Measurement Library

Measurement Science Conference Publications (1984)

The Future Of Instrument Automation And The Impact Upon The Calibration Lab.
Author(s): Jim Bloomer
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 5267EE29

Designing IEEE-Std-488 Based Systemi i0 Assure Viability And Traceability Of Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Norbert Laengrich
Abstract/Introduction:
The availability of low cost computers containing the IEEE-Std-488 interface now makes possible the automation of most measurement tasks. As conventional bench measurements are converted to automated systems, the question of dynamic specifications for the systems must be considered. This paper will illustrate how the specifications may be degraded when the system is working in a dynamic test environment. Techniques for minimizing the specification degradation as well as formulas for calculating the effect on traceability will be discussed. Directed at both the system integrator and the metrology manager, the paper details hardware and software techniques that may be utilized for maintaining accuracy specifications when converting the IEEE-Std-488 automated systems.
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Document ID: 6936DFA3

Calibration Synergism The Embedded Microprocessor And Non Volatile Memory
Author(s): Brian T. Laine
Abstract/Introduction:
In the early seventies, some of the more progressive instrumentation manufacturers began to incorporate microprocessor Is into their products. The primary reason for use of the microprocessor was to lower cost by eliminating logic components. An additional advantage of this type of design was the feasibility of additional features that would not otherwise be feasible in the same price and size range
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Document ID: 233E6976

The Roli: Of Accuracy Ratios 117 Test Anti MEAXJRICKT Processes
Author(s): John A. Ferling
Abstract/Introduction:
The traditional concept of accuracy ratios in test and measurement processes is extended to take into account time dependent failure distributions. The Eagle Cl and Grubbs-Coon 21 model for wrong test decisions is made dynamic. The concepts of effective and relative accuracy ratios are introduced. They permit comparisons of the quality of test processes based on various nominal accuracy ratios and calibration and test intervals. Relationships between true versus reported percent of OOT equipment are established.
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Document ID: C2BBFFEB

Development Of A Noncontacting Contour Measuring Device.
Author(s): Burton D. Figler, Alfred R. Ouellette, Jack L. Deshurley
Abstract/Introduction:
f i ve-ax is noncontacting contour measuring device is described which is designed to provide absolute accuracies in the range of + 10 to + 30 microinches. The emphasis in this paper is on the stage measurement accuracy which has been demonstrated to be better than 2 10 microinches, using a two-axis laser interferometer coordinate measuring system and a unique thermally stabilized frame.
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Document ID: 747734B2

Universal Viscosity Curves For Turbine Flowmeters-An Update
Author(s): A. C. Catland
Abstract/Introduction:
Universal Viscosity Curves are used to characterize the performance of turbine flowmeters. How universal are these curves?
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Document ID: 6BD1CC51

External Fuel Tank Temperature Evaluation
Author(s): John E. Blyler
Abstract/Introduction:
In an effort to expand the available crude oil supply, for use as aircraft fuel, the Navy is examining the effects of relaxing the freezing point specification of JP-5 aircraft fuel, To confirm the validity of the concept, the Naval Weapons Center has designed a test to obtain fuel tank temperature data during flight. An analytical model of the flight environment, using the resulting test data, has been constructed and is being used to predict the worst-case, coldest temperatures experienced by the aircraft fuel during flight. Test results should be available by the end of 1983, and will be used as the basis for completing fuel specification changes
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Document ID: 1B2073A6

Autymatic Calibration Of Vibration Transducers At Martin Marietta-Denver Aerospace Mmda()
Author(s): David R. Workman
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes an ins trumentation system used to provide automated calibrations of Piezoelectric and Piezoresistive Acceleration Transducers at the Denver Aerospace Division of the Martin Marietta Corporation. System design, operation, and theory are discussed along with calibration traceability and system certainty.
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Document ID: 61AD75A3

Abstract This Paper Describes An Ins Trumentation System Used To Provide Automated Calibrations Of Piezoelectric And Piezoresistive Acceleration Transducers At The Denver Aerospace Division Of The Martin Marietta Corporation. System Design, Operation, And Theory Are Discussed Along With Calibration Traceability And System Certainty.
Author(s): Karen Hartz
Abstract/Introduction:
The technique of providing a true dynamic calibration of an accelerometer using pseudo-random excitation and digital signal analysis has been proven valid. The signal analyzer performs transfer function measurements between a reference accelerometer and an unknown accelerometer.
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Document ID: 456EBDD3

The Use Of A Solid State Dc Voltage Transport Standard To Lransfer The: Dc Volt In A Regional Standard Cell Map Program
Author(s): Kenneth J. Keep
Abstract/Introduction:
Many times the most significant errors in DC voltage MAPS are caused by changes that occur in saturated cells when they are transported. This was noted in a recent paper (1) by the BIPM/ Sevres, France, where degradations up to 1OO:l were reported when saturated cells were used as transport standards, compared to their performance when used as reference standards in a fixed location and environment. The use of saturated cells as transport standards was also found to be the limiting factor by SRL, Inc. in a recent NCSL Region 2 MAP program completed in October, 1982, Five companies (Lockheed, Standard Reference Labs, Inc., RCA, Guildline, and Grumman) participated in this program.. In an effort to improve their transfer accuracy, Standard Reference Labs, Inc. will use a solid state DC voltage transport standard in a second MAP program scheduled for October, 1983. The SRL ovenized standard will be the same unit recently used in an international round robin (2) which demonstrated that solid state standards of EMF can perform as transport standards to a precision significantly better than lppm at the reference diode voltage level. The main difference will be that the 1.01814 volt reference level will be used in the second region 2 MAP program. This reference level is a resistively stepped down voltage value from the 10 volt reference output level which in turn is derived from the reference diode reference level used in the international round robin. The other four participating companies will use saturated standard cell banks as their transport standards. The results of solid state standard transfer data will be presented in this paper.
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Document ID: 2C36A543

The Fluke Direct Voltage Maintenance Program
Author(s): Les Huntley
Abstract/Introduction:
John Fluke Mfg. Co., Inc.(Fluke) is a manufacturer of electronic test and measurement equipment, including state of the art meters and calibration equipment. Besides its manufacturing facilities, Fluke maintains a system of technical service centers to provide support for the operation and accuracy of its products. Until recently the accuracy of DC voltage standards was maintained by shipping a service centers set of saturated standard cells to the Fluke Primary Standards Laboratory for certification. With the introduction of the 5440A Direct Voltage Calibrator, specified at 4 ppm relative to the Legal Volt, the accuracy maintained in the Fluke Technical Centers by this means is no longer sufficient. The Fluke DVMP was implemented to provide traceability at the 1.0 ppm to 1.5 ppm level in Flukes and customers facilities around the world
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Document ID: 551ABCC4

The Primary Standard Resistors At Lockheed Missiles And Space Company
Author(s): K. Jaeger, G. Kraski, C. Zack
Abstract/Introduction:
Using calibration records of up to 20 years, primary standard resistors have been selected from 0.001 to 1. Meqohm. These resistors have been carefully monitored during a 3 month measurinq Period in order to establish statistical errors and have control and trend charts. A detailed study of systematic errors allowed the determination of overall uncertainties for all primary resistors. By transferring values from one 1. ohm and one 10K ohm resistor calibrated by the National Bureau of Standards, the entire primary set can be calibrated to uncertainties comparable to those presently obtained from the Bureau.
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Document ID: A0C3A1ED

A 32 Channel Scanner System With 50 Nanovolt Thermals For Standard Cell Measurements
Author(s): James Marshall
Abstract/Introduction:
A scanner system is described which has thermal emfs in the 50 nanovolt range and is arranged specifically to make standard cell measurements using the procedure recommended by NBS.
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Document ID: 23978A6B

Recent Advances In Precision Ac Measurements
Author(s): Ramesh Goya
Abstract/Introduction:
Development of a new monolithic thermal sensor, a unique high impedance attenuator, a precision sample and hold circuit, and novel AC error correction technique have brought significant improvements in accuracy of AC measurements. A precision thermal true RMS measurement system is described that offers a transfer stability of 25ppm in the frequency band of 40Hz to 20kHz. A microprocessor-based system uses a non-volatile memory for software calibration, and brings record DC, AC, and Res i stance measurement accuracy even to production and repair.
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Document ID: 44F4653A

Autocal Provides Quality And Productivity
Author(s): John R. Pickering
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic Calibration adjustments Autocall are now available on a number of high precision instruments. The paper shows how these now span at least four levels of the calibration hierarchy from secondary standard to ATE. Each level is discussed with particular emphasis on the precision calibration of the higher orders.
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Document ID: CF0158D9

Practical Precision AC/DC Thermal Transfer Standard
Author(s): Anthony Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
Precision measurement of alternating currents and voltages has been perhaps one of the most neglected areas of electrical metrology. Whereas the accuracies expected and achieved for precision DC voltage and current measurement are nowadays in the order of a few parts per million, AC accuracies have until recently been realistically in the hundreds of parts per million area for practical measuring equipment
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Document ID: EB0B8805

Instrument Performance Enhanced Via Computer-Aided Calibration System
Author(s): Courtney E. Krehbiel, Ronald R. Gross
Abstract/Introduction:
A computer-aided calibration system has been developed to increase the power level accuracy of microwave signal generators. The main purpose of this production calibration system is to generate digital correction data which, when stored in the instruments memory, permits it to meet a more stringent accuracy specification while permitting design freedom which would otherwise be excluded.
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Document ID: CFBBFDCF

Standards Laboratory Design
Author(s): Thomas R. Diven
Abstract/Introduction:
As a result of the advances in instrument technology and the corresponding need of the manufacturing and scientific communities to provide improved measurement accuracies, it is essential for metrologists to develop and maintain the capabilities and environment necessary to fulfill these requirements. A critical element of recent technological improvements has been the increased sensitivity of calibration instrumentation and equipment to environmental and electrical deviations. It is imperative that standards laboratories keep pace with this trend to ensure the maintenance of required quality levels
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Document ID: BFA7525B

Metrolcgy Laboratory Construction And Performance Characteristics At Martin Marietta Denver Aerospace
Author(s): David R. Workman
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents an overview of the new Metrology Laboratory at Martin Marietta - Denver Aerospace (MDA). A description of the system is provided along with discussion of design requirements and problems which can be anticipated by any organization which attempts to build a Metrology Laborato
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Document ID: 391AA356

3NGOING Directions In Automated Calibration Systems
Author(s): Milton J. Lichtenstein
Abstract/Introduction:
The continuously expanding universe of electronics, and its related sciences, requires enormous quantities of electronic instrumentation to support the work of: engineers and technologists who innovate, develop and manufacture the products that evolve from these disciplines. For it is only when they can measure and quantize what they create that true knowledge and insight can be gained.
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Document ID: 24FEA1E6

The Integrated Approach To Metrology
Author(s): I. Scot Duncan, Gary L. Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
Over tYrr 1,. JJt decd:1e, U.S. industry has been (J 1x2 r cor,siijeranl.e pressure to improve its pro- :!uctivity and the ?ual.ity of manufactured goods to m:iiiitilin its c9Xp2titiVc position in domestic -li.:fi ,W r 11 l ma r k et : , Recent work directed toward the imprcjvement of the defense industrial base k,3S rndlcated that, for this indu:try to actlieve iignifi:dnt trains in overall productivity and remd i :I re.sporis17e to customer requirements, a hekJ lpro-xzh II Pact ory modernization is requ i red . Ihc Cepart,nent of Defense has provided con.sid6+ratJlc :pvcr:ment supprt i n s p o n s o r i n g programs fi)r ilnproviny the productivity and s t rnrj:lening trre manufacturing base of domestic These programs stress the importance cf rcooclnizinq that the factory is comgoset cf xinj COir!piC?X systems thdt interact with each other dntf t!lat a thorough top down understandincj of these systems is absolutely essential for future planninq and implementation. l*he foclls of tflis planning activity stresses the need for system integration in all factory modernization activities. Planning for system integration in .3dvance provides a higher chance of successful implementation in a cost effective manner.
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Document ID: 24E05864

Rapid And Accurate Enr Calibration Of Production Noise Sources
Author(s): Gratz L. Armstrong
Abstract/Introduction:
With the demand for lower noise figures in all types of communication systems and components comes a demand for more accurate noise measurements. Essential to all noise measurements is the e:cess noise generator or simply the noise source. The noise source generates a known amount of noise which is specified by its excess noise ratio (ENR). The accuracy to which the ENR is known is one of the most important aspects of a noise measurement, since any uncertainty in the specification of the ENR results in the same uncertainty in a noise measurement. In some cases this uncertainty is the largest uncertainty in the noise measurement. In an effort to improve the ENR specification accuracy, Hewlett Packard has developed a computer based system to measure and calibrate the excess noise ratio of production noise sources.
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Document ID: 6CCCC6AB

Automatic Testing Of Microwave Sweepers
Author(s): Yehoshua Rom
Abstract/Introduction:
The task of testing a microwave sweeper in a manufacturing environment is not a new one in the industry.
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Document ID: 8A9B617F

Theres More To Automation Than Dollars And Cents Or Is There?
Author(s): Paul Baldock
Abstract/Introduction:
In these days of high labor costs and the need to reduce operational times, automation often provides a cost effective solution. Cost effectiveness is usually determined from calculations based on projected time and expense reductions. However, situations may occur where the automated equipment is not significantly faster than expert human operators, or where the use of fewer personnel to operate the automated equipment is precluded by organizational restrictions. If the calculations do not show a required payback on what is often a high capital investment for the automated equipment, then the justification is likely to be rejected.
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Document ID: 46BEB041

Closing The Metrology GAP--AUTOMATION/QUALITY/PRODUCTIVTTY Investment
Author(s): Loebe Julie
Abstract/Introduction:
The author has crusaded since 1955 for accuracy, productivity and quality improvements in the standards and calibration laboratory, and since 1973 for the introduction of automation into the metrology laboratory. Although it was not at that time popular to do so, he pointed out the crying need for higher productivity in the calibration laboratory, and the need to safeguard and to upgrade metrology quality IeveIs in industry--a set of objectives reaIizeabIe only through application of state-of-the-art automated calibration system technology.
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Document ID: 19D10200

Balanced Detector Response To Spurious And Subharmonic Signals
Author(s): Scott Wetenkamp
Abstract/Introduction:
The balanced detector has rapidly gained acceptance in scalar power measurement because of its ability to reduce the effects of even order harmonics -- particulary the second harmonic. While the second harmonic is the most common problem encountered in microwave sources, it is not the only one. Microwave sources that use multiplier techniques often have relatively large subharmonics and sources that use a rnixin technique for generating the lower frequency band ?typically 1OMHz to 2000MHz) will also generate spurious cross products as well as harmonics.
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Document ID: 9987856F

Trends For Automated. Q&JBRATIOYSYSTEMS
Author(s): Frank Cape
Abstract/Introduction:
Early automated calibration systems (ACS) used minicomputers and programmable bench instruments to mechanize calibration. All of the intelligence needed to perform the calibration was resident in the ACS. The unit under test (UUT) was a passive recipient of the calibration.
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Document ID: 6939D857

Computerized Visual Measurement And Inspection Systems
Author(s): Gary J. Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
Today we are faced with the reality of Americas reindustrialization. A primary concern is to identify the direction in which we need to focus our GNP strength. Some industries have foregone their manufacturing base and are establishing service oriented ventures. Others have decided to concentrate on high-tech industries. For those who have maintained a manufacturing base, monumental corporate decisions are being made to renew obsolete factories, enabling them to meet the challenges of world class competition. Without con f#lilt. improvement in productivity and product quality, survival in industry cannot be guaranteed. Industrialists must become aware of the vast technological advancements available to them today.
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Document ID: CB73AFE2

An Information-Rich Automatic Calibration Concept
Author(s): Larry C. Sollman
Abstract/Introduction:
Calibration appears to be an area in which automation can produce a significant improvement in productivity. However, the degree of success in automating the calibration function is highly dependent on the approach chosen. This approach must account for the workload characteristics commonly found in calibration operations yet must be flexible enough to offer a solution for new and/or unique methods of managing calibration operations. ROLAIDS (Reconfigurable On-Line ATE Information Distribution System) is one such approach.
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Document ID: D0DFA1EE

Modular Laser Calibrator
Author(s): Felix Schweizer, Richard G. Miller, Lee W. Schumann
Abstract/Introduction:
A modular laser calibrator has been developed consisting of laser transmitter and radiometer modules together with associated modular optics. Tiie modular laser calibrator is capable of generating and measuring pulsed laser stimuli for calibration of a variety of laser related components, test equipment and fixtures. All electro-optical and mechanical components and fixtures are housed inside an enclosure consisting of an optical bench and cover. All components and assemblies are mounted so that no alignment or adjustment is required by the user or calibration technician. All settings required in a calibration procedure can be selected by externally accessible controls. Units or components to be calibrated can be inserted into the calibrator or attached to mating ports with eyesafe, light-tight adapters coupled to safety interlocks. The system together with the units is a Class I laser system that can be used in any laboratory or shop environment without specially prepared laser-safe facilities.
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Document ID: B676EF15

Some Trends In Optical Electronic Metrology*
Author(s): Aaron A. Sanders
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of optical related devices in high technology is expanding at a dramatic rate. Applications include the expanding use of optical fibers in telecommunications and sensors, lasers in industrial processing and medicine, optical storage devices, directed energy weapons for defensive purposes, non-destructive testing, the list goes on and on. The Optical Electronics Metrology Group of the National Bureau of Standards has the responsibility for developing the standards, measurement data and methodology infrastructure for supporting much of this expanding technology. This paper will review some of the ongoing research currently conducted by this group and some of the perceived important technological applications in this area for the next few years. It will discuss Group plans for developing the measurement infrastructure to support these innovations. The intent is to generate a dialogue to improve the Groups planning process and help sort out the most pressing priorities for optical measurements.
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Document ID: FA2D5D27

Industrjal Requirements And Solutions For Optical Radiation Measurements
Author(s): John J. Lee
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses many of the industrial requirements for optical radiation measurement. These requirements have been presented by the Electra-Optics Subcommittee (Chairman Richard Miller) of the NCSL 1982 National Measurement Requirements Committee at the NCSL Boulder Conference, May, 1983. The measurement requirements were broken into three general areas : first, laser measurement requirements second, fiber optic measurement requirements and third, Spectral Radiometry /Photometry! requirements. Each area will be discussed in detail.
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Document ID: 017F390E

Assessment Of Cardiac Performance By Digital Angiography
Author(s): James . Whiting, Ran Vas, James S. Forrester
Abstract/Introduction:
Computer enhanced digital angiography (CEDA) allows the cardiologist to quantitate ejection fraction, coronary anatomy, and regional myocardial perfusion. This paper describes the method by which digital images of the heart are obtained and processed, and the application of this new technology to evaluation of the cardiovascular system.
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Document ID: 046EB243

Medical Equipment Support In Acute Care Hospitals
Author(s): Ken Witcher
Abstract/Introduction:
The increased utilization of medical devices in the acute care hospital has generated and increased the need for a full range of services. One method of providing the needed services is by utilizing a shared service.
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Document ID: 0F7CE314


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