Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (1985)

Non-Destructive Test Methods Applied To Aerial Lift Trucks
Author(s): John W. Mcelroy
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of current non-destructive test techniques applied to aerial lift devices. Nondestructive tests are performed to locate and idenlify flaws in the structural material of the device under test. The paper discusses the nondestructive test techniques liquid penetrant inspection, ultrasonic inspection, magnetic particle inspection, radiographic inspection, and acoustic emission inspection. Most non-destructive test techniques are complementary in their ability to identify flaws within the structure. For example, liquid penetrant inspection may be ideal for surface defects while radiography may be ideal for sub-surface defects. The paper presents the overall application of non-destructive test techniques and their relation to each other as applied to aerial lift trucks.
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Document ID: DF7DD806

On-Site Energy Measurement
Author(s): William W. Volkmor
Abstract/Introduction:
Recent advances in measurement, communications, and microprocessor technologies can be brought together to form an energy measurement information system that can offer a costeffective alternative to traditional methods oi measuring and billing energy usage for large volume customers. At SoCal, a program is underway to implement such a system for aboui 35 of our largest customers. I he sytem will employ gas chromatographs and flow computers ai each customer location, along with communication links to a central dam acquisition and reporting system. The system is being devleoped, in pari. 10 meet increasing information needs, reduce error opportunities in the data reduction process, reduce operating and maintenance cosis, and evaluate the concept lor possible future expansion.
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Document ID: 8F6A5CB9

Bell Prover Interface With Mainframe Computer
Author(s): Eric Donaldson, J. Kenneth Berry
Abstract/Introduction:
Energy Economics, Inc.. (EEI) has developed a data-acquisition system for bell provers thai brings information to the prover station thai was previously available only al a mainframe terminal. Information entered at the prover station can be incorporated in an existing data processing system or can be processed as a standalone system on an IBM personal computer. For several years, EEI has had a solid-state controlling system on the market that completely replaces the old electronics for bell provers. The EEI system utilizes a Texas Instruments 510 programmable controller to control the valve sequencing involved in testing a gas meter on a bell prover. A second microprocessor, the Digital Readout (DR), makes the calculations and displays the open and check-run results for the test. The most exciting feature of the DR is its ability to store ASCII data and communicate that information to another computer when prompted. A data acquisition system developed by EEI uses an IBM personal computer for mass storage and processing of meter information as the meters are tested. The information is stored on floppy or hard disk on the IBM PC. The software developed by EEI controls the details of communication, collects and reformats the data for disk storage, then processes the data and presents an organized report. The IBM personal computer is a versatile machine. Other software packages allow it to emulate a terminal on systems by IBM, Texas Instruments, Burroughs, EDC, Honeywell, etc., perform as a spreadsheet with LOTUS 1-2-3, or as a wordprocessor with Wordpro.
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Document ID: A081E813

Data Collection System For Reading Meters
Author(s): Daniel R. Fulton
Abstract/Introduction:
Reading meters by automatic means has been the dream of utility managers and executives tor a long, long time. Over the years a number of programs were proposed -and some have been developed - that permit the utility to read a meter remotely and/or automatically. Some of the systems use telephone lines, radio signals, or, in the ease of electric utilities, the power lines themselves tor data transmission from the meter to a central computer. Other schemes involve collecting data on magnetic tape at the meter site and ihen translating the tape at a central location. Domestic meter readings are entered into a hand-held data collection unit containing the tape cassette, while commercial and industrial meters feed data into on-site tape recorders that can produce rates of consumption, demand, and total usage when translated. Other technologies use a mobile van or an airplane to read all the meters within a specified area by means of radio. Even cable television has been proposed as a possible means of bringing the meter reading back to the utility. All of these methods represent efforts to reduce the cost of meter reading and to accelerate cash flow for the utility.
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Document ID: 11E0D677

New Product Developments At Rockwell International
Author(s): Joseph L Pond
Abstract/Introduction:
A summary description of new developments in automating readings of Residential Meters compact in-line 2 and 3 Turbo Meters a new Slot-Sensor Pulsing system for 4-12 MK-ll and PI B turbo-Meters new Meter- Mounted Electronic Integrating Instruments and the practical application of state-of-the-art electronic instrumentation at a modern, large volume custody transfer measurement installation. New product introductions at Rockwell International encompass all major segements of our product lines. Details on some of these developments follow.
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Document ID: AF528E84

Impact Of Advanced Technology On Society
Author(s): John F. MAGEE,Arthur D. Little,
Abstract/Introduction:
We live in an exciting time, a time of change and ferment in our daily lives, in our society, and in the economic and political dimensions of our world. It is a time of change driven by technology. Before I undertake to defend and expand on that statement, I should describe what 1 mean by technology. Technology is equivalent to saying: We know how to do something. We know how to formulate PVC resins, write efficient software, operate a high pressure pipeline safely with automated control. Technology is not: a new product, a patentable invention, or a scientific discipline. Technology implies exploiting understanding -often based on a scientific or engineering discipline -to do something useful.
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Document ID: 7D6CBF33

Automatic Meter Reading-Closing The Loop
Author(s): John B. Blose
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic meter reading has proven to be an illusive target. For decades, gas, electric, and water companies have encouraged and supported research and development of systems apable of providing meter reading at a cental facility. Technology breakthroughs of the sixties and seventies brought technical feasibilly, and the microprocessor explosion of the eighties promises smaller, more versatile, more citable and lower cost systems. System cost renains the single most significant deterrent to vide acceptance of AMR systems. In reecm years, load management has prodded the incentive for purchase of one-way ommunications systems to reduce system leaks. Numerouse electric co-ops have realized :arly payback of system costs by shaving the me peak period thai set rates for the year. Supiliers generally benefit far less from load nanagement and look for systems that provide )ther functions as well, such as automatic meter eading. There is a concensus in the electric inlustry that in the foreseeable future, system osts cannot be justified solely on the basis of leferred manual meter reading costs. Load nanagement, remote service disconnect, amper detection, and other uses help justify he system, but there still is a wide margin between system costs and resulting savings. Electric utilities still cannot afford to pay iresent-day prices for AMR systems. Manufacturers, on the other hand, cannot cut costs to n affordable level at the present level of proluction. To overcome this stalemate, utilities Mist apph the technology to high cost applicaions, such as remote reading of inaccessible leters or remote turnoff in high customer turniver areas. If a large number of utilities lake his approach, the effect will be a large comosite order that can justify large scale producion facilities.
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Document ID: 85A1DFFA

Optimizing Instrument Accuracy
Author(s): Philip J. Mckibbin
Abstract/Introduction:
To many gas industry measurement personnel, the word measurement accuracy is equated to meter accuracy. This concept of measurement accuracy applies logically to standard pressure and fixed factor measurement stations (0.25 psig and constant pressure respectively) but falls somewhat short of the mark when highly variable metering conditions are involved. Measuring gas at variable line pressure and temperature conditions may be accomplished by using meter-driven instruments whose function is to take an uncorrected output from the meter and convert the uncorrected volume to a direct read volume corrected to base pressure and/or temperature. In line pressure measurement stations, the meter acts as a prime mover to power the integrator (instrument) input shaft in proportion to actual flow through the meter. The integrating instrument, or Base Volume Index (BVl), concurrently corrects the existing pies sure and temperature conditions at the meter to standard conditions of base pressure and temperature (typically 14.73 psig and 60CF). The integrating mechanics utilized by instruments to correct line metered volumes to standard volumes is subject tO accuracy degradation if operated in harsh environments. This change in accuracy relative to time is typical for any finely tuned mechanical device and is of considerable concern to gas companies thai depend on BVl instrumentation to calculate billing volumes. Gas meters are inherently less prone to accuracy degradation over time, relative to integrating instruments, because of the heavy duty design of gas meters. Additionally, instruments are more sensitive than meters to changing (or bad) environmental conditions, vibration, pulsation, tampering, etc., and thus will require more accuracy monitoring than the meter that drives the instrument. Typically. small deviations in measurement accuracy can result in a large corrected (billing) volume variance due to the large hourly flow rates at stations where BVl instrumentation is utilized. Because of this sensitivity (or overall effect) instrumentation has on customer billing volume, gas companies are presently approaching instrument calibration frequency in a more scientific manner than was utilized when gas was less costly. The following discussion will outline current instrument calibration practices of companies affiliated with the A.G.A. Distribution Measurement Committee and the novel use of billing computers to aid in forecasting when an instrument has lost calibration.
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Document ID: 8536FD2F

Gas Works Park A Case Study Of A Town Gas Plant
Author(s): Arnold H. Olson
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Works Park began as a wilderness picnic area. In 1906 a coal gasification plant was built on this Lake Union site. Subsequently, this plant was replaced by a Pacific Coast Oil Gas Plant. The site was purchased by the City of Seattle in 1962 with the title transferred in 1973. Architect Richard Haag was commissioned by the City based on a design to retain the major gas making facilities. Environmental Protection Agency testing has found Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons and other contamination. The Citizens Health Advisory Committee and the Health Department said that there was no more hazard at the site than being in a room with someone smoking, that a tot would have to eat a great deal of dirt to be contaminated and thai there was less hazard there than on the city streets. The City has been quite successful in building an attractive, though unusual, urban park. On a sunny day, this park may attract as many as 10,000 people, and the site is again used for picnicking. I once worked at the gas plant that is the subject of this story 1 had first-hand experience of it. I expect to tell you about the history of this manufactured gas plant when it was active, the retired gas plants history, the problems the City had in developing an attractive, unusual City park, and continuing Environmental Protection Agency concern.
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Document ID: 067C5B78

Town Gas-An Overview
Author(s): Lawrence H. Liebs
Abstract/Introduction:
own gas calls to mind the manufactured gas era thai began to fade as natural gas became more available after World War II. Aside from sonic peak shaving facilities still operating into the 1960s and 70s, most of our recollection of manufactured gas are stored in technical texts, company photos, archives, and the memories of older employees and retirees. Recently, the natural gas industry has gone back to reexamine those plants and processes from a perspective divorced from the actual production of fuel for illumination and other purposes. Thai perspective is necessitated by the possibility that materials regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Clean Water Act (CWA), and similar state regulations may have been left behind at the locations of some gas manufactories and may be impacting the environment through migration or other means. Also, the extension of corporate liability for those materials under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and liability Act (CERCL.A or Superfund) and their state and local counterparts may place members of many industries in a difficult position, since CERCLA denotes liability for activities that may have been non-regulated ortotally legal at the time of operation.
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Document ID: 827557CA

Technical Issues In Environmental Investigations Of Former Town Gas Plant Sites
Author(s): John C. Craun
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the technical issues involved in investigating, assesssing and, if necessary, remedying the environmental impacts that may be posed by former town gas plant sites. The types of wastes and contaminants that may be present at former town gas plant sites and their potential impacts are summarized. A phased approach for investigating such sites is recommended, and the individual steps in this approach are briefly discussed, viz., collection of historic data, field investigation, risk assessment, remedy evaluation, and remedy implementation. The information presented is general in nature, since each site poses its own unique technical problems, as well as related regulatory, legal, and publicity concerns.
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Document ID: 9BAF96C9

Overview Of Problems And Solutions Associated With Surface Impoundments
Author(s): Chae E. Laird
Abstract/Introduction:
Various lypes of surface impoundments (pits) used in the oi! and gas industry are discussed. The clean-up of one such pit heavily contaminated with petroleum products (water column oil and grease &67 mg/1) employed mutant bacteria to digest the oil. Evidence (decrease in n-alkane/branched alkane ratios in surface oil samples) indicated that the mutant bacteria were digesting the oil. but the volume of surface oil was too great for the bacteria to reduce oil and grease concentrations in the entire water column to acceptable levels for discharge (15.0 mg/1) within the one-years time allotted for clean-up. The surface oil was removed mechanically three months before deadline, and bacterial treatment of the pit continued. Oil and grease levels were reduced to below acceptable levels (14.9 mg/1 maximum 9.7 mg/1 average) by the clean-up deadline, but the relative contributions of the mutant bacteria and weathering to the reduction are unknown.
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Document ID: 6DF42BA3

Fleet Cost Allocation
Author(s): Robert Bucklew
Abstract/Introduction:
Metropolitan Edison (Met-Ed) serves over 370,000 customers in eastern and south-central Pennsylvania. It includes over 3,200 square miles in its service area and, with sister companies Pennsylvania Electric (PENELEC) and Jersey Central Power & Light (JCP&L), serves almost half of the area of New Jersey and Pennsylvania combined. These three companies, along with GPU Service and its nuclear operating company, comprise the General Public Utilities (GPU) system. The Met-Ed transportation fleet consists of approximately 200 passenger cars, 270 light trucks, 260 heavy trucks, as well as quantities of cranes, trenchers, backhoes, trailers, and pole dinkies. The transportation department has 64 employees decentralized in four operating divisions. Expenses for 1984 were nearly 7 million dollars. I am going to make two assumptions about you and your utility industry. First, transportation is not a significant part of your companys operating expense. At Met-Ed, that 7M annual transportation expense represents only slightly more than 1 percent of the companys S562M in operating, purchased power, and fuel expenses. My second assumption is that your companys transportation expense is important to you.
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Document ID: E5F04F93

Regulations Affecting Surface Impoundments
Author(s): Mike Innerarity
Abstract/Introduction:
other industries, has used a variety of pits, ponds, and lagoons to hold or treat liquid wastes. These surface impoundments have been popular because they have been a relatively inexpensive way to hold large volumes of liquids. Designs range from a simple hole in the ground to sophisticated structures with double liners, leachate collection systems, and monitoring wells. They may hold nothing more than stormwater runoff or they may contain produced water, hydrocarbons, sludges, chromate, or anything else someone needed to get rid of over the years. Pollutants from surface impoundments may enter the environment in three ways. They may be emitted to the atmosphere through evaporation or aeration they may be discharged to surface waters through a spillway or by pumping or, they may percolate downward into the groundwater. There are several environmental laws that may apply to surface impoundments. How they apply depends on the nature of the pollutant and the way in which it is released to the environment. Emissions to the atmosphere are, at present, the avenue of least concern. The only regulations that usually apply are odor nuisance provisions under state air pollution laws. However, Congress is looking hard at the issue of toxic air pollutants. If toxics are present in the wastewater and are emitted through evaporation or aeration, these sources may be subject to tighter controls in the future.
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Document ID: 76944DC4

Characterization And Fate Of Emissions From Unvented Gas Appliances
Author(s): Irwin H. Billick
Abstract/Introduction:
Indoor air quality has always been of interest to the natural gas industry. In the past, interest has centered around prevention of high levels of carbon monoxide formed by incomplete combustion, which could lead to acute toxic effects. However, in the past few years, interest of the scienfific and regulatory communities has shifted away from acute toxicity caused by exposure to high pollutant levels to the possibility of chronic adverse health effects that may result from exposure to low pollutant levels. In addition, the pollutants of concern have expanded to include not only carbon monoxide (CO), but others, such as nitrogen dioxide (NOa), formaldehyde (CH,0), and other possible products formed during gas cumbustion. An overview of the Gas Research Institute research program in indoor air quality has been presented on several occasions.
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Document ID: 92859A78

Canadian Gas And Its Place In The United States Market
Author(s): A. A. Douloff
Abstract/Introduction:
It is a pleasure to speak to you today aboui TransCanadas views on Canadian exports to the United States. And I cannot think of a more appropriate location than Boston tor my comments. Although the United States Northeast market is one that we now serve with only relatively small volumes, it is this region - primarily New England, New Jersey, and New York-where, in our view, the greatest potential for increased Canadian exports exists. As you may know, TransCanada plays a major role in the purchase, transmission, and sale of Canadian gas in both Canadian and U.S. markets. Consequently, and not unexpectedly, we have a direct interest in serving the U.S. market while ensuring that Canadian demand continues to be met. (See Figure 1.) TransCanada owns and operates Canadas sole gas transmission system, which runs from the Alberta/Saskatchewan border to Montreal, a distance of 2,100 miles. We also own 50 percent of the Trans Quebec & Maritimes Pipeline from Montreal to Quebec City. The Great Lakes Gas Transmission system, of which we own90 percent, delivers Canadian gas to the Midwest as well as to eastern Canadian markets. In addition, we have ownership interest in Foothills (Sask.), the Saskatchewan section of the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System, and in Northern Border. Today, I would like to address the factors affecting the export of Canadian gas to the United States and describe TransCanadas proposal for delivering Canadian gas to the U.S. Northeast. Its known as the TransNiagara Project.
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Document ID: E05D53CF

Status Of Fercs Blanket Certificate And Special Marketing Transportation Program In Light Of D.C. Circuit Court Opinions
Author(s): Don S. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
My original topic was to comment on the impact of decontrol on January 1, 1985, as mandated by the NGPA, on the producer sales contracts. 1/1/85 has aptly been called the greatest non-event in the history of gas regulation. What is significant is that nothing happened. There were no fly-ups, no uncontrollable price increases, no dislocations, no distortions. Such an event provides less than ideal material for the lengthy address originally contemplated. 1 propose, instead, to list briefly the trends in producer contracts that have been detected in producer contracts leading to and following 1/1/85. The most important trend is the shortening of the price regime. While the gas contracts themselves may be of 10 to 15 years duration, new contracts typically allow price adjustments at very short intervals, as short as six months, rarely longer than three to five years. The second trend is the price flexibility included in these contracts. In some instances, that is accomplished through a periodic renegotiation. In other instances there are attempts to provide market responsiveness through a formula tying the contract price to oil, electric, or some other alternate fuel, or even to the wholesale price index, as an example. Some of these formulas have already been deferred where implementing them would clearly price the gas subject to the contract above the zone of marketability. In fact, experience has taught that the formula approach has frequently not resulted in creating the flexible, market responsive, price intended. Even in circumstances where the alternate fuel with which gas must compete is identifiable and historically stable, gas-on-gas competition can change the picture abruptly.
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Document ID: 134DB3E5

Toward A Standard Gas Control System
Author(s): George H. Yeager
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1972, Columbia Gas Transmission Corporation operated four philosophically different computerized SCADA systems in its eight-state and District of Columbia service area. In 1985 the same four control centers exist, but standard hardware and software from remote terminals to central computers are simplifying design, reducing costs, improving operations, and opening the door to company-wide coordination of Gas Control activities through highlevel networking. Columbia employed in-house staff to design its own telecontrol system using general purpose central computers and industrial process computers for remote terminals and front-end-processors.
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Document ID: 5248920C

Second Time Around Innovations And Additions Included In Pacific Lightings System Control Scada System
Author(s): James Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
Southern California Gas Company supplies over 4,000,000 retail and two wholesale customers, San Diego Gas and Electric and the City of Long Beach. We operate a pipeline network of over 3,000 miles of transmission lines and more than 33,000 miles of distribution mains. We have 6 underground storage fields with a working gas capacity of 125 Bcf, a withdrawal capability of 4.5 Bcfd, and a storage capability in excess of 1 Bcfd. Geographically, we serve roughly the southern half of the State of California, and our average daily sales for 1984 were about 2.3 Bcfd.
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Document ID: 3DDD802E

Advances In Scada Applications At Transcanada Pipelines
Author(s): Mark Peco
Abstract/Introduction:
The supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system in service at TransCanada Pipe! ines is described in lernis of iis hardware, software, and communications component!. The applications so!ware used 10 monitor and control the pipeline is described using data requirements, operator displays, and modelling techniques as examples. New directions in SCADA applications are described, with examples o remote compressor operation, compressor performance analysis, and communications performance monitoring.
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Document ID: A23740E1

Compressor Station Scada Upgrade
Author(s): William L Brausieck
Abstract/Introduction:
Northwest Pipeline is a natural gas transmission company whose pipeline and facilities handle up to 2.0 billion standard cubic fleet per day and extend for 6,930 miles throughout seven western states. Daily operations require control and data gathering from over 29 mainline compressor stations and gas quality and flow data from an additional 34 locations. All of this information must be timely and accurate to efficiently operate a pipeline of this magnitude.
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Document ID: 04C706F4

The Consumers Gas Company Ltd Gas Control Scada System
Author(s): A. W. Pringle
Abstract/Introduction:
Consumers Gas Company is a major distributor of natural gas, servicing communities in Central and Eastern Ontario, Western Quebec, and Northern New York State. Approximately 97 percent of natural gas distributed by Consumers is produced in Alberta and transported to Ontario by Trans- Canada PipeLines Ltd., where it is purchased by the company for distribution throughout its franchised areas. The other 3 percent is supplied from Company production. At the end of the fiscal year in September, 1984, Consumers Gas was serving over 800,000 customers: 723,000 residential, 70,000 commercial, and 7,000 industrial accounts. The Company has annual sales of 310 Bcf and in January 1985 experienced a peak day sendoui in excess of 2 Bcf. TransCanada PipeLines delivers a contracted volume of gas each day in each delivery area. When the market exceeds the tendered volume, Gas Control must supplement the available supply by scheduling storage withdrawal and, when necessary, curtailing interruptible customers. On days when the tendered volume exceeds the market demand, the surplus volumes are scheduled for injection into underground storage.
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Document ID: 6DE741CD

Gas Utility Data Acquisition And Control Network
Author(s): Eugene J. Troxell,
Abstract/Introduction:
The present trend 10 update gas control centers is a reflection of tlie modern-day absolute necessity to have an abundant variety of fast, accurate, and reliable informal ion to maintain an economical, safe, and secure operating system. Gas Control Centers, unlike their counterparts in the electrical undustry, have been slow to accept computerization and advanced telecommunications for overall control and daia acquisition. It has only been in the past ten years that computerization of das Control Centers and remote metering stations have been tried and accepted. This acceptance has evolved from the lets see if it works approach to the present day form of get it into the computer as fast as possible. Gas Control Centers are now moving into what could be called their second generation of computerization. The intent of this generation is to provide the most accurate, reliable, and secure information possible for conirol, inventory, and accounting, which, in turn, will generate a more efficient and economical operating system. This paper discusses the above trend from the point of view of the effect it has on iias control operations.
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Document ID: 7582379D

How Does Telecommunications Support Gas Control Needs
Author(s): J. Charles Boynton
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will review, without being loo technical, how todays technology in telecommunications enhances the ability of Mountain Fuel Resources Gas Control Center to better the management of its computerized Gas Control system by using current operating data to provide efficient and effective results on a reallime basis. In 1955, when I joined the Company, the only means we had 10 obtain Supervisory Control, measurement data, and voice communications from our production fields located in Wyoming and Colorado was through the use of our own telephone lines and a few leased lines from the local telephone company. We were using the old style crank telephones for voice communications, and, at a predetermined lime each day, all production fields would call (las Control and report their pipeline pressures and production figures. Needless to say, this took a lot of the gas dispatchers time. Production fields were manned 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and, at this time, camp dwellings were provided for families who worked in the fields. Line riders on horseback checked the pipelines from Salt Lake City, Utah, to Powder Wash, Colorado. There was no commercial entertainment nearby, and life in these field camps was a real test to a marriage. Entertainment was usually the result of an effort by those living in the camps.
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Document ID: B4F36209

A Workshop On Disposal Of Surplus Assets
Author(s): James E. Knap
Abstract/Introduction:
Let me begin by stating that I am an outsider. I dont know anything about the American Gas Association, but I have a prejudice (at least one) that says no one should try to communicate with an organization they know nothing about. So, with the help of Mr. Roy Siskin, 1 got some of your literature and publications. I got a copy of your 1984 Report to Members, the A.G.A. Program Plan 1985-1987, and your Publications Catalog. From that catalog 1 learned that you have a Glossary for the Gas Industry and a publication series on You Ought To Do It With Gas. Heres Why, so I got copies of some of those Heres Why leaflets and of the Glossary. The Glossary (see Figure 1) really shocked me. It has at least two omissions. First, it doesnt tell me what a Gardner Box is, yet you have pictures of them on the covers of several of your publications. Even worse, the Glossary does not contain the words INVESTMENT RECOVERY. So I have decided to take a clue from your Heres Why publications (see Figure 2) and retitle this workshop You Should Be Profiting From Investment Recovery- Heres Why.
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Document ID: 91FC1192

A Contemporary Approach To Computerized Materials Management
Author(s): Gerard D. Oconnell
Abstract/Introduction:
OK, materials managers, lets take a little survey. Answer the following questions: 1. What is your highest priority for improving your departmental operation? 2. On a scale of 0 to 10, rate the success you have had at computerizing your operation to date. 1 assume that we have a representative sampling of the industry in our readers. If so, the answers to the first question will overwhelmingly be Getting computerized effectively. Also, the answers to the second question will show an average rating of less than 3. This is a simplified example of what market surveys have revealed there is growing demand for computerization in the materials management area with very few options to satisfy that need. Historically, purchasing and its related functions have not had the necessary visibility with senior management that is needed to commit data processing staff to a major development project. These scarce resources are usually committed to automate departments more closely associated with the accounting and income producing sides of the business, rather than the expense oriented operations. However, since the late 1970s drastic fluctuations in business cycles coupled with the serious recession and double digit inflation have finally brought attention to the cost side of the ledger and the positive impact that automation can have. Today a growing number of major corporations have targeted materials management and purchasing as a key area for automation within the next 24 months. The question is no longer if automation should occur, but how and what automation should be implemented.
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Document ID: 149B1B63

Pipeline Valve Business-Past, Present, And Future
Author(s): John P. Tescher
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipelines did not get serious until World War II. Crude and products pipelines, for the first time, became real competitors to the railroads, and natural gas pipelines began to deliver cheap, clean energy to locations far from the wellhead. Early attempts to use scaled up wedge and double-disc gate valve designs lifted from water works and power plants proved generally unsatisfactory due largely to size and pressure differences. The first successful pipeline valve was a plug valve. The lubricated plug valve was a remarkable invention in its day. Similar design plug valves have been discovered in ancient Rome over 2,000 years old. The plug valve with its high pressure capability in a compact envelope and injected sealant or lubricant (this was no problem in the days of cheap maintenance labor) provided good sealing and generally the ability to unstick a valve that hadnt been operated in a long time.
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Document ID: A111FB01

Stress Monitoring On Pipelines Due To Ground Displacement
Author(s): Joe H. Greenwood, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
Northwest Pipeline Corporation owns and operates a large-diameter natural gas pipeline system thai runs from Igoacio, ( olorado, to Sumas, Washingtoni A 26-inch section of this pipeline crosses the Roan Plateau in western Colorado at Douglas Pass, northwest of Grand Junction, Colorado. I he pipeline alignment crosses a number of landslides of various sizes, ages, and degrees Ol activity. Due K) the considerable deformationsol some slopes, 01 because of occasional large scale landslides, i he integrity of the pipe was disrupted several times in past years. Due to disruptions of service. Northwest decided 10 implemeni certain predictive and mitigative measures ihal would enable the Operations group to maintain the pipe in its present location and minimize the risk of failures. This paper presents a method to predict potential pipe failure at a specific location and the implementation oi early mitigating measures to prevent the failure.
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Document ID: 399006E3

Guidelines For Lowering Pipelines While In Service
Author(s): J. F. Kiefner, T. A. Wall
Abstract/Introduction:
Lowering or moving a pipeline Without taking it oui of service is an accepted means of protecting it at a new road crossing or other encroachment. We describe herein our approach to planning and carrying out a lowering operation. We present a means for calculating a lowered profile, in which the added stress can be limited to any desired value. We present a means to calculate temporary support spacings and step by step lowering schedules that keep stresses from exceeding desired limits. We also suggest that a desirable and practical limit for the stress in the pipeline after lowering is 54 percent of the specified minimum yield strength (SMYS) of the pipe material. This approach was developed as a part of a research project jointly sponsored by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the American Petroleum Institute, and the U.S. Department of Transportation. While a few tables and an example calculation are presented herein, the study involved analysis methods and computer programs that are too detailed for inclusion in this paper. To make the appropriate calculations for any given pipeline, it is necessary to use one or more of the computer programs. The four computer programs, written in Fortran V and suitable for a VAX 11/780 computer, arc listed in Reference 1, the final report on this study. A limited number of copies of the report are available from the sponsoring organizations. Additional copies may be obtained from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia 22161. Please request Report No. DOTRSPA- DMT-30/84/8, Guidelines for Lowering Pipelines While in Service.
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Document ID: F5482167

Pipeline Efficiency Testing And Improvement Measures
Author(s): John W. Caskey, Tilford N. Vik
Abstract/Introduction:
1 lave changes brought to the pipeline industry by deregulation and competition caused pipeline companies to change the amount of pipeline efficiency testing they do? How many member companies does pipeline efficiency testing have now? Has this number increased or decreased? These are the types of questions that were being asked in September 1984 at the Fall A.G.A. Pipeline Committee Meeting in Orlando, FL, where it was decided that the Editorial Task Group of the AG.A. Pipeline Committee should determine what are current industry practices related to pipeline efficiency testing. The overall assignment was to determine what industry practices are, to pull that information into the format for a paper, and to present the paper at this Conference. To facilitate obtaining data from the 25 pipeline companies represented on the A.G.A. Pipeline Committee, a 30-quesiion questionnaire was prepared and sent out in early March of 1985. The questionnaire was designed to determine if companies did or did not do pipeline efficiency testing and if they did, to obtain rather detailed information about how they conducted the tests and collected the data and what type of calculations were done.
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Document ID: AADBE7D7

Influence Of Thermal Aging On Pe Pipe Performance
Author(s): m. Dicks, P. Blackett
Abstract/Introduction:
Thermal aging is 10 be understood as the reduction in toughness of a material as a result of the effect of oxygen and/or air af elevated temperatures. An example of such effects is seen in stress rupture tests at higher temperatures. The effects of aging are embrittlcment and a reduction in physical properties. Such changes in properties can be seen in the initial stage of material damage by measurement of the elongation at break. Early research work has shown that elongation at break of less than 200 percent is a clear indication of the onset of damage caused by aging. These early tests were conducted on PE 34 type materials using molded specimens kept in aerated water baths at various temperatures. Results of these tests showed that at temperatures below 104 F the 50 year design life could be reached without encountering any deterioration due to aging. The prediction of long-term polyethylene pipe performance using the Arrhenius and/or rate process methods of extrapolation is based upon the assumption that PE materials do not change chemically with time. This means that the molecular weight will not be drastically reduced because of broken carbon bonds (c-c). However, such degradation mechanisms have been observed with first generation HDPE pipe materials at high temperatures in the presence of oxygen. As a result, a great deal of work has been done to predict the onset of such degradation. This work resulted in a wide acceptance of the 200 percent elongation at break criteria. Figure 1 shows a typical stress strain curve for polyethylene exhibiting the classic behavior with an elongation at yield of approximately 10 percent with elongation at break of 600-800 percent. Fracture of a specimen at the 200 percent mark or lower is indicative of aging damage causing the onset of brittle behavior. It was found that the time until the beginning of aging in the range from 73F to 176F follows the Arrhenius equation:
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Document ID: DFEA3C96

Polyethylene Piping Systems Gas Distribution Service- Retention Of Performance Properties
Author(s): Karel G. Toll
Abstract/Introduction:
System Stress. The stresses on buried polyethylene (PE) gas distribution systems are the result of two continuous loads: Cias Pressure load Secondary loads Gas pressure results in hoop stress in the pipe wall which can be accurately calculated. In addition, gas pressure results in stress in fitting joints at changes in section thickness. These stresses, which can be estimated by Von liscs calculations, can be greater than the stress in the pipe wall. It is also important to recognize that notches ai the fusion bond areas act as stress risers resulting in points of localized stresses higher than calculated stresses. Secondary loading will add to stresses from gas pressure. The added streses from secondary loads result from: Deflection from earthload Bending at joints Point loads from rock impingement Axial loads from soil subsidence Axial loads from thermal contraction Good fitting design, field fusion practice, and installation technique can minimize the effect of these stresses in fittings and at fusion joints. Material Strength. The material strength properties of polyethylene must resist these stresses in the system from pressure and earthloads. These material properties include longterm burst strength, and, most important, resistance to crack initiation and crack growth. A great deal has been written on this topic, including the references cited in this report, and will not be covered further here. The rest of the report will discuss an important part of reliable performance of PE gas distribution -the protection and retention with time of basic material strength properties.
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Document ID: 04611140

The Slow Crack Growth And Constant Tensile Load Test Including The Industry Round-Robin Evaluation
Author(s): L. E. Hulbert, m. m. Mamoun
Abstract/Introduction:
Except lor third party damage, field failures in polyethylene (PE) gas pipe have been primarily the result of slow crack growth that may start at or near improperly heat fused joints and fittings, under impinging rocks, or at the site o a squeeze-off. These cracks may then slovvlv grow through the pipe wall driven by action of external bending, axial, or torsional loads on the pipe. Such loads often act in combination with high stress concentrations arising at the notches or geometric disconiinuiics at joint/ pipe interfaces. Long-term service life of polyethylene gas distribution systems eventually could be limited by (He slow, time-dependent growth of such cracks through the pipe wall to cause leaks. While the polyethylene gas pipe systems are designed to last a minimum of 50 years, an occasional early leak may occur in a gas distribution system because of a defect or an excessive load. The higher the load, the larger the defect, or the lower the resistance of the pipe material to crack growth, the quicker the pipe will leak. Measuring the long-term strength of polyethylene gas piping is complicated by the fact that crack growth rates and the mechanism of crack growth depend on many factors such as material properties underground soil conditions, and operating temperatures. Stresses due to secondary loads, when they are enhanced by the stress concentration effects of cross-sectional changes between fittings and pipes, are also particularly important. Failures in polyethylene gas piping (except third party damage) never happen quickly. Even if a flaw in the pipe or an imperfectly bonded joint starts to crack, it will typically take the crack several years to grow through the pipe wall. The occasional polyethylene gas pipe failures that have occurred under normal field service conditions have always exhibited this slow growing type of brittle failure, primarily due 10 secondary external loads and the stress concentrations noted above.
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Document ID: 837D3743

Fleet Replacement At Florida Power & Light Company
Author(s): Donald R. Ashton,
Abstract/Introduction:
replacement. The policies and practices thai have guided the replacement o vehicular equipment have focused on the condition, age, mileage, maintenance cost, Or expected life of specific vehicles. Because of (his, the fleet asset has been particularly vulnerable to the vagrancies of economic cycles. As the economy contracts, the question is asked: Can we keep that truck operating one more year? Since the answer is almost always yes, the budget is easily cut by dropping that vehicle, and the short-range feast or famine cycle continues. The tleet is a corporate asset, not just a disjointed collection of trucks. Because of this, it is our responsibility as tleet managers to manage the total operation not just manage individual trucks. Serious fleet management requires hard work and scrupulous analysis oall factors making up total cost. The answer to controlling cosi becomes a complex mix, including alterations to purchasing practices, maintenance and repair requirements, operating procedures, vehicle mix, and fleet size. The answer also requires a hard look ai long-term corporate goals and the fleet requirements to meet (hose goals. It has been our determination at Florida Power & Light thai fleet replacement (renewal) be treated as a long-term financial decision, which is structured to maintain a certain viability in the asset. The decision is made considering the fleet as a complete or total asset with an integral role in the corporate asset mix required lo reach the companys longterm goals. Individual vehicles are noi factored into the initial determination.
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Document ID: 18D76232

Landfill Gas Recovery: Basics And The Fresh Kills Experience
Author(s): Anthony J. Giuliani
Abstract/Introduction:
Since he mid-1970s America has been learning 10 eliminate its dependence on foreign energy supplies. One way it is trying to accomplish this is through the recovery of gas generated from sanitary landfills. This paper will discuss the basics of Landfill Gas Recovery methods to utilize this energy the efforts required to obtain the rights to extract this gas and the operating history of the worlds largest Methane Recovery Facility at Fresh Kills, Staten Island, New York from construction to sales.
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Document ID: C492CD42

The Future For Supplemental Gas
Author(s): Charles A. Campbell
Abstract/Introduction:
To examine ihe future for supplements to natural gas produced in the United States (lower 48), the expected role of natural gas as one of the sources of energy to be used in the future economic structure of the United States must be defined first. The United States appears to have entered an era during which its economy is expected to grow modestly, say 2.5 to 3 percent p.a. real GNP, with continuing inflation, say 4 to 5 percent p.a. Accompanying this growth is a longterm trend toward more efficient use of energy in our overall economic system. The net result is a forecast for less growth in energy use, about I percent p.a., than in overall economic growth. There are also evident changes in the expected sources of primary energy to fuel this economic structure. The 15-fold price rise in the cost of crude oil in the 1970s spurred activity worldwide that increased the non-OPEC supply of oil, while also decreasing demand for oil, and stimulated a switch to other cheaper (and more secure) sources of energy. Crude oil prices have fallen from a peak of about 34 per barrel to about S25 per barrel, and the perception today is that crude oil prices will stabilize near this level in real (non inflated) terms over the next decade before rising moderately again. This crude oil price perception for the future helps to reinforce both the direction and strength of several trends concerning the quality and sources of energy that are expected to be used in the future:
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Document ID: A0768567

Robotics-The Evolution Of Work Methods
Author(s): Donald R. Ashton,
Abstract/Introduction:
A special report in the March 1985 issue ot Electrical World gives an excellent overview of the current application of robotics in the electric utility industry. In the report, we see three major areas where the utility can exploit robotics. First, to perform jobs in plain areas, particularly in nuclear plants, where, because of exposure to heat or radiation, humans cannot work. Second in transmission, distribution, and substation applications to permit more live line work or to reduce the cost of labor-intensive operations. And third, in the automation of industrial customers plants, to build and shape load.
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Document ID: 5DD9BAD0

Supplemental Odorization Rate From The Statistical Correlation Of Odor Test Data
Author(s): Eugene B. Klusmann, William Konya
Abstract/Introduction:
An optimum supplemental odorization rate for naturally odorized gas, ideally, would be just enough for adequate odor without excess. In order to determine that rate, it is necessary to develop a criterion for evaluating the odor level of the partially odorized gas. This evaluation is difficult because of the complex mixture of odorous sulfur compounds. Using odor test data acquired by Southern California Gas Company (SoCal) over a 15-year period, the relationship between the odor strength and sulfur composition was used to develop an appropriate supplemental odorization rate. Statistical analysis indicated that the Barton Titrator output is a better indicator of odor strength than gas chromatographic (GC) data. The Barton chart reading for organic sulfur can be used directly to determine the odor strength and, subsequently, the extent of supplemental odorization required.
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Document ID: 9272B91A

LNG Plant System Hazard Analysis
Author(s): Paul C. JOHNSON,G. Edward HUGUS,RICHARD C. Fortier
Abstract/Introduction:
The safety record of liquefied gas plants in the U.S. and Canada has been excellent, but, as plants age and people become complacent, the risk of accidents increases. A System Hazard Analysis, as recommended by the National Transportation Safety Board, can be performed by in-house personnel under the direction of a leader who is experienced in the art of performing such analyses. We have completed two such analyses and are currently performing two more, using a technique which we believe to be unique in its application to liquefied gas facilities. The technique requires that the team first develop some guidelines from which a hazard can be analyzed as it is identified. The team then systematically identifies and analyzes the hazards and develops recommendations to eliminate or mitigate the risk from these hazards.
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Document ID: 4DA5593E

Insulating Polymer Concrete For LNG Dikes
Author(s): John F. JORDON,H. Peter Schoor,
Abstract/Introduction:
The large vapor dispersion exclusion zones required for LNG plants have made some new plants uneconomical to build. In response to this problem, the use of insulating materials for LNG dikes to reduce the dispersion area has been suggested. An Insulating Polymer Concrete with suitable physical and thermal properties for use as a dike insulation has been developed. A mathematical model has also been developed to predict the boil-off from this material as a function of time and insulation thickness.
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Document ID: D47EFB5F

Composite Structure Provides LNG & Lpg Storage Solution
Author(s): D. m. Morrison
Abstract/Introduction:
Abu Dhabi Gas Liquefaction Co. (ADGLC) is expanding the LNG and LPG storage capacity serving the liquefaction plant it operates on Das Island. Das Island is located in the Arabian Gulf about 110 miles (175 km) northwest of Abu Dhabi City and is the center of Abu Dhabis offshore oil and gas operations. The Project Manager for this expansion is the Abu Dhabi National Oil Co. (ADNOC). The additional storage consists of three 80,000 cubic meter LNG tanks and four 50,000 cubic meter LPG tanks. The scope of the project also includes ancillary works consisting of a combined control building and electrical substation structure, process and utility piping, a fire protection system for the tanks and piping, a boil-off gas plant, and associated electrical, instrumentation, and site civil and structural work.
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Document ID: ADDFD673

Availability Of New Natural Gas Standards From Igt
Author(s): Amir Attari,
Abstract/Introduction:
Since 1961, the Institute of Gas Technology (1TG) has provided the gas industry with natural gas standards of certified heating value and specific gravity for calibration of calorimeters and gravitometers, respectively. The establishment of this program at IGT was the result of an earlier project initiated by A.G.A. in cooperation with the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). This program was recently expanded at IGT with the support and initiative from the Gas Research Institute (GRI) to produce additional natural gas standards including a gas chromatographic calibration standard gas.
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Document ID: 9D64B63C

Development Of Effective Control Measures To Mitigate The Hazards Of Accidental LNG Spills
Author(s): Kiran m. Kothari, Steve J. Wiersma
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the result of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Safety research activities sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GR1) on LNG vapor dispersion control techniques. The LNG hazard control research includes three projects: (1) Development of polymer concrete material for dike insulation, (2) LNG vapor dispersion from a fenced area, and (3) Dispersal of LNG vapor clouds by water spray curtains. These projects address the conceptual design, testing, and engineering development of new or improved responses technologies that are expected to reduce the severity of an accident given an LNG release.
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Document ID: 94184BD4

Sulfur Recovery: Stretford Technology Investigation
Author(s): J. m. EVANS,P. J. Murin,
Abstract/Introduction:
Of the multitude of processes designed to recover sulfur in a relatively pure form, two are eminent today: The Claus Process and the Stretford Process. Claus units in U.S. refineries alone produced over 5,000 long tons of sulfur per day in 1983, while Claus plants in U.S. natural gas sweetening plants produced more than 20,000 long tons of sulfur per day.2 By contrast, the 100 to 120 Stretford and Beavon plants currently operating worldwide produced just over 1,000 long tons of sulfur per day. Nevertheless, Stretford is the second most popular sulfur recovery process being built today. It is also used for final tail gas clean-up on many Claus plants built in the U.S. (as the Beavon technology) to meet sulfur emission regulations. Stretford has been the predominant sulfur recovery process used or proposed for synfuel pilot, demonstration and commercial plants, and also for synfuel feasibility design projects.
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Document ID: 587544CF

Biogasification Of Water Hyacinth And Sludge For Methane Production
Author(s): D. P. CHYNOWETH,T. D. HAYES,R. Biljetina And V. J. Srivastava
Abstract/Introduction:
Research is in progress to determine the technical and economic feasibility of treating domestic sewage by the use of primary settling and water hyacinth ponds and conversion of the organic products of this treatment (primary sludge and hyacinth) to substitute natural gas. This paper describes the status of the conversion component of this program, which is centered on anaerobic digestion of hyacinth/ sludge blends to methane. The results of several experiemcnts conducted successfully in a largerscale experimental test unit located at the hyacinth treatment facility at Walt Disney are presented.
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Document ID: 384452AA

On-Line Quality Control Measurements For Chlorine And Sulfur Levels In Landfill-Generated Methane
Author(s): L L Tom() Altpeter, JR.,N. W. FLYNN,J. J. WALSH,C. A. McCOMAS,BROCK De Lappe,
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of landfill gas as an alternative energy supply is receiving greater attention by the gas industry. The production of an acceptable product by landfill owners and/or processors requires careful attention to the concentration levels of certain trace level contaminants. Notable among these contaminants are chlorinated and sulfur-containing substances. CiRI is supporting the development of an on-line quality control monitor that will provide assurance that a quality product gas is being delivered. The candidate monitoring technique is an electrolytic conductivity detector that measures total chlorine or total sulfur in the gas stream. Preliminary field tests indicate acceptable accuracy, precision, and detection limits. Operational and economical requirements for the monitor are presented.
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Document ID: 31341796

Odorant Identification And Measurement In Natural Gas By Gas Chromatography
Author(s): H. K. BISHOP,J. R. Bricarello
Abstract/Introduction:
San Diego Gas & Electrics (SDG&E) location at the end of a transcontinental gas system makes it particularly concerned about odorant concentration in our natural gas. To determine the odorant compounds, their abundance, and iheir distribution in our gas delivery system, the SDG&E Laboratory developed a methodology, found suitable commercial equipment, and instituted an analysis program. The analysis was done on a gas chromatograph equipped with a Hall detector run in the sulfur selective mode. Identification was accomplished by use of a dual injection technique that separates the sulfur compounds and the overlapping mercaptan- sulfide peaks. Quantification was accomplished using injections of a standard gas and comparing peak areas of the sulfur compounds against it.
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Document ID: 51944030

Field-Portable Gas Chromatograph For The Measurement Of Odorant Levels In Pipelines
Author(s): L. L. Tom() Altpeter, JR.,J. R. Wallace,
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Research Institute (GRI) is supporting the development of a field-portable gas chromatograph with a photoioni/ation detector (GC/PID) to provide objective measurements of odorants injected into the gas distribution system. Satisfactory analytical conditions have been developed and preliminary field tests are in progress. Operational and economical requirements are presented. Projected cost for the instrument is less than SIOK.
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Document ID: 2897ABCC

Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility
Author(s): A. S. Dietz,
Abstract/Introduction:
The public as a whole derives direct and indirect benefits from the production and use of liquefied gaseous fuels (LGFs). These benefits accrue from a wide range of uses including transportation and domestic fuels, fertilizers, and feedstocks for numerous industrial processes. Industries that supply these materials have developed sophisticated safety technology and procedures as a result of many years of operational experience and the controlling influence of industry-generated standards and government regulations. However, it is clear that benefits derived from using LGFs are accompanied by a finite level of risk if they are accidentally released or improperly handled. The potential hazards associated with accidental LGF releases include burns, asphyxiation, fire, explosions, and toxic effects.
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Document ID: 80726699

Orifice Flow Measurement Uncertainty
Author(s): C. R. Samples,
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes two ways in which computer-resident Engineering methods and reference daia are used in the design of Orifice Flow Measurement Systems. These are: A method that provides automatic com pnier access to physical property data required lor the flow calculation. The Computer-Aided Design Engineering (CADE) tool provides well-documented references to all parameters required in the base design calculation including fluid composition, physical property equation of state, and hardware parameters. A method to estimate lotal flow uncertainty of an orifice system based on How coefficient tolerance, hardware specifications, and fluid density effects. The CADE System documents hardware detail and flow uncertainty relative to flowrate to establish flow turndown characteristics of the system.
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Document ID: 60A834A6

Compressor Station Automation Design Philosophy
Author(s): Jack E. Little,
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to describe the intentions and philosophy behind the ANR Pipeline Automation Project. The intention is to completely automate twenty major compressor stations along both our Southeast Pipeline System and Southwest Pipeline System. This automation will place processor intelligence at the station level to monitor and control in the most efficient manner known to the Company. The processor will receive commands from the Detroit Gas Dispatch Center (DAS) and inform them of the necessary alarms, situations, and decisions it is in the process of initiating.
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Document ID: C1A5B0D2

Recent Research Results On Pulsative Flow Measurement Using Orifice Meters
Author(s): Cecil R. Sparks,
Abstract/Introduction:
Recent SGA research activities at Southwest Research Institute have provided some interesting new insight into the nature of pulsation-induced flow measurement errors at orifice installations. While confirming the existence of square root averaging error at the orifice taps, this research has shown that conventional square root theory is incorrect in describing this error in terms of flow modulation ratio. A new square root theory has been developed that has reconciled many of the socalled instability errors that were heretofore not predictable and has, in fact, shown the orifice to be remarkably tolerant of flow pulsations. Experimental research has,
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Document ID: 0CA8ACFF

The Decay Of Swirling Gas Flow In Long Pipes
Author(s): Susan E. McMANUS,BLAINE R. Bateman, James A. Brennan, Isaura Vasquez PANTOJA,DOUGLAS Mann,
Abstract/Introduction:
A characterization of swirling flow of nitrogen gas at ambient temperature, pressure of 4 MPa (600 psi), and Reynolds numbers of 800,000 to 1,400,000 is presented. Possible flowmeter measurement errors in a pipe of circular crosssection are given. An instrumented test section containing a hoi wire anemometer and a directional pitot tube for the measurement of swirl angles and velocities are described. The decay of 60 degrees of swirl across a 100-mm (4-inch) smooth-walled pipe was measured at 0, 10, 33, and 70 nominal pipe diameters. Results suggest that large values of swirl are possible in gaseous flow, ihat the decay of the swirl is very slow at high Reynolds numbers, and that reliance on long lengths of pipe to reduce swirl to acceptable levels may not be a practical solution to eliminating potential flow measurement errors attributable to swirl.
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Document ID: A1CF585E

Automated Gas Measurement Office Applications
Author(s): Gary L Sypolt,
Abstract/Introduction:
Consolidated Gas Transmission Corporation has undertaken an extensive design and programming effort to replace its existing Gas Measurement computer program. Since Consolidated Gas Measurement Sections responsibilities encompass measurement raw data processing, calculation, and gas accounting, the scope of the project is quite large. The need for a modernized Gas Measurement system was identified, as were the problems associated with the current process. The existing system was written in 1965. This set of programs has been patched to adopt the changes in business function incurred over the last twenty years.
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Document ID: C0659FF9

Facilities For Collection Of Supercompressibility Data
Author(s): Carl H. Griffis,
Abstract/Introduction:
A discussion of the facilities lor the collection of compressibility data is presented. These facilities provided data for the supercompressibility correlation project at The University oi Oklahoma presently sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI), The facilities at the University of Oklahoma. Texas A&M University, and the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) are the primary facilities discussed, however, experimental clam from other laboratories, such as Gasunie and U. S. National Bureau of Standards, and data from the European Gas Research Group (GERG) have been important in the development o the supercompressibility correlation.
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Document ID: 1A19733C

Laboratory Calibration Of Transmission Gas Flow Metering Systems
Author(s): Walter F. SEIDL,STEPHEN H. Caldwell,
Abstract/Introduction:
A description is given of ihe capabilities and procedures used for the calibration o transmission gas flow metering systems at Colorado Engineering Experiment Station, Inc. (CEESI). CEESI is a not-for-profit organization that has been performing gas How metering calibrations in a laboratory environment for eighteen years. Calibrations are performed by use o critical flow Venturis that have been proven on CEESIs in-house primary standards, which are traceable to basic national standards. Calibrations have been performed in line sizes up to 48 inches with flowrates up to 135 million SOD. Both steady-state and cycling flows can be used during calibrations.
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Document ID: 9E76FC10

European Research Into Orifice Plate Performance
Author(s): J. m. Hobbs,
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper reviews work that has been done by a number of European organizations over the last few years on various aspects of the use and performance of orifice plates in How metering. It includes studies of installation effects and the use of five different types of flow slraightener to correct flow disturbances, assessment of the errors caused by plate eccentricity, theoretical and experimental investigations of deformation, and the use of orifice plates in pulsating flow.
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Document ID: 10B60DD9

Carbon Dioxide Measurement- Field Measurement Practices And Office Calculations
Author(s): David V. Beitel,
Abstract/Introduction:
Amoco Production, like many other producing companies in the industry, has made significant commitments to a continuing program for tertiary recovery. Due to favorable economics, as well as favorable reservoir response, C02 has been selected as the principal injection material for injection projects in West Texas. As a result, the oil and gas industry, and more particularly the measurement industry, was given the task of designing systems to handle a material that it had developed little operational experience for and for which there were minimal amounts of PVT data. The measurement systems developed by Amoco Production are the result of inputs from several groups and represent improvements in most areas of measurement.
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Document ID: 4B717EB1

Cushion Gas And Working Volume: For Each Geological Structure, Its Optimal Management
Author(s): Jean Colonna And Jean-Francois Carriere,
Abstract/Introduction:
The geological structures suited for underground gas storage are limited in number and must be considered as natural resources to be used at their best. The storage managers efforts must be focused therefore on three axes: To maximize the amount of gas that can be injected into a given structure To optimize the equipment as a function of the reservoirs intended use in order to withdraw the largest possible quantity of gas To minimize the cost of the cushion gas, which accounts for the major part of the investment.
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Document ID: 51CA1029

Bethel Gas Storage Cavern 2-A Downhole Casing Inspection Project
Author(s): John Jeffrey Hardgrave,
Abstract/Introduction:
External corrosion in downhole environments has necessitated numerous attempts to identify and determine the condition of storage well casings. This paper examines an approach to ascertaining the general extent of corrosion in a 13 3/8-inch production casing. The primary objectives are to establish base log corrosion data and develop a regular program to inspect storage well casings. Ultimately, such information would contribute to an assessment of priority for the placement of a liner to ensure the safety and integrity of the storage cavern.
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Document ID: 0D7F6D04

Monitoring Casing Corrosion In Natural Gas Storage Fields
Author(s): Richard J. Gentges,
Abstract/Introduction:
Operators of natural gas storage fields are showing an increased awareness of (he need to monitor dovYiihole corrosion in gas storage wells. This is an aspect of operations thai until recent years has received little attention until a company experiences a casing failure. A program lo monitor easing corrosion can provide the basis for a remedial action program to avert potential downhole casing failures.
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Document ID: 828AD2B6

Evaluation And Optimization Of Reciprocating Compressor Performance
Author(s): Walter Von Nimitz, PH.D.,
Abstract/Introduction:
Compressor efficiency is noi the function of compressor design and operation alone bin also of the total system involving the compressor and the attached piping systems. This paper discusses some of these factors affecting compressor performance, such as pulsations, dynamic pressure drop, and the indirect effects of thermal flexibility and mechanical response calculations.
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Document ID: 7EE77B13

Handling Variations In Aquifer Pressure In Gas Storage
Author(s): Donald L Katz,
Abstract/Introduction:
Movement of underground water in contact with natural gas was the subject of the first Monograph sponsored by the A.G.A. Storage Group, 1959-1963. Since that time, much has been learned from storage field developments and operations. This paper gives a synopsis of what has been learned about aquifer behavior in general. Then, a recent study of an Illinois aquifer storage reservoir is given, which shows a rim of pressurized water surrounding the aquifer. The effective aquifer pressure for water movement in the annual storage cycle is above the original pressure, as it is within the pressurized rim.
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Document ID: D3516256

Finders Keepers
Author(s): Frederick H. CLARK,DONALD L. Katz,
Abstract/Introduction:
All who work in the fields of oil and gas exploration and production and underground gas storage acquire, by various means, an exposure to the legal terms used in discussing ownership of natural gas. Among these are the law of capture, ferae naturae, and ownership in place, -perhaps even incorporeal hereditament. Many are familiar with the learned dissertations in the oil and gas law texts of the various rules relating to these terms that are applied in the various producing states. It is not the purpose of this paper to explain these rules in detail, to differentiate between them, and to say which will or should apply to the problem that we propose to deal with. Rather, we first want to set the stage for our topic by generalizing that, regardless of the theories and related legal terms that are applied, the result reached tends to be the same.
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Document ID: 5EC787AA

Development And Use Of An Operating Model Of The Worsham Steed Gas Storage Field
Author(s): John A. WELLS,JOHN B. AGNEW,RON E. Coker
Abstract/Introduction:
The Worsham Steed field is located in south central Jack County, Texas, approximately 45 miles west of the city of Fort Worth. In December 1978, Texas Utilities Fuel Company commenced gas storage operations in the Bend Conglomerate reservoir at a subsea depth of 3500 feet. As of December 31, 1984, total injection/ withdrawal volumes were 53.6 Bcf injected and 40.1 Bcf withdrawn, resulting in a net inventory of 13.5 Bcf. Correspondingly during the six years of operations the average reservoir pressure in the Bend Conglomerate increased from an initial level of 150 psi to over 1200 psi in the updip portion of the storage /one. The reservoir has provided sustained peak withdrawals in excess of 60 MMcf/D.
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Document ID: 5E12B9C9

Assessing The Value Of Observation Well Data In Gas Storage Inventory Monitoring
Author(s): Robert C. Mac Donald,
Abstract/Introduction:
This study lias demonstrated thut observation wells completed in low permeability flank areas of a gas storage reservoir can detect potential gas migration provided the well is located in near proximity of the gas migration path. However, it may not be possible to gauge the gas migration rate from these observation well data alone. For reservoirs surrounded by a low permeability gas bearing formation, it is necessary to make an analysis of the pressurecontent relationship for the reservoir to detect the amount of migration that may be occurring. For those reservoirs in which the contrast in formation permeability between the main storage area and the flank is less than an order qf magnitude, edge observation wells may be Useful in preparing inventory verification
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Document ID: FA3FB1B1

Variable Speed A.C. Electric Motor-Driven Compressors For Natural Gas Transmission
Author(s): Ray Anholt,
Abstract/Introduction:
Economic studies conducted in the late 1970s suggested that savings could be realized when using electric driven compressors for phase one of the Alaska Highway Gas Pipeline Project. The predictions in 1980 that justified the use of electric drives have not materialized. Nevertheless, the installation of a 25,000 horsepower variable speed A.C. electric motor-driven compressor on this project has demonstrated that savings are available, providing the location is carefully selected and the pipeline has a high load factor. In addition, two and one half years of operating experience have shown that several unique features of electric drives are useful to maintain the continuity of service required of pipeline systems. Variable speed A.C. electric motor-driven compressors are a viable alternative to other more conventional means of transporting natural gas.
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Document ID: 138AC4DF

Meteor Burst Communications For Data Acquisition
Author(s): Virgil O. Flugum,
Abstract/Introduction:
Operating data for pipeline control and dispatching purposes is traditionally gathered via terrestrial facilities such as leased telephone lines and microwave links for shorter distances, VHF or UHF Operational Fixed radio systems may be used. The cost of installing and operating these terrestrial communications facilities is rising rapidly and is expected to continue rising. Fixed radio systems that offer some economics advantages are generally limited to a 35-50 mile range, depending upon terrain and other lactors. Satellite systems are emerging as economical alternatives to terrestrial facilities, where the volume of communications usage is sufficient, but recurring monthly user fees will remain a factor in its application to data gathering systems.
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Document ID: 5C09F989

The Application Of A Personal Computer To Field Performance Testing
Author(s): W. E. Silver,
Abstract/Introduction:
Northwest Pipeline has been successful in obtaining performance guarantees from suppliers of turbo machinery. Proving this performance can require many unproductive man hours with valuable personnel lied up waiting for stable test conditions. ISSAC/Apple micro-computerbased analog-to-digital Data Acquisition System has the ability to monitor test conditions and take data by itself, monitoring discharge temperature and taking data when temperature changes becomes minimal. It is possible to obtain finished data before leaving the site, thus minimizing the time to bring performance to an acceptable level before leaving the site. This can result in a savings of many dollars in travel time and expenses for both manufacturer and user.
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Document ID: 6DDABE27

Infrared Temperature Monitoring As A Preventive Maintenance Tool
Author(s): John J. COFFIELD,WILLARD P. Burdakin,
Abstract/Introduction:
Infrared has been known since 1800, but until 1939 saw usage only as a way to measure the heat content of the stars. In 1939 the Germans used it on rifles to shoot at night. After that, Navies used it to signal between ships. Engineers have determined that every item in the Universe radiates infrared energy in accordance with its temperature. Thus, our electricians have known that bad connections generate excessive heat but had no way of feeling them. In the Pulp and Paper Industry, insurance records indicate that one out of every four claims over S25K was the result of electrical failure/
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Document ID: E6433A48

Retrofitting Existing Engines With Efficiency Improvement Controls
Author(s): Richard P. Schook,
Abstract/Introduction:
The Operating COSl of a large gas engine in compressor service can be a verj sizeable cosi factor in todays competitive gas transmission market. A 4(X)0 horsepower 16-cylindcr integral compressor engine, operating continuously, will accrue ihe rather substantial fuel cost of approximately 650,000 per year- this at a rather modesl cost calculation of S2.70 per thousand cubic feel for fuel gas. laced with this substantial operational cost for just one engine, it is not suprising that we, as vendors to the gas transmission industry, get the message that products thai will serve to improve engine operating efficiency arc in demand.
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Document ID: 2ADB0F2C

Selection Criteria For Processor-Based Control Systems
Author(s): H. D. Lenz
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the selection criteria for processor-based control systems for natural gas compressor stations. Main emphasis is given 10 matching the selection of a control system to a cost-effective operation for different user requirements. The main user requirements are as follows: Improved fuel efficiency Improved maintenance Reduced personnel costs The importance given by users to these factors differs and is met by selecting the appropriate features of the control systems. Applications to equip existing and new stations are described, I-xamples of economic consideration for the selection of control system features are presented.
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Document ID: F6843885

A Horsepower-Hour Meter For Compressors
Author(s): Arthur C. Eberle,
Abstract/Introduction:
A new instrument has been developed tor determining the amount of work done by a reciprocating compressor in pumping gas. The instrument measures compressor suction and discharge pressures and engine speed and, using a very low power CMOS microprocessor, computes the instantaneous horsepower for single or two stage compressors. Horsepower is integrated over time and displayed on a single crystal readout as horsepower-hours. The meter can also display total engine revolutions, instantaneous per stage horsepower, engine speed, and suction and discharge pressures. The horsepower-hour meter is powered by a small photovoltaic solar cell array that charges a selfcontained battery. The instrument is enclosed in a weatherproof box for outdoor installation.
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Document ID: 81ABEC16

Those Were The Good Old Days
Author(s): Jesse Hayes,
Abstract/Introduction:
Have you ever noticed when a group of people get together that sooner or later the conversation eventually relates back to the good old days? It seems as though everyone wants to talk about the good old days and all of the things that were right back then. Well, those days did offer a simpler life-style, which is appealing, but what was safety like back in the good old days? In those days, work-related accidents were accepted as being a part of the job. The attitude of most employees and employers was one of sure there is danger involved but if you want the job, you are going to have to take your chances. Very lew people had what could be considered as a good safely altitude.
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Document ID: 504CDF26

Mini-Solar Cathodic Protection
Author(s): James E. Hutson,
Abstract/Introduction:
The need lor applying a small amount of local current in high resistivity soils to an otherwise well-designed cathodieally protected pipeline has been a challenge for a long time. Ideal conditions would call lor a well-placed galvanictype anode and, in some cases, a small rectifier system. What choices are there if these conditions are not ideal? Suppose your soil resistivity is 200,000 ohms/CM and the area in question is 15 miles from the nearest power line? Even after recoating, the pipe-to-soil potential still does not reach criteria. What alternatives do we have for solving this problem, and how much concern should it be given? Lets face it, this is not the most critical corrosive environment one will face on the pipeline system, but due to either the large metallic area of block valves or the congestion of the piping in meter stations, it is not an area to be left unprotected.
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Document ID: D93A1926

A Practical Approach To Predicting And Monitoring Internal Corrosion In Gas Pipelines
Author(s): John E. Mincy,
Abstract/Introduction:
Corrosion has plagued all segments of ihe petroleum industry from the beginning. This holds true for the gas industry as well. Millions of dollars are spent annually to protect pipe and equipment that carries gas from its source to the end user. The majority of this has been spent on external corrosion control. Internal corrosion control has been less understood and often not realized unless a failure occurred. Chemical programs for control of internal corrosion have been available for many years. In many cases, it has been difficult to determine if they were necessary and if that could be ascertained, it was difficult to determine if the chemical program was effective. A new technique is being developed which will give an indication of the corrosivity of a gas and the effectiveness of a corrosion inhibitor program.
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Document ID: 001F5F16

Predicting The Life Of An Underground Metallic Structure
Author(s): Bernard Husock,
Abstract/Introduction:
The expression life ol pipe has no clear definition, although it is often used in connection with corrosion of underground piping. K. H. Logan in Circular C450 by the National Bureau of Standards stales that the expression life of pipe should be avoided.1 He states further that a pipe may be made to last indefinitely, although it might be more economical to replace it.
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Document ID: 830F7345

Coatings For Underground Pipelines
Author(s): Jack A. Evans,
Abstract/Introduction:
External coatings are considered our first line of defense against corrosion of underground pipelines. The primary function of a coating is to serve as a barrier and isolate the steel pipe from its detrimental environment earth, rock, sand, moisture, organic chemicals, bacteria, etc. A good coating system will prevent the deterioration of steel pipe buried in earth or submerged in water. An ideal or perfect coating should possess the following qualities: Be an effective insulator to resist current flow Be applied with no imperfections Remain an impervious film during the lifetime of the pipeline To date, the ideal or perfect coating has not been achieved and may never be. However, the goal should be to approach this ideal as nearly as possible and continuously strive to reach it.
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Document ID: D8AF0BB9

Control Of Stray-Current Effects From Dc Powered Transit Systems
Author(s): Ray E. Shaffer,
Abstract/Introduction:
The basic concepts of the control of stray currents within transit systems and the miligative measures available to the gas distribution and transmission company corrosion engineers are reviewed. The basic differences in stray-current characteristics for old and new transit facilities arc reviewed, along with several aspects of the general problems of stray-current control that are encountered within operating distribution and transmission systems.
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Document ID: DA679420

Current Status Of Gri Research In Cathodic Protection
Author(s): K. B. Burnham,
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Research Institute (GRI) is sponsoring research at Batlelles Columbus Laboratories (BCL) with the ultimate goal of reducing ihe number of corrosion-relaied leaks on steel gas transmission pipelines and distribution piping. Pari of the research is focused on the development of instruments that can eliminate ihe IR drop in pipe-to-soil (P/S) potentials so iliat the level of cathodic protection (CP) can be better assessed. A microprocessorbased field prototype for impressed-current (l/C), CP systems is being evaluated on oper ajting gas distribution and transmission piping systems. In addition, an instrument thai uses AC impedance techniques is being developed for use on sacrificial anode (SA) systems.
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Document ID: 568284D9

Appliance Testing And Energy Applications Evaluation
Author(s): Louis E. Haynie,
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper reviews the functions of Baltimore Gas& Electric Companys Energy Applications Analysis Unit, Customer Service Department. The areas addressed are gas and electric appliance testing, codes and standards administration, appliance safety and serviceability, energy conservation, gas utilization, research and development of new energy concepts, and stateof- the-art testing instruments and equipment.
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Document ID: 88142C1A

What You Should Know About Carbon Monoxide
Author(s): Norman P. Moreau,
Abstract/Introduction:
Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless. tasteless, and non-irriiaiing toxic gas. It forms as a result of incomplete or inefficient combustion. Two common reasons for carbon monoxide poisoning appear to be improper firing of appliances and improper use of equipment by the customer. Carbon monoxide is absorbed by the lungs, and replaces oxygen in the hemoglobin, reducing its oxygen-carrying capability. To recover normal capabilities, over 200 parts of oxygen are required to replace one part of CO. The amount of CO absorbed by the blood varies with time of exposure, periodic fresh air consumption, degree of physical activity, and health of the subject.
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Document ID: 9636787B

Theft Detection Program
Author(s): William Oland, James A. Mccauley, Al Russell
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas service thell deteciion is assigned to the Customer Services Department at Washington Gas. We make a sharp distinction between actual, verified attempts to steal gas through illegal connections, stolen meters and meter bypasses, and customers who simply turn on meters designated as off in our accounting system.
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Document ID: C4C6E790

Streamline Your Field Operations With Cards
Author(s): Gerald L Meck
Abstract/Introduction:
Beginning in the 1960s, Hast Ohio started conducting Market Research projects to determine customer satisfaction but those were the days of cheap energy prices, and the public felt the Company was doing an excellent job of serving its needs. As a matter of fact, there was little we could do wrong. But, along came the late 70s, and with those years came much, much higher energy prices and a resulting change in customers attitudes. It began to seem like there was little we could do to please the customer. With this in mind, we at East Ohio started to pursue ways to improve customer satisfaction and at the same lime improve the high level of performance in our Customer Service operations. We felt that a major change in the way we provided service to the customer would be necessary to make a significant improvement in customer satisfaction.
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Document ID: D4E2A84B

A New Perspective On Small Car Safety
Author(s): Donna C. Startzel
Abstract/Introduction:
To understand the debate over the relationship between car size and safety, we have to explore the background out of which the entire issue has emerged. First, though, let me give you some orientation concerning my role and the role of my company in all this. Peterson, Howell & Heather manages over 200,000 vehicles for over 800 corporate clients. We were an early advocate of downsizing fleet vehicles to meet the energy crisis of the 70s, and, despite the current gasoline glut, which we believe is temporary, we continue to stress fuel economy when selecting fleet vehicles
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Document ID: 105E3E7A

Development Of An Energy Diversion Team
Author(s): Al Russell
Abstract/Introduction:
With energy diversion on the rise in the gas industry, Southern California Gas Company, the nations largest gas distribution utility, serving over thirteen million people through four million meters, has a growing, effective program to combat the problem. A unique feature of this program -the training and involvement of Company employees through the Companys entire southern California service territory -has led to some pleasantly surprising and gratifying results. Interest and commitment on the part of the individual employee(s) has achieved early and significant successes. One would think the employees regarded SoCal Gas as their own Company
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Document ID: EAFCC4A3

Update On Gain
Author(s): J. Robert Hudson
Abstract/Introduction:
The year 1984 was a good year for the GAIN program, except lor one great loss in our membership. Frank Porcello, from Brooklyn Union, who won the Annual GAIN Contact Utility Award presented at the conference last year, died of cancer four months later in September. Our January 1985 GAIN Newsletter was dedicated to his memory. Frank Porcello personified the
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Document ID: D03B8411

Corrosion And Venting Concerns Of High-Efficiency Appliances
Author(s): Craig A. Farnsworth, Douglas W. Dewerth
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents preliminary results o( the second phase of researeh on condensing heat exchanger corrosion sponsored by the Gas Reserach Institute (GRI) through the Gas Appliance Technology Center (GATC) at the American Gas Association Laboratories (A.G.A.L.). Experimental and theoretical results are reported that show a very strong link between appliance design factors and corrosive attack. It is shown that a flue gas chloride contamination level of 2-3 ppm chloride can result in very rapid and severe corrosive attack
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Document ID: CB3A3187

Quality Assurance Construction Auditing
Author(s): Merle T. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Quality Assurance auditing of construction, operations, and maintenance activity is not new to the gas industry. Nor is it new to the A.G.A. Transmission Conference. In addition to the paper presented in I970, there were documents presented in 1973 dealing with quality assurance auditing of customer service work2 and quality control of materials.
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Document ID: FECFC79C

Computer Gas Work Management System
Author(s): Thomas J. Loveday
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper summarizes the experiences at Northeast Utilities with the development of an integrated automated work management system. It is the primary tool used by field management for planning and scheduling and for measurement of the efficiency of our construction forces.
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Document ID: F581D0B0

Field Testing And Evaluation Of A Prototype Abrasive Waterjet Pavement Cutter
Author(s): Joseph B. Ewing
Abstract/Introduction:
Current practices used by gas distribution companies to access underground piping are time consuming and expensive. Since much of the piping lies under street paving, access often requires the removal of the existing pavement and overlying material before pipeline work can begin and, when the pipeline work is finished, the ground and pavement must be restored. Backfilling and pavement restoration, which is closely monitored by local public works departments, constitutes a particularly large fraction of the cost of pipeline access.
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Document ID: 132FDB5C

A Novel Electrically Activated Pipe Coupler
Author(s): Nachum Rosenzweig
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes a new approach to joining polyethylene (PE) pipe. A coupler made of an electrically conductive polymeric compound is powered by a 24V source. When activated, the coupler heats up, shrinks radially, grips the pipes, melts Iheir surfaces, and creates a butt fusion. The following is a description and a discussion of the applied test procedures, product performance, and characteristics of an eleel iofusion-type coupling.
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Document ID: 773FA813

Training Outline: Static Electricity Demonstration Model And Continuity Test
Author(s): J. E. Allen,
Abstract/Introduction:
In ilic following training-video outline, camera and demonstration instructions are shown in bold type followed by he narrators text in normal type. Demonstration model lilted on table top. To demonstrate the effects of static electricity on plastic pipe, we have constructed a sialic electric pipe model that consists of a closed loop of polyethylene plastic pipe and associated lutings commonly found in underground gas distribution systems (See Figure I.)
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Document ID: 9A5FA89B

Guided Piercing Tool For Accurate Horizontal Boring
Author(s): Steven R. Kramer
Abstract/Introduction:
To minimize the high cosl of pavement removal and rcsloration, utilities prefer to bore under roadways or other paved surfaees. Existing tools are adequate for boring short distances up to 60 feet but are not sufficiently advanced to provide directional control for longer distances. In 1984, the Gas Research Institute (GRI) initiated two programs on a parallel path to evaluate various technologies applicable to guided horizontal boring. The ultimate objective of the program is to design and demonstrate a boring tool capable o drilling small-diameter holes up to 120 feei with a directional accuracy of one foot in all planes, first, the team of Vlaurer Engineering, Inc., and Illinois Institute of Technology
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Document ID: B9100C35

Enforcement Of The Pipeline Safety Regulations
Author(s): Robert L. Paullin
Abstract/Introduction:
I am always agreeable to discussing pipeline safely, especially in a non-adverserial forum such as ihis conference rather than within the constraints of the procedures of 49 CFR Pari 190. 1 hope that my comments will give a broader understanding of how we in the Federal/State Pipeline Safety Program view the enforcement of the safety regulations. The authority to enforce interstate and intrastate regulations is found in Federal law, as is the authority to delegate intrastate jurisdiction to state agencies duly authorized by state laws. In brief, interstate operators are jurisdictional to Federal representatives intrastate operators to state authorities.
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Document ID: 4AC1E212

Vehicle Rates As A Fleet Management Tool
Author(s): Robert H. Beahm
Abstract/Introduction:
Utility Fleet Managers are usually perceived as adversaries by operating department supervision because the perceived objectives are different. Fleet Managers are charged with insuring that corporate fleet resources are applied in a manner that maximizes benefit to the corporation. Operating departments arc charged with production, distribution, and maintenance of the corporate money-making system. Fleet Managers generally are thought to hinder the effective accomplishment of those objectives. Because the corporate goal is to provide service at the lowest possible cost to our customers, this struggle needs to be resolved.
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Document ID: 328714D2

Computer Questionnaire And Software Catalog- Distribution, Construction, And Maintenance Operations
Author(s): Donald L Ely,
Abstract/Introduction:
In the spring of 1982, the Distribution, Construction, and Maintenance Committee Steering Group decided 10 poll committee members on the areas in which the wefce using computers to aid in running their various operations. A brief synopsis of that questionnaire is attached as an addendum to this article.
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Document ID: 7AA269E7

Pneumatic Tool Cleaning-A New Four-Station Cleaner
Author(s): Lawrence E. Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
Utility companies can account tor yearly pneumatic tool repairs. However, if pneumatic tools are Hushed clean and lubricated for any incremental period, repair costs will decrease. By tracking pneumatic tool repairs from 1971 through 1984 at Southern California Gas Company, we have demonstrated how tool cleaning and lubricating reduces repair costs. For example, in mid 1975, SoCal began cleaning and lubricating pneumatic tools. As a result, for the following period 1976 through 1981, tool repairs decreased nearly 300 per year, an annual repair cost decrease of over 35,000. In mid-1982, SoCal began changing out an old flushing machine for repairs, but, because Quality Circle groups indicated how messy tool cleaning was and suggested that maybe it was not healthy, we did not place all the old tool cleaners back into use. As a consequence, for the following two years, 1983 and 1984, the average number of repairs increased over 260 a reversal of the previous savings, a cost increase of 32,000 per year
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Document ID: CE40ACF1

Experiences During Flooding Conditions
Author(s): J. D. Glaser
Abstract/Introduction:
The occurrence of flooding is widespread. We onstantly hear reports of Hooding taking place hroughout the country and the immense lamage it causes. Flooding causes more damige nationwide than any other natural disaster, cording to the Federal Emergency Managenent Agency (FEMA). What very few people ealize is that flooding can also cause serious lamage to natural gas facilities
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Document ID: 1DE89D28

Large Diameter Plastic Insertion Project
Author(s): Thomas H. Robinson
Abstract/Introduction:
Planning and communication were the keys to the projects success. Months prior to the physical start of this project. Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PGandE) conducted planning sessions to define and organize the project. Thanks to the willing participation and cooperation of representatives of California Public Utilities Commission E. 1. Dupont De Nemours Company, Inc. McElroy Manufacturing, Inc. G.S.I., Couping Systems, Inc. (Maxi-Grip) National Fuel Gas Distribution Corp. and PGandE personnel, many potential problems were avoided, and the progress of the project was expedited
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Document ID: 42697CA4

Research Update-GRI Projects In Gas Distribution Operations
Author(s): Raymond A. Day
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1985, GRI is funding a S5 million program consisting of 28 research projects in the gas distribution operations area. This comprehensive program is directed at the development, demonstration, and commercialization of new or improved construction and maintenance products, equipment, or vehicles meters instruments piping materials and systems and new technology. The objective of the research is to provide opportunities for gas utilities to improve the efficiency and reduce the cost of gas distribution operations. Cited as an example of a successful research project is the commercialization in 1984 of a GRI-developed soil stabilizer to reduce subsidence in backfilled excavations in paved areas. A I985-1995 timetable is presented showing the years of scheduled field experiments with cooperating gas utilities that involve prototype equipment or products being developed under GRI sponsorship and the years when selected commercial products will be available to the gas industry.
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Document ID: CB1D17D0

Field-Testing Results On The Sonic Leak Pinpointer
Author(s): James E. HUEBLER,JAMES E. HUEBLER,L L. Altpeter
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the results of field-testing performed on the sonic leak pinpointer for medium- and high-pressure gas distribution systems. The sonic leak pinpointer is a supplement to conventional leak pinpointers by means of which false excavations can be eliminated. During the field testing, currently available pinpointing techniques (including the combustible gas indicator) accurately pinpointed leaks al 74 percent of the sites. The addition of the sonic leak pinpointer to these techniques increased the accurate pinpointing to 97 percent of the sites, an improvement of 23 percent. Accurate pinpointing is defined as 2 feci, ensuring that the leak is in the first bell hole excavated. Uses for the pinpointer and the general procedure for using the instrument are also discussed. The current results demonstrate that the sonic leak pinpointer has a payback period of less than two months.
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Document ID: 3E15B35E

Construction Information System
Author(s): George O. John
Abstract/Introduction:
Inc., is a Houston-based corporation distributing natural gas to 1.3 million customers in three states and seven divisions. The Houston Division is the largest of these, with over 590,000 residential and commercial customers. While the local economy is currently recovering from a recent slowdown, the late 1970s gave no indication that our construction workload would do anything but increase. In 1980, the Houston Division was installing roughly 1,200 new service lines each month. Orders were being issued monthly to run 12 to 16 linear miles of mainline. This construction load was parceled out to 20 crews working for four district offices and thirty-two private contractor crews
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Document ID: 5F1D50C3

Emergency Shut-Down Of Polyethlene Distribution Systems-Valve Or Squeeze
Author(s): Claude J. Transue
Abstract/Introduction:
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, polyethylene piping was gaining an early foothold in American gas distribution piping systems. Early usage centered around service lines as gas companies experimented with the new type of piping material. During this period, there was little need for main line shut-off devices, as gas companies continued to run welded, coated, and wrapped steel distribution mains
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Document ID: 51091C51

The Permeation Tube Calibrator For Barton Sulfur Titrator Calibration
Author(s): Mark Otrhalek
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses a new, portable, simple, relatively inexpensive, accurate, and quick method for calibrating Barton sulfur titrators. The proposed method incorporates a portable, controlled temperature, controllable flowrate, multiple permeation tube calibrator. This paper will discuss the selection, theory, procedure, and maintenance aspects of this calibrator. Additional applications for this calibrator include H2S monitor and sulfur chromatograph calibration.
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Document ID: 6C39DEA6

Control System Retrofits For LNG Peakshaving Plants
Author(s): Luke V. Scorsone
Abstract/Introduction:
Guidelines are presented for implementing a program to retrofit or upgrade control systems for LNG peakshaving plants. Items discussed include scope definition, planning, control equipment options, system design, installation, and commissioning.
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Document ID: DF32FA61

The LNG Receiving Terminal At Zeebrugge, Belgium
Author(s): Henri D. Cattoor
Abstract/Introduction:
The conclusion of a contract for supply of Algerian natural gas in liquid form necessitated the construction of the LNG receiving terminal at Zeebrugge, Belgium. This paper gives an overview of the evolution of Belgiums natural gas supply and of the approach used by Distrigaz S.A. and the Belgian authorities in conceiving an LNG receiving terminal that is located in a complex environment, where harbor trade merges with tourist activities and the day-to-day life of the local population. Furthermore, some of the more important details of the plant and equipment design are highlighted.
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Document ID: 293455C0

LNG Peakshaving Plant Costs Update
Author(s): Philip J. Anderson, J. Reed Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
U.S. utility companies added LNG peakshaving facilities to distribution systems fell sharply. Many factors combined to bring about this change. Concerns expressed by the public and governmental officials about LNG facility safety led to the promulgation of Federal Safety Standards, which caused some utilities to postpone plans to construct such facilities. The mid- to late-1970s was also a period in which natural gas supply/demand/price relationships were changing rapidly, making projection of peakshaving requirements more difficult and uncertain. Construction costs escalated significantly as the effects of oil-price driven inflation were felt. The result has been that only two LNG peakshaving plants were completed and began operation in the 1980s: Northern Indiana Public Service Company (N1PSCO) began operation of its Plant No. 2 at Rolling Prairie, Indiana, in 1981, and in 1982 Southwest Gas Corporations LNG peakshaving plant near Lovelock, Nevada, came on-stream.
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Document ID: E9380DFB

Refrigeration For Sale
Author(s): H. Peter Schorr, Stephen J. Markbreiter
Abstract/Introduction:
Ii is standard practice in the gas utility industry 10 reduce ilie pressure of pipeline gas received at pressures of 200 psig or greater to distribution operating pressure of 15 psig or lower. Theis is achieved via a simple throttling process using reducing valves in pressure reducing (gate) stations. Although the high pressure gas has a large work-producing energy potential for the production of refrigeration, the throttling process does not utilize this resource. It is conservatively estimated that 200 billion BTUs of energy are wasted annually in this fashion in the United States. Consequently, the Brooklyn Union Gas Company (BUG) embarked on a unique program to determine the technical and economic feasibility of recovering energy in the form of refrigeration from a gate station. The ultimate goal of the study was to determine the economic potential of delivering the generated refrigeration as a saleable commodity.
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Document ID: D0E9ED86

Computerization Of Distribution Records
Author(s): Henry J. Kuehn
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1984, The Computer Applications in Engineering and Operations Task Group from the AGA Distribution Design and Development Committee, surveyed 22 gas distribution companies to determine the degree of automation in their record-keeping and the status of Personal Computer usage within their Engineering and Operations area. The surveyed sample included companies from 15 states and Canada with two companies with less than 250,000 meters and ten companies with more than 500,000 meters. This paper presents the results of the two surveys and outlines what one of the companies, Entex, Inc., Houston, Texas, has done in this area
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Document ID: F20D997A

Second Generation Of Computerized Mapping
Author(s): Robert J. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
I his paper gives a brief look into the world of Computer Mapping and Facilities Management at Brooklyn Union -from our Pioneering el- Tort to the 2nd Generation System currently in place. But first, for those not familiar with Brooklyn Unions Territory or Computer Aided Mapping, a brief introduction is in order. Brooklyn Unions Territory has grown over
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Document ID: 6E5ABDD9

Vehicle Replacement Analysis
Author(s): Dale E. Peoples
Abstract/Introduction:
The A.G.A. Mobile Equipment and EEI Transportation Committee Winter Workshop Format was adopted to address subjects of a universal nature that were pertinent to all utility Fleets. In the past, this Forum has been used to work on such subjects as Computerized Vehicle Maintenance Systems, Mechanic Productivity, and Productivity Measurement Systems and Vehicle Budgeting. The subject this year was Vehicle Replacement Analysis and the factors thai should be considered in a good replacement system.
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Document ID: 709DD46F

Gas Distribution Network Analysis Steady-State Or Transient
Author(s): T. E. Richwine
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the lime of Bernouilli (1738), it has been recognized that there is a pressure loss associated with a certain quantity of gas flowing through a piece of pipe that is proportional to the square of the volocity. These calculations have been studied in great detail, resulting in many different gas flow equations. In more recent times, engineers have developed automated procedures for solving these pressure-flow equations for many pipes interconnected in very complex networks. Solution techniques for solving these sorts of problems have been thoroughly described in the literature as well. 2iA However, in both the single pipe case, or in the heavily networked case, one simplifying assumption is often made: the gas flow within the system is steady with respect to time. In other words, the mass of gas flowing into one end of a pipe is, at the same time, exiting the other end of the pipe, and, therefore, there is no change in the amount of gas (linepack) that is stored in the pipe.
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Document ID: B7856728

Research On Stresses In Burned Gas Pipelines Subject To Combined Loadings
Author(s): J. m. Arnold, H. A. Todres, N. C. Saha, m. Mcclinton
Abstract/Introduction:
As part of the Distribution Research Center Task project conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology under sponsorship by the Gas Research Institute, a series of field and laboratory tests was performed to determine the influence of combined loads on pipe structural (stress/ strain) behavior. Three field test sites were constructed near Racine, Wisconsin, along a 30- year-old operating pipeline. Both the pipeline (a 16-inch, 0.25-inch wall thickness, 300-psig maximum allowable operating pressure steel gas main) and the surrounding backfill were extensively instrumented with strain, pressure, temperature, and moisture sensors and with accelerometers. Subsequently, a state highway was built over the instrumented sections such that three depths of cover (top-of-pavement to top-of-pipe distance) resulted: 1 A, 3, and 6 feet. Data were acquired over a 2-year period and analyzed. In one phase of the analysis, the acquired data were compared with results obtained from several models. The models ranged in complexity from simple closed-form solutions based on the well-known Barlow equation for stresses induced by internal pressure to a finite element method, CANDE, recently developed as an aid to Culvert ANalysis and DEsign. The models evaluated were found to be conservative in their predictions of hoop stress, but they were not able to pinpoint where on the pipes circumference the highest stresses were occurring. In another phase of the analysis, the acquired data were compared systematically in computerized bivariate/multivariate analyses from which empirical equations were obtained that expressed pipe stress in terms of several measured variables. Closed-form solutions then were matched to the empirical equations to obtain formulas for uniform hoop (circumferential) stress and uniform axial (longitudinal) stress. The results of both phases then were combined in a model, EMPP, that more comprehensively predicts the hoop stress in an EMbedded Pressurized Pipe under combined loads other than vehicular loads. The EMPP model achieved a very high correlation (r 0.99) with the acquired data, indicative of its potential to describe accurately the state of hoop stress in a gas pipeline buried in close proximity to the ground surface in the absence of vehicular loads. To evaluate the effects of vehicular loads, comparisons were made between field measurements and predictions of several models. Two models developed by use of an elastic-layer theory predicted soil stresses and strains that closely agreed with measurements obtained during traffic tests, and a simple hydrostatic model provided pipe stress predictions within 50 psi of the actual measurements.
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Document ID: 67D265CD

Gri Research On Detection Of Flaws In Polyethylene Butt Fusion Joints-An Update
Author(s): Marlon Mcclinton
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past half century, an extensive network has evolved to transport gaseous fuel from supply sources to distribution utilities, to the end-users premises, and finally to the burner tip of the gas appliance. This complex gas distribution network consists of approximately 1.3 mission miles of distribution mains and services serving nearly 50 million customers. Approximately 5 percent of the current total system is cast iron pipe, 79 percent steel, and 16 percent plastic pipe -the vast majority of plastic pipe being polyethylene. Beginning in the mid 1960s, plastic pipe was installed on an operational basis by many gas utilities. Presently, approximately 80 percent of all new gas distribution piping installed on a national basis is plastic pipe. The increased popularity of plastic gas piping systems can be attributed to its excellent performance in the field, ease of handling, and overall system economics. Because of the large capital investment of the gas industry in plastic gas distribution systems and its importance in enhancing public safety, Gas Research Institute (GRI) has been actively pursuing research to increase the service life and reliability of plastic gas distribution piping. Material performance by itself, however, does not solely define the integrity of plastic piping systems. Because pipe sections are normally joined by heat fusion processes, research is necessary to: (1) understand the factors controlling the quality of the butt-fusion joint and (2) develop nondestructive methods for reliably inspecting heat-fused joints.
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Document ID: D5035DFC

New Options In Interior Gas Distribution Piping Systems
Author(s): Marlon Mcclinton
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Research Institute (GRI) recently initialed a complete new project area to develop advanced interior piping systems to expand the use of natural gas within residential and light commercial structures. Commercial buildings and structures include low-rise professional or office buildings, shopping malls, warehouse facilities, automotive sales and service facilities, educational buildings, retail stores, and motels. Conventional black iron gas piping methods require precise measuring of pipe lengths, cutting, threading, and doping before the pipe is screwed into place. Slight errors in measurement may require unnecessarily repeating these tasks. These labor intensive operations make installation of gas in buildings a time consuming and often prohibitively expensive task. In recent years, the rising cost of singlefamily detached homes has prompted an increasing percentage of American home buyers to live in multi-family dwellings. Unfortunately, many newly constructed apartments, townhouses, other multi-family homes, and commercial buildings have no gas service at all, due, in large part, to the extra building costs associated with installing gas piping and meters to individual units. Occupants ultimately pay the price for this practice because gas space, water heating, and other gas services provide lower operating costs in most regions. There is a demonstrated need to develop a safe, costeffective interior piping system to allow decentralized gas service to the basic appliances (i.e., furnace, water heater, cooking unit) of multifamily residential buildings and commercial structures.
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Document ID: 2BA23D1A

Gas Line Attachments To Highway Bridges
Author(s): Carl P. Hendrickson
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas line bridge attachments have not received much engineering attention in the past. Probably this is because there have been no catastrophic failures. So when ihe Illinois Department of Transportation requested some guidance to help them evaluate permit applications for reattaching large or high pressure lines, ii was necessary to develop a comprehensive rationale. The process revealed a historic tendency to treat bridge attachments the same as buried pipelines. The factors making bridge attachments different are the atmospheric environment and the fact that the principle stress of concern is longitudinal in rnosi cases.
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Document ID: BE157384

Electronic Metering Instruments
Author(s): Robert R. Mahn
Abstract/Introduction:
The hottest items in the gas measurement business today are elecironic instruments. The gas man has been Hooded with information on what are available, their versatility, and new things that are just around the corner. While many of us are interested, only a few have had hands-on contact with them. We at N1PSCO have been taking a serious look tor the past 1-2 years, trying to sort out the advantages and disadvantages. This paper shares some of our experiences and opinions and what we fee arc the pros and cons of these new correctors.
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Document ID: 359A7B8E

The Compu-Matic Meter Management System
Author(s): G. K. Lindeman
Abstract/Introduction:
East Ohio das as well as every other utility attending this conference is concerned with providing a top quality gas service EO its customers while retaining competitive rates. This became particularly critical when the distribution utility rales began to increase greatly a few years ago. Ah hough rates have become relatively stable, the environment of deregulation places considerable demands upon us as utility managers. Wfe must shift our focus from relying on base rate and cost recovery increases to keep our businesses viable we musi become more concerned with customer satisfaction. We at East Ohio Gas believe the industry must find more cost-effective ways to do routine things -this includes reading meters. We know we must be more responsive to customers needs, we must provide them with a level of service second to none. In order to accomplish this, a company needs to make full use of all available technology and computer-related equipment. Bottom line, the manager must identify programs that will reduce hi operating and maintenance expenses without compromising service obligations to customers. We at East Ohio Gas believe our new Compu-Matic Meter Management System is such a program: It meets the criteria of improving customer satisfaction and quality of service it reduces our operating costs and improves profitability it provides a management control tool for our meter-reading foremen and it increases meterreader productivity. We are extremely proud of this innovative program and want to share it with you: (1) how we started the program (2) the development phase (3) the Compu-Matic operation and components and finally, (4) what the system does for East Ohio Gas Company.
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Document ID: DF2FC878

New Ideas And Developments In Gas Measurement
Author(s): J. N. Oling
Abstract/Introduction:
Change is inevitable. Progress demands innovation. Find a better way or fail. Publish or perish. And so it is in the gas industry today. Our world continues to change at a very rapid pace. We in the gas industry must continue to be creative, innovative, imaginative, efficient, and productive, or the competitive world with its compensating rewards for performance will pass us by. The above statements are true for the gas industry in general. They are particularly true in the area of gas measurement. Just 15 years ago, in 1970, a few years prior to the first energy crunch, average costs of natural gas to a distribution company were in the area of three to four cents per therm. Today, costs for that same therm of natural gas have risen tenfold to over thirty cents per therm. Typical labor rates have increased threefold in those same fifteen years. Improvements in measurement accuracy and labor efficiencies are paramount to continued corporate success and customer satisfaction. To achieve these improvements and to solve old problems requires new ideas, changes in methods and implementation of both, a challenge constantly confronting each of us in our day-to-day operations. Members of the Distribution Measurement Committee have submitted for your consideration numerous new ideas, methods, and developments recently implemented by them to improve their operations and efficiencies. Many of these ideas were generated by member companies themselves. In other cases, it is a new application of equipment developed by others. In all cases, the result is an improvement c value to the submitting company perhaps tl ideas will be of value to you also. A brief sun marization of several of these ideas follow.
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Document ID: 7D73D6EE

Fixed Pressure Factor Measurement-Practices Of The Industry
Author(s): Richard A. Sutton
Abstract/Introduction:
As the title suggests, the purpose of this paper is to present the praetiees of the industry regarding the use of fixed pressure factor measurement (FPFM). However, before proceeding further, some rationale for the use of FPFM and a review of what is involved is probably in order. FPFM, when discreetly implemented, does offer the opportunity of increased operating flexibility and at the same lime the possibility of reducing operating cosis. It allows the competitive and profitable servicing of marginal or seasonal accounts, e.g., grain dryers, greenhouses, farm taps, etc., and enables the correct measurement of distribution accounts where the required pressure to service the customer is above the normal distribution pressure. Fixed pressure factor measurement (FPFM) is not a new measurement concept but a practice that has been in use in the gas industry for over twenty years. It is a method of measuring gas at elevated pressures (above normal distribution service pressures) that requires only the use of conventional type meter indexes or conventional indexes that are specially geared. In many cases, temperature-compensated meters are used in conjunction with FPFM to correct the dial registration to base temperature conditions. The selective utilization of FPFM for accounts at elevated pressures is an alternative to the installation of a recording gauge or an integrating pressure device. Consequently, it can eliminate the eosi of either the gauge or integrating pressure device, the related maintenance, and, in the case of the recording gauge, the handling, processing, and storage of charts. An additional cost advantage offered is that a large volume measurement account processed through a companys gas measurement section may be converted to FPFM, thus reclassifying, it to a distribution account, enabling it to be read by a meter reader. A side benefit is that the scheduled testing of the meter may be lengthened to that required for a distribution service account for the particular size meter. In FPFM, a pressure multiplier, developed by using the Boyles law equation, is applied by either computer or mechanical gearing to correct the meter dial registration to basepressure conditions. The two common methods of accomplishing FPFM arc: (1) Fixed Pressure Compensating Index (FPCI) and (2) Fixed Pressure Compensation by Computer (FPCC).
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Document ID: 57F4D9E5

The Gas Industry Measurement Plan
Author(s): Paul A. Hoglund
Abstract/Introduction:
Any discussion of a Long Range Measurement Plan lor the natural gas industry must include some comment on the need for such a plan, I he premise upon which the plan is based, and the background of the plans development. Without all three, the plan itself is meaningless. For it to be implemented on an industry level, our industry must agree that the need exists and that such a plan has value both in the immediate time frame and in terms of future operation. The need here relates to changes that have taken place in the market over the last ten years. What was applicable in the 60s is questioned in the 80s. Yet from a measurement standpoint, our technology is more in keeping with the 30s. Today we deal with a measurement technology that is fifty years old. A technology that produces results that are 0.5 percent. To place this in engineering terms -we have a techology that will produce results to three significant figures. Common practice, however, marries computer techniques to our calculation, and we regularly produce Billings to nine or more significant figures. We fail to recognize that a 1,000 bill is really 5 and a 1,000,000 bill is 5,000. This technology lag is nothing new. On the other hand, it was only with the major escalation in the price of natural gas and other related hydrocarbons that occurred in the late 70s that our industry really displayed an interest in the precision or accuracy of our volume measurement. Actions were initiated to address these concerns. Any advance in technology requires two things -time and money. We dont really have enough of either one. On the other hand, what we are committing is beginning to produce results. Over the past several years, our industry has committed millions of dollars in research in this basic technology area. Specific programs have been adopted and funded by the American Gas Association, the American Petroleum Institute, the Gas Research Institute, vendors, the National Engineering Laboratory of Great Britain, Gasunie in Holland, Ruhr Gas in Germany, Gaz de France, and probably several others I hat dont immediately come to mind. This work has been done in cooperation with the National Bureau of Standards at both the Boulder and Gaithersburg facilities, the University of Oklahoma, Texas A&M, the Colorado Engineering Experiment Station, Inc., Southwest Research, and Gulf Research.
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Document ID: 59AC9349


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