Measurement Library

Measurement Science Conference Publications (1985)

The Solid-State Voltage Reference Comes Of Cige
Author(s): Woodward G Elcke
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will trace the development of the Zener reference diode and the solid-state reference units utilizing the device over the past 25 years. Diode characteristics, measurement techniques, device stability and the status of solid-state i/oltage standards will be discussed
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Document ID: A02DA8DC

Coping With Non-Existent National Standards - An Nbs Perspective
Author(s): Brian Belanger
Abstract/Introduction:
The act establishing the US National Bureau of Standards (NBS) lists as a principal function to undertake The custody, maintenance, and development of the national standards of measurement and the provision of means and methods for making measurements consis tent with those s tandards.. . .I For many common measurements, calibration labora tories can achieve traceability to national standards by utilizing measurement services provided by NBS. High-level calibration laboratories typically provide calibrations for lower level laboratories in a hierarchical fashion so that measurements at the working level can ultimately be related to national standards. Measurement inconsistencies may develop where national measurement standards do not exist or where measurement services are unavailabLe from NBS. This paper outlines from NBS perspective the nature of the resulting problems and discusses how they may be resolved.
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Document ID: 72640544

Status Of The International Temperature Scale
Author(s): Robert J. Soulen
Abstract/Introduction:
In June 1984 the Consultative Committee on Thermometry met in Sevres, France. Representatives from many laboratories throughout the world reported on recent developments in high accuracy temperature measurements. Significant progress has been made in many areas, including: (1) improved realization of the thermodynamic temperature scale (2) improved fixed points and (3) improved fitting techniques for platinum resistance thermometers. This article will summarize these results and thus indicate the status of the international temperature scale presently in use.
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Document ID: A83F1C41

Use Of Trimmed Means In Manufacturing Production
Author(s): William S. Messina
Abstract/Introduction:
Line enqineers want to use techniques whose statistical properties remain reasonably constant for data typical in manufacturing production (outliers in the data). Identifying and trimming outliers from each side of a data-distribution curve has been an approach used intuitively by line engineers for a long time to analyze data. The trimmed mean is obtained from a data set by removing a specified percentage (e.g., 10%) of observations from each side of the distribution. An application of trimmed means to a manufacturing process will be examined in this paper.
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Document ID: 5096B2CE

An Automated Environmental Monitoring And Alarm System For Metrology Laboratories - A Way To Do What You Say!
Author(s): David R. Workman Martin Marietta
Abstract/Introduction:
Operation of a metrology system in conformance with MIL-STD-45662 and other applicable specifications requires that calibration environment conditions must either be maintained within specified tolerances or reported as a part of the test instrument performance data. Because it is not practical to record environmental data on all workload, a common practice is to establish a laboratory normal environment specification with proviso that calibrations may be performed only when the laboratory meets these requirements. When exceeded, environment must be noted and judgement made as to whether or not conditions will adversely affect the calibration process on an individual item basis. The calibration technician is normally held responsible for monitoring the environment and assuring that subject mandates are being maintained.
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Document ID: AD5383AA

Cryogenic Thermometer Calibration System
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes a system developed to calibrate thermometers at cryogenic temperatures. The temperature range of the system is from 1.2 to 330 Kelvin. The techniques used for automation of the system data acquisition and data reduction are described as well as future plans to provide improvements to the system.
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Document ID: 81EA4CB9

Cryogenic Temperature Calibrations
Author(s): K. Jaeger
Abstract/Introduction:
The Lockheed Missiles & Space Co. has acquired a closed cycle helium refrigeration system for calibration of high precision standard thermometers between 15 and 90 degrees Kelvin. A total of five triple point cells of high purity gases will be utilized to realize intrinsic temperature points for Argon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Neon, and Deuterium. Calibrations will be done for Rhodium-Iron and Platinum resistor thermometers as well as for Germanium diodes.
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Document ID: 5054B8E5

Development Of Uncertainties For 14mmJMPEDANCE Standards
Author(s): Michaela. V. Cruz
Abstract/Introduction:
The development of the uncertainty statements for a wide range of SWR values became necessary when this laboratory received impedance standards whose values exceeded a SWR of 1.50. Normal calibration support at that time was 1.0 to 1.5 SWR. Standard MichaelA. V. Cruz Director Electromagnetic-Standards Division, West Navy Primary Standards Laboratory, West Naval Air Rework Facility, North Island San Diego, California impedances whose SWR values ranged from 2.0 to 4.0 had to be analyzed for errors since the past analysis had only been used to evaluate SWR values to 1.5. A complete error analysis review was put into action. The methods used to measure SWR were high directivity bridges (200-400MHz) and standard airlines (l.O-8.5GHz). A systematic and shortterm error analysis was performed using propagation of error techniques and a long-term error model was derived from past historical customer data, as well as, from a newly created data base from in-house standards data. This paper addresses these systematic, short-term and long-term errors in the measurement of 14mm impedance standards.
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Document ID: D92953EE

Local Area Networks A Comparative Analysis
Author(s): Douglas C. Barlow
Abstract/Introduction:
There has been alot of activity in the computer industry over the last several years centering around the concept of local area networks. Many computer manufacturers have announced their own versions of Local Area Networks. Specialized companies have released their own Local Area Networks, tying together various computer vendors gear. Also, several standards organizations have looked closely at local area networks. The most prominent of these standards organizations is IEEE with its 802 series of Local Area Network specifications. This article will discuss the characteristics of these specifications in more detail.
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Document ID: 5BB89752

Automatic Calibration New Technology*
Author(s): Ken Carrington
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic calibration and computer data base management system technology has advanced to enable completely automatic generation of calibration procedures, perform?rlze of the procedure, and autoreporting of instrument tolerances/ corrections to users.
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Document ID: 8E85FF2E

Test Results On The Modular Laser Calibrator
Author(s): Felix Schweizer
Abstract/Introduction:
A prototype modular laser calibrator has been constructed consisting of laser transmitter modules together with associated modular optics. The modular laser calibrator is capable of generating and measuring pulsed laser stimuli for calibration of a variety of laser related components, test equipment, and fixtures. All electro optical and mechanical components and fixtures are housed inside an enclosure consisting of an optical bench and cover. All components and assemblies are mounted so that no alignment or adjustment is required by the user or calibration technician. All settings required in a calibration procedure can be selected by externally accessible controls. Units or components to be calibrated can be inserted into the calibrator or attached to mating ports with eye-safe light-tight adapters coupled to safety interlocks. The system, together with the units under test, is a Class I laser system that can be used in any laboratory or shop environment outside specially prepared laser-safe facilities.
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Document ID: 1E67A56A

Autocal - Fwm Instruments To Portable Systems
Author(s): John R. Pickering
Abstract/Introduction:
As more and more instruments, ATEs and calibrating devices incorporating Autocal are becoming available the full potential of automaticcalibration systems is being realised.
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Document ID: 2F9CBBFA

FLEX1BL.E Metrology For Flexible Manufacturing The Process Control Robot As Presented To 1985 Measurement Science Confereence
Author(s): David H. Genest
Abstract/Introduction:
The concept of Flexible Manufacturing started in the United States many years ago and moved to Japan and Europe, who pioneered the basic principles. Now these concepts are being put into practice in the United States. This paper deals with an aspect of FMS which is now becoming quite popular, and that is the concept of AUTOMATED FL,EXIBLE METROLOGY. We are now starting to understand that an INDEPENDENT PROCESS VERIFIER is a key element in the success of an FMS.
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Document ID: 7C84CE2D

Patec: Past - Present - Future An Air Force Approach To Ats Calibration
Author(s): Joseph C. Santo
Abstract/Introduction:
PATEC was first developed to perform a system level Calibration of an Air Force developed automatic calibration system. Tne concept has since been applied to Automatic Test Systems and proved successful. From a modest beginning of one system in 1977, it has grown to over 25 systems. PATEC is included in tne Modular Automatic Test Equipment guides, which are now mandatory for use in the Air Force when buying or modifying any ATS. PATEC consists of three essential parts a set of portable standards, a Calibration Test Program Set, and the necessary documentation. PATES solves most of the proolems found in the traditional, pull, calibrate, and replace method of ATS calibration.
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Document ID: 4E76D200

An Approach To Ate Calibration Via Performance Verification At The System Interface
Author(s): Thomas F. Leedy
Abstract/Introduction:
A method of verifying the performance of automatic test equipment (ATE) in its normal operating environment and configuration is presented as the best approach to achieving an overall system calibration. The method consists of the transport of well-characterized signal sources to the ATE station and the application of these electrical stimuli directly to a well-defined electrical interface on the test station. Data is presented on typical accuracies that have been obtained on limited parameters and ranges during the testing process, using calibrated commercial equipment.
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Document ID: E792C929

Calibration Test Program Sets
Author(s): Dick Calhoun
Abstract/Introduction:
The calibration of Automatic used to support Navy weapons cult technical requirement. bration support is delivered Test Equipment (ATE) systems is a diffi- Ensuring that cali- . wit. h an ATE sys. tem . as one of the Integrated Logistics Support (ILS) elements is a challenge. The evolution and status of Navy Calibration Test Program Set implementation will be reviewed.
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Document ID: AB1947CC

Phase Noise Measurements - Methods, Solutions, And Trends
Author(s): Karen R. Bonner
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past, phase noise measurements have required complex, dedicated instrumentation operated by highly specialized phase noise experts. As system requirements have changed, testing has become more widespread, and commercial measurement solutions are now available. This paper compares the four most common methods of measuring phase noise: 1) direct spectrum 2) heterodyne/counter 3) frequency discriminator and 4) phase detector. The advantages and disadvanta.- aes of each method are outlined, includ- 91 the most important parameter-for each : hod -- noise floor sensitivity. Knowing which method is optimum for a particular type of oscillator is useful in selecting a measurement system and differentiating between the noise floor of the measurement system versus the noise of the oscillator under test.
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Document ID: 4B91BC04

Time And Frequency Domain Measurements For Gps Rubidium Frequency Standards
Author(s): F. K. Koide, E. A. Rheingans
Abstract/Introduction:
Space-Qualified Rubidium frequency Standards (RFS) are being developed for the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) by Rockwell International Corporations Defense Electronics Operations. This paper presents the test data of the time and frequency domain measurements along with the automated test system as a essential element in the evaluation of RFS performance in a simulated spacecraft environment.
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Document ID: 43866043

Time Transfer And Clock Analysis Via The Global Positioning System Gps()
Author(s): Jay Oaks, Jr., James A. Buisson, Mark J. Lister
Abstract/Introduction:
A GPS time transfer receiver developed by the Naval Research Laboratory has been provided by the GPS Program Office to Rockwell International in Anaheim, California, to perform clock measurements and analysis. The receiver performs time measurements between GPS satellite clocks and a ground clock. The measurements are referenced to the GPS Master Clock and also to the Naval Observatory Master Clock (UTC(USN0 MC)) using data transmitted by the satellites. Measurements were made over a period of a year using the laboratory cesium standard at Rockwell as the ground station clock. A phase plot was kept relative to the Naval Observatory UTC and stability analysis of the clock was performed using the data. The measurement results of the time comparison had an RMS less than 100 ns and the frequency stability as compared againps the USN0 ensemble was on the order of parts in 10 over a one day period.
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Document ID: C6834A68

Clock Characterization Tutorial
Author(s): David W. Allan
Abstract/Introduction:
Managers ar9 often required to make key program decisions based on the performance of some elements of a large system. This paper is intended to assist the manager in this important task in so far as it relates to the proper use of precise and accurate clocks. An intuitive approach will be used to show how a clocks stability is measured, why it is measured the way i t i s , and why it is described the way it is. 4n intuitive explanation of the meaning of time domain and frequency domain measures as well as why they are used will also be given.
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Document ID: E9E440DC

New Time And Frequency Services At National Bureau Of Standards
Author(s): S. R. Stein, G. Kamas
Abstract/Introduction:
NEW TIME AND FREQUENCY SERVICES AT NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS S. R. Stein, G. Kamas, and D. W. Time and Frequency Division National Bureau of Standard Boulder, Colorado The National Bureau of Standards (NBS) established two new time and frequency services in 1983. They permit, the user to obtain time and frequency traceable to the NBS with greater precision and less effort than previously possible. The new services are for users who require time transfer accuracies in the three nanosecond to one microsecond range or fre uency i,i(r, ,88 bility in the 1 part in 1.0 ?l to range. However, many applications not requiring this level of precision may benefit from these services because of the high degree of automation, simplicity of use, and support from the NBS.
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Document ID: 7B20996B

A 50 Ppm 47 Hz To 63 Hz Power Standard
Author(s): Duane Brown,
Abstract/Introduction:
A micro based thermal wattmeter for the precision measurement of power over the 47 hertz to 63 hertz spectrum is described. It will operate up to 1000 hertz with reduced accuracy covering the power factor range of -1 through 0 to +l. The principle used is that of the AC/DC transfer principle, the main element being the differential multijunction thermal converter. The design has a resolution of 1 ppm and a direct reading full scale accuracy of 50 ppm.
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Document ID: 513ACAA2

Automated Nondestructive Pbstm Measurements Of Surface And Subsurface Defect Distribution In Silicon And Gallium Arsenide Wafers
Author(s): Robert m. Silva, Fred D. Orazio, Robert B. Sledge
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement of scattered light has become more important during the past few years because of the increased ability to use this information for evaluating supersmooth optics and the polished surfaces of other materials including semiconductor wafers. Single point measurements, even of scattered light, are also no longer sufficient for characterizing surfaces since it has been found that point-to-point variations can be far greater than had been suspected. The instrument described in this paper is a highly accurate scatter measuring system capable of taking more than 100 million data points in a 125 x 125mm square area and displaying that data in the form of a map. The maps can be used to analyze both the surface and subsurface characteristics of a test article and the information used as a feedback mechanism to change the production process toward improved quality. Automated, the measurement method can be used for nondestructive inspection (NDI) of wafers in a cassette-to-cassette incoming quality control system.
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Document ID: 76753894

Training Modes And Techniques
Author(s): Frederic S. Cushing
Abstract/Introduction:
Describes the five modes of training developed by ISA in support of continuing education programs sponsored by ISA.
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Document ID: A772E5D1

Voice Data Entry Applications At Texas Instruments
Author(s): R. Steve Harper
Abstract/Introduction:
The Texas Instruments Professional Computer Speech Command System (tm) is being used increasingly for voice data entry (VDE) in production areas within the Equipment Group of Texas Instruments, Inc. This new data entry tool can potentially cut data entry task time in half by allowing hands and eyes to perform other tasks simultaneously. In addition, VDE reduces keystroke/ translation errors and eliminates paper records for clean room environments. Applications, benefits and resolution of problems from a users perspective will be presented.
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Document ID: 4A56CD27

Current Nbs Metrology Capabilities And Limitations At Millimeter Wave Frequencies
Author(s): R. Reeve, C. K. S. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
The National Bureau of Standards (YBS) establishes national artifact standards and provides a metrology base for 1J.S. industry and technology. In the millimeter wave frequency spectrum, NBS has not established all of the reqllired Imetrology to meet the needs of industry or government for this technology. It is the intent of this paper to describe the technical demands of responding to the challenger of millimeter-wave technology. A description of the current capabilities that exist at NBS will be given for those parameters and frequencies where Imeasurement services exist. Where novel standards have been developed, Such as the 94 GHz ther:nal noise Stdnddrd, the physical basis for the standard will be described to indicate the changes from lower frequency designs and the challenges that had to be overcome. Limitations in services and in concepts of standards for providing those services will be described to indicate the degree of research that must be undertaken to satisfy future industrial needs in this evolving technology.
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Document ID: D539CF7A

An Interferometric Approach To Vector Network Analysis At W-Band
Author(s): H. Brian Sequeira
Abstract/Introduction:
The design, construction, and performance of a Wband waveguide vector network analyzer are described. The heart of the instrument is a waveguide interferometer, which enables a comparison of the power emerging from the device-undertest (DUT) with a reference standard. Thus, the reflection/transmission coefficient of the DUT can be determined at a given frequency. An inherently wideband reference condition can be established by equalizing the lengths of the test and reference arms of the analyzer, but achieving this requires special attention to the specification and the physical coupling of the component parts. The requisite procedures for component specification and assembly are described. Experimental data indicate that amplitude and phase tracking between the interferometer arms are within 1.2 dB and +8 degrees, respectively, over a frequency range of 88 GHz to 99 GHz. Sample measurements at 94 GHz are presented to indicate the resolution, repeatability, and dynamic range possible with the source-detector combination currently used. Some performance limitations and possible modifications for performance improvement are also discussed.
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Document ID: 97962A71

Software Product Assurance In The Metrology Lab
Author(s): Mark Kaufman
Abstract/Introduction:
Software has always been a problem. In the beginning the problem was not enough software and too few programmers. Now the problem is too much software and not enough control. T h e r e i s t o o much software because there are many near duplicates of programs in use. Using the right program is more of a problem than finding a program. The software problem is a surprise only because of its gradual build up. The problem started as computers moved into the metrology lab. Desktop computers or instrument controllers are now an integral part of the metrology lab. These devices were introduced over several years and this gradual appearance has masked some of the problems. Now the desktop computer is no longer feared there are many more potential programmers and little control. Everyone in a metrology lab would be shocked if the dc standard used to calibrated digital voltmeters were not carefully controlled. Not nearly as many are surprised to find the software to calibrate the same digital voltmeter is not controlled.
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Document ID: CC8DC7CE

Life-Cycle Objective Measuring Of The Software Product
Author(s): Gerald E. Murine
Abstract/Introduction:
Software product measurement has become a high priority concern for both government and commercial industries. This paper examines a technique for obtaining a highly objective measurement of the software product throughout its life cycle. The technique presented is Software Quality Metrics, defined as a methodology whose primary objective is the measure of software quality attributes using a set of software life cycle properties called quality factors. The author, Gerald E. Murine, president and founder of METRIQS, Inc., is considered the most experienced and knowledgeable person in the application of Software Quality Metrics. Conclusions resulting from his research, and the application of Software Quality Metrics on six major military projects form the basis of this paper. The evolution of Software Quality Metrics has been from university research projects and a classroom science topic to an effective, practical methodology is discussed. The selection of the software quality factors are discussed together with methods for assigning appropriate criteria. Examples of element selection conclude the premeasurement section of this paper. Various scoring techniques are tnen presented two are presented as the authors choices. The role of automated management reporting tools is also discussed Quality Measurement management reporting Anomoly detecting and predictive metrics are considered with particular emphasis placed on designing reliability into the software. Methods for reporting S/W product status are also given together with the suggested guidebook usage
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Document ID: 2A35F2B1

Using Gidep To Improve Your Metrology Posture
Author(s): Edwin T. Richards
Abstract/Introduction:
The author presents a metrology oriented overview of the Government-Industry txcha&e Program, GIDEP, including its evolution, types of data banks, communication networks, and areas of application as related to metrology. Information is provided on the current capability and future potential of this viable data exchange program in terms of technology transfer ana resources conservation as a key to technological growth and profit. Specific examples of data utilization for metrology enhancement and case histories of cost avoidance/savings benefits are also presented.
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Document ID: BB235C7A

Space Shuttle Tile Automated Dimensioning
Author(s): James D. Tostenson
Abstract/Introduction:
The re-entry of Space Vehicles into the atmosphere after completing missions in the orbit around the earth or the moon has been accomplished many times in the past two decades. Past man rated vehicles like, Mercury, Gemini and Apollo carried from one to three astronauts and were quite small and compact in size compared to the Space Shuttle Vehicle and required much less of an area to have re-entry insulation to protect the capsule and its occupants from the heat during re-entry. Insulation on past vehicles was an ablative type that actually charred and peeled away the dynamic heating of re-entry carrying the heat away from the capsule. These vehicles were used for only one mission.
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Document ID: 4352C95E

High Trequency And Static Capacitance Kasuremnt Technique On Linear Parametric Testers
Author(s): L. Cutai, S. Hylroie, T. Hazendonk
Abstract/Introduction:
The combined high frequency and static capacitance- voltage technique is a well-known tool in characterizing metal-oxide-semiconductor MS) structures. Understanding of the physics and controlling the properties of those structures have a great impact on the performance, yield and further development of HDS devices
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Document ID: 3231E8E9

Mobile Automated Calibration Systems For On-Site Testing
Author(s): Milton J. Lichtenstein
Abstract/Introduction:
Calibration laboratories face some special problems in supplying calibration services to instrumentation fixed in place in test stat.ions or stationary ATE in manufacturing areas. The same problems apply when instruments are secured in racks at large, complex test installations remote from the Cal lab. Dismantling instruments from these fixtures for transport to the calibration laboratory introduces unacceptable work stoppages and extra costs. To resolve this, cal labs often bring individual calibrators to the work location and make a temporary setup to perform the calibration. The recent. int.roduction of a series r. f mGh 1.7. ?I i+nmat rd 757 1.1 n.5 mp and n-.t ,r calibrators, named CALCART b y Bailantirre Laboratories, Inc., provide the calibration laboratory faced with such requirements with a group of easily transportable configurations of calihrators with associated controllers, color displays, disk storage, and calibration software. These turnkey systems provide the calibration laboratory with the mobility needed to bring the cal lab on-site easily, to perform fast, efficient auto- , mated calibration on the largest population of instrumentation commonly in use in most facilities - oscilloscopes, voltmeters, current meters, ohmmeters, and multimeters. This paper describes a typical meter CALCART and discusses some of the direct and indirect benefits of mobile on-site automated calibration.
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Document ID: EB5E8531

A Non-Systems Approach To Automated Calibration
Author(s): John R. Innis
Abstract/Introduction:
Calibration of Test and Measuring Equipment (TME) has evolved from standard manual techniques to the use of highly automated calibration equipment and procedures. Several companies now manufacture such automated stand alone equipment with the needed software to perform calibrations of specific types of TME. More importantly, these basic packages can be supplemented, at a modest investment, with other ancillary equipment and additional software, to perform Automated Calibrations on a much wider selection of TME. The manufacturers have not, however, provided instructions and software Ior this expanded capacity, and as a resuit many well equipped laboratories which now have this equipment at their disposal are not using it in the most cost and tine effective manner, The users of TME want their equipment back in the field as soon as possible - tine is money - and Automated Calibration extended to its practical limit can be the best answer to that need.
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Document ID: E8112DB3

Advanced Applications Of Automation In The Calibration Laboratory
Author(s): Charles E. Weber
Abstract/Introduction:
The, decade of the 80s is indeed a time of changes and challenges for the Grumman Aerospace Corporation. A massive investment of the resources of capital and talent is positioning the company in a leading role in aerospace technology. New aircraft programs such as the X-29 Advanced Technology Demonstrator, the F14D and A-6 update with virtually all new avionic systems, along with continuing improvements on the EA-6B, EF-111 and E-2C aircraft have demanded new and improved manufacturing, testing, and quality assurance methods. New business areas, such as the automatic test equipment field, where Grumman has become a major factor, and atomic fusion research have also presented the challenge of measuring, inspecting and testing new devices under new condition
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Document ID: 67AAE749


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