supply line freeze-ups can be avoided by the use of flameless, gas-fired catalytic heaters to externally heat the instrument piping and equipment or by adding a packaged, gas-fired catalytic gas heater to preheat the instrument gas stream. Cold, moist climates accentuate the problems of external freeze-up. With the temperature drop accompanying gas regulation, ice often accumulates on instrument gas regulators, plugs the vents and makes the equipment inoperable.
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Document ID: D70C8CBE

The Pros And Cons Of Turbine Meter Measurement
Author(s): Richard H. Schieber
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry in the United States is fortunate in having a wide variety of measurement equipment available to satisfy every application need. Metering is no exception. There are four time tested and field proven types of meter in common use today as well as various newer electronic flow measurement devices. As with any other choice, there are trade-offs to be made in selecting one meter over another in order to get the specific characteristics required for a particular measurement application. Knowing the strengths and weaknesses of each type of meter is fundamental to the gas measurement engineer. This paper compares the turbine meter to diaphragm, rotary, and orifice meters and lists some of the key factors involved in meter selection.
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Document ID: 78DF6CA8

Ultrasonic Flowmeter - A New Approach To Gas Measurement
Author(s): Michael J. Sceizo
Abstract/Introduction:
Testing of a 24-inch line over several years has demonstrated that a single-path, contrapropagating ultrasonic flowmeter can be calibrated to accurately measure gas flow rates in large diameter pipe lines over a wide range of flows. The following is an adaptation of a paper on this subject, which has been previously presented by Mr. W. D. Munk, Senior Research Engineer, Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Research Department, Columbus, Ohio, It is presented again here as Part 1 of a two part lecture with the intention of serving as a basis for the second part. Part 2 will consist of actual experience gained during field testing of the device, and will be in an audio/visual format.
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Document ID: A1FDE169

Fundamentals Of Pressure Control
Author(s): Doug Butler
Abstract/Introduction:
An example of a self operated regulator is a spring opened valve directly opposed by a diaphragm assembly (Fig. 1). Gas, at increasing downstream pressure, acts on the diaphragm assembly to overcome the force of the spring, closing the valve. When downstream pressure fails, spring force is greater than the force of tlie gas acting on the diaphragm, and the valve opens. Regulator valves have many variations. They can be balanced or unbalanced, single ported or double ported. But common to all regulator valves is a control inaccuracy caused by spring effect.
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Document ID: C5798FA5

Odorization - Think Or Stink
Author(s): Larry Sheffield
Abstract/Introduction:
Many people fee! that gas odorization is one of those necessary evils forced upon gas utilities. However, gas companies recognize the advantages of the product they distribute and are cognizant of the objective of maximizing proper handling and safety to the public. In this paper we will cover the requirements of gas odorization. We will start with the federal law to see why odor is added, what is added, and how much is added. We will also investigate ways to make that job a little easier for all of us by taking into consideration proper planning for storage so that chances for mishandling are reduced.
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Document ID: 0C4047C8

Field Experience With Rotary Meters
Author(s): William J. Teliska
Abstract/Introduction:
The rotary type gas meter has been in commercial use since the early 1900s. For a utility its primary application is to fill the flow capacity gap between the small diaphragm meter and the larger turbine and orifice meters. In production fields, it provides a base for custody transfer and well head measurement systems. When sized, installed, and maintained properly, the rotary meter will provide very accurate measurement for many years of service.
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Document ID: DFC91546

Shop And Field Testing Of Turbine Meters
Author(s): Joseph L. Pond
Abstract/Introduction:
Any metering device requires periodic testing against some sort of acceptable reference standard in order to determine its accuracy. Thie need for these periodic tests is emphasized when dealing with large volume meters due to the sizable dollar revenues involved, As an example, consider a 6 Turbo-Meter, operating at its capacity, for one year at the indicated inlet pressures. The cost of the metered natural gas is 3.00/mcf.
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Document ID: 27ADFF3C

Monitor Regulators
Author(s): Don Day
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is a general discussion of the philosophy behind the use of monitors for overpressure protection as well as an analysis of the types of equipment that can be used. Whenever a device is used to feed gas from a high pressure system to a low pressure system, there is always the possibility that the device will fail in a manner which will allow the pressure to go to a dangerously high level. We must always assume that the pressure regulator could fail in the wide open position. There are two popular methods of providing protection against overpressuring the system downstream of a failed regulator. One method is the simple installation of a properly sized relief valve however, this method is falling into disfavor because a quantity of gas is lost whenever the relief valve operates. The other method is the use of a monitor regulator and this method is becoming more popular because no gas is lost.
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Document ID: 8DAC0C03

Control Valves For Large Volume Regulation
Author(s): Don Turbiville
Abstract/Introduction:
Although gas pressure regulators dominate much of the control applications in the Gas Distribution and Transmission Industry, they are limited to applications with small flow requirements. These applications are numerous in any Gas Distribution System and include commercial, industrial, and domestic service, farm taps, and district pressure control. Large volume gas pressure control is less frequent but necessary in many gas industry applications including city gate stations, some district stations, and gas transmission. Control valves offer much more capacity, as well as other advantages, to meet these large volume gas pressure control requirements.
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Document ID: DDCDAEA2

An Economic Approach To Repair Of Domestic Meters
Author(s): P. E. Opp
Abstract/Introduction:
Any discussion of the economics of in-house domestic meter repair by a utility must start with the basic question whether current total annual meter changes are consistent with the number of changes needed to maintain required meter accuracy. Review of meter change policy at The East Ohio Gas Company seven years ago afforded the opportunity to consider whether a departure from the existing fifteen year service life for all meters would be advantageous to both company and consumer, provided required meter accuracy could be maintained and possibly even improved.
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Document ID: C9FEFBAE

Hands On Calibration And Operation Of Flow Measurement 2000K Electronic Integrator
Author(s): Joe Webb
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter was developed to measure large volumes of gas at higfi pressures. Basically, the orifice meter records the difference in the pressure of gas before and after being constricted by an orifice plate. The pressures before and after the orifice plate are used to determine gas flow where the following equation is used:
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Document ID: 8558A826

Pros And Cons Of Rotary Meters
Author(s): Jack D. Bateman
Abstract/Introduction:
Worldwide, almost all gas measurement is made by using one of four types of meters: diaphragm, rotary, turbine and orifice. No one type can be considered universal or best fit for all applications. All meter types have specific advantages/disadvantages for a given use. As the pros and cons for rotary meters are enumerated, keep in mind that it is the weighed average of each point listed that will determine the ultimate meter selection.
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Document ID: E5F3A727

Remote Data Colection System And Communication With A Central Computer
Author(s): Gene Sweeney
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays changing world, it is necessary to have more and more information available to adequately manage any business. Certainly, this is no less true for a gas utility than it is for any other commercial business. Until recently, however, it has been uneconomical for the utility to obtain alt of the information it needs for efficient system operation because of the diversity of its customers. Now, because of recent advantages in technology, it is becoming more and more feasible to collect the information needed. Several different communication technologies are currently matuhng into economically justifiable systems. Today, I will concentrate on a means of communication that has been in existence for quite awhile, but has only recently become viable for widespread application. I will be talking about using existing telephone lines for automatically reporting information about the gas consumption back to the utility from the customers meter site.
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Document ID: 43227015

Electronics And The Small Utility - A Year Later
Author(s): David W. Kimberling
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronics probably the most discussed topic in the natural gas industry today. We now find ourselves in the midst of a computerized revolution. Our pens, pencils, tablets, and mark sense cards are rapidly being replaced with CRTs, keyboards, and mass storage memories. Meter reading is now being accomplished via the use of hand held computers which replace the traditional meter reading books or cards. Pipelines are continually monitored using complex Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems (SCADA). These systems can almost instantaneously run a material balance on sections of pipeline to determine leakage or faulty metering.
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Document ID: 493992A7

Meter Change Programs
Author(s): Gregory S. Veraa
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter change programs have two basic purposes. First, the utility has an obligation to their customer to meter the gas sold to them in an accurate manner. The change program should provide a method to see that meters are changed when they become inaccurate. The second purpose is to see that meters are not changed more often than necessary. In this paper, I will discuss three different types of change programs and their operating characteristics.
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Document ID: 4B2F7F71

An Electric Primer
Author(s): Wm. P. Somers
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is meant to be a simple, practical level presentation to make one comfortable with the terms and functions of electronic components and systems used in gas measurement. Topics to be presented are: Basic Electricity Symbols and Definitions Analog Systems Digital Systems Transducers Telemetry Safety Electrical Noise Protection
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Document ID: B6EE63CD

Fundamentals Of Bellows-Type Orifice Meters
Author(s): E. A. Lommatsch
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to control and direct the flow of water was recognized at a very early stage in the development of civilization. In Europe and Asia can be seen the relics of hydraulic works, some of great antiquity, which display a high degree of engineering accomplishment, the best known of which are the aqueducts, which the Romans built to bring water to their cities. In the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum can be still seen lead piping, which conveyed water to houses and gardens, and which included orifice plates to act as flow limiting devices, providing a basis on which the service was charged to the consumer. These were installed almost 2,000 years ago. Some of these techniques were introduced to North America by engineers who accompanied the Spanish missionaries and whose work can still be seen at some of the missions in California.
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Document ID: AA87704B


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