Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (1985)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Fundamental Gas Laws
Author(s): Rogers G. Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
We as gas measurement people are concerned with gas laws. To become proficient in all phases of gas measurement, one must fully understand what natural gas is and the theory of its properties. The theories about natural gas properties are the gas laws, and their application is essential to gas measurement. Quantities of natural gas for custody transfer are stated in terms of standard cubic feet. To arrive at standard cubic feet from actual flowing conditions requires application of correction factors that are defined by the gas laws.
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Document ID: BA02079F

Application Of Gas Chromatograph For On-Line Analysis Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Leighton Fields
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas chromatography is a method by which gas or vaporizable liquid mixtures are physically separated into their individual components and quantified. There are four major elements in any gas chromatograph: (1) carrier gas for transporting the sample along the column, (2) means of introducing the sample, (3) separating column, and (4) detector. The carrier gas is regulated for a constant flow through the column and detector.
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Document ID: 1D8E58F9

Water Vapor Determination And Effects On Gas Measurement
Author(s): Dougla E. Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
The determination and the effect of water vapor on gas measurement is of importance to the gas pipeline industry because of the necessity for accurate gas measurement and for the maintenance of quality control. The following discussion covers typical methods which are used by the gas industry for water vapor determination. Each of the dew point instruments discussed use a specific method for water vapor measurement, and all are designed for use as either portable or fixed location Instrumentation. In addition to a discussion of the typical methods for water vapor determination, the effects of water vapor on gas volume and heating value measurement is reviewed.
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Document ID: 720EFB68

Trouble Shooting Glycol Dehydrators
Author(s): Don Ballard
Abstract/Introduction:
Millions of dollars per year are lost unnecessarily in high glycol losses, excessive plant shutdowns and equipment replacement. However, a glycol plant, when properly designed, operated and maintained, will provide a low-cost operation, with little difficulty and attendance. This can be accomplished by thoroughly understanding the process principles and physical limitations of the equipment. With this knowledge, plus these operating and maintenance suggestions, most plant problems can either be prevented or quickly eliminated.
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Document ID: A569ADC1

Charts, Pens And Ink
Author(s): Donald P. Quinlan
Abstract/Introduction:
How did the recording chart evolve to its present state? There are many factors which contributed to the design of the circular recording chart. The charts size, shape and arc lines varied with each instrument manufacturer. The original paper and printing inks used to produce recording charts were based on the state-of-theart technology. These materials varied widely from manufacturer to manufacturer
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Document ID: B9E2C09D

Conditioning Natural Gas For Quality Measurement
Author(s): Laurance S. Reid
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline quality standards require that all natural gas mixtures must be conditioned to remove ail solids and liquids, to contain no more than seven (7) pounds - or less - of water vapor per million standard cubic feet, to contain no more than four (4) parts per million of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), to have its carbon dioxide content within limits specified by the sales contract, usually 1 to 3 volume percent, and to have a calorific content within the specified range, usually 950 to 1050 Btu/SCF gross on a dry basis. Gas measured into a transmission system must meet these criteria. So does gas delivered to a city border station.
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Document ID: 5004444C

Problems In Two-Phase Pipeline Operations
Author(s): William David Cook
Abstract/Introduction:
Two-phase pipelines are becoming a common means of moving natural gas and liquids from offshore platforms to onshore separation stations. Two-phase pipelines can be operated by two methods. One is to separate the gas from the liquid, then dry the gas and separate the condensate and salt water, re-inject the condensate into the pipeline downstream of gas measurement and bring onshore after the salt water is treated to meet mineral management standards it is then dumped overboard. Another method is to follow the same procedure but not dry the gas.
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Document ID: 91DD8736

Spot Sampling Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Carl G. Hefley
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays increased world demand for energy, it has become mandatory to have extremely accurate measurement and sampling stations. On todaysmarket, losses of significant quantities of natural gas and liquid products would be a disaster. The management of most companies, if not now, soon will be requiring the most accurate and reliable performance of all measurement and sampling systems. To meet these requirements, improvements have to be made on the way measurement and sampling systems operate
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Document ID: A01EA1C2

On-Line Cas Chromatography
Author(s): Louis N. Cox
Abstract/Introduction:
The on-line gas chromatographs available today are relatively maintenance free, due to a greater selection of separating column materials and advanced electronics - namely, the microprocessor based programmed controller. On-line chromatographs began with mechanical programmers which required continuous maintenance, but each generation of programmers has increased in r e l i a b i l i ty and accuracy, so that todays chromatographs can provide a BTU repeatability of .5 to 1 BTU/1000
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Document ID: 76BF4E54

Problems In Dealing With And Detecting Hydrogen Sulfide
Author(s): Jimmy m. Greer
Abstract/Introduction:
discussion of the problems of pipeline monitoring and analyzing for sulfur compounds centers around the instruments used to handle this task. Instrumentation has provided transmission companies with a highly accurate, dependable means to ensure a strict level of continuous quality control. With the advent of the computer directed analysis (in conjunction with chromatography) and the development of memory controlled sulfur analyzers, as well as the adoption of the portable Austin titrator,
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Document ID: E9F19B34

Orifice Inconsistencies
Author(s): Carl H. Griffis
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes recent results of orifice meter test data taken at the National Bureau of Standards - Boulder, Colorado (NBS/Boulder). This research is a multi-year program sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI). Results of the test data indicate potential orifice meter inaccuracies under certain operating conditions.
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Document ID: D07612A2

Fundamental Principles Of Displacement Meters
Author(s): W. N. Donachy
Abstract/Introduction:
The first practical gas meter was made in England in 1815 by Samual Clegg. The meter was a revolving drum, water sealed Wet gas meter. Various improvements were made to this basic mechanism and one of the last improvements being the Hinman Drum patented by Charles Hinman of Boston in 1896. The Hinman Drum offers less resistance to rotation in water and an increase in capacity. The Hinman Drum principle is still used today in laboratory wet test meters
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Document ID: 36F61289

Application Of The Annubar Measurement In Gas Production And Processing
Author(s): Darrell Pebley
Abstract/Introduction:
Just because a flow measurement device is complex and/or expensive does not automatically mean that it is the best or most accurate. Oftentimes the most simple device is just as good and accurate and frequently even better. Economic pressure encourages the emergence of better all-around devices with greater reliability and accuracy. These and other factors have brought to the fluid flow measurement industry the Multiport Averaging Pitot Primary Flow Measurement Device.
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Document ID: 27A1EA6A

Gauges And Deadweight Testers
Author(s): A. R. Kahmann
Abstract/Introduction:
The Deadweight Gauge is the most accurate instrument available for the measurement of pressure. Repeatable readings with accuracies of 0.1% of measured pressure are obtainable. The device does not require recalibration unless the components have excessive wear or weights are replaced. It is easily transported and set up in the field, requires minimum maintenance, and is simple to operate. Tripod mounting is available for most instruments.
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Document ID: D92DD436

Effects On Ehtrained Liquid Ok Orifice Measurement
Author(s): C. V. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
In the measurement of natural gas in field operations using the conventional orifice meter, all of the factors used in the calculation of flow are based on the assumption that the gas is dry. This condition is rarely the case in field measurements. The A.G.A. Committee Report No. 3, (l), does not give any information or data regarding the effect water and/or distillate may have upon gas measurement by the orifice meter. It was in this area of gas measurement that graduate-engineering students at Texas A&I University, Kingsville, Texas have conducted research operation in the laboratory and in the field
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Document ID: 99B1C9F0

Design Considerations For Orifice Measurement Installations
Author(s): Harry Harrison
Abstract/Introduction:
The design of a metering station should be of the utmost importance to anyone involved in the transmission, production, purchase or sale of fluids. A sound design based on known criteria, past history, industry standards and common sense will yield not only an accurate station but also one that is reliable.
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Document ID: 36F945E8

Orifice Recorder Testing
Author(s): Lonnie Grady
Abstract/Introduction:
Anyone who has been in the gas industry for any length of time has heard the old cliche: The recorder is the cash register of the business. As old as this statement may be, it is still true. The objective of this paper is to present recommendations on procedures for orifice recorder testing to insure accuracy so that this cash register rings up the proper total.
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Document ID: 68BB392B

Design Of High Pressure Heasuring & Regulating Stations
Author(s): W. F. Bronsell, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
From the large Industrial Customer to the smallest City Gate, safe operation, dependable regulation and accurate measurement are the three primary goals for a high pressure measuring and regulating station. With this in mind, lets formulate a basic design criteria
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Document ID: BCD1C09F

Pulsation Effects On Orifice Metering
Author(s): Dr. Raymond G. Teyssandier
Abstract/Introduction:
As a general rule, the place not to set up a s e r i ous measurement system is one where pulsation can be i d e n t i f i e d . Good measurement requires not only good instruments, but also the careful application of the device r e l a t i v e to flowing conditions. Having stated the above premise, it is now necessary to address the problem of measurement in situations where the conditions are less than ideal, but at the same time measurement is required. Pulsating flows are generally not common in custody transfer s i t u a t i o n s since the metering stations are either well removed from sources of pulsation or they have been designed in such a manner that the pulsat i o n levels have been suppressed. There are of course times when the flow at a custody transfer point w i l l exhibit pulsating behavior, these condit i o n s are usually t r a n s i t o r y and are p r i m a r i l y a function caused by an mis-sized regulator.
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Document ID: B75D718A

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Robert H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
For several years gas men have been giving more thought to aerodynamic turbulence within their pipeline systems and, in particular, the turbulence that is a result of pressure regulation. Considering the noise from a measurement or regulating station, it is generally conceded that measurement facilities alone will rarely be a major source of noise, since we can design the pipe to give a desired and normally tranquil velocity
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Document ID: B611920A

Safety Relief Valves
Author(s): Gary B. Emerson
Abstract/Introduction:
A safety relief valve (SRV) is a pressure relieving device which automatically relieves a system of excess pressure when abnormal operating conditions cause the system pressure to exceed a set limit, and recloses when the abnormal pressure decreases below the set limit
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Document ID: 0B01BBB3

Flow Measurement By Insertion Turbine Flowmeters
Author(s): Jerry Mcintosh
Abstract/Introduction:
Most insertion meter wetted parts are constructed of stainless steel or its various alloys. Many of the non-wetted parts are plated or painted carbon steel. All stainless and special material construction is available on most models.
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Document ID: 070CCCF0

Fundamentals Of Gas Pressure Regulation
Author(s): Doug Butler
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar it ems over the years, and nearly every- one has grown accustomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside, and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a tendency to take them for granted. Even the gas man who handles regulators every day as part of his job frequently tends to view the regulator simply as a piece of hardware which fits in the line and regulates pressure. The fact that it will do precisely that, for months on end without human intervention, makes it easy to maintain such a view. Its only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application, that we need to look more deeply into the fundamentals of the regulators operation.
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Document ID: BD13A46B

Problems In Offshore Gas Measurement
Author(s): William H. Hall
Abstract/Introduction:
When problems in measurement are discussed, in particular offshore measurement most people immediately think of the severe environment, harsh gas quality and its impact on the orifice plate, bellows or turbine meter blades. Little consideration is given to the overall design, location, and auxiliary equipment
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Document ID: 8E08E691

Therm-Titrator Calorimeter
Author(s): Richard L. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
The Therm-Titrator, the originator of the stochiometric ratio calorimeters, implements the principle that the gross calorific value of a fuel gas is proportional to the ratio of air to gas which maximizes the adiabiatic flame temperature of the burning mixture. By analysis of flame thermo chemistry and equilibrium relationships, it has been demonstrated that this relationship holds within one (1) BTU/SCF for mixtures of parafins and inert gases normally found in natural gas. For an indepth discussion of this, refer to AGA Operating Section Proceedings 1972 - Publication 72-D-13.
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Document ID: C4A68895

Principles Of The Recording Calorimeter
Author(s): A.F. Kersey
Abstract/Introduction:
The Cutler-Hammer recording Calorimeter measures the total calorific value of combustible gas. It continuously samples, indicates, and records BTU per cubic foot.
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Document ID: E7F2A61C

Principles Of Operation - Honeywell Heating Value Transmitter
Author(s): Edward S. Webster
Abstract/Introduction:
The Honeywell Heating Value Transmitter (HVTIOO) is an indirect combustion calorimeter, which means that it continuously measures gas heating value by means of burning a sample of that gas, but (unlike a Cutler-Hammer) it does not measure heat rise, per se. Rather, the HVTIOO measures the unique air-to-fuel ratio required -for a sample gas to burn at the stoichiometric (or perfect combustion) point, and then calculates the sample gas heating value by means of a well known mathmatical relationship
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Document ID: CC8F3A32

Composite Sampling Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
The sampling of natural gas has been discussed and studied for many years. Serious testing on the proper sampling methods has been done in a number of locations in the recent past. From these tests, it has been determined that the sampling procedures must be carefully prepared and followed. For a person to collect a representative sample of natural gas, the procedures learned in spot sampling operations must be followed.
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Document ID: 5FFEAE07

Periodic Inspections - District Regulators And Relief Valves
Author(s): Alford Boydston
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years the gas regulator has been taken for granted. It has become such a familiar sight we dont stop to realize the importance of this piece of equipment. With the complex pipeline systems of today, every cubic foot of gas passes through many regulators before it is consumed in some process or customer appliance. One of the most important regulating facilities in the gas industry is the district regulator station. It is the source of gas supply to industrial, commercial, and domestic customers from transmission and distribution pipeline systems.
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Document ID: 05F7A882

Field Inspections And Calibrating Measurement Instruments
Author(s): Mike Eads
Abstract/Introduction:
The rising cost of gas has placed accurate measurement the number one prioirity on most companies list. Most companies management are willing to spend much more money to accomplish good measurement than in past years. In the past, the phrase unaccounted for gas related mostly to leaks. Management is now looking to measurement supervisors for assistance in reducing unaccounted for gas.
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Document ID: F3072A08

Field Inspections And Calibrating Measurement Instruments
Author(s): Mike Eads
Abstract/Introduction:
The rising cost of gas has placed accurate measurement the number one priolrity on most companies list. Most companies management are willing to spend much more money to accomplish good measurement than in past years. In the past, the phrase unaccounted for gas related mostly to leaks. Management is now looking to measurement supervisors for assistance in reducing unaccounted for gas.
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Document ID: D9FCACA6

Field Testing By Transfer Proving
Author(s): Kevin C. Beaver
Abstract/Introduction:
The escalating cost of natural gas, and greater emphasis on accurate measurement by gas companies has enhanced the need for better methods of field testing meters. There are presently three methods for field testing meters: 1. Low Pressure Flow Prover 2. Critical Flow Prover 3. Transfer Prover The low pressure flow prover and the critical flow prover involve the measurement of several variables which in turn may cause the compounding of errors before the final accuracy can be calculated. The transfer prover requires only the sending of temperate and pressure differences between the prover and the meter under test. Results obtained from a transfer prover should be more accurate and repeatable and compare more favorably to the accepted standards of the bell and piston provers.
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Document ID: 11FAE4E2

Instruments For Leak Detection
Author(s): Timothy A. Beyer
Abstract/Introduction:
Leakage first concerned mankind with the first porous clay container. The real problem that developed with leakage began when mankind decided to bury vessels that were designed to carry a product. Tunnels were constructed by the Romans to carry water and wooden pipes were used to carry gas and water. We have progressed from those days, but leakage remains as a common problem. Then as now, attempts are made to locate these hazardous or costly leaks. In the gas industry the techniques and equipment used to detect leakage have advanced along with the technology found in todays pipeline industry
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Document ID: E5611B9B

Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): m. J. Joe Sergesketter
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will provide information for use in selecting, applying, and checking the orifice metering system, with emphasis on gas measurement. The primary reference for mechanical tolerances of the orifice meter tube, plate holder and plate is American Gas Association Report No. 3, Orifice Metering of Natural Gas, now published as ANSI/API Standard 2530. Much of this information is also published in a simpler, condensed format by orifice meter manufacturers. An excellent reference is Singer American Meter Division Handbook E-2. Meter tube and orifice plate information is contained in the Daniel Industries Flow Products Division Catalog, and recommended installation practices for differential pressure instruments are contained in the ITT Barton Model 202A Flow Recorder Manual
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Document ID: D754ED49

Instrumentation Of Distribution Meters
Author(s): Peter J. Hanowich
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine meters, like all other metering devices, measure natural gas at line conditions. Gas volumes vary with changes in temperature and pressure following the well known Boyles and Charles Laws. Base conditions provide a common reference for measuring gas at an inlet pressure of 4 oz. and a temperature of 60F. Any variance in these parameters requires a calcu- lation to correct the gas line volume to base volume. A number of ways have been evolved by the industry to obtain this base volume
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Document ID: 903E861F

Various Applications Of Telemetering In Gas Distribution
Author(s): Robert F. Schwartz
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the problems faced by gas distribution companies is to maintain low point system pressures in the gas distribution system. The distribution system itself is a complex network of piping with a given area fed by one or more district regulators. The far ends or low points of the system must maintain a minimum pressure in order to furnish an adequate service of gas to the customers in that particular area. Since the system low point is fed by one or more regulators, the regulator setting must be changed periodically to maintain the desired pressure at this system low point
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Document ID: 6DD1E7D7

Electronic Vs-- Mechanical Correcting Devices
Author(s): Ronald J. Hairston
Abstract/Introduction:
For 60 years, mechanical devices have been providing a means for correcting measured gas volume to base conditions of pressure and temperature. Their origin can be traced back to the 1920s when chart recorders were used to record line pressure at the gas meter. These charts would then be read to determine average line pressure so that the volume measured by the gas meter could be corrected to base conditions of pressure. Today, mechanical chart recorders are still used for volume correction. They may record any combination of metered volume, line pressure, or line temperature.
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Document ID: 406B7EA0

Odorization Update 1985
Author(s): Joe F. Arnold
Abstract/Introduction:
Everywhere gas people gather these days the subject of odorization seems to come up. Papers have been presented on every phase and at every level. Entire conferences have devoted as many as four days to the topic. We are definitely in an era of awareness. Much is being said and written in an effort to bring odorization to the attention of the industry and it will take five years to speak to everyone.
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Document ID: 1DFD736D

Light Hydrocarbon Measurement
Author(s): E. L. Upp
Abstract/Introduction:
Light hydrocarbons roughly, pentanes and lighter in the hydrocarbon chain, have become a more popular feedstock for the chemical industries. Sufficient demand has generated international trading in these fluids. This has created a need to re-examine our measurement practices, since at the same time the value of the product and the need for accurate measurement at much wider transfer conditions has increased. A discussion of the latest practices in the measurement of these products considering these requirements, is the subject of this paper.
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Document ID: 19DF8F88

Interpretation Of Wide Differential Patterns
Author(s): Lloyd Petticrew
Abstract/Introduction:
Probably one factor which contributed more to the entry into the market place of recent innovations such as turbine meters and/or flow computers is the difficulty in resolution of an accurate gas volume from an oscillating differential pattern on the orifice meter chart
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Document ID: 9E74F5D6

Inspection And Maintenance Planning And Record Keeping Using Pcs
Author(s): Terry D. Boss
Abstract/Introduction:
My job as Superintendent of Codes and Standards at Natural Gas Pipeline is to compile, interpret and implement safety regulations under the Department of Transportations Part 192 regulations. These regulations govern the minimum federal safety standards for natural gas pipelines. Verifiable recordkeeping is an important facet of the regulations. The regulations require inspection and maintenance procedures be performed at regular intervals. Implementing a system to cover company locations established in 13 states is a difficult task.
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Document ID: FE8FB59C

Regulatory Commission Safety Evaluation And Training
Author(s): m. L. Fegenbush, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Legislature has given the Railroad i of Texas express power to describe, J enforce minimum pipeline safety in Texas. The Pipeline Safety sf the Gas Utilities Division has Llity for enforcing the minimum standards for all gas pipeline s in Texas. This is an awesome ility for the Section, considering e approximately 1300 distribution ind 3200 transmission and gathering In Texas. This means the pipeline igineers and engineering technicians ect over 80,000 miles of distribution id approximately 60,000 miles of ion and gathering lines on an ongoing s of September 1, 1983, an estimated les of liquid pipelines were added to sdiction of the Pipeline Safety
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Document ID: 4285583F

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Robert W. Carson
Abstract/Introduction:
How many times in the recent past has your conversation turned to the cost of natural gas? What I would give to be a fly on the wall of a measurement superintendents office when he or she sits down to balance the books or to determine if the sales volume equals the purchase volume. According to the most recent AGA Gas Facts publication the average residential gas bill in 1960 was 104.46. Today it is close to 600.00 and according to my own gas bills, this seems conservative. No doubt about it we are talking about an expensive commodity. Measurement accuracy is a must.
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Document ID: 1DB5B3EB

Electronic Instrumentation For Orifice & Turbine Meters
Author(s): Bill Eckenrode
Abstract/Introduction:
Computation of volume and flow rate information from orifice and turbine meters has been accomplished by the use of mechanical devices for many years. This equipment has provided valuable information, but due to its mechanical nature, has been subject to frequent need of re-calibration and maintenance. With the onset of microprocessors in the mid 1970s, a perfect niche for their application in gas measurement was seen by several manufacturers of gas measurement equipment. Improvements in technology and reliability are providing gas correcting devices with unsurpassed capability
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Document ID: 8094481C

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): John Schnitzer
Abstract/Introduction:
Rockwell introduced the gas turbine meter to the U.S. market in 1963. The original units were 6 flanged meters with a capacity of 30,000 CFH at 4 ounces inlet pressure and 125 pound working pressure cast aluminum bodies. Due to the rapid acceptance of the relatively new gas metering concept by all phases of the gas industry, development of additional sizes and working pressures of gas turbine meters has been fairly rapid. Today, turbine meters are available in the following sizes and working pressures
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Document ID: C8222C39

Low Power Field Flow Computers
Author(s): Fred N. Debusk
Abstract/Introduction:
Many forms of measurement for natural gas have evolved through the years - orifice, turbine meters, and positive displacement meters to name but a few. All of these meters are capable of providing accurate measurement if they are maintained and operated properly, but they all require devices to convert the flow they have passed to standardized units.
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Document ID: DBFE7C80

Training Field Measurement Personnel
Author(s): James W. Sutton
Abstract/Introduction:
Reasons for providing adequate measurement training have been presented in numerous articals and publications. Most companies involve upper management in meetings designed to resolve the problems associated with this technical training. Unfornately the conclusions reached in most of these meetings result in one of two things happening: (1)1 the good intentions, like a politicians promise, seem to evaporate with time or (2) a program is initiated using non-technical instructors who can only convey information read from a book.
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Document ID: C7B409E9

Measurement By Battery Operated Flfcld Computers
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
Through time, the increasing value of fuels and competitiveness of the market has produced an increasing need for (1) a higher degree of measurement accuracy, (2) more timely availability of data for accounting and production control, and (3) less laborintensive methods of data collection and flow computation. The advent of low-cost microcomputer technology in recent years has given much impetus to the development of remote computers intended to meet these needs
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Document ID: 8A4A70D2

Application Of Flow Computers For Gas Measurement And Control
Author(s): Robert Rutledge
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow computer applications in a companys measurement system have an impact far greater than simply another kind of measurement device. The reason for this impact are the many different groups of people that use information from the metering site. This list includes: 1) Measurement group 2) Maintenance group 3) Operations group 4) Accounting group 5) Management These different groups have very different needs, all of which must be satisfied by the measurement device. Some are interested in the accuracy of the device, others will be interested with the ease of installation and maintenance, while still others will be concerned with the audit trail for data and calculations. Making a change in the measurement device can create a significant impact on how these people perform their daily functions
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Document ID: 5B3AF27C

Frcm Pen Tip To Volume Statement
Author(s): John D. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
As gas measurement the fruit of our L and the seed is pL consider the on the volume s PLANTING THE PEN TIP As we set the pen begin the process c be used in the calqulat passing through a specific time. John D. Howard Howard Measurement Co P.O. Box 220134 Dallas, Texas 75266 Inc. people we must realize that bor is the volume statement ted by the pen tip, we will problebs encountered and the effect tat nent. ips down on the chart we f recording information to ion of the volume of gas particular point during a As any good gardner lot of preparation Lets assume the fojllow: properly: .
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Document ID: C6C18155

Chart Editing And Integrating
Author(s): Alan T. Burr
Abstract/Introduction:
The chart off transmission company thousand charts eat processing begins, th according to work s addition to facilita also serves to sc problems such as illegible meter numt dates, or other incom Recognizing Problems It is very impo personnel be able t equipment malfunction to allow prompt technicians so that t as expediently as pc reason is so that compensate for chart caused by the equi ipme i
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Document ID: 7A557278

Training Chart Processing Office Personnel
Author(s): Mildred Noore
Abstract/Introduction:
Before getting to the business of training, I would like to go over the flow chart with you all for just a minute. This is the United Gas Pipe Line Company work flow for the office group.
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Document ID: 69B96488

Contract Interpretations
Author(s): Joe Hawkins
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will deal with gas contracts from the pefrspect measurement technician by lawyers and by contract work with contracts on a comments are based on 25 measurement. The purpose be to present and define obligations of all the Joe Hawkins Amoco Production Company P. 0. Box 351 Alvin, Texas 77511 some of the elements of ive of a Papers have been written representatives who full time basis. My years experience in of a gas contract should the rights and part ies to it.
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Document ID: 5C26D99B

Computer Applications To Chart Processing
Author(s): Ted J. Glazebrook
Abstract/Introduction:
Most of us are and the orifice charf is the key to determ: produced. However, the volume statement must be interpreted tant to bear in mind not contain all the final volume. Gas measurement we had to do was go : We recognize that the chart ning the amount of gas used or omewhere between the meter and the information on the chart 4nd calculated. It is importhat the orifice chart does nformation necessary for that
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Document ID: E2A7B7A8

Operational Procedures Of Electronic Chart Processor
Author(s): Ron Green
Abstract/Introduction:
The UGC Chart Processor is a microprocessorbased system designed to translate orifice meter chart records into accurate billing-compatible data of integrated flow (chart extension), flow time and average pressure. It will handle American (Westcott) and Foxboro charts as the pens can be mounted so as to pivot in the same geometric paths as the recording pens of these types of meters. As an option, the Chart Processor can be fitted with pen mounts for Taylor and/or Rockwell charts. The operator directs the pens to follow the records by moving the trace handles as the chart rotates. The rotational speed of the chart table is governed by a variable foot control. The chart is secured to the chart table so its rotation and the motion of the pens by the operator simulate the actions in the recording meter. The Chart Processor computes and prints (for each chart) the chart extension ( /H-P), average pressure and flow time. It also stores and prints batch totals on command
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Document ID: DDD9A17B

The Fundamental Principles Of Calorimeter
Author(s): Richard L. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
There are several methods of heating value determination available to the marketplace, but all fall into two basic categories. Namely: Chromatography and Calorimetry. This discussion will address calorimetry. Three calorimeters will be discussed: the Cutler- Hammer, the Honeywell HVT100, and the Precision Measurement, Inc. Therm-Titrator.
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Document ID: 75E4E05C

Operation And Maintenance Electronic Chart Integrators
Author(s): E. S. Messer
Abstract/Introduction:
With the recent adva IC at the wellhead, gas comppni years have become more co of accuracy in the deter: umes flowing from a well lines, hence, to the user applies to all areas of calculation, therefore, as the weakest link in th2 variables that comprise a in of One important link ment is the calculation the two important variabl circular chart. These differential pressure exi the flowing gas stream, to Bernoulli theorem. Tt cord of the static press ssure is required for tin volume that passed throu specified time. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE ELECTRONIC CHART INTEGRATORS E. S. Messer Flow Measurement Division Southern Flow Companies Tulsa, Oklahoma e in the price of gas es during the past six nizant to the importance tion of true gas vol- r to the distribution The term accuracy asurement. The volume n only be as accurate chain of measuring the volume measurement
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Document ID: 29B65A55

Auditing Gas Measurement And Accounting Systems
Author(s): Robert J. Utter
Abstract/Introduction:
Websters New Collegiate Dictionary defines audit as follows: la: a formal or official examination and verification of an account book b: a methodical examination and review 2: the final report of an examination of books of account by auditors 2 audit vt 1: to examine with intent to verify 2: to attend (a course) without working for or expecting to receive formal credit.
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Document ID: 49A21F4D

Orifice Fitting And Meter Tube Inspection
Author(s): William F. Weber
Abstract/Introduction:
For over 60 years, orifice meters have been the best method of measuring high pressure large volume flows of natural gas. The basic orifice meter has not changed very much in this period. (The meter run) still consists of a section of straight pipe with an orifice plate having a restrictive bore and a device for measuring the difference in pressures on each side of the plate. This pressure differential is caused by the change in the velocity of the gas flowing through the pipe as it passes through the restriction in the orifice plate. The higher the velocity, the greater the difference in pressure.
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Document ID: 998A2562

Electronic Chart Scanning And Related Equipment
Author(s): T. Y. Tramel
Abstract/Introduction:
With the ever-increasing cjst of natural gas, more emphasis is being placed u son the speed and accuracy of all gas measurement systems. Our objective is to present to you an overview of the state-of- the-art equipment and proc gas measurement offices dures currently used in tfe will illustrate three major points of interest wiich include field preparation, equipment, and operations.
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Document ID: 94EAB6C4

Fundamentals Of Rotary Metering
Author(s): T. L. Vance
Abstract/Introduction:
The first positive displacement rotary gas meters were built around the year 1920 by the PH & FM Roots Company and the Connersville Blower Company, both located in Connersville, Indiana. In 1966 this gas meter operation was renamed Dresser Measurement Division. However, these rotary meters today are still known as ROOTS Meters. Rockwell International entered the market in the early 1960s with a rotating vane design known as the ROTO-Seal Meter, and in the late 1960s Singers American Meter Company introduced still another rotating design known as the CVM gas meter
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Document ID: 3028EDAF

Fundamentals Of Orifice Recorders
Author(s): David E. Pulley
Abstract/Introduction:
What is an orifice meter? What is being referred to when the expression orifice meter is used? The answer usually depends upon who you are talking to. The term orifice meter is used to mean everything from the orifice meter gauge recorder to the entire meter station. The American Gas Association defines the orifice meter as the complete measuring unit comprised of primary and secondary elements. The secondary elements consist of the differential pressure recorder, static pressure recorder, flowing temperature recorder, and any other required recordings such as specific gravity and heating value.
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Document ID: D7C777A2

Understanding Basic Electronics
Author(s): James H. Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronics in Orifice Measurement has only recently become more prevalent for on-site use. When gas was inexpensive the need for accurate measurement was not there. Historically, mechanical circular charts have filled the need to record flows, pressures and temperatures. But today we in the gas measurement business have seen an ever increasing demand to know what the true volume is at the site. With this demand comes electronics in the form of transducers and flow computers. The purpose of this paper is to make you- the field measurement operator- more aware of electronics and how it relates to our future field measurement systems.
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Document ID: 6EC9D54D


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