Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (1985)

Download collection of documents about ISHM 1985 including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, etc.


International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Marine Crude Oil Terminal Measurement Systems
Author(s): Larry W. P I T Ts
Abstract/Introduction:
Marine crude oil terminal measurement systems are similar in design to other metering f a c i l i t i e s . These systems differ from other metering systems in the need for higher flow rates due to demurrage charges, and the higher accuracy necessary because of the increased poss i b i l i t y of errors due to various shortages. This paper will concentrate on the selection of the major components for these systems to include a i r elimination, meters, provers, and instrumentation. Figure 1 is a representative marine unloading f a c i l i t y.
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Document ID: 549A2F57

Orifice Meter Calibration Using A Digital Pressure Indicator
Author(s): David B. Savells
Abstract/Introduction:
SCOPE This paper will describe in depth instrument calibration using the latest in pressure measurement technology, the digital pressure indicator. Digital Pressure Indicators with solid state sensing elements (transducers) lend themselves very well to field calibration work for several reasons: 1) High Accuracy 2) Ease of Reading 3) Portability 4) Operate from wide variety of pressure sources
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Document ID: 46273144

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Howard W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
When the word measurement is mentioned, the majority of the gas industry measurement personnel automatically convert their thoughts to a meter. The meter contributes only 1/2 to 1/4 toward the total science of measurement depending on the application.
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Document ID: 7749A6AE

High Pressure Measuring And Regulating Station Design
Author(s): Carl Rousseau
Abstract/Introduction:
What is considered High Pressure? Dependent on whether one is involved in production/ transmission/ or distribution of gas/ the words High Pressure may be expressed as very different values. For the purpose of this paper, it may be just as well if we consider everything above atmospheric pressure as being high pressure since in different operations the meaning could be significantly different. This can certainly be justified from a safety standpoint since extra precautions are sometimes necessary as pressures increase. In addition to the safety aspect/ elevated pressures definitely effect measuring station capacity and design.
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Document ID: E0951AF1

Devices For Moisture Measurement In Natural Gas
Author(s): T.Y. Trammel
Abstract/Introduction:
Detection and accurate measurement of moisture in natural gas is an important, yet an elusive, undertaking. The reasons to measure the moisture content of natural gas will be presented with this paper along with discussion regarding various methods for measurement and the history of their development. Primitive as well as state-of-the-art moisture measurement techniques will be reviewed. Information contained herein should equip the student with overall knowledge of moisture measurement devices commonly used in the natural gas industry and enable intelligent selection of the correct instrument for any particular situation.
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Document ID: FED1899A

The Use Of Manometers In The Gas Industry
Author(s): James V. Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
THE MANOMETER A PRIMARY STANDARD A WORKING STANDARD The Manometer is considered a primary standard and can be constructed simply with a suitable liquid of known sp.gr., a bent glass tube and a reference scale. The gas industry depends on accurate measurement, because of the simplicity of the components of a manometer a primary standard, thus becomes a working standard.
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Document ID: 1FD5D0E9

Natural Gas Odorants And Their Components
Author(s): J. T. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas odorants are usually blends of two or more components. Since there are approximately twenty different commercial natural gas odorants available on the market, one should be aware of the characteristics of each component to better understand the total blend.
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Document ID: 1E2039E0

Domestic Gas Service Regulators Operation - Selection - Installation
Author(s): Stephen P. Swartz
Abstract/Introduction:
Definition of a Service Type Gas Pressure Regulator The term, GAS SERVICE REGULATORS, commonly applies to those regulators used for reducing gas pressure in pounds to a reduced or service pressure of four to eight ounces as required by domestic gas burning equipment, such as gas stoves, floor furnaces, hot water heaters, central heating, and other similar gas heating equipment. Such gas service regulators are used whenever gas pressure is distributed at a pressure in pounds and must be reduced to ounces pressure for these appliances. The regulator is installed ahead of the domestic meter because the meter is designed to measure gas consumed on the premises at ounces pressure and not in pound pressure.
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Document ID: 85A6E1D1

Ethylene Measurement
Author(s): H. A. Brainerd
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate custody transfer of ethylene through pipelines has become increasingly important since it began in the mid-1960s because - 1. The volumes transported have increased dramatically to approximately 30 billion pounds per year. 2. The cost of ethylene has increased more than 10-fold from 2 per lb. to more than 20? per lb. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to measure ethylene with extreme accuracy because at the normal custody transfer operating pressures and temperatures, ethylene has a high degree of compressibility. With a critical temperature of 49F. and a critical pressure of 730 psi, the high compressibility varies considerably for different operating conditions normally experienced in ethylene custody transfer systems. Using the same instrumentation found in liquid pipelines, the measurement error will generally be many times greater than experienced in liquid pipelines.
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Document ID: A3028966

Btu Trim Feed-Forward Process Control: Feed Back For Blending
Author(s): Anthony J. Shimps
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the last decade a number of changes have oc-.. cured in the gas industry. The introduction of the microprocessor chip has spawned a new generation of equipment for the measurement and control of natural gas. The cost of gas to the distribution companies and to the consumer have risen dramatically. Gas companies are more concerned about the heating value (BTU) of the gas they are buying and selling, and the large consumers of natural gas are increasingly aware of the need for energy management.
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Document ID: 4715DB88

Electronic Measurement Correction Devices
Author(s): Peter J. Hanowich
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine meters, like all other metering devices, measure natural gas at line conditions. Gas volumes vary with changes in temperature and pressure following the well known Boyles and Charles Laws. Base conditions provide a common reference for measuring gas at an inlet pressure of 4 oz. and a temperature of 60F. Any variance in these parameters requires a calcu- lation to correct the gas line volume to base volume. A number of ways have been evolved by the industry to obtain this base volume.
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Document ID: 0395B12D

Calibration Of Storage Tanks
Author(s): Richard m. Sheppard
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past five years major procedural and technological advances have been made in the area of tank, calibration. France has developed and has been using an Optical Triangulation Method which uses the measurement of angles to determine tank diameter. Japan has developed a laser type azimuth and distance measuring system which has been used in the calibration of approximately 200 storage tanks and some vessel tanks. The Optical Reference Line Method (ORLM) was originally perfected in Belgium and has had much exposure in the European community.
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Document ID: 65D9AD14

Energy Measurement Utilizing On-Line Chromatograph
Author(s): Albert P. Foundos
Abstract/Introduction:
A wide variety of microprocessor based instruments performing various analysis and data acquisition and communication functions have been recently introduced. Fluid Data realized that the requirements for more accurate and reliable Btu measurement had to be met by utilizing this new technology. The company went forward from the early microprocessor based equipment and re-defined software and hardware for existing calorimeter and gas chromatograph systems to obtain ease of operation and operator confidence through user friendly microprocessor interfaces. The COMPU-CAL was developed from the philosophy that the measurement quality of any instrument depends to a large extent on the operators understanding of the equipment and his ability to maintain and service the instrument. Thus emphasis was placed in using simple proven components for the chromatograph with a well defined chromatographic separation, all supported by reliable electronics and microprocessor technology to meet the gas industry needs.
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Document ID: FD1E184B

Positive Displacement Liquid Meters
Author(s): Philip D. Baker, Christopher B. Laird
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to examine the application of Positive Displacement (P.D.) Meters for liquid flow measurement. The focus will be on petroleum service, but the principles can be applied to other industrial, chemical and commercial applications. To accomplish this objective, the basic design and operation of P.D. Meters, and factors influencing their performance, will be discussed.
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Document ID: 427B81FE

Measurement By Battery Operated Field Computers
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
Through time, the increasing value of fuels and competitiveness of the market has produced an increasing need for (1) a higher degree of measurement accuracy, (2) more timely availability of data for accounting and production control, and (3) less laborintensive methods of data collection and flow computation. The advent of low-cost microcomputer technology in recent years has given much impetus to the development of remote computers intended to meet these needs.
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Document ID: D3681EEF

Development Of Orifice Meter Standards Past, Present And Future
Author(s): Gordon W. Swinney
Abstract/Introduction:
The o r i f i c e is one of the o l d e s t known devices for measuring or r e g u l a t i n g the flow of f l u i d s , c h i e f l y water. The Romans are c r e d i t ed w i t h using it for r e g u l a t i n g the flow of water to house h o l d e r s . However, the development of the o r i f i c e or o r i f i c e meter as a device on which the current day purchase and s a l e of f l u i d s are made, has taken place e s s e n t i a l l y during the p a s t s i x t y y e a r s.
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Document ID: 76DB2550

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted-For Gas-Distribution
Author(s): Jim Wall
Abstract/Introduction:
I t was leakage from i l l f i t t i n g pipes and the resultant- danger of explosions, f i r e s , and asphxia t i on that delayed for a long time the use of gas in p r i v a t e homes. The industry has solved the problem of i l l f i t t i n g pipes but safety, p r o f i t s, and the conservation of a natural resource s t i l l demands a keen concern over leakage and unaccounted- for gas
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Document ID: 5ECD81E8

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement I
Author(s): D. A. Tefankjian
Abstract/Introduction:
In any field of endeavor for a person to completely understand the endeavor, he must have a knowledge and an understanding of the fundamentals involved. People can do well in the performance of their work without knowing the basic principles, but to excel and progress knowledge of the fundamentals is necessary. This is particularly true if ones work is technical in nature.
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Document ID: 7E58080D

Conditioning Natural Gas For Measurement And Transportation
Author(s): Laurance S. Reid
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is metered several times as it flows from well-head to the consumer. It is measured each time its title changes hands, and also at any time part of the gas mixture is removed by dehydration, purification, liquids extraction, or compression. This is done to meter fuel gas used and volumetric shrinkage caused by removal of water, hydrocarbon liquids and acid gases such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide.
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Document ID: 7F91D430

Other Flow Measuring Devices
Author(s): Norman A. Alston
Abstract/Introduction:
Just because a flow measurement device is complex and/or expensive does not automatically mean that i t is the best or most accurate. Oftentimes the most simple device is just as good and accurate and frequently even b e t t e r.
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Document ID: 3CC3D667

Methods Of Field Testing Large Displacement Meters
Author(s): Henry A. Hubbard
Abstract/Introduction:
For years the accuracy of gas meter measurement has been recognized as being important, but in recent years the shortage of gas and higher prices have renewed interest in field testing of meters. On-location testing of large meters offers a convenient and economical method of assuring measurement accuracy. This method eliminates the extra time required to replace the meter, equipment for hauling to a repair shop and stocking replacement meters. Another factor becoming increasingly important is field testing allows for customer witnessing of the meter being tested.
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Document ID: 6E2B7573

On-Line Computers For Custody Transfer
Author(s): E. D. Woomer, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
While the value of energy continues to grow, the industry can no longer afford to give it away through inaccurate measurement or overcharge for it in good conscience and fair business ethics. 1. As of 1985, on-line computers for custody transfer of natural gas seems to be the best solution to the problem of accurate measurement. Computerized gas measurement is no longer a dream or myth of the past but rather a reality of the present and future. The bottom line is that with on-site measurement calculations, billing and consequently cash flow is increased in speed. 2.
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Document ID: B60199A4

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted-For-Gas Transmission
Author(s): Ed Ostrovich
Abstract/Introduction:
It is becoming more and more important to control and monitor the amount of gas lost throughout a transmission pipeline system. In the highly competitive gas market, companies not only have to compete with other gas companies for customers but also have to compete with other forms of energy. Unaccounted-for-gas is an expense to a gas company and should be minimized as much as possible.
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Document ID: 8DBF7528

Auditing Gas Measurement And Accounting Systems
Author(s): Jerry F. Woods
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to the tremendous increase in natural gas and natural gas liquid (NGL) pricing in recent years, audit efforts in these areas have increased significantly. Since gas by nature is a difficult commodity to measure, it follows that audit efforts to verify the accuracy of respective gas and NGL allocations require a specialized approach. Towards that end, while the verification of expenses and capital costs are an integral part of any gas plant review, the audit concepts and terminology presented in the following sections consist of those unique to auditing gas operations from the wellhead to the final accounting.
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Document ID: 8673FA2F

What The Office Group Expects From The Field Group
Author(s): J. F. Shiflet
Abstract/Introduction:
Field groups are prone to look upon the office group as Pencil Pushers, Paper Chasers, or just plain pests who expect them to write all this stuff in those skinny little blocks so it can be keyed into a computer system and automated. The uninitiated office worker perceives the field group as a bunch of people running around in pickup trucks, checking meters, grabbing charts, and providing the office with as little information as possible. Of course, none of the above is true.
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Document ID: 93297F79

Fixed Factor Measurement A New Concept In Measurement?
Author(s): Howard W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
The term Fixed Factor Measurement was first introduced to the Gas Industry during the 1966 Distribution Conference in St. Louis. This concept is directly related to the performance accuracy of a gas pressure regulator providing constant pressure to a meter. Prior to this time, when gas was measured at pounds pressure, the meter was either equipped with an integrating, correcting type instrument or a chart record of flowing pressure and indicated metered volume. The instruments were expensive and required a constant maintenance program for what was thought to be accurate measurement. Chart records required a very high degree of skill to analyze and divide the recorded volume with applicable pressure increments to calculate standard cubic feet units.
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Document ID: C01923EC

Witnessing Orifice Meter Calibration And Field Testing
Author(s): Ned Batchelder
Abstract/Introduction:
The International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement is a must for the person witnessing orifice meter calibration and field tests. There are various classes offered that pertain to the existing conditions that he or she may encounter as a witness tester. This class will mainly deal with the effort exerted in witnessing wellhead orifice gas measurement
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Document ID: C471F962

Leak Detection On Petroleum Pipelines
Author(s): William C. Thompson, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The days of pumping 3.50 product through a relatively unpopulated countryside are a thing of the past. Today that product is worth 35.00, and it is likely to move within twenty feet of a hundred bedrooms in a single subdivision. If the tenfold increase in price had not spurred investigations into means for detecting and locating unauthorized removal of product from a pipeline, the safety of the populous along its route would have demanded it.
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Document ID: 8FC9C754

Instruments For The Determining The Specific Gravity Of Gas
Author(s): T. Y. Tramel
Abstract/Introduction:
THE WHAT AND WHY OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY Fundamental to understanding specific gravity instruments and their use is the definition of specific gravity. Specific gravity is formally defined as the ratio of weight of a body to the weight of another body of equal volume taken as a standard unit. For gases, the standard is generally dry air. For example: Two tanks containing equal volumes of a gas and of dry air were weighed. After accounting for the weight of the containers, the dry air weighed one pound and the gas weighed 0.6 pounds. Using the definition of specific gravity:
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Document ID: BEB6FCC7

Kinetic Type Indicating And Recording Instruments For Determining Specific Gravity
Author(s): H. E. Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
This class offers a comprehensive presentation of the kinetic type gas gravltometer, Including: Simple explanation of operating principle Equipment set-up and operation 1n field Trouble-shooting, repair and adjustment The kinetic type gas gravltometer 1s manufactured as a portable Indicating type Instrument Illustrated 1n Figure 1 and as a stationary recording type Instrument Illustrated in Figure 2. The basic operating mechanism Is Identical for both types, but the case, motive power and linkage are modified to adapt them to either portable use or permanent mounting.
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Document ID: 1FE135DA

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Jackd. Harshman
Abstract/Introduction:
The Instrument Engineer has a wider choice of flowmeter types than ever before. It is estimated that at least one hundred different types of flowmeters are commercially available, and new types are being continually introduced. This paper will present a summary of selection, principle of operation, basic construction, performance, and application of just one of those types, the gas turbine meter.
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Document ID: FE3B28E4

Determination Of Hydrogen Sulfide And Total Sulphur
Author(s): Charles D. Marth, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Approximately 0.06% of the earth is made of sulfur. Sulfur is a member of the oxygen family, has an atomic number of 16/ an atomic mass of 32.06, and has six outer shell electrons. Elemental sulfur generally occurs as an eight membered ring and is found in large underground deposits of 99% purity. Sulfur also occurs in a number of different oxidation states and in a number of different compounds, organic and inorganic. Sulfur is most often found associated with elements such as copper, iron, and zinc in the form of minerals, sulfide ores, or metal sulfides. One metal sulfide, cadmium sulfide, is a light sensitive semiconducting material that could be used in solar cell
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Document ID: 74DBC847

Office Application Of Computers For Flow Calculation
Author(s): Frank J. Bouda
Abstract/Introduction:
Various computer systems are used by the gas industry to calculate gas flow volumes and to prepare gas volume statements and related measurement reports. These systems are being improved to handle more of the measurement tasks and to provide timely gas volume data to measurement and other personnel. The communication networks are being improved as more powerful computers are installed.
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Document ID: 403C1A05

Charts, Pens & Ink
Author(s): Charles S.Kendrick
Abstract/Introduction:
Charts come in many sizes, shapes, colors and graduations. They are relatively inexpensive when compared to their value after they are placed on a recording instrument and a line or lines drawn on them. These lines can then be translated into volumes, gravities and BTUs, which represents a companys purchases and sales from a few dollars to millions of dollars.
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Document ID: 02E8E819

Effects Of Abnormal Conditions On Accuracy Of Orifice Measurement
Author(s): Dr. Ray Teyssandier
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice meters are the most common flow measurement devices used in the production and transmission of natural gases. Because of their long history of use they have in turn been subject to more research than any other type of meter. Most of this research on orifice meters was conducted during the 1930s and 40s and has at times been lost due to the obscurity of the references. ANSI/API-2530 lists a number of these sources of information and is of course based upon those sets of data, but due to the age and obscurity of the data, mentioned above there are times when serious questions have been raised by people outside the industry. Age of course has no meaning when it comes to questioning data. These questions are raised only for self-serving reasons. Legitimate questions only should be entertained regarding the methodology, accuracy, precision, etc. of the data forming the standard.
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Document ID: 11DA1B72

Measurement Fundamentals - Crude And Refined Liquids
Author(s): M.G. Poynter
Abstract/Introduction:
Crude oil is a dark, viscous, naturally-occurring liquid which is found in great underground reservoirs. Crude oil is not a pure compound. It is a physical mixture of many things that are familiar to us in everyday life including motor gasoline, lubricating oils, heating oil, jet fuel, diesel fuel, paint thinners and solvents, waxes, asphalt, and many other components such as petrochemicals which are used in the manufacture of plastics.
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Document ID: E64F4F3B

Design Of Distribution Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Marc R. Worth
Abstract/Introduction:
Distribution metering and regulating stations can be of any size and capacity from the small domestic house meter to a large industrial plant. This paper will be concerned with medium to large sized stations. Proper design and sizing is important as the value of our product has increased, and rebuilds are expensive and should be unnecessary. Therefore, the first and most important aspect of a station design is to obtain correct and complete information. This information enables the designer to decide on the size and types of equipment needed.
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Document ID: D93BDF86

Other Flow Measuring Devices
Author(s): Jerry Broadway
Abstract/Introduction:
There are numerous types of flowmeters available for closed-piping systems. These flowmeters can be classified in many different ways. For this paper, they will be classified as follows: Mass, Positive Displacement and Differential Pressure.
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Document ID: D8B9BE04

Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Gary Barnes
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss the design theory, construction, operation, performance, and applications of turbine meters for liquid measurement.
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Document ID: DF2D4753

Small Volume Prover
Author(s): Dave Magee
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents the design and operating principles of a small volume prover which uses pulse interpolation techniques to prove liquid flow meters,
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Document ID: 3C8591B3

Calculation Of Liquid Petroleum Quantities
Author(s): William E. James
Abstract/Introduction:
The calculation of liquid petroleum quantities takes a form dependent on the measurement system employed. The measurement may be static or dynamic. Each of these basic approaches involves calculation of either mass or volume quantities. Neglecting equipment problems, calculation of liquid petroleum quantities is complicated by three physical characteristics: 1. Thermal expansion, 2. Compressibility, and 3. Non-ideal mixing.
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Document ID: A4482C56

Problems In Offshore Measurement
Author(s): William W. Wall
Abstract/Introduction:
When problems in measurement are discussed, in particular offshore measurement, moat people immediately think of the severe environment, harsh ga3 quality and its impact on the orifice plate, bellows or turbine meter blades. Little consideration is given to the overall design, location and auxiliary equipment.
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Document ID: B478D683

Measurement Of Liquefied Petroleum Gas
Author(s): Bill R. Caffey
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid measurement of liquefied petroleum gas, once thought to be straightforward, has undergone radical changes in the last ten years. Traditional ways to measure purity products, such as propane and butane, have become suspect and with the advent of ethane-rich streams, mass measurement now plays a vital role in the total measurement picture. This paper will touch on some of the measurement fundamentals.
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Document ID: 6EAAB155

Orifice Meters - Operation And Maintenance
Author(s): David E.
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association defines the orifice meter as the complete measuring unit comprised of primary and secondary elements. The primary element consists of the orifice plate, the orifice flanges or plate holder, and the adjacent pipe sections with the secondary element consisting of the differential pressure recorder, static pressure recorder, flowing temperature recorder, and any other required recording such as specific gravity or heating value. Volume determination using this type of measurement is very desirable due to its flexibility in measurement of small or large volumes over a wide range of pressures, from a vacuum to several thousands of pounds.
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Document ID: 63DEB50D

Operation & Maintenance Of Regulators
Author(s): Jim Massey
Abstract/Introduction:
The operation and maintenance of regulators is very important because a gas regulator is one of the most important mechanisms for controlling the movement or the flow of gas. One that controlls a changeable situation is often referred to as a control valve, a govenor, or a pressure reducer.
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Document ID: E577C727

Gas Measurement Laboratory
Author(s): Michael P. Campo
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will present in a general way, the determination of gas quality in the laboratory. Equipment needed will be discussed, but not covered in detail. In order to keep gas flowing through the pipeline, quality must be monitored and controlled. Quality limits of gas to be put into the pipeline will be stated in a gas contract. The contract might require the gas to be free from dust, gums, or liquid or any solid mater which may be separated from the gas during transportation from one point to another. It will also state the upper limits of components such as water vapor, hydrogen sulphide, total sulphur, carbon dioxide, or nitrogen, The heating value will have a lower limit close to 1000 BTU per cubic foot. Some tests to determine quality may be performed best in the field where others may not. For testing in a laboratory a sample of the gas is taken in a clean cylinder, tagged, and sent as soon as possible to the laboratory.
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Document ID: 707E6B64

Selection Of Control Valves And Associated Instrumentation
Author(s): Phillip Murdock
Abstract/Introduction:
A control valve is a device placed in a fluid stream, gas or liquid, to control fluid flow based on demand. Control valves are used as a restriction to control pressure and/or volumetric flow of a fluid. A control valve used in throttling service allows fluid to be delivered at a controlled or throttled rate based on fluid demand. Pressure regulators are an application of control valves used in throttling service. In off/on service, a control valve is either fully open or fully closed. Examples of off/on service are a control valve used for meter tube switching or for liquid level control. A control valve system consists of a control valve body, an actuator, and a controller. Proper sizing and selection of each component is essential for a control valve system to provide desired process control, minimize initial cost, and minimize operation and maintenance expense.
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Document ID: D3C5CA92

Odorants, Odorizers And Their Operation
Author(s): Robert W. Frith
Abstract/Introduction:
Department of Transportation, Office of Pipeline Safety, in Title 49, Part 192.625, Code of Federal Regulations states in part, A combustible gas in a distribution line must contain a natural odorant or be odorized so that at a concentration in air of one-fifth of the lower explosive limit, the gas is readily detectable by a person with a normal sense of smell.. The Public Service Commission of Maryland, in Order to. 60922, Case No. 6736, Part 9.6.1 states The odorant level throughout the entire company distribution system shall be sufficient so that gas is detectable at 1/10 of the lower explosive limit.. At Baltimore Gas and Electric Company this is accomplished with an odorant injection rate of .5 lbs./MMCF of gas. This injection rate equates to a system detectability of .3 of one percent gas in air.
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Document ID: CB50BB98

Calibration Of Liquid Provers
Author(s): Daniel m. Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid provers are those provers used to prove meters in liquid service. The basic types of provers used are volumetric tank provers and pipe provers. The purpose of the calibration of a liquid prover is to determine its certified base volume, with traceability to recognized standards and accepted practices. The base volume is the gross operating volume of the prover corrected to standard conditions (such as 60F and 0 PSIG in U. S. Customary units).
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Document ID: 9AA4230E

Computer Base Controls In Automatic Custody Transfer Systems
Author(s): Bill Watkins
Abstract/Introduction:
An overview of LACT units in oil patch, the world over, show units with a wide variety of like equipment. For example, pump and motor, BS&W monitor, meter, etc.
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Document ID: 4D3B1AE2

Effects And Control Of Pulsations In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Stephen R. English
Abstract/Introduction:
Pulsation has long been recognized as potentially creating significant errors in gas measurement. While the problem of pulsation induced error is more commonly associated with the orifice meter, it is not a problem restricted solely to this type of primary measurement device. The turbine meter, vortex shedding meter, and diaphragm meter are all subject to errors induced by pulsating flow. The tremendous value now placed on the gas passing through these purchase and sales meters has made accurate measurement imperative. It is becoming increasingly more important to understand, predict, measure, and control pulsations if the measurement is to have any validity.
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Document ID: A576CECF

Nace And Its Impact On Gas Measurement
Author(s): W. H. Earney
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the basic organization and purpose of NACE with special attention to the application of NACE MR-01-75 Sulfide Stress Cracking Resistant Metallic Materials for Oil Field Equipment.
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Document ID: 4B20B8CE

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Jerry Davis
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to the continually increasing cost of hydrocarbon products, both liquid and gas, there is a growing concern for accurate measurement. In many applications this begins with a signal from the primary element, consisting of the Orifice Fitting, Orifice Plate and Meter Tube.
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Document ID: E1896C18

Determination Of Calorific Values Of Natural Gas By Combustion Instruments
Author(s): Robert Van Meter
Abstract/Introduction:
The British Thermal Unit or B.T.U. as defined by Websters Dictionary is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit at or near 39.2F.l Early calorimeters actually utilized a known quantity of water, water temperature measurement by thermometer and burned a measurement quantity of gas. The temperature rise of the water, if one pound of water was used, divided by the number of cubic feet of gas burned will yield the number of B.T.U. per cubic foot of the gas burned. This type of instrument is still used in some laboratories. It does not lend itself to online use, however, because it requires people on sight to take temperature readings, change water, etc.
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Document ID: 6059303A

Application Of Flow Computers For Gas Measurement And Control
Author(s): Dave Imming
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow computer applications in a companys measurement system have an impact far greater than simply another kind of measurement device. The reason for this impact are the many different groups of people that ase information from the metering s i t e . This l i st includes: 1) Measurement group 2) Maintenance group 3) Operations group 4) Accounting group 5) Management
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Document ID: A490BDE6

Automatic-Electronic Chart Scanning
Author(s): E. S. Messer
Abstract/Introduction:
The Photronic Chart Digitizer is a system for automatic integration of circular gas charts. The present state of the art technology is used to increase both speed and accuracy of chart integrating, and to make the procedure applicable for all types of charts. The Photronic Chart Digitizer will operate with any of the major charts, American, Foxboro and Rockwell. Other types of charts as Kent, Minneapolis, Honeywell and Taylor can be integrated by completing the program for their arc and radial lines.
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Document ID: 7ACD857C

Operation And Maintenance Electronic Chart Integrators
Author(s): E. S Messer
Abstract/Introduction:
With the recent advance in the price of gas at the wellhead, gas companies during the past six years have become more cognizant to the importance of accuracy in the determination of true gas volumes flowing from a well or to the distribution lines, hence, to the user. The term accuracy applies to all areas of measurement, The volume calculation, therefore, can only be as accurate as the weakest link in the chain of measuring the variables that comprise a volume measurement.
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Document ID: 619FDFE8

Installation And Operation Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): A.F. Kersey
Abstract/Introduction:
The Cutler-Hammer recording Calorimeter measures the total calorific value of combustible gas. It continuously samples, indicates, and records BTU per cubic foot. Figure 1 Figure 1 above illustrates the tank unit, strip chart recorder and optional recorder floor case.
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Document ID: B92F661E

Custody Transfer Using Insertion Turbine Flowmeters
Author(s): Don A. Pfautsch
Abstract/Introduction:
Industry has always used large, bulky and expensive measurement devices on large pipelines for Custody Transfer because of the lack of awareness of an acceptable alternative. These devices operate over a narrow flow range and sometimes do not achieve the desired accuracies.
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Document ID: 15501EA9

Fundamental Principles Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): E.A. Lommatsch
Abstract/Introduction:
During the eighteenth century, it was discovered through the efforts of three men of science (Bernoulli, Torricelli, and Venturi) that the pressure of a flowing fluid varies as its velocity changes. When a flowing fluid is caused to speed up by restricting the cross sectional area of the flow stream, a portion of the pressure energy is converted into velocity energy and the pressure drops. This relationship has been found to follow the law:
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Document ID: 4CE5291D

Field Experience With Installation, Operation And Maintenance Of Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): T.D. Kilgore
Abstract/Introduction:
me twenty-odd years ago, a new time and labor saving vice found its way into the oil and gas industry, was so revolutionary that many people were skeptical out its usefulness and longevity in the industry. rtunately, Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Corporation s among the first to realize its potential. Since at time, many thousands of dollars have been saved nually, by those companies employing its use. As u may have already guessed, it was the introduction the Mullins Dial-O-Graph Automatic Chart Changer.
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Document ID: 26077D31

Correcting And Recording Devices For Positive Displacement And Turbine Meters
Author(s): Richard H. Schieber
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas meters such as diaphragm, rotary and turbine meters measure gas at pipeline conditions, registering volume in actual cubic feet (or cubic meters). However, since gas is elastic and compressible, the heating content of an actual cubic foot varies considerably with changes in pressure and temperature. Correcting devices and recording instruments are used to convert actual volume, measured at pipeline conditions, to standard units of volume at base conditions, and thus provide equitable billing.
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Document ID: CF5154BD

Domestic Gas Meters
Author(s): R. H. Schieber
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will deal with a group of Positive Displacement Gas Meters known as Domestic Meters. The word domestic is defined as of or pertaining to the household or family, but in the gas industry the historical definition of a domestic meter is one that has a capacity rating of less than 500 cubic feet per hour. This latter definition has received some official sanction with the approval of a new American National Standard for gas displacement meters 500 cubic foot per hour capacity and under. This Standard has been numbered ANSI B109.1 (American National Standards Institute) and provides information regarding construction requirements, qualification tests, in-service performance, installation requirements, auxiliary devices, and test methods. This Standard will be a valuable aid to anyone that works with domestic size gas meters.
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Document ID: 3746902E

Flow Measurement By Vortex Shedding Meters
Author(s): Alfredo Echeverria
Abstract/Introduction:
Vortex flowmeters have been commercially available for flow measurement for more than 10 years. However, documented observations of the vortex shedding principle date back to the late 19th century. In 1878, F. Strouhal observed the vortex shedding phenomenon, which showed that the shedding frequency of a wire vibrating in the wind was related to the wire diameter and wind velocity and, in 1912, Von Karman documented observations of resulting areas of alternating high and low pressure.
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Document ID: F5843CA9

Seven Pounds Of Water Per Million Cubic Feet
Author(s): William R. Barnes
Abstract/Introduction:
Im sure most of you know more about these units than Ill ever know however, I would like to present this paper with an open discussion of some of the symptoms and various checks of the unit. Also, I would like to discuss a sample system which has proven to prolong cell life in most cases.
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Document ID: DC408BFD

Conversion From Volume Energy Management
Author(s): Richard J. Sharpies
Abstract/Introduction:
With the passage into law of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (15 U.S.C. 3311 et seq. Supp 1981) the British thermal unit became the basic unit of measurement of natural gas for pricing purposes, supplanting the historical volume-based measurement.
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Document ID: EE160052

Automated Truck Loading Systems
Author(s): Jerry D. Correll
Abstract/Introduction:
The advent of the first energy crisis and strict regulations imposed by the Environmental Protection Agency necessitated a drastic change of philosophy for flow measurement, particularly in regard to measurement at Petroleum Marketing Terminals. Prior to the first energy crisis, petroleum products were relatively inexpensive and the demand for accuracy of metered products was of minimal concern. The goal of most major oil companies, before the crisis, was to move products reliably and efficiently. Concepts such as terminal security and anti-theft were considered but rarely implemented. These considerations soon became the number one priority as the price of crude products and their derivatives increased.
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Document ID: F627A473

Liquid Proving COMPUTERS/CONTROLLERS
Author(s): Gary R. Pfrehm
Abstract/Introduction:
As the price of raw crude oil and refined products has risen sharply over the past thirty years, so has the need to more accurately measure these commodities. There are various instruments available for this task but for the purposes of this discussion, we will only be concerned with turbine meters and positive displacement meters for it is these types of meters which lend themselves to calibration using computer controlled meter provers.
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Document ID: 7064E01D

Instrument Calibration Using The Pneumatic Deadweight Tester
Author(s): Eugene R. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most difficult problems facing the instrument engineer is the accurate calibration of orifice meters, particularly at remote or inaccessible locations. The object of this paper is to describe a unique solution to this problem, an automatic pneumatic deadweight tester utilizing the floating ball principle.
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Document ID: 9B7C5B32

Truck Unloading Metering Systems
Author(s): Paul D. Floyd
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of t h i s paper is to discuss the various types and methods of metering the l i q u i d hydrocarbon fuel or chemical products as delivered by t y p i c al tank trucks. Also included w i l l be the standard receiving methods, the problems and solutions required, the receiving equipment required, such as pumps, positive displacement meters, a i r eliminator tanks, strainers, flow control valves, and alarm devices. A section w i l l also be devoted to the performance of these systems in terms of accuracy and e f f i c i e n c y , and l a s t l y , special considerations for the metering and handling of LPG products.
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Document ID: 6F9CF0CA

Liquid Measurement Station Design
Author(s): Drew S. Weaver
Abstract/Introduction:
Efficient implementation of metering stations into facilities for transportation and storage of hydrocarbons has demanded that complete measurement systems be assembled and thoroughly checked prior to field installation. The optimum means to accomplish this is to provide all metering and proving equipment, piping, and instrumentation packaged into a unit or skid, which may be easily transported to the field and connected to the other facilities.
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Document ID: 4E3A8215

Strip Charts For Gas Flow Recorders
Author(s): Jack Abraham
Abstract/Introduction:
Strip charts for gas flow recorders are a recent addition to the family of field oriented metering devices. Historically, strip charts have been primarily utilized for industrial and plant applications- housed environments. The availability of battery powered, quartz clock drives now permits strip chart usage in remote field locations.
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Document ID: F450C5F5

Applications Of Computers In Liquid Measurement
Author(s): John m. Jo
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of computers in all areas of industry and business has become commonplace, and their application to custody transfer measurement of liquids is no exception. A substantial majority of new measurement stations are being specified with some type of digital computer based flow measurement instruments. In addition, many existing metering sites are being upgraded with computer based instrumentation.
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Document ID: BE4A66A9

Instruments For Determination Of Specific Gravity Of Natural Gas
Author(s): A. R. Kahmann
Abstract/Introduction:
Computation of natural gas flow volume, when measured by orifice meter, is made by using the formula Qb C X N/HWPF where Qb is the quantity, Hw is the differential, and Pf is the absolute static pressure, with C being a constant. The constant C is only constant for a certain specified set of conditions, and in practice is made up of numerous factors including the basic orifice factor, Reynolds number factor, expansion factor, pressure base factor, temperature base factor, flowing temperature factor, specific gravity factor, supercompressibility factor, and manometer factor. In order to determine these factors, the values of the quantities from which they are derived must either be assumed or measured. This paper will deal with those instruments measuring specific gravity. (For further details of the flow computation refer to the current A.G.A. Gas Measurement Report).
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Document ID: BE79D5B9

Devices For Moisture Measurement In Natural Gas Bureaus Of Mines Type Dew Point Testers
Author(s): A..R. Kahmann
Abstract/Introduction:
Of all the devices available for measuring water vapor content in gases, Bureau of Mines Type Dew Point Testers are the most widely used. These testers determine water content in numerous natural and industrial gases, provide an accuracy better than 0.2F (Bureau of Mines tests), enable determinations in the field under adverse lighting, need not be recalibrated, and are easily transported and set up in the field.
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Document ID: 19ECC543

Effective Use Of Deadweight Testers Pneumatic( And Hydraulic)
Author(s): A. R. Kahmann
Abstract/Introduction:
The Deadweight Gauge is the most accurate instrument available for the measurement of pressures. Repeatable readings with accuracies of 0.1% to .02% of measured pressure are obtainable. The device does not require recalibration unless the components have excessive wear or weights are replaced. It is easily transported and set up in the field, requires minimum maintenance, and is simple to operate. Tripod mounting is available for most instruments.
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Document ID: 76C0C45D

Vortex Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): David L. Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss the actual operating experience with vortex meters in liquid hydrocarbon service. The discussion will cover meter applications, operating experience of vortex meters, and proving vortex meters. ions are located in a refinery ddle of the Texas Panhandle (Borger, f the refinery is about 100,000 bar- 100,000 barrels/day natural gas liqis chappy cold in the winter and summer. It can get so dusty it ry well, anyway, it is a great lectronic equipment the survival The meter installat smack-dab in the mi Texas). The size o rels/day crude and uids. The weather blistery hot in the rains mud, and so d place to give any e test.
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Document ID: 7D808CDE

Micrometer Measurements Of Orifice Meter Tubes
Author(s): Lonnie R. Grady
Abstract/Introduction:
In this time of high energy costs, it is imperative that any company, either producer or transporter that uses orifice measurement for custody transfer take every possible means of assuring measurement accuracy. The orifice meter and meter tube is the primary measuring element. If it is designed or manufactured incorrectly, measurement accuracy suffers. This paper will discuss specifications, tolerances and design criteria outlined in ANSI/API 2530 (The American National Standard for Orifice Metering of Natural Gas) and methods used to assure that the requirements are met.
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Document ID: DB796AD1

Composite Sampling Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Sampling is described as obtaining a representative sample of a hydrocarbon stream under investigation. Any subsequent analysis of the sample, regardless of how elaborate or sophisticated the test apparatus, can only analyze what is in the sample container. This only emphasizes the importance of the total sampling operation.
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Document ID: 7B87A24E

Conventional Liquid Flow Provers Separate( Functions And Principle Of Operation)
Author(s): Bill Martino
Abstract/Introduction:
A prover system essentially is the ability to verify the activity of a meter to measure liquid within some degree of repetition and volume accuracy. If a prover system is to perform this appointed task adequately, it must have, and consist of, several functions, each of which has a precise role to play. The separate functions include:
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Document ID: 35972FDB

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement II
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith, Daniel R. Carter
Abstract/Introduction:
A knowledge of the Fundamentals of Gas Measurement is essential for all technicians and engineers that are called upon to perform gas volume calculations. These same people must have at least a working knowledge of the fundamentals to perform their everyday jobs including meter calibrations, specific gravity tests, collecting gas samples, etc.
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Document ID: E5AEBFF5

Temperature Measurement For Orifice Plow Measurement
Author(s): Ted Y. Mclanahan
Abstract/Introduction:
Temperature is defined as the degree of hotness or coldness of anything, usually measured on a thermometer in units defined as Fahrenheit or Celsius. These two measurement units have a direct relationship as evidenced by the following formula:
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Document ID: 6241F6EB

WEASURB/BfT With Battery Powered Fifid Computers
Author(s): James H. Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas - the corrmodity we have all come to know, was not considered a primary source of energy in the early 1900s. Manufactured gas was used predominantly in the cities for operation of street lamps and to some extent, heating and other processes. Although natural gas was considered to be a more efficient fuel, the problem of transporting this fuel from the production field to the consumer was a monumental task.
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Document ID: 1B0F0F8D

Measurement Station Inspection Program u Guide
Author(s): Carl Rousseau
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement section of most contracts involving the transfer of custody of gas will specify maximum percent of allowable measurement error. In orifice measurement, this is usually in the one or two percent range and applys to the overall measurement operation. This margin is necessary because of the things that are beyond reasonable control. In order to be sure that this contractual obligation is met, a suitable inspection program is necessary for the measuring stations.
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Document ID: 23F67ABC

Energy Measurement Utilizing On Line Chromatograph
Author(s): Arthur F. Haas
Abstract/Introduction:
The energy content of natural gas is normally expressed in the United States as B.T.U. per cubic foot. This definition, therefore, dictates that a method of measuring volume as well as B.T.U. must be considered if Total Energy is to be measured.
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Document ID: 7A8E2594

Fundamentals Of Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Lou Cox
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas chromatography is a physical method of separation where the components to be separated are distributed between two phases - a stationary bed of large surface area, and a fluid that moves through the stationary bed. A gas or vaporized liquid mixture is physically separated into its individual components through this stationary bed.
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Document ID: EA349879

Segmental Wedge Flow Elements
Author(s): Robert L.Saunders
Abstract/Introduction:
In looking over the subject topic given me of the Wedge Flow Element and Gas and Hydrocarbon M :asurment, I am reminded of the shortcomings of the measurement devices and the absolute superiority that the wedge presents. I see one of these superior qualities as the wedges ability to operate in a two-phase flow, due to the fact that the Reynolds number does not change with viscosity.
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Document ID: A0580ECA

Selection, Testing, Maintenance And Operation Of Electric Flow Computers
Author(s): Ben Turpen
Abstract/Introduction:
INTRODPCTION A careful analysis of several factors is necessary to choose the correct flow computer for a given application. The choice should be based on the type of fluid to be measured, number and type of inputs, and outputs, and ease of maintenance and operation. When these factors are thoroughly studied for the particular application, selection of the flow computer is made easier. Several key questions should be asked the Vendor regarding testing, maintenance and operation of flow computers.
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Document ID: 34FCBD9A

Mass Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Lee Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
A non-intrusive flow meter which directly measures mass flow rate has been commercially available for seven years. This meter, sometimes known as a Coriolis or gyroscopic flow meter, measures t he force imparted to a vibrating tube by the mass of a fluid as it passes through the tube. This allows the measurement of mass flow without compensation for fluid properties. This paper will present the operating principles of this device and its applicability to the measurement of Liquid Hydrocarbons, with methods and and techniques for mass calibration.
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Document ID: 2087D0C0

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement - III Fundamental Gas Laws: Equations Of State
Author(s): Rex T. Ellington
Abstract/Introduction:
myriad of equations of state (EOS) exists. The engineer and support technician should recognize this and realize that there is no single EOS that will serve all needs. But, as discussed elsewhere, a very accurate new equation has been developed for gas measurement. Widely used forms are reviewed and the simpler relations obtained from them.
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Document ID: F400EFCC

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement - IV
Author(s): Kenneth E. Starling
Abstract/Introduction:
Discussion of thermodynamics and equations of state relating to flow measurement is presented. Gas properties calculation methods used at the present time are discussed and a new gas properties calculation method is presented. Some of the inadequacies of present-day gas properties calculation methods are noted and improvements made in recent work are discussed. The compressibility factor of natural gases is given particular attention.
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Document ID: B4527A75

Application Of Densitometers To Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Robinson Ord, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
This class and paper cover the use of vibrating element liquid densitometers in applications ranging from mass flow determination to interface detection for liquids ranging from light LPGs to waxy, heavy crude oils, including supercritical liquids such as ethylene and carbon dioxide.
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Document ID: E062DCC9

Chromatographic Analysis Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): Patrick m. Mccann
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas Liquids are simply that liquid product fraction customarily removed from natural gas. Components often include hydrocarbons, methane (Cl) through dodecane (C?), along with inerts, nitrogen (N-), oxygen (Oo) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Measurement of these NGL products has evolved at present to place a high demand upon accurate, reliable chromatographic analysis. The information is utilized for both custody transfer and various process studies.
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Document ID: 370DAF40

Selection, Application And Maintenance Of Chart Drives
Author(s): Michael D. Beall
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is to deal with chart drives, the mechanism which companies rely upon to turn the charts on their various recording instruments. The chart drives are expected to be reliable, accurate and simple to operate. Chart drives as known to the gas and oil industry have seen many changes over the years they have been used. In the infancy days of recording instruments over 100 years ago, the chart drive came into existence. The first chart drives were manufactured by the Seth Thomas Clock Factory. Thomas at the time manufactured the escapement mechanisms for mantle and grandfather clocks. Bristol, one of the first recording instrument manufacturers, contracted Seth Thomas to produce a modified clock which could be used as a chart drive, thus the emergence of the chart drive as we know it today.
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Document ID: 8E835F89

Meter Shop Equipment And Techniques
Author(s): R.J. Crawford
Abstract/Introduction:
AGA Gas Measurement Manual Part #14.1 covers in great detail meter testing and repair. Part #14.5 of the same manual has a section on meter shop design which includes considerations for equipment selection
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Document ID: 1ABA6ED4

Proving And Repairing Of Domestic Meters
Author(s): R.J. Crawford
Abstract/Introduction:
Utility company meter shops generally perform quality repairs. Each individual shop has developed equipment and techniques that have enabled them to increase productivity and/or quality. Almost all meter shops that repair hard case meters use power screwdrivers. They also usually do what I refer to as individualized repairs. That is, one person does all of the repairs needed on a particular meter. That person opens up the meter, determines the type of repair needed, and the parts that need replacing. Since one person repairs the complete meter, that person, in effect, decides the quality of the repair, i.e., whether or not the diaphragms are leaking, whether or not the valves and valve seats have been ground properly and are leak tight. Very seldom is there any quality control inspection made on the repair.
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Document ID: 98982A04

Prevention Of Freezing In Measuring And Regulation Equipment
Author(s): Don Day
Abstract/Introduction:
Freezing has been a problem faced by gas men since the birth of the industry. This problem will continue for all time but there are ways to minimize the effects of the phenomenon.
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Document ID: 720A6ADD

Manual Chart Calculation
Author(s): Dale Donegan
Abstract/Introduction:
High Tech is here. Just about every black box, hand held calculator, wrist watch and ball point pen is calculating gas volumes. In addition to the electronics, several slide rules, circular charts and flow graphs are available from various sources. They indicate gas volumes for a multitude of purposes including sizing meter tubes and orifice plates, pipeline design and compressor station flows.
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Document ID: 9780CF36

Fundamental Principles Of Pilot Operated Regulators
Author(s): Doug Butler
Abstract/Introduction:
For all practical purposes, regulators used by the gas industry can be placed in either of two categories: I. Self operated, or II, Pilot Operated This categorizing of all regulator (plus all construction modifications) tends to be an oversimplication, but exceptions are rare. Lets examine each of them closely.
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Document ID: 0F62C653

Program For Training A Measurement Technician
Author(s): L. S. Price
Abstract/Introduction:
Training of measurement personnel has become increasingly important during the past few years due to the drastic increase in energy costs. My Companys energy costs have more than tripled which appears to be consistant nation wide. This drastic increase in gas costs and the loss of many of our senior experienced employees due to retirement or being employed by other companies, caused our Companys top management to place top priority on training measurement personnel. In the past our company had used the on-the-job approach and equipment suppliers training schools to train personnel on specific equipment. Most companies in the past thought experience alone was the best way to train and develop new employees. In most cases this method required many years to produce proficient technicians and proved to be very costly. Many companies have lost a large portion of their experienced employees and no longer have supervisors or technicians qualified to adequately train new employees. This method also limits the employees ability due to the wide variety of equipment in many geographic areas. The on-the-job approach is needed to some degree but does not always produce the desired results. The new employees often pattern their work habits and attitudes after the senior employee providing the training. In some cases the bad habits outweigh the good habits and many of the important items are never passed on to the new employee. Quite often the senior employee may not fully understand the operation of some of the more sophisticated equipment, may not be a good instructor or the specific area does not have the wide variety of equipment needed for training new employees. During the early part of 1981, our Company constructed a Transmission Technical Training Center and equipped the facility with virtually all the various equipment used in our system today including a live flow lab to demonstrate flow conditions and for use in hands-on-training. A similar Distribution Technical Training Center was constructed for our Distribution Division employees in 1982. Based on a survey of our entire system, we felt this approach was necessary to keep abreast of new technology in the rapid development of the gas industry and to develop employees on a timely schedule. The Transmission facility is shown in Figure No. 1.
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Document ID: E2799190

Fundamental Principles Of Self-Operated Regulators
Author(s): John m. Schnitzer
Abstract/Introduction:
Whenever we are involved in sizing, selecting, purchasing, installing and maintaining regulators, many variables are reviewed and considered. Once the Fundamental Principles of Self-Operated Regulators are better understood our jobs become simplified. There are two basic types of control methods - the self-operated regulator and the relay operated regulator.
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Document ID: E1C2C384

Basic Devices And Techniques For Supervisory Control And Telemetry Systems
Author(s): Randle L. Overbey
Abstract/Introduction:
Telemetry and supervisory control systems refer to a very broad and complex area in the field of process control. The scope of this paper will be limited to the explanation of fundamental concepts and methods widely used in the natural gas distribution and transmission industries.
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Document ID: DE589C64

Instruments For Determination Of Specific Gravity Of Gas
Author(s): D. J. Terbush
Abstract/Introduction:
The Arcco-Anubis Gas Gravitometer is a direct weighing type instrument and is constructed to measure the difference in the weight of a column of gas and an equal column of dry air. This is transmitted to the chart and recorded as the specific gravity of the gas passed thru the gravitometer.
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Document ID: 381B655B

Flow Measurement And Control Systems
Author(s): Michael E, Treece
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will examine the measurement and control of closed-conduit flow, i.e., flow through a pipe. Measurement of this type constitutes the majority of industrial flow applications. This discussion will cover primary and secondary measurement devices, as well as both easy and difficult flow loops. We will discuss the increasing use of digital control systems and the application of artificial intelligence to maintain optimum controller settings.
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Document ID: A7390555

New Ideas In Liquid Measurement
Author(s): L.E. Grosshans
Abstract/Introduction:
It is important that this New Ideas paper cover relatively new, yet proven techniques for liquid measurement, meter proving, and inventory and flow information processing. The ideas discussed are those that the author feels have advanced the state of liquid measurement technology and are meant to stimulate thinking and discussion. While specific types of products will be discussed, in most cases they are meant as examples of a number of products and techniques available from a number of manufacturers and industry experts. The four major areas to be discussed are: General-purpose liquid flow measurement - vortex meter Hydrocarbon mass flow measurement - mass meter Meter proving - double chronometry Digital flow compensation/totalization - computing totalizer
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Document ID: 5ED1EB8D

Field Experience With Turbine Meters
Author(s): W I L L I Am G. Birkhead
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper w i l l be related to the f i e l d use of turbine meters for not only sales but also with the purchase of gas. The contents w i l l delve into some of the operating problems f o r sales and purchase i n s t a l l a t i o n s both on and o f f s h o r e . Some recommendations for manuf a c t u r i n g , t e s t i n g and use of turbine meters w i l l be discussed.
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Document ID: 6CA6CA69

Orifice Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Marsha Yon
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of fluid flow by orifice meters has since the early 1900s been defined and researched by numerous organizations in an effort to present a measurement standard to the production, manufacturing, processing, and transmission industries. Today, the most referenced document on the subject of orifice measurement is the American Gas Associations Report No. 3 also adopted by the American Petroleum Institute and the American National Standard Institute. Through continued and widespread use, its name has become synonomous with orifice meters.
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Document ID: 99F4275A

About Ishm 1985
Abstract/Introduction:
Collection of documents about ISHM including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, exhibitor and sponsor information, etc.
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Document ID: 4FDA92E3


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