Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (1984)

Current Status Of GRI/NBS Boulder Project On Orifice Meters
Author(s): R. S. Norman
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the current status of the Gas Research Institute (GRI) orifice meter research at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado.
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Document ID: EF42E406

Industrial Spark Plug Realities
Author(s): A. R. Brenholts, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The spark plug is not as mysterious a device as some think it to be. Simply put, the spark plug is essentially a high-voltage electrical pass-through providing a spark gap with a controlled rate of thermal transfer. In relation to other power cylinder components, the spark plug is a passive participant in the combustion events. Though it may be involved in the initiation of combustion, its role is similar to that performed by the diving-board for an Olympic diver. In the spark plugs world, the diver is the nugget of electrical energy developed by the other, upstream, ignition components. Spark plugs are mere transmitters for the electrical star. Industrial spark plugs attempt to be as close to no-compromise design as possible with zero defect, quality-conscious manufacturing perfecting in them the capability to provide the longest operating intervals (measured in hours) of any spark plugs ever made. Furthermore, they are intended to be retired from service principally from the norinal wearing action of the electrical discharges eroding the spark gap surface area to a dimension beyond the energy-producing/delivering capabilities of the upstream ignition components.
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Document ID: 0B898EB6

Recent Advances In Compressed Air Storage In Underground Reservoirs
Author(s): L. D. Kannbert, R. D. Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
The concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) is explained reservoir stability criteria are described and the initial performance and results of a recent field test of CAES in Illinois are discussed. The CAES concept is a technically and economically promising means to store off-peak energy to meet peak electrical energy demand. Reservoir stability criteria have been developed for salt and hard rock reservoirs interim criteria have been developed for porous rock reservoirs. A limited field test is underway at Pittsfield, Illinois, to test porous sandstone reservoir behavior under CAES conditions. U.S. Department of Energy authority and sponsorship for the test was transferred to the Electric Power Research Institute during air bubble development. Although injectivity was lower than anticipated, a sizable quantity of air has been injected into the reservoir at the test site and plans call for cyclic testing under EPRI sponsorship.
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Document ID: 664C4FBE

Natural Gas Storage Field Inventory Verification By Statistical Analysis Of Observation Well Pressures
Author(s): Charles Tutt, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Several factors have combined to make storage inventory verification of considerable importance to the industry. The first is the recent excess supply of natural gas nationwide, which has forced companies to keep storage fields at relatively high inventories and pressures, thus increasing the likelihood of gas leakage and migration. The second factor is the increased value of natural gas, making the dollar amount of write-offs large enough to attract the attention of management, regulators, and the taxation authorities. Our objective is to briefly review the ways in which inventory verification has been done in the past and then to present a new technique which can help to detect and quantify gas loss in the presence of water movement and the inevitable measurement error.
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Document ID: 8AECE80B

LNG Facility Training And Certification Program To Satisfy Federal Safety Standard 49CFR Part 193
Author(s): Roy F. Williams, Felix E. Lopez
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the Con Edison LNG Facility Training and Ceriification Program which has been designed and implemented to meet the Federal Safety Standards 49CFR Part 193 Subpart H Section 193.2707. The paper reviews the programs development and its current status and describes some of the distinctive features of the Training & Certification Program, Included are descriptions of the LNG Facility training simulator and the role it plays within the program.
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Document ID: F03FCDF5

Automation Techniques For Gas Distribution Operations
Author(s): Renny S. Norman
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper contains a summary and review of a 1983 Gas Research Institute (GRI) project on developing a research plan for gas utility operations. These operations include record keeping, communications, mapping, crew dispatch, scheduling, and load management.
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Document ID: EFE2C52C

A Gas Dispatch Simulation Model For Supply Planning
Author(s): Eugene R. Alward, Robert D. Rosen-Levin
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas System Daily Operations Simulator (GASDOS) is a computer-based model of aggregate gas system dispatch. Given a demand forecast, a supply plan, storage characteristics, and an operating policy, GASDOS imitates the action of the gas dispatcher by allocating supplies to demands on a daily basis. This daily dispatch simulation may extend over planning periods of several months to more than 20 years. GASDOS forecasts utilization of each supply and storage field, and level of service to each class of customers. Its methodology may be described as deterministic, chronological simulation based on a decision rule.
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Document ID: E3CC029F

Exploration Economics- How A Large Independent Looks At Exploration Today
Author(s): J. B. Coffman
Abstract/Introduction:
I would like to share some thoughts about exploration and its underlying economic considerations. Certainly with the news full of major acquisitions, there is evidence that many companies believe reserves can be purchased more economically than can be found by exploration. Our company. Aminoil, has made a few producing properly purchases at attractive prices. Even so, after reviewing our situation, we have for the past two years committed ourselves to emphasizing high quality and high technology exploration - together with realistic risk assessment in our economic analyses. 1 would like to go through the thinking that has led us to our commitment, starting with some comments on the problem of generalizations about reported reserve purchases. Then Ill comment on the elements of risk in exploration and how we use our best technology lo assess them. A few thoughts on business risk assessment will follow. I will conclude with some remarks on strategy and the philosophy of a large independent in our industry. (See Figure 1.)
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Document ID: D16202F6

Fleet Experience With Front Wheel Drive Automobiles
Author(s): Tom D. Grunig
Abstract/Introduction:
At the Fall Planning Meeting in Kansas City, 1 was asked to take a survey of fleet automobiles similar to the one presented in Washington D.C. in 1982 entitled Fleet Experience with Front Wheel Drive Automobiles. This survey was taken to compile data which can be compared to our own company fleets. Thirty-five of 84 companies responded or 42 percent.
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Document ID: 37BDAC93

Implementation Of Pipe Corrosion Management System-PIPER
Author(s): W. Riggs, E. Meronyk, A. Kumar
Abstract/Introduction:
Optimization of underground pipe maintenance decisions requires an accurate inventory of existing piping systems, accurate records of maintenance history, a knowledge of the current corrosion status of the pipe, a reliable prediction of future pipe condition, and economic analysis of repair or replace options. PIPER has been developed by the US. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (USA-CERL) to meet the above requirements and is being implemented at several military installations. Improvements to the system have been made based upon field surveys and user inputs. The improvements include: Inclusion of a graphics package to accurately portray piping systems Use of microcomputer Modified predictive equations Computerized pipe management system (PIPER) is a valuable tool in the decision-making process of underground pipe management.
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Document ID: 6899CBB5

Trends In Domestic Proved Natural Gas Reserves-1977 Through 1982
Author(s): Ellis R. Boyd, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed annual estimates of domestic, proved natural gas reserves for the years 1977 through 1982. These estimates are presented in annual reports titled, U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves. Each report presents estimates of proved reserves and reserve changes on National and certain State and sub-State bases but focuses mainly on estimates for a given year. The purpose of this presentation is to show these data in tabular and graphical formats to facilitate the observation of trends in natural gas reserves and reserve changes over time.
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Document ID: C0757A93

Gas Research Institute Coal Gasification R&D Program
Author(s): Dennis Leppin
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Research Institute (GRI) is supporting research and development efforts to develop a variety of coal gasification technologies for economically producing substitute natural gas (SNG), The overall objective is to provide advanced surface and in situ processes that offer significant technical and economic advantages over the commercially available options. The Westinghouse fluidized bed gasification process, the General Electric coal fines/coal tar extruder, and development of novel methanation catalysts and associated processes were the major elements of the surface gasification program in 1983. The in situ program is directed toward evaluating basic technology, including the Controlled Retracting Injection Point (CRIP) concept for controlling the growth and geometry of the reaction zone within a coal seam.
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Document ID: E377237C

Programmable Controllers And Their Use In Meter Proving
Author(s): Don J. Tokoly
Abstract/Introduction:
Programmable conirollers (PC) have been in use for 15 years to control processes formerly operated by electromechanical components. PCs can perform relay logic, counting. liming, arithmetic, data manipulation, computer interfacing, and much more. Proven to be more cost effective, versatile, and reliable than relay control systems, PCs are used in a wide variety of applications, including gas meter proving. This paper will define and describe the components of a PC and how they have been incorporated into bell proving systems.
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Document ID: D4C79868

Gas Appliance Research And Demonstration House
Author(s): Robert J. Kolodgy
Abstract/Introduction:
Ground was broken for a Gas Appliance Research and Demonstration House at the American Gas Association Laboratories in Cleveland, Ohio, on July 27, 1983. Construction has recently been completed by A.G.A.L.s Research and Deveiopmeni Group. This attractive facility, shown in Figure 1, was formally dedicated to the natural gas consumer and his concern for a clean environment, energy efficiency, economy, and safety at ceremonies held on May 2, 1984. Details of construction and facility capabilities are included in this paper.
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Document ID: AEF11E8A

Watchguard-Locator Training Program
Author(s): E. R. Alfiere
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes a training program for Watchguard-Locator training that has been developed and implemented at Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation. Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation is an Electric/Gas investor owned utility, we serve Upstate New York State. The gas system contains 6,033 miles of buried gas mains and 361,400 services. We feel that the employees who operate and maintain the system serving approximately 431,000 gas customers are among the best in our industry. Most of the skills they currently possess have been learned on the job as they performed their work and through formal training programs. They have been taught by capable crew chiefs who learned their skills from their supervisors in much the same fashion. As you all know, these days any of the many agencies looking over our shoulders can ask us to document our actions in certain situations. Part of this documentation likely to be requested would be our training records. The following training program is the result of New York State Regulatory Commission insistance on proper and documented training of Watchguard- Locator employees.
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Document ID: 659940DB

U.S. Tar Sand Resources Surface Processing Schemes And Texas Gass Pilot Plant
Author(s): Paul A. Fedde
Abstract/Introduction:
Tar sand deposits in the U.S. have acquired new stature since a Lewin & Associates, Inc., report, prepared for the Interstate Oil Compact Commission, estimates in-place reserves to be 53.7 billion barrels. For comparison, total U.S. petroleum usage in 1983 was 5.5 billion barrels. The cost of extracting oil from U.S. tar sands is somewhat higher than the current price of crude oil, but the magnitude of the resource argues that the national interest is served by developing both in situ and surface extraction technology that can be called upon to produce tar sand oil in the future. Five states -Utah, Texas, California, Kentucky, and Alabama - have most of the nations 21.6 billion barrels of proved reserves. Alaska contains an additional 10 billion barrels of probable reserves. Table I shows how U.S. tar sand reserves compare to those of other fossil fuels.
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Document ID: C3C62583

Use Of Decision Analysis In Evaluating Major Pipeline Projects
Author(s): Dean P. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
Decision Analysis is a valuable tool to make a logical choice between significantly different alternatives. Within Panhandle Eastern Corporation it is an accepted method for the evaluation of major pipeline projects. This paper list several definitions of Decision Analysis. One definition accents the fundamental relationship between Decision Analysis and decision trees. An overview of a typical application is given, and there are illustrations of several of the important steps in the Decision Analysis process. A list of significant observations made in the debriefing sessions is also presented. Panhandle Eastern Pipe Line Company has been active in the area of Decision Analysis we started our major efforts in mid-1982. We have analyzed three major pipeline projects with Decision Analysis and have also completed one other project.
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Document ID: 59B1E3B5

Gas Marketing-The Producer/Supplier Viewpoint
Author(s): Gordon Goodman
Abstract/Introduction:
As a rcsuh of the 1982 gas glut, new opportunities for gas marketing arose that offered solutions to both producers and end users. Through passage by the F.E.R.C. of regulations simplifying the transportation of gas, industrial end users and distribution companies could negotiate directly with willing sellers (producers) thereby creating a competitive market for new gas. This activity provided additional income for producers, pipelines, distribution companies, and end users.
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Document ID: A0106B0D

Calculation Of Heating Value Of Gas Using Mass, Volume And Ideal Gas Flow Rates
Author(s): Kenneth R. Hall, Philip T. Eubank, Kenneth N. Marsh, James C. Holste
Abstract/Introduction:
This discussion indicates rigorous methods to obtain energy released as heat upon combustion of a gas. Mass, volume, or ideal gas flowrates are equally applicable. To sell gas on a Btu basis requires the calculation of the energy released as heat upon combustion. This quantity results from multiplication of ihe gas heating value by its ftowrate. Unfortunately, several misconceptions exist concerning this calculation. We attempt in this discussion to clarify the procedure. The heating value of a gas is the negative of its enthalpy of combustion. The enthalpy of combustion is an ideal gas quantity. The reason is that to establish an enthalpy of combustion requires complete specification of the reaclaiits and products and their respective states. In general, this specification is not possible for real fluids, and the tables presented are for ideal gas consumption at standard conditions.
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Document ID: 1F70FC3B

Fire Protection Planning For LNG Facilities
Author(s): K. R. Mniszewski
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the introduction of the Material Transportation Bureaus (MTB) Federal Safety Standards for LNO facilities (Federal Register, 23 October 1980) (see CFR 49, part 193) there has been some confusion over the interpretation of requirements involving fire protection. This paper is an aid to those plant personnel involved in the implementation of Subpart 1 of these standards entitled, Fire Protection and particularly section 193.2817, Fire Equipment. Guidance is given in three areas: 1. Estimating the type, size, and severity of fires and explosions possible at LNG facilities 2. Determining priorities in the mitigation of fire hazards at LNG facilities 3. Determining fire prevention measures that are applicable to the LNG facilities, particularly in determining LNG fire control equipment requirements Emphasis is on providing simple, easy-to-use methods for plant engineering personnel. References and suggested sources of information are provided for more detailed discussions on particular problem areas.
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Document ID: 913387D7

Hand Held Remote Sensing Methane Detector For Leakage Survey
Author(s): Arthur C. Eberle, John R. Kruse
Abstract/Introduction:
Distribution pipeline leakage surveys using current instrumentation represent a significant cost to natural gas utility companies. A new instrument that uses state-of-the-art laser technology promises to reduce those costs significantly by providing a remote sensing capability that exlends the radius of detection to at least fifty feet from the user. The new instrument is a rechargeable batterypowered man-portable sensor that will operate for an eight-hour day on one charge and whose sensitivity is very specific to methane. A description of the instrument is provided along with early field test results.
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Document ID: 73FC22F3

Crankshaft Stress And Deflection Relationships For Large Reciprocating Compressors
Author(s): Anthony J. Smalley, Alan B. Palazzolo
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents measured and predicted data for a representative 8-cylinder crankshaft. The shaft was supported in a lest stand at several main journals and subjected to a measured misaligning load at another main journal. Bending deflections, web deflections, and nominal stresses in crankpin, web, and main journal were measured. Data showing variation with crank angle of measured quantities for two different support/ load conditions is presented. Corresponding predictions of a finite element model of the shaft are compared with the measurements, Favorable agreement is obtained, although there is a tendency for stress predictions to be conservative (high).
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Document ID: 3921B862

Effective Gas Anti-Theft Programs
Author(s): Raymond G. Kremer
Abstract/Introduction:
It was on Tuesday back on May 25, 1976, that I first presented a paper on this subject before a similar session of the A.G.A. Distribution Conference. The title of that presentation was Something for Nothing. While that presentation was well received, it was an interest born more of curiosity than anything else. Most felt that gas theft was just another of those phenomena that occured only in Brooklyn. Some took the message back to their people at home only to be assured that it wasnt happening there. A lot of water has flowed under the bridge since then and unfortunately many of those who didnt believe have since become believers who have found that the problem was that they were unable to recognize a very real situation that did in fact exist.
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Document ID: D5FAA730

Computerization Of Standard Meter Operations
Author(s): Frank T. Dipalma, William D. Mchugh
Abstract/Introduction:
COSMO is the Computerization of Standard Meter Operations. This unique system provides the solution to meter testing, shop floor control, inventory and information exchange problems that have plagued our industry for years. By employing error-free bar code labels that contain significant information in a concise format, meters can be tracked from the day they are purchased or from the point they are removed through testing, inventory, and eventual placement back in service. The system enables the utility to initiate new and validate existing meter records, track the meters progress through the plant, monitor productivity, report continuously the status of inactive and active meter inventory, and provide on-line data for reporting and resolving billing discrepancies and complaints.
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Document ID: D848681F

The Fundamental Fleet Decision
Author(s): Philip m. Capron
Abstract/Introduction:
Right now, as has been true for the past several years, we find ourselves doing business in a period when sound decision-making does not come easily for anyone. And the fleet area is no exception. Looking back over the past 10 years, it is clear that we have come through a period of tremendous change. We have been through major oil crises, gas lines, and threats of rationing. We have dealt with double-digit inflation, and a prime rate in the 20s, followed by almost no inflation. We have witnessed disastrous levels of new-car sales and a massive shift to frontwheel drive technology. Truly, the events of the last ten years have radically altered the fleet landscape. Other events over those years have shaped the future of the utility industry: the end of the era of cheap power where each new power plant resulted in lower unit costs the era of nuclear power plants with their huge capital requirements and resulting regulatory and public relations problems expansion of utilities into unregulated industries via formation of holding companies.
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Document ID: 28360D0F

Ongs Decentralized Media Relations Program
Author(s): Ed Wheeler
Abstract/Introduction:
We Americans live in an unrelenting demanding communications-oriented environment today. It is a society that, because of (he demands of the electronic media, requires simplistic answers to complex problems that must be articulated clearly withing 20 second bites for the evening news. li is an atmosphere that will -through the eye of the camera- focus on every blemish, attitude, and flaw that exists in the character of individuals or institutions. It also has the capacity to just as easily identify strengths, progress, and compassion within that same instant character analysis procedure. It is a fact that we have reached this stage in our national, industrial, and professional development. Those who ignore it, deny it, or allocate it to the lawyers or the P.R. department are living in the comfortable but unrealistic past.
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Document ID: 91C7B8D7

Environmental Audits For Natural Gas Distribution Companies
Author(s): Stephen D. Bailey
Abstract/Introduction:
Federal, state, and local governments have passed numerous environmental taws and regulations many of which is complex and overlapping. While it is easy to assume that much of these regulations apply to other industries and thai natural gas distribution companies have nothing to worry about, the fact is that natural gas equipment and operations must comply with these environmental regulations and in many cases may have to have permits to construct or oprerate. The agencies charged with enforcing environmental regulations have had over 15 years to address their first priorities and it is logical to assume that this may begin to scrutinize natural gas operations.
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Document ID: 209ECEB0

A Decade Of Drilling In The United States And The Outlook For The Near Term
Author(s): Tom Dougherty
Abstract/Introduction:
Were we to be given our choices of decades in the history of utilization of petroleum energy we would be hard put to find one more interesting than the 10 years beginning with 1974 and extending through 1983. History has some decades that were more glamorous and some that were marked by major additions to the worlds producible petroleum supplies. But few, if any, were more fraught with crisis, more intertwined with politics, with worldwide economics, with social considerations, and more filled with opportunities for both success and failure. In some decades the petroleum industry has materially shaped the energy future of the world. In the one just past, the world has gone a long way toward reshaping the future of the petroleum industry.
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Document ID: 2081027F

A New Feedstock For Sng
Author(s): Dave Cheuvront, Jay Sheth, Glen Armstrong
Abstract/Introduction:
The naphtha feed SNG plant was retrofitted to accept a sour refinery fuel gas stream. The Peoples Gas Light and Coke Company, a natural gas distribution company, which serves the city of Chicago, built a synthetic natural gas (SNG) plant that began operation in 1976. The plant as originally designed takes a naphtha feedstock, desulfurizes it, and feeds it to a catalytic rich gas (CRG) unit, licensed by the British Gas Council (BGC). The CRG unit converts the naphtha to pipeline quality natural gas. The rated plant capacity is 170 MMSCFD. Other major units in the facility include a hydrogen unit which produces hydrogen for use in the desulfurizer and CRG plant, a Stretford unit for handling the desulfurizer off-gas, and a utilities section. Figure I is a block schematic of the facility.
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Document ID: FD900FD8

Microfiching Service Line Records
Author(s): William F. Eckles
Abstract/Introduction:
The National Transportation Safety Board and the Materials Transportation Bureau have made recommendations and proposed rules for improvements in gas distribution facility maps and records. This paper presents Michigan Gas Utilities Companys effort to provide accurate records on Street Department crew trucks and staking and locating trucks.
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Document ID: B616D806

LNG Storage In Deep Seated Cavities
Author(s): A. Bourlanger
Abstract/Introduction:
In the 1960s many tests were undertaken to perfect the icchnique of storage of liquefied gases at low lemperaiure in fro7cn ground. Two ways have been explored which both led to indusirial applications. The first lechnique developed was storage in cut and cover with an artificial roof. This type of storage was built either in soil or in hard rock. Applications in soil were the only ones which led to operational phases. They involved LNG facilities in Arzew, Algeria, and Canvey Island, Great Britain, and propane storage at -49F in Montreal, Canada. Applications in hard rock soil or in hard rock were made. All these plants, even those which have been under operation for several years, have met with one or several of the following difficulties: Uplifts due to formation swelling when the water contained in the earth freezes, or growing of ice lenses.
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Document ID: 1D5A8EE0

Successful Design, Specification, And Implementation Of Realtime Control Systems
Author(s): Thomas J. Kara, Dennis J. Gaushell
Abstract/Introduction:
Public and private gas distribution/transmission agencies, districts, and companies require the control of resources and facilities for a variety of purposes, as listed in Figure 1. These purposes vary in relative importance with each agency and with each application. Eariy in the overall project, these items should be developed in more detail and the benefits quantified wherever possible in order to justify the system costs to management and governing boards. Control systems to meet the above needs generally fall into several industry-defined categories, as listed in Figure 2. These categories include data acquisition only, supervisory control with data acquisition (SCADA), and advanced application systems. These systems may be used for such purposes as gas dispatching, pipeline automation, gas plant control, storage field automation, compressor automation, custody transfer metering, network simulation, etc. Typically, applications require the centralized control and monitoring of a system covering either a plant complex or system operation over an extensive geographic area.
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Document ID: 85398CF5

High Energy Gas Fracturing-A New Technique For Enhanced Gas Recovery
Author(s): J. F. Cuderman, D. A. Morthrop
Abstract/Introduction:
A technology that uses propellants has been developed to control borehole pressurization so that multiple radial fractures about the wellbore are obtained. The objective is to connect nonintersecting natural fractures in a reservoir to the wellbore and thereby stimulate production. Techniques are presented for specifying the pressure pulse required to produce multiple fractures and for choosing propeilants to achieve the desired pressure pulse.
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Document ID: B7DB6245

Microcomputers For Scheduling Distribution Maintenance
Author(s): Jerry L. Lucas
Abstract/Introduction:
For most of us, until recently our involvement with computers has been that of either submitting written data to key punch operators or receiving the periodic computer-generated reports that organize the data in one way or another. Only in the past few years have business magazines blossomed with multi-colored advertisements for desk-top computers and the wonders of their software packages. In fact, since 1977, the microcomputer industry has grown from essentially nil to over 100 manufacturers generating 4.9 billion dollars in annual sales. They have to be doing something right! Computers have, of course, been around for a long time, but personal computers have several distinguishing characteristics. A personal computer (also referred to as a microcomputer) has all the basic features of larger minicomputers and mainframe computers, but its claim to fame is its relatively small size and affordable price. It allows the user, who need not be a student of computers, to buy or write programs and run them on his own.
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Document ID: A09716DF

LNG Peakshaving Plant Retrofit Safety Improvements Including High Concrete Dilce, Fire Protection, Security
Author(s): Daniel J. Mcguire
Abstract/Introduction:
Code changes and seismic studies prompted the modification of a 13-year-old LNG peakshaving plant to improve its safety. The major improvement was the construction of a high, concrete dike around the LNG tank. Other work included the relocation of the refrigerant storage, improved firefighting capabilities, and additional safety features.
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Document ID: 97969766

Quality Assurance At Houston Lighting & Power
Author(s): B. G. Cooper
Abstract/Introduction:
The Quality Assurance (QA) Section of the Houston Lighting & Power Transportation Department was established to insure the safety and operational integrity of fleet equipment due to the critical nature of this type of equipment, Several catastrophic failures and repeated maintenance problems forced the Transportation Department to create personnel positions responsible for quality of workmanship, specification adherence, and correct procedures involving acceptance and repair of man-lift and crane devices. While it is difficult to justify a quality assurance group in conventional productivity or economic terms, the Company elected to form this group to reduce the chance of a catastrophic failure and reduce downtime of equipment.
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Document ID: 08601E56

New Ideas In Productivity Control
Author(s): George G. Vapaa
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the development and implementation of a cost-effective work management program for Delmarva Power & Light Companys Service Department -an organization with seventy field employees. Included are the objectives of the program, a description of the programs day-to-day operation, and a review of concerns for the future. Productivity control, for most of us, is not a particularly exciting topic. On the other hand the conirot of productivity is extremely important to all of us. It doesnt matter whether our service policy is such that we charge directly for the services we provide or whether we provide so called free service by including the cost in the rate base. If we do not strive to improve the productivity of our service operations, we will be unable to compete effectively in the market place-not only in the service arena but, possibly, not even as energy suppliers.
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Document ID: CBD09708

The Air Apparent
Author(s): Peter W. Preuss
Abstract/Introduction:
The determination of risk from indoor air pollutants is complex and difficult. At the present time there are many gaps in our knowledge about indoor air pollutanis and consequently any risk assessment that we attempt to do is, of necessity, very limited. Nevertheless, there are enough data available to permit us to assess some of the risks, from some of the pollutants, to which some of the population are exposed. For a single pollutant of interest many different lexicological end-points may be of concern. For example, in a healihy population a pollutant may be an irritant at a high concentration, and produce no obvious effects at a low dose. On the other hand, certain populations such as asthmatics or people with hyperreactive airways could be significantly affected at much lower levels of exposure. This is illustrated in Figure 1, which contains a number of curves ihat describe a single toxicological end-point for different populations exposed to the same pollutant.
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Document ID: 3ECFA579

Extinguishment Of Natural Gas Fires
Author(s): Michael Kraus
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1950, Ansul, in conjunction with the Tfexas Eastern Gas Transmission Company, conducted a series of Natural Gas Fire Tests in Longview, Texas. A six-inch pipe was tapped into a 24-inch gas transmission line to give a large volume of gas at 850 psi. Fittings were provided so that the gas could be discharged vertically and horizontally and so that the six-inch line could be reduced to 1/2-, 1 1/2, 2- or 4-inch pipe. The objectives of the test were as follows: 1. To determine the suitability of dry chemical extinguishing equipment on typical natural gas fires. 2. To determine the flow rates of dry chemical required to extinguish burning under various volumes and conditions.
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Document ID: B1D78F12

Pavement And Frozen Ground Trenching Methods
Author(s): J. L. Mathieu
Abstract/Introduction:
Operating Managers responsible for new construction are continually evaluating installation practices and procedures in order to maintain a competitive posture for energy markets. The focus of this paper is on trenching methods that both reduce installation costs and enhance productivity. State and local paving practices, at least in the Northeast, have changed in the past twenty years. Repaving consists of overlaying existing road surfaces with bituminous concrete. Consequently it is common to find road surfaces six inches thick. Many state highways have an eight inch concrete base with two to four inches of bituminous overlay.
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Document ID: 3CEF4A1A

Keeping Up With Cng
Author(s): James B. Byer
Abstract/Introduction:
The Peoples Natural Gas Company is part of the Consolidated Natural Gas System serving four states. The Consolidated Natural Gas Systems Fleet consists of about 3,500 units. At the end of 1983, some 1,000 vehicles had been converted to operate on compressed natural gas (CNG) as a dual fuel. In the Peoples Company, over 200 of our possible 600 vehicles have been converted. The Peoples Natural Gas Company became involved with natural gas conversions in 1969 when we converted 12 vehicles as part of an environmental program to clean the air. This program ended in 1972 with the vehicles being stripped of their conversion kits and employees ending their negative talk about no power, no room in the trunk, etc.
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Document ID: 8D4EBE5B

Key Ingredients For Successfully Managing Gas Network Modeling
Author(s): Frank J. Hunt
Abstract/Introduction:
The 1980s have seen a renewed interest in using network modeling to solve gas distribution engineering and operating problems. Many smaller companies, which have in the past performed little or no organized system analysis, are now embarking on substantial modeling projects. This is, in part, attributable to the increasing cost of gas and facilities construction, ihe increasing competition for sales in the energy market, and Ihe ever increasing availabiUty of low cost, high powered digital computing hardware. The gas utility engineers and managers at these companies must today understand how to integrate the various components of the gas network modeling into a system that wiil provide the desired solutions to engineering problems. This paper presents some of the critical success factors of gas network modeling and a set of overall guidelines for its implementation and ongoing management. The ideas presented herein are based on observations that have been made during the implementation of complete gas network modehng systems for a number of small and medium sized distribution companies over the past several years.
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Document ID: A32196E3

New Street Department Vehicles
Author(s): E. D. Brooks
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper examines the type of construction and maintenance vehicles currently used by Distribution, construction, and maintenance crews. A survey of twenty-eight major utilities was made, and the results of this survey are compared to a similar survey conducted in 1977. An attempt is also made to identify the major factors that must be considered in designing a modern construction and maintenance vehicle.
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Document ID: D6BAE546

Test Results On An Scr Converter With Automatic Controls Its Performance And Practical Application
Author(s): Vincent D. Lajiness
Abstract/Introduction:
The Pipeline Research Committee (PRC) of the American Gas Association and ANR Pipeline Company conducted a performance evaluation and practical application study on a full-scale, automatically controlled selective catalytic reduction (SCR) converter for reduction of nitrogen oxides in exhaust gases. The converter was installed on a 2500 horsepower, naturalgas, Cooper Bessemer GMW 10 located at ANR Pipelines E.G. Hill Compressor Station near Guymon, Oklahoma. This paper will report on the results of a short-term 30-day) operation of this converter to determine its performance ability under different engine load conditions, including 12 days of field tests. In addition, this paper will report on the results of a long-term (7-month) test of the converter under actual station operating conditions to determine its practical application to the natural gas industry. Included in the results presented will be an analysis on the systems shortcomings, cost of operations and maintenance, and conclusions on its overall acceptabihty.
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Document ID: 63D2CED7

Acoustic Emission Testing Of In-Service High Pressure Natural Gas Pipelines-The Australian Experience
Author(s): T. R. Baker
Abstract/Introduction:
In July 1982 the Moomba to Sydney pipeline suffered an in-service stress corrosion cracking failure at a point about 2.5 miles (4.2 kilometres) downstream from the gas treatment plant at Moomba in the Cooper Basin gas Held in South Australia. In the interest of safety and security of supply, a 6-mile (1O-kilometre) by-pass pipeline was constructed around the failure site and the first 6 miles (10 kilometres) of the original pipeline was taken out of service. It was considered necessary to check the integrity of the section of the original pipeline which was still in service and which was considered to be most prone to a future failure. Because the pipeline could not be taken out of service, an investigation of the available methods of non-destructively testing an in-service natural gas pipeline was undertaken. The decision was made to conduct an acoustic emission test of the in-service pipeline using the flowing gas as the pressuring medium.
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Document ID: 636F1F6C

Experiences With Quality Circles
Author(s): Jack C. Green
Abstract/Introduction:
Are you confused by the consultants, the literature, the claims, the counter-claims, and the speeches of management experts about Quality Circles and their affect on the companies that have them? If your answer is a resounding yes!, Im not surprised. If you havent installed Circles in your company, it is easy to be confused by what you hear and read. In fact, even if you have Circles, its easy to be confused about what you read and hear. Today, I will show you what Quality Circles are all about. Thats not an easy task because the most important part of Circles is what many people refer to as The Intangibles. I know that your interest is primarily in the Customer Service area of the utility business and how that area can be made more productive, but Im not going to concentrate my remarks on your area for several reasons:
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Document ID: E3EEEF0A

Applications Of The Stoicliiometric Combustion Calorimeter
Author(s): Anthony J. Shimps
Abstract/Introduction:
Two case histories of stoichiometric combustion calorimeter appHcations are discussed. One, a feed forward system for BTU trimming, the other, a feedback system for gas blending.
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Document ID: D56EF826

New Directions In Orifice Measurement
Author(s): Paul A. Hoglund
Abstract/Introduction:
A.G.A. Report No. 3 was revised effective January 1, 1984, and is currently in the ballot process as a revision to ANSI/API 2530. The revision addresses concerns that have been expressed and provides a sound foundation for future work resulting from research planned or underway. That research is essential if the United States is to maintain a leadership role in large-volume measurement. Gas measurement is no longer the exclusive province of the gas industry users and producers are very much involved. Gas measurement is no longer the exclusive province of the United States. This is now a world activity. Recently a trip was made by several gas people to the United Kingdom. The activity there is indicative of the actions taking place in many countries. The United States gas industry must become involved in these international undertakings. The alternative is to have others set our standards for us.
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Document ID: C43982FB

Small Remote Terminal Units Used With Main Frame Computers
Author(s): J. Kenneth Bauhof
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas utilities throughout the nation are malting changes in order to achieve more efficient system operation. Many gas utilities are now installing new and sophisticated computer based control centers which provide rapid access to gas system information and supervisory operator control of remotely located field devices. This paper discusses the basic functions of the control center computers and the remote terminal units used in typical gas control systems. These systems provide the operator with the up-to-date tools he needs to enhance overall system operation.
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Document ID: FC91F0CF

A Resurgent Gas Industry: The Key To Sound Energy, Economic, And Environmental Policy Goals
Author(s): George H. Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
This combined Distribution and Transmission Conference is, indeed, a noteworthy event bringing together, as it does, the people who operate that great national asset -our entire million-mile transmission and distribution system. You are important to the gas industry and to the nation. And the contribution you make to national energy, economic, and environmental policy goals is going to increase significantly, because this resurgent gas industry is the key to attaining those goals. I appreciate the opportunity to give you my views on where our industry finds itself today and where I think were going.
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Document ID: D0D126EF

Comparison Of Electrofusion And Conventional Socket Fusion
Author(s): Paul R. Petro, Jim Inhofe, Robert W. Lyall, James N. Haynes
Abstract/Introduction:
Electrofusion is a process in which plastic fittings are heat fused on plastic pipe by use of an electrical wire rather than a hot iron as a heat source. It has been reported that electrofusion has been used for many years to heat fuse polypropylene fittings on polyproplylene pipe being used for small-diameter non-pressure chemical drain lines. It has also been reported that in recent years gas companies in Europe have been considering the use of electrofusion for joining of polyethylene gas distrubuiion pipe and fittings. The Engineering Research Station of the British Gas Corporation recently announced that it had completed a seven-year project to develop an electrofusion system suitable for use by British Gas. An important part of the system was the development of suitable socket fusion techniques.
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Document ID: 3BD716D3

Be Prepared-You Could Be The Key To A Successful Defense
Author(s): Robert E. Kennedy
Abstract/Introduction:
Whenever I hear or read the medias reports on a gas-related incident, I cant help but think of the first major case I covered for Brooklyn Union. A 24 transmission line had ruptured in a residential area of Queens and I was dispatched to the scene from my home on Staten Island. As I headed out on the Belt Parkway at 6 a.m. with the sunrise in my face, I turned on my car radio and was horrified to hear a news broadcast stating that several square city blocks were on fire and people were fleeing for their lives as natural gas threatened to wipe out whole neighborhoods. Yes, it was a major incident, but the facts were unknown at the time and the media had over reacted and blown the situation completely out of proportion. Upon arrival and inspection of the area with our operating people, we were then in a position to advise the Company as to the true extent of the emergency, Interesting to report that there were no personal injuries from this incident, and the total claim was settled for less than 650,000. A far cry from the radio reports.
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Document ID: 3295B075

An Alternate Derivation Of The Orifice Meter Calculation
Author(s): Kenneth R. Hall, Kenneth N. Marsh, Philip T. Eubank, James O. Holste
Abstract/Introduction:
A new derivation of the orifice performance equation reveals that if the pressure change and the temperature change are measured, the discharge coefficient does not appear. Additional benefits accrue from using pipe laps. Orifices are the most widely used (and probably have been the longest used) devices for measuring flowrates of fluids. Recently, economic pressures have dictated a careful evaluation of the procedure for using these devices with (he goal of improving the accuracy and extending the applicable ranges. The National Bureau of Standards currently has two major experimental projects underway addressing these issues. Another approach to the problem involves the detailed review of the basic performance equation. For compressible fluids, such as gases, an alternative derivation is possible that possesses many advantages. The new derivation is the subject of this paper.
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Document ID: 846DB4E9

MC-3000 Microprocessor-Based Flow Computer Application To Natural Gas Transmission
Author(s): George A. Borst
Abstract/Introduction:
The MC-3000 Microprocessor-Based Flow Computer was introduced approximately one year ago with principal application in natural gas transmission and light-end liquids. This paper describes the various instruments with which the computer interfaces to enable the accurate calculation of mass flow. Front panel operation going through the two keyboards is discussed thoroughly. Computer accuracy is discussed in some detail and input/output accuracies detailed. Discussion of auto-calibration and reliability features built into the computer are detailed. Pipeline installations are illustrated with a specific application. Purpose of the illustration is to examine cost per pipeline of flow computer. A thorough discussion of software is extremely important and a brief review of the supporting manuals is illustrated. A discussion of automation techniques and transmission of information from remote locations to central operating stations is covered.
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Document ID: BAFF6F32

Portable, Automatic Gas Chromatograph For Natural Gas Analysis
Author(s): D. A. Hawker, K. m. Mckiney
Abstract/Introduction:
A new micromachining technology based on the techniques used in the fabrication of integrated circuits has been applied to the miniaturization of a gas chromatograph. This micro-GC includes a carrier gas supply, sample injection system, column, integrated thermal conductivity detector, and analog electronics it measures only 2x4x4 1/2 inches.
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Document ID: B6580199

Magnetic Inspection Pigging As An Aid To Pipeline Maintenance
Author(s): W. m. Holm
Abstract/Introduction:
Magnetic inspection pigging plays an important part in the maintenance of mainUnes and gathering systems at Natural Gas PipeHne company. Since 1968, over 2100 miles of pipeline have been surveyed with the same objective to verify the integrity of the system and determine where repairs or recoating are needed, Natural Gas Pipeline Company has two mainline systems (Figure 1). The Amarillo System carries gas from the Texas Panhandle and surrounding area to the Chicago area its original 24 line was constructed in 1930. The Gulf Coast System from the Texas and Louisiana coastal area originated with a 30 line in 1951, Both systems now have multiple loop lines and extended gathering systems. Hydrostatic testing of the lines during construction did not commence until 1965, so in 1968 Natural started a program of hydrostaiically testing the older lines. At that time magnetic inspection pigging was a new technique available for locating pipe wall metal loss.
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Document ID: 59C4CC91

Operating Experience Of Running Film Vaporizer Utilizing Converted Direct Fired Vaporizers
Author(s): Stanley T. Kastanas
Abstract/Introduction:
Not since the spring of 1976 has there been any mention of the Running Film Vaporizer (RFV) before the American Gas Association membership and in particular its LNG affiliates. While RFVs were first introduced and tested in the early 70s as Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) vaporizers, their ascent into the market place as viable regasification equipment has been slow and undramatic. This is unfortunate since the RFV belongs to that genre family of plate heat exchangers that have been used successfully for many years in the food processing, pharmaceutical, chemical, and petrochemical industries. However, like any cautious and wise consumer, the natural gas industry tends to seek the development of a sufficient historical base and need before risking its committmeni to public safety, product reliability, and cost effectiveness.
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Document ID: 8E43EE9C

Overview Of Gri Research On Cathodic Protection
Author(s): Thomas J. Barlo, Steven R. Kramer
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Research Institute (GRI) is funding research af Batlelle Columbus Laboratories (BCL) with the ultimate goal of reducing the number of corrosion-related leaks on steel gas-distribution piping. Research is in progress to develop instruments that can eliminate IR drop errors inherent in all pipe-to-soil potentials so that the true level of cathodic protection can be assessed. A microprocessor-based field prototype applicable to piping with impressedcurrent systems is being evaluated on operating gas distribution piping. An approach for sacrificial-anode (and impressed-current) systems is under development using AC-impedance measurements. Corrosion currents (rates) on unprotected pipe may also be obtainable with this approach.
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Document ID: E0FFB0CB

Real-Time And Accelerated Outdoor Exposure Testing
Author(s): Gene A. Zerlaut
Abstract/Introduction:
If weathering is defined as the adverse response of a material or product to climate, then outdoor exposure testing is that rather broad field of engineering endeavor that seeks to determine the type and degree of response to the various natural climatic environments of interest. The primary elements that contribute to deterioration, which is the end result of weathering, are: solar radiation (particularly the ultraviolet wavelengths), moisture (as dew, rain, humidity), temperature (primarily the timeaveraged temperature of the exposed surface), and both natural and manmade pollutants (particularly aerosols, acid rain, etc.).
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Document ID: 27562B7A

Two-Pound Gas Piping Systems
Author(s): Barney E. Champion
Abstract/Introduction:
Almost since the beginning, the gas industry has been using six inches water column or onequarter pound per square inch gauge pressures in piping residential and mullifamily dwellings. Appliances were built which operated at this pressure, and generally, a minimum threequarter inch pipe was used to deliver this pressure. In 1961, the two-pound piping concept was first investigated. We at Alabama Gas began experimenting with two-pound systems in the mid and late 1960s. Basically, a two-pound system consists of gas metered at two pounds per square inch gauge, with smaller diameter tubing used for internal household piping. At or near the appliances, gas pressure is reduced to six inches water column by a regulator. We have found several advantages in using a two-pound system. Two-pound systems offer reduced installation costs, opportunities in new markets, and improved safety.
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Document ID: 609E45C3

Gain Update-1984
Author(s): J. Robert Hudson
Abstract/Introduction:
Last year, 1983, GAIN celebrated its 10th anniversary. During those ten years, over 18,000 field observation reports have been completed by field personnel and processed through our program to appropriate appliance and control manufacturers. This program has been very important for improving the performance and serviceability of gas-related products. The goal, of course, is consumer satisfaction. GAIN is one important way to help assure customer satisfaction. The cooperation from the Gas Appliance Manufacturers Association and from individual manufacturers during this period has been excellent -without their cooperation there would be no GAIN. Recently the trend has been to fewer reports - but with quality reports. The 19 Contact Utilities are the ones who have the final say as to which reports are forwarded on to manufacturers, and they are the ones who ensure that the data are complete and that, if possible, problem parts are available for inspection and testing.
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Document ID: 043A365B

One States Approach To Obtaining Damage Prevention Legislation
Author(s): James W. Garrett
Abstract/Introduction:
Damage by outside forces is a major problem to operators of underground facilities. This is not new -it has been a major concern for a long time. All of us are affected, and all of us look constantly for ways to alleviate this problem. We have established coordinating groups, one-call systems, advertised, met with excavators, and looked at many other alternatives to neutralize the affects of dig-ins. One solution developed has been state legislation. When this is mentioned, it sends chills down the backs of operators. It goes against our very nature. We have always said if the legislators would just leave us alone, we would be a lot better off. I mentioned this not to debate the question of whether damage prevention legislation is good or bad but to point out that when and if we decide legislation is needed, we are not geared to handle the task. 1 could even go further and say we have an inborn contempt for the whole process and want nothing to do with it.
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Document ID: 964441D9

The Design And Use Of Light-Weight Trucks For Customer Service Operations
Author(s): David E. Zanitsch
Abstract/Introduction:
The Cincinnati Gas & Electric Company has completed a two-year evaluation of the use of light-weight trucks for its Customer Service Operations. Escalating fuel and maintenance costs and changes in operating practices brought to our attention the need to actively pursue new concepts in the design and use of Customer Service vehicles. A test fleet of seven vehicles was purchased fully equipped and placed into service at various headquarters. The evaluation of their performance included initial cost, availability payload, comfort, and maintenance considerations. Our study indicated, and the usage verified, that light-weight trucks are versatile and cost effective additions to our Customer Service fleet.
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Document ID: 2BB5D692

Expansion Of The Howell Township, New Jersey, LNG Peakshaving Plant
Author(s): Benjamin H. Yeh, Luke V. Scorsone
Abstract/Introduction:
New Jersey Natural Gas Company is expanding their Howell Township, New Jersey, LNG Peakshaving Plant. The expansion consists of a 117,000 BBL LNG storage lank with in-tank pumps, two 30 MMSCFD LNG vaporizers, and associated control and fire-protection systems. The expansion is sited, designed, and constructed in accordance with 49CFR193 Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities: Federal Safety Standards. This paper discusses the expansion with emphasis on the impact 49CFR193 has had on the design and construction of the new facility.
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Document ID: 09F61D4A

Electrofusion From An End-Users Point Of View
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1980 the Research Department of Southern California Gas Company embarked on a research program to develop a better way to make field repairs on plastic pipe. We are seeking to reduce costs and increase productivity by streamlining this cumbersome field repair task. Through the program, we identified electrofusion as a viable alternative and contracted Battelte Columbus Laboratories to investigate the concept. During our investigation, several possible advancements over conventional fittings became apparant. These were identified as follows: Electrofusion fittings could be used in a smaller work space. They could help reduce excavation cost. They would possibly eliminate the use of cumbersome heating tools, Training for crew personnel would be faster and less costly.
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Document ID: 799EEEE4

A Method For Evaluating Production
Author(s): Uldis Elsting
Abstract/Introduction:
The Appliance Service Department of Ihe Washington Gas Light Company has had a productivity measurement system in use for over thirty years. Although the current system differs substantially from the early versions, some of the concepts that were employed in the original program are still in use and form the very foundation of our present Work Measurement Program.
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Document ID: 93917001

Plastic Pipe Performance
Author(s): Patrick D. Schrickel
Abstract/Introduction:
The Chairman of the A.G.A. Operating Section commissioned a special task force in 1982 to review plastic piping performance and to communicate results of the review to the gas industry. A questionnaire was developed to collect information on plastic piping system performance. Statistical data for the questionnaire was based on 1981 leak history as reported annually by utilities to the Federal Department of Transportation. This report provides results of that survey.
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Document ID: 6C4B361B

Experiences With Quality Circles
Author(s): Garret C. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Quality Circles became a topic of interest at Philadelphia Electric early in 1981, when Senior Management assigned responsibility to General Administration Department to research the subject. Research consisted of two activities. 1. Initiating a library literature search 2. Attending an Employee involvement Workshop given by the American Productivity Center (APC) The literature search yielded a number of case studies on Quality Circles and identified sufficient potential benefits to spur our interest. The Employee Involvement Workshop identified a number of employee involvement techniques, of which Quality Circles is one, and focused attention on the need for detailed planning and top-down management support as a prerequisite to an effective program.
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Document ID: 1B5817B3

The Back Door To Office Automation
Author(s): J. E. Colvin
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays economic environment has focused a great deal of attention on staff producliviiy. Productivity is not just an intangible or a white collar buzz word its a down-to-earth management concern. At Alabama Power, over the past few years, the philosophy has been Do More With Less and Lean and Mean. Adding additional personnel to staff support groups has been difficult if not impossible. With a fleet growth from 2,800 units in 1974 to 4,647 units in 1984, Alabama Powers Automotive Transportations staff resources have been stretched to the limit.
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Document ID: C7239B82

Hot Ethylene Fogger
Author(s): Stephen G. Chandler
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1950, The Baltimore Gas and Eieclric Company converted from manufactured gas to natural gas. At that time, it was recognized that the drying effect of natural gas would be detrimental lo the condition of the jute packing in joints in the 1500 miles of cast iron pipe in our system. To keep the jute in good condition, we began humidifying the natural gas. During the period from 1950 to 1980, B.G.&E. has added about 60 million gallons of water to the natural gas distributed from Spring Gardens (the old gas manufacturing plant) and from several outlying stations. Of this, a very high percentage was recovered from the distribution system by pumping drip pots. B.G.&E. has also used the direct introduction of diethyiene glycol into gas mains to saturate the jute packing to control joint leaks. Diethyiene glycol is poured into a gas main at a high point and the excess is recovered at a low point.
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Document ID: 1DB8D8C2

An Assessment Of Frost Action Mechanisms And Their Effects On Gas Distribution Piping
Author(s): Marlon Mcclinton
Abstract/Introduction:
GRI is actively involved in research programs to insure the long term service life and reliability of metal (i.e., cast iron and steel) piping systems for natural gas distribution. A major portion of this research is being conducted within the Distribution Research Center (DRC) at Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). The DRC at IGT is a broad based research program on topics related to natural gas distribution in which research tasks of both long and short term nature can be conducted. This paper describes in summary one of those tasks: a 1-year research effort to assess frost action mechanisms to ascertain their influence on buried piping. The assessment included a review of published literature to better understand frost action mechanisms and a review of mitigation techniques that have been tried or that show promise. An analysis was performed using several actual gas utility field data bases and field measurements to ascertain the mechanisms leading to failure in cast iron pipe. An analysis was also performed to ascertain the potential benefits of inherent soil warming to minimize or reduce the need for costly methods to prevent frost heave downstream from regulator stations.
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Document ID: 95E00F91

Introduction To Indoor Air Quality
Author(s): John Erickson
Abstract/Introduction:
The control and elimination of air pollution has been a national goal since the passage of the Clean Air Act in 1963. It is a generally accepted fact that excessive exposure to airborne contaminants can lead to an increase in illness and mortality rates. Therefore, millions of dollars have been spent on developing better knowledge of the sources and health effects of air pollutants. Outdoor air was, and still is, the sole focus of the Clean Air Act. However, in the course of conducting research on human exposure to air pollution, information was gathered that created concern over possible exposures in the indoor environment. In one instance, a 1979 study designed to measure total exposure to respirable particulates over a typical days activities found higher concentrations in a cafeteria smoking section than outdoors.
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Document ID: 541B8B29

Development Of An Equation Of State For The Computation Of Gas Supercompressibility Factor And Other Properties
Author(s): K. E. Starling, K. H. Kumar, S. R. Reinstsema, J. L. Savidge, B. Eckhardt, R. Gopalkrishnan, R. m. Mcfall
Abstract/Introduction:
This work presents the current status on the development of a natural gas supercompressibilily factor correlation. The equation of state developed in this work will potentially replace the currently used NX-19 correlation for natural gas custody transfers and provide more accurate values for the supercompressibility factor, compressibility factor, and other derived thermodynamic properties. The equation of state for the pure fluid is currently based on corresponding states methods while the composition dependence utilizes the combined advantages of rigorous second virial mixing and conformal solution mixing. The equation of state predicts methane compressibility factors within 0.03 percent of selected experimental data in the major custody transfer region. In this region, the compressibility factor predictions for other major natural gas components are usually within 0.2 percent and in many cases within 0.1 percent of selected experimental data. Compressibility factor comparisons with selected experimental binary mixture data for eight mixtures indicate an agreement within 0.05 percent on the average. When the correlation is used to predict compressibility factors of 21 actual gas mixtures the overall uncertainty is less than 0.05 percent.
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Document ID: 2E2C0C09

Confessions Of A Country Lawyer
Author(s): Shel Brian Sepstead
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses serious gas related occurrences, the investigations that follow, the testimony of witnesses and, most importantly, your role as engineering and operating personnel in the aftermath of a serious occurrence. It discusses primarily you, not the lawyers who may become involved ai various stages due to the situations and circumstances that develop after a serious accident. Nevertheles, as claims arise and litigation is initiated, lawyers enter the picture in spite of Shakespeares suggestion that the rascals be thrown out. Therefore, it is necessary to say a few things about attorneys. By telling you what lawyers are not, I can probably highlight some of the things that you, as engineering and operating personnel, are or should be.
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Document ID: 624B88B1

Spark Plugs For Large Internal Combustion Engines Proper Selection, Special Considerations, And Troubleshooting
Author(s): Roger A. Armstrong
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper has been prepared by the Champion Spark Plug Company to express our appreciation to valued customers and operators throughout the U.S. and all parts of the world. Together, we have enhanced the overall dependability of the large industrial engines while increasing productivity. These performance levels have contributed greatly to making energy available wherever and whenever needed. We can all take pride in our part of this dynamic industry. Product education is a most important commitment of our company. We genuinely hope that you will enjoy and learn from our straightforward approach to the proper selection, special considerations, and troubleshooting spark plugs for large internal combustion engines.
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Document ID: AF502DB0

PIM-A Unique System For The In Place Replacement Of Cast Iron Mains
Author(s): Frank T. Bahniuk
Abstract/Introduction:
Several years ago Elizabethtown Gas Company started a long-range program to eliminate two-inch and three-inch cast iron mains. In 1981 and 1982 Elizabethtown also began to experience problems with one manufacturers four-inch and six-inch mechanical joint cast iron pipe installed in the 1940s and 1950s. Studies indicated that graphitization was occurring in this particular pipe. Typical cast iron replacement programs involved both insertion into the old main or the direct burial of a new main. The size reduction associated with insertion made this method somewhat unattractive, so that a main replacement became more common. The new main was typically installed parallel to the existing main, three to five feet away on the street side. Under our procedures, the new main would be gassed out and lied into the existing main at each end of the block then the area would be backfilled. Services were transferred at another time, with each transfer of a service involving an excavation over each main and a small trench between (for the service extension). The service(s) would be disconnected from the old main, extended to the new main, and reconnected (See Figure 1).
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Document ID: CC385AA3

Minnegasco Fire Training Facilities
Author(s): R. C. Wunderlich
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the development of Minnegascos fire training facilities at St. Bonafacius, Minnesota. Minnegasco has during the past five years been developing and operating a fire training school to train students in fire prevention and fire extinguishment and control, and in the use of air supply respirators. Minnegasco is a subsidiary of D.E.I. and is engaged in the distribution of natural gas in Minnesota, South Dakota, and Nebraska. This paper will review the development of the Minnegasco Fire School and will provide information helpful to other utilities that are planning the development of their own fire school.
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Document ID: 9BF48FCF

Comparative Risk Assessment Of Invented Gas Appliances
Author(s): H. Daniel, Irwin H. Billick, Donald O. Johnston
Abstract/Introduction:
The risks associated with pollutant emissions from unvented gas appliances can be estimated by integrating the health effects data on pollutants with the exposure data. The health effects data come from three types of studies (1) animal toxicology, (2) human clinical, and (3) epidemiology. Each of these studies has advantages and disadvantages, but epidemiology studies are preferable because they provide realworld data. The problem with many epidemiology studies is that they frequently contain confounding factors, such as smoking, and are of poor quality. Several efforts are now underway to collect better epidemiology data. Exposure data on unvented gas appliances can be either measured directly using personal monitors or indirectly by combining monitoring or modeling data on emissions with data on the periods of time individuals spend indoors. Direct measurements are, of course, preferable but it will take years before such data can be collected. In the interim, we must start collecting indoor air quality monitoring and modeling data and obtain data on individual activity patterns.
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Document ID: 3220FF1C

Project To Update The Basic Orifice Coefficient
Author(s): Ronald E. Beaty
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Petroleum Institute (API) project to update the basic orifice flow coefficient as found in ANSI/API 2530 is in its third and final year. The Gas Processors Association has also joined in sponsorship of the project. The data collected in this project will expand the experimental data based on Reynolds numbers by an order of magnitude. The data used for A.G.A. Report No. 2 covered a very limited Reynolds number range of from approximately 4,650 to 1,200,000. The preseni tests will extend the data to a Reynolds number of approximately 14,600,000. The experimentation covers a range of Reynolds numbers to assure no bias of data. The data will be collected in a manner most suitable for computer modeling.
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Document ID: EE0F1A90

Personal Computers As A Tool In Pipeline System Engineering
Author(s): William V. Leban
Abstract/Introduction:
Utilization of an integrated software package for microcomputers to design and cost-evaluate a pipeline system project. Discussion of examples where various commercially available software packages are used in analyzing pipeline systems.
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Document ID: 0823CBCF

Role Of The Landman In The Acquisition Of Underground Gas Storage Rights
Author(s): George W. Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
The surface areas of the 10 storage fields owned by Texas Gas Transmission Corporation range in size from approximately 1,700 acres to 23,000 acres. Some of these fields are located in areas of active coal mining. Oil is being produced within the field boundaries from multiple pay zones lying above and below the storage reservoirs. In many instances, the coal, oil, gas and other minerals are owned separately from the surface. In areas of complex mineral and surface ownership such as these, the success of any storage acquisition effort depends on the individual responsible for the acquisition. This paper attempts to profile the type of individual most suited for land and mineral acquisition, along with the knowledge and methods necessary to effect the successful acquisition of an underground storage reservoir.
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Document ID: ED220BB5

Regulatory Barriers To Landfill Gas Recovery Projects
Author(s): William R. Taylor
Abstract/Introduction:
American society is currently very much preoccupied with issues surrounding environmental control. Effectively balancing the environmental needs of the country in an increasingly regulatory and bureaucratic environment has often proven difficult. In the area of environmental regulation, the landfill methane recovery industry is a case in point. Up until and throughout the 1950s, America used to pile garbage in open dumps and then set it on fire. With the shift to the sanitary landfill, we also discovered that solid waste decomposes and generates a gas. Once generated through anaerobic decomposition inside the landfill, these gases follow the path of least resistance and emit into the atmosphere on a continual basis. In the late 1960s, the underground migration of landfill gas began to be recognized as a serious problem, in addition, constant emission of landfill gas also causes numerous pollution problems.
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Document ID: 02D41810

Plastic Pipe Service Life Outlook
Author(s): John H. Frantz
Abstract/Introduction:
Polyethelene plastic pipe buried as gas distribution main for twelve to eighteen years was tested to determine the effects of aging. The tests performed to measure changes in the properties of the pipe material are reviewed and the lest results are presented. Also, a service life projection based on the stress caused by gas pressure was made using a hydrostatic regression curve. The test results show that medium density polyethylene plastic pipe has not deteriorated in the time it has been in service. The regression curve shows that plastic pipe on the Philadelphia Electric Company gas system should withstand the stress caused by internal pressure over 100 years.
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Document ID: 75864537

Cng Measurement
Author(s): Stephen m. Graning
Abstract/Introduction:
As the concept of using CNG as a motor vehicular fuel becomes increasingly more popular throughout the United States, it has become very important thai an accurate means to measure the fuel at the dispenser be incorporated in the fueling station. This is mandatory in the demonstration stage that we presently find ourselves in, so that the cost advantages of this concept can be accurately documented and used in our marketing efforts. An accurate means of measuring CNG is also important to base the payment of applicable state taxes. Minnegasco has been utilizing mass flow meters for measurement of CNG. The main focus of this paper will be directed toward our own experience with this type of measuring device.
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Document ID: E63B8423

A Comparison Of Emission Rates Of Unvented Gas Appliances Measured By Two Different Methods
Author(s): D. J. Moschandreas, B. m. Relwani
Abstract/Introduction:
Several studies of the indoor environments have concluded that in residences with unvented gas appliances (mainly ranges) concentrations of CO and NOj are higher indoors than corresponding outdoor concentrations. A few studies have dealt with the measurement of emission rates of these applicances. Historically, the early studies used a direct coUeciion method and have followed experimental procedures established by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Later studies derived emission rates indirectly by measuring gas concentrations and mass balance models. The principal experimental difference between the two methods relates to the direction of the effluents: in the direct measurement methods, the effluents are directed to the sampling probe in the mass balance method, the effluents are accumulated within the chamber, and the chamber air is sampled. Total mixing conditions are maintained within the chamber. Comparison between these two methods showed some differences. However, comparison is best performed with identical appliances under controlled conditions, this has noi been the case.
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Document ID: FA91215C

Recent Developments In The Transmission And Distribution Of Natural Gas In The United Kingdom
Author(s): J. Mchugh,
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past 20 years the United Kingdom has experienced radical changes in its gas industry. These changes involved importing LNG, bringing ashore gas from North Sea fields, constructing a high pressure transmission system, and converting the nations gas apphances to burn natural gas. These were all remarkable achievements of which we are justifiably proud, but this is no reason for complacency or for progress to cease. Advances are continuing to be made in developing new supplies, improving the efficiency of existing systems, reducing costs, and increasing safety. These are the subject of this paper which, after a brief description of the debut of natural gas in the United Kingdom, deals with the variability of the demand and how the supplies are controlled to match it. Some of the recent work on gas transmission is mentioned with specific reference to advances in pipeline technology, compressors, and storage. Finally the paper looks at developments in distribution and how some of the problems are being overcome.
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Document ID: C9DC933F

The Operations Improvement Research Project
Author(s): Gene Curry
Abstract/Introduction:
How much productivity measurement does your company need? Southern Union Companys Operation Improvement Research Project developed and implemented productivity and management systems for distribution field operations at moderate cost and complexity. The savings derived from the project more than paid for the expense. Initially a professional management consultant company was employed to do a project on a service and construction operation. This was done with the understanding that two Southern Union employees would be trained to develop the same programs in other locations. The combination of the consultants methodology and the employees knowledge of the local operation resulted in a very successful study. Productivity programs were designed for construction, service and air conditioning service departments. Work flow charts were made to trace the paper processing from initiation to completion.
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Document ID: 85698E04

Electronic Flow Measurement For Custody Transfer
Author(s): James m. Minich
Abstract/Introduction:
As the price of gas has risen substantially from the 20o/Mcf levels of days gone by, companies are painstakingly measuring the flow in order to bill their customers accurately -and charge Ihem not only on quantify but also on the gas quality or heating content. In the last few years, pipeline firms have begun to look at electronic flow measurement systems to replace the time-honored chart recorders. The electronic process of collecting data inputs and performing the calculations in determining the flow of natural gas has been engineered by Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America, a subsidiary of MIDCON Corp. The Control Department has used minicomputer- based control systems since the laie 1960s in the area of automation and communications along its 12,750 miles of pipeline. As equipment is retired, il is replaced with new state-of-the-art electronic equipment. Much of this ground work helped to develop an electronic flow measurement system for natural gas.
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Document ID: 631912F3

Guidelines For The Establishment Of Distribution Design Standards
Author(s): Robert T. Burrows
Abstract/Introduction:
The Design Standards Task Group of the Distribution Design and Development Committee of the American Gas Association was originally formed to accumulate, review, and assemble distribution design standards representing all facets of distribution design including mains, services, measuring, and regulator stations, cathodic protection, odorization, telemetering, etc. The intent was to develop a comprehensive set of typical design standards representing the best designs of the industry that would be particularly valuable to the smaller gas distribution company to use as a guide.
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Document ID: 85A460CE

Investigative Procedures For Examination Of Failures In The Field
Author(s): J. F. Kiefner, R. J. Eiber
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the procedures used in conduciing the field examination portion of a pipeline failure investigation, including the ba.sis for the selection of samples and the information that may be helpful in determining the cause of a failure. The field portion of the investigation is divided into four steps: 1. Surveying the failure site and fracture to define the nature of the fracture 2. Locating the fracture origin or origins 3. Estimating the probable cause 4. Selecting appropriate samples for detailed laboratory examination
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Document ID: 85BE06C8

Storage Field Internal Corrosion Investigation And Rehabilitation
Author(s): Floyd R. Hofstetter
Abstract/Introduction:
Internal corrosion-related failures in storage field gathering systems resulted in major rehabilitation projects. This paper reviews the investigative and remedial processes of corrosion abatement programs. Traditional and innovative procedures address both gathering-line and well-casing methods. A task force approach for the examination and coordination of corrosion related matters of all existing and of any future storage field is presented. The goals are to prove the integrity of all facilities and to operate them economically and safely.
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Document ID: FD04AE8C

Fleet Management Information Systems
Author(s): J. L. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
The GPU system had contracted in 1972 for a commercial management information system, which was implemented in all companies during that year. By 1975, many changes were needed and desired in the system, so the decision was made to develop an in-house program, which was implemented in 1976. While there have been many modifications to that package, the data realted to vehicle maintenance, fuel, and facilities are still batch/keypunch entered and also, data retrieval and regular report generation are unacceptably slow. We have managed to establish an on-line data base for lease cost control, self invoicing, and vehicle/equipment inventory control. Our objective now is to design and implement a system with state-of-the-art on-line characteristics to enable much more effective management of the fieet resource. This brings me to the subject of this paper - available state-of-the-art fleet management information systems.
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Document ID: 040910DD

Forecasting And Planning For Materials In The Gas Utility Environment
Author(s): S. W. Betts
Abstract/Introduction:
We have just come through another deep and serious recessionary period starting in 1980 and continuing in 1981-82. We can also recall the previous recession of 1974-75 with the problems of material shortages and double digit inflation. As a matter of interest, it was just after the 1974-75 recession that I presented a paper on Planning Ahead for Materials in a Changing Economic Environment (A.G.A., May/76). Many of Ihe comments made in that paper also apply to the message presented in this paper (see Figure 1). Each upturn and downturn in our economy has had different characteristics and many lessons can be learned from the experience. There is also an increasing awareness and appreciation of the importance of such functions as Materials Management, Operations Planning, Sales Forecasting, etc. There is also an increasing need to have close communication and co-operation between these functions. In particular, there is a need to improve forecasting and planning for materials which represent about 40 percent of the total expenditures, excluding gas costs, in the gas utility sector.
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Document ID: C1F11118

Recent Developments Of Gas Appliances In Japan
Author(s): Tetsuo Omote
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas appliance industry in Japan, similar to that of other countries, is experiencing keen competition from other energy-source industries. Even though gas hot water heaters and cooking appliances maintain their inherent advantages such as, large instantaneous heating capability, immediate wide range controllability, and ease of fuel handling, we have begun to witness the recent emergence of all electric systems primarily in new, medium-height, and high-rise apartment complexes where anxiety over gas explosions run unjustifiably high. On the other hand, we are seeing some very favorable changes taking place in the area of room heating. Kerosene has characteristically been the cheapest source of room heating energy per unit cost and the kerosene heater has proved to be the most efficient heating apparatus in terms of long lime, continuous use. However, since 1979, with the sudden prevalence of the fan type forced air room heaters, which evenly raise the overall temperature of the room, gas forced air type space heaters, excellent in controllability, have felt a recovery in demand, but heat-pump type electric appliances also show a trend of increasing popularity in the market place. Hence, in the near future we must be prepared for competition among these various energy sources to intensify.
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Document ID: E7E8C298

Flexible Piping Method And Other Technologies In Residential Gas Facilities
Author(s): Kuniyasu Ide
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas space healing method that is generally adopted in Japan is the one in which gas is burned directly in each space to be heated. For the purpose of such space heating, the gas piping is extended to a gas cock in each room. Changes in the external environment in recent years, however, have necessitated various technical developments in the domestic gas facilities. One of these was a new piping technique, which was applied in residential housing built by some new construction methods, for which conventional screwed steel piping could not be used. Another was the development of various new devices which could ensure safe connections, capable of preventing gas accidents arising from the use of rubber hoses in rooms and also of ensuring the safe use of gas on a comprehensive basis. This paper is intended to report various new technical developments which are seen in recent residential gas facilities, with particular emphasis on the introduction of the flexible piping method, which can be effectively used in houses built by new construction methods and other safe methods of using gas.
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Document ID: 7DD733FB

Factors Which Impact The Repair/Replace Decision
Author(s): Philip m. Capron
Abstract/Introduction:
Webster defines perspective as seeing clearly to aid ones vision, the interrelation in which a subject or its parts are mentally viewed. In this paper, Repair/Replace- Financial Analysis, we are addressing the fact that our jobs are related to an industry that is constantly changing. Looking back over the last 10 years, it is clear that we have come through a period of tremendous change. We have been through major oil crises, gas lines, and threats of rationing. We have dealt with double-digit inflation, and a prime rate in the 20s, followed by almost no inflation. We have witnessed disastrous levels of new-car sales, and a massive shift to frontwheel drive technology, and a recent upsurge in the automotive industry. And for us to be professional fleet managers we must recognize these changes and act accordingly.
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Document ID: A9499B56

Developments In Residential And Commercial Gas Equipment
Author(s): William E. Krauss
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Research Institute (GRI) is a private not-for-profit organization that plans, manages, and develops financing for a comprehensive cooperative research and development program related to natural gas and equivalent substitutes. The programs aim is to provide near-term and long-term benefits for the natural gas industry and its present and future customers in all enduse sectors. GRIs major objectives are as follows: 1. To make prudent R&D investments that will provide improved energy services by developing advanced gas-fueled equipment, new sources of economical gas supplies, and improved technologies for more cost-effective distribution system operations 2. To advance basic sciences related to the development of advanced, long-range gas technologies 3. To ensure that maximum benefits from this R&D are realized by directly involving commercial partners in practical developments and by widely disseminating research results to the gas industry, technical cummunity, and other interested parties
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Document ID: C6BC32E7

Applications Of The Gasdos Model Within The Pacific Gas And Electric Company
Author(s): Donald W. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
The Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PGandE) in its role as a combination utility makes extensive use of the Gas System Daily Operations Simulator (GASDOS) In its planning functions involving,bath gas and electric operations. GASDOS has become the principal model used for gas supply planning at PGandE, It is used to assess long-term supply and demand relationships as depicted in the California Gas Report, which is a mandatory filing each year with the California Public Utilities Commissions, and in the preparation of budget associated long-term plans. The latter application addresses both the need and liming of new supply sources together with potential facilities addilions or enhancements.
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Document ID: 8FD6B957

Recent Trends In Peakshaving In The U.S.
Author(s): Robert B. Kalisch
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas production in the U.S. is relatively constant throughout the year. In contrast, natural gas consumption peaks during the winter heating season and is lowest during the summer months. To balance the supply and demand during peak demand periods various forms of seasonal and peakshaving supplies are used. The intent of this paper is to examine these different forms of peakshaving from several viewpoints-geographical factors which favor one peakshaving technique over another, the volumes of peakshaving gas available from the various different sources, and based on the consumption patterns emerging since the passage of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA), the identification of peakshaving needs In the future.
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Document ID: A68D0642

Comparison Of ISO-5167 To A.G.A. Report No. 3
Author(s): R. G. Teyssandier, E. L. Upp
Abstract/Introduction:
For U. S. companies that conduct business internationally, the most confusing problem that can occur is the presence of two different standards (one international and one national). In the area of flow measurement, we have our national standard, ANSI/APl-2530, Orifice Metering of Natural Gas, as well as an international document, lSO-5167, Measurement of Fluid Flow by Means of Orifice Plates, Nozzles and Venturi Tubes Inserted in Circular Cross-section Conduits Running Full. These two documents have many significant differences relevant to both the user and the supplier/designer. Since the international document is known in the U S., the user (e.g., gas company) could be questioned by either the buyer or seller as to why the document or parts of the document are not being used. This paper will examine these differences along with some of the background and the current research being conducted to resolve these differences.
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Document ID: 6F6AF426

Multifrequency Eddy Current Inspection Of Gas Transmission Pipelines
Author(s): Donald T. Hayford, William D. Mink
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses certain aspects of the development and testing of a multifrequency eddy current system to detect the presence of cracks in gas transmission pipelines. The work discussed here was conducted by Battelle Columbus Laboratories for Columbia Gas System Service Corporation during the period 1981 to 1984. Gas transmission pipelines, especially the older uncoated lines, are subject to corrosion pitting. If the pit grows through the pipe wall, a leak develops which is repaired when located by field repair crews. Typically, the repair is made by clamping a rubber gasket over the leak. Although it is rare, there is a possibility that a crack is located in the same region as the pit. In these cases, it may be desirable to replace a section of the pipeline rather than trying to repair the leak, since the forces placed on the pipe by the clamp could cause the crack to propagate. Since the cracks are invisible to the naked eye, some other means of detecting their presence must be found.
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Document ID: D014D5EC

An American Electrofusion Development For Pe Gas Systems
Author(s): Robert W. Lyall
Abstract/Introduction:
LycoFuse is a system which makes use of an electrically heated coil of specially coated copper wire to fuse polyethylene pipe and fittings used in natural gas distribution systems. The basic concept of electrofusion employed in the LycoFuse system was originally developed and patented in the U.S. by R & G Sloane Company many years ago. The Sloane system, Fuseal, is still widely used to join polypropylene components in drain waste, vent, and other nonpressurized piping systems. The R. W. Lyall Company has undertaken the development of the LycoFuse system to meet a demonstrated need in the natural gas distribution industry for a simple, effective, and economical means of repair for polyethylene piping systems.
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Document ID: 7DA74874

How Will You Be As A Company Witness In A Pipeline Failure Case?
Author(s): John D. Mosebach
Abstract/Introduction:
All responding employees dispatched in an emergency situation are potential witnesses in subsequent claims or lawsuits filed as a result of the accident. Their activities in regard to the removal, identification, transportation, and storage of physical evidence taken from the incident site are stressed. The importance of documentation and record keeping for use during the pre-trial discovery stages of a case is also accented. Necessity of and strict adherence to these procedures are addressed in order to insure maximum credibility as a company witness in a gas-related-incident case.
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Document ID: 19D4D21F

Demonstration Of A Company Witness Testifying At A Deposition
Author(s): Charles J. Cummings
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper points out some general rules that should be observed when testifying in a legal proceeding and the incorrect way and the correct way to testify in a deposition setting. A Gas Company superintendent or supervisor will testify in the examples. We will call him Mr. Buffalo. Mr. Buffalo was involved in an investigation that was conducted after an explosion and fire at a single family residence with an address of 123 Flame Avenue. No cause was pinpointed for the fire and explosion in the investigation. Plaintiffs, who are the injured residents of the home at Flame Avenue, have filed a Complaint against the local gas utility alleging that the fire was caused by a natural gas leak.
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Document ID: 3BA67490

How To Increase Qualductivity And Productivity Simultaneously
Author(s): Richard D. Hannan
Abstract/Introduction:
The efforts of people are what stimulates qualductivity-more quality per unit of input and productivity, more product per unit of input. Empathy-putting yourself in the shoes of someone else and experiencing as they experience -is a vital trail of the successful manager whether he or she be a business person, an athletic coach in sports, a leader of a social group, or a parent. Understanding others enables the manager in any activity to stimulate a sincere desire and want of a person or team members to do something well rather than the fallacious approach of forcing or dictating to team members that something must be done. in this paper, empathy is stressed as a significant facilitator to increase qualductivity and productivity in production, sales, customer billing, traffic control, shipping, and even the overall image of the whole Natural Gas Industry. Empathy provides the direct route to create the desire for people to do things well, thus, raising quality and product output simultaneously.
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Document ID: 3083E0AE

Computer Simulation Of A Reciprocating Compressor Compressor/Valves/Piping Interaction
Author(s): Glen C. Styer, Richard Harvey
Abstract/Introduction:
In a positive displacement compressor, the actual pressure pulsations and instantaneous flows are a result of complicated interactions between the compressor, the valves, and the piping acoustics. As a result, it is impossible to accurately predict the actual throughput, horsepower required, or the pulsation levels without taking these interactions into account. This paper presents the result of a study that addressed the effect of such interactions on the compressor performance. The study was accomplished by using a specially developed computer software code designed for detailed simulations of complex compressor systems. The model was validated by correlating to experimental data. Some of these correlation results are presented.
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Document ID: AC353B53

Measurement With An Interruptible Temperature-Controlled Rate
Author(s): John R. Mcdevitt
Abstract/Introduction:
In the latter part of the 70s, as the shortage of natural gas disappeared and the cost differential for fossil fuels favored gas, our Companys peak day requirements increased dramatically. A high percentage of our new gas load growth was temperature sensitive loads such as for house heaters and boiler heating. In our service territory along the eastern seaboard, spare pipe line capacity all but disappeared. In the winter of 1980-1981, during the heating season, our peak shaving LNG plant, which has a 1.2 billion cubic feet capacity, was being strained on a seasonal basis. The withdrawal rate was approaching the design capacity and at the end of the heating season, only 15 percent of the LNG reserve capacity remained. In 1980, the rapid growth in our peak day requirements caused us to stop gas sales to boiler loads greater than 50 horsepower. Therefore, to limit our peak day requirements, we were being forced to turn away new boiler and industrial loads even though we had a surplus of gas on an annual basis.
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Document ID: 122B9E67

Heat Exchanger And Vent System Corrosion Concerns Of High Efficiency Appliances
Author(s): Douglas W. Dewerth, Craig A. Farnsworth
Abstract/Introduction:
When gas-fired appliances operate at efficiencies above 90 percent some of the water of combustion is condensed. This condensate is corrosive and can cause problems in the appliance or vent system. To address these potential problem areas the Gas Research Institute (GRI) is sponsoring research work at the American Gas Association Laboratories (AGAL) and Battelle Columbus Laboratories (BCL). This work is being conducted within the Gas Appliance Technology Centers (GATC) work at AGAL. This paper is a status report on the research work underway.
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Document ID: 3BA3E913

The Gas Industry In Transition: Todays Challenges
Author(s): Robert m. Mcintyre
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry today is not the same industry it was ten years ago. In fact, the gas industry today is not the same industry it was ten years ago. In fact, in that span of time, there have been at least three gas industries. And now, today, in 1984, we are about to see a fourth, totally different, gas industry emerge. The changes this industry has undergone are not cosmetic ihey are profound. In that respect, of course, the gas business is not alone. Many of this nations established industries are going through cataclysmic changes these days, changes that rock them to their foundations and change the lives of many people who are engaged in them. Those that survive will be the industries that master the change and -to the degree they can do so -control it.
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Document ID: F0F38910

Odor Level Test Instruments
Author(s): Gordon R. Plunkett
Abstract/Introduction:
Thirty years ago, Oronite began marketing the J. W. Odorometer. Two years earlier, Davis had introduced the Odortester. Since that time, no new odor level test instruments have been marketed nationally-until now. The Heath Odorator is now being tested and will be available to the gas industry by mid 1984. This paper will examine closely the specifications and operation of the three odor level test instruments that are currently available.
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Document ID: BA78EB97

Design For Joint Trenching - Results Of A Questionnaire By Task Groups Of The Distribution Design And Development And Distribution Construction And Maintenance Committees
Abstract/Introduction:
This questionnaire was prepared by and circulated among members of the DD&D and DC&M Committees. A total of 46 companies returned questionnairs, including only 6 who did not complete the questionnaire. This compilation was prepared for unrestricted distribution to all who wish to avail themselves. It is intended as a factual presentation of the design and installation practices of those companies who have participated in the past or are currently participating in the construction of gas distribution systems in joint trenches with other utility facilities. Not all of the companies that responded answered all of the questions, since many do not currently use joint trenching. Therefore, the total number of responses will vary among questions. The responses to questions 3, 6, 9, 11-13, 18, 19, 26, 27, 32, 34, 35, 38, 48, 49, 54, and 58 are from only those companies currently involved in joint trenching. Companies are invited and encouraged to use these responses to draw their own conclusions on the advantages and disadvantages of joint trench utility construction.
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Document ID: 91EFEEA8

1984 Update On Metrication
Author(s): Thomas E. Donoho
Abstract/Introduction:
A quiet resurgence of activity towards metric conversion in the United Stales seems to be underway. With the driving force appearing to have shifted from the private sector to the Federal Government, impact on the member companies of the American Gas Association should be felt sooner and more strongly than predicted just several years ago. An awareness of metrication activities is essential to permit problems to be avoided and opportunities to be seized. While metric activity was already being pursued in many segments of the United States, it was not until passage of the Metric Conversion Act of 1975 that American interest in metrication became truly widespread. This new interest covered a broad range, from those businesses whose international trade made metrication almost essential to them, to those people who firmly believed that adoption of foreign standards of measurement would be subversive and must be resisted. In between were those who adopted a defensive watch-dog posture and those who began monitoring to ensure that Ihey did not miss any opportunities that arose from a conversion that most see as inevitable.
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Document ID: B94721EF

Automatic Electrofusion Process For Polyethylene Systems
Author(s): Jim Inhofe
Abstract/Introduction:
The success of polyethylene pipe over the last 20 years has revolutionized the oil and gas industry, creating many changes. The natural gas industry has gradually progressed from allmetal systems, to mixed systems using 10 percent P.E., to all plastic systems. Popular joining techniques for plastic pipe include mechanical fittings (steel and plastic), socket fusion, and butt fusion, all of which have certain disadvantages- in some applications, even poor performance characteristics, Expanding volume requirements throughout the market place have naturally promoted ihe research of new materials and faster, more efficient joining techniques. A multitude of training programs and joining procedures had to be created for field personnel.
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Document ID: 47CFD410

Insurance Requirements At Gas Compressor Stations
Author(s): Robert E. Dundas
Abstract/Introduction:
The recommendations of the Factory Mutual insurance system for protection of natural gas compressor stations from fire and explosion are presented and discussed. These include standards for noncombustible and damage-limiting building construction, standards for natural gas piping, installation of electrical equipment in accordance with the National Electrical Code, and standards for fire protection.
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Document ID: 86B4DCE0

Litigation Paperwork And You
Author(s): John m. Lennon
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper has been prepared to help you aid your company in defending against lawsuits. We all have heard about those mysterious items known as lawsuits but how many of you have seen and studied one. How many of you have had to actually assist in the handling of a lawsuit from its inception through to trial or settlement? As you know, throughout the United States any person or entity can file a lawsuit against any other party, and the trend today is that more and more suits are being filed. The reasons for iheir being filed are often left only to the fine imagination of the lawyers. Lawyers today represent some of the cream of the crop of our bright young minds. Therefore, lomorrow definitely will bring even more strange lawsuits against your company and mine. Remember, the law is not static. It is a microcosm of societal changes. It is, in fact, to a large degree responsible for the changes in society on a daily basis.
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Document ID: 6EC20C30

Cost Reducing Ideas
Author(s): Henry H. Friediger
Abstract/Introduction:
The distribution, construction, and maintenance committee felt that during the difficult economic conditions experienced by our companies over the past two years, each of us has implemented many belt tightening programs in an effort to reduce costs and thus improve earnings or our competitive position with other fuels. The committee has prepared a brief summary of 55 of the many ideas submitted for your consideration. Placing a dollar value on each of the items that would be meaningful to each company presents a problem. Thus we chose to indicate the relative value of each item in terms of the dollar savings per installed gas meter for the company submitting the idea. Therefore, a 50,000 annual savings for a 500,000 meter company would be reported as a O.1O/meter savings. Thus any company wishing to relate the dollar value of an idea to their company could multiply their meters by the -per-meter savings factor. While not perfect, this method should yield ball park results.
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Document ID: 7E8AC905

Report Of Task Group 81B: Large Commercial And Industrial Meter Installation Design
Author(s): B. D. Mckinney
Abstract/Introduction:
Task Group 81B, Large Commercial and Industrial Meter Installation Design, was established at a 1981 meeting of the A.G.A. Operating Sections Distribution Design and Development (DDD) Committee. The scope of the newly formed task group was: To investigate and report on the recommended practice in the gas industry for design of commercial and industrial meter installations, including load gathering methods and inlet pressure requirements design aspects, such as equipment selection and layout, protection from weather, vandalism and accidental damage aesthetics effect of operating and maintenance procedures on design.
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Document ID: 3858BA20

Transmission Companies-Why Belong To A One-Call System?
Author(s): William R. Lincoln
Abstract/Introduction:
Every company with underground facilities has various means of protecting their facilities from external damage. This includes road crossing signs, vehicle patrol, public education, personal contacts, bill stuffers, radio and TV announcements, mailings, and ads in various publications. One-call systems have come into existence in recent years and add a very needed element to a facility-protection system. As background to this paper, I will introduce the operation of the Joint Utility Locating Information for Excavators named JULIE. This is the One-Call Notice System that covers the State of Illinois (excluding the City of Chicago). JULIE was started in Will County, Illinois, on August 1, 1974, by Commonwealth Edison, Illinois Bell Telephone Company, Northern Illinois Gas Company, and Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America. It was expanded in phases until on December 1, 1980, it covered the entire state (except Chicago).
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Document ID: 33F88B32

Select Use Of Natural Gas: Environmental And Other Benefits
Author(s): Paul L. Wilkinson, Richard H. Hilt, Donald O. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the results of a cooperative study between the A.G.A. and GRI, prepared by Environmental Research and Technology entitled Evaluation of the Environmental and Other Benefits of the Select Use of Natural Gas, which examined various options for utility powerplants to meet emissions objectives. The select gas use option can not only help plants meet sulfur dioxide (SO3) emission reduction goals, but can also show a decrease in nitrogen oxides (NO:) emissions and waste ash. When comparing the use of pollution controls such as scrubbers and the use of select gas (from an economic point of view) to achieve these reductions, the addition of a scrubber is generally more expensive than using select gas or very close to the cost of using select gas. The capital cost of purchasing and installing a scrubber and ancillary equipment make the scrubber option less economically attractive. The major competitor to using select gas is burning low-sulfur western coal, which is either the same cost or less than the cost of using select gas. In many cases where low-sulfur coal is less expensive, regional or local coal regulations are in effect therefore, select gas use becomes the preferred option. These observations, however, are sensitive to future gas and coal prices and capital costs. The two fuel-price-forecasting models employed in this study contain different assumptions about the future price of coal, oil, and natural gas supplies.
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Document ID: 242E7E23

Weathering Of Plastics And Plastic Pipe
Author(s): Ivan K. De Blieu, E. I. Du Pont De Nermours
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper on weathering of plastics and plastic pipe is a response to a concern developed in the past eighteen months about the durability of plastics pipe in outdoor storage. The presentation is offered by two organizations: Du Pont, which manufactures a large number of different plastics resins and also polyethylene plastic piping systems and D. S. E. T. Laboratories, an independent company, which operates weather testing stations and equipment for accelerated weather evaluation. The message of these two companies is that there is a large background of experience with incorporation of weather resistance into plastics and that commercial PE piping systems from reliable suppliers have more than adequate protection against weathering in normal outdoor storage, certainly up to two years in any area of the United States.
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Document ID: 1051464A

Computerized Leak History File-A Management Tool
Author(s): Thomas J. Loveday
Abstract/Introduction:
Use them to compile the DOT Annual Report and then file them away until the retention period expires? At Northeast Utilities development of a Computerized Leak History File has resulted in a management tool which indicates the leak activity trends on the distribution system. The Northeast Utilities Gas System serves 153,000 customers in 59 towns scattered throughout Connecticut. The state is divided into 10 area work centers, each with its own operating, engineering, and field maintenance forces. The area work centers differ widely in number of customers served, sizes, types and ages of distribution piping, and operating pressures. Beginning in 1980, we began to see an increase in the number of leaks reported in Ihe system. In order to solve these problems, area management began requesting increases in expenditures for maintenance and capital reconstruction projects. As a result, corporate Gas Operations staff was faced with the problem of allocating scarce capital and manpower resources. Further, the time-consuming effort necessary to prepare the DOT report convinced us that computerizing the leak reports would provide management useful system-wide summaries.
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Document ID: 4D024F06

Research Update-GRI Projects In Construction & Maintenance
Author(s): Raymond A. Day
Abstract/Introduction:
Since 1981, GRI has focused a major portion of its annual distribution research budget on projects designed to reduce gas utility operating costs in conscruction and maintenance. The continuing research has resulted in the development and demonstration of new or improved materials, equipment, and techniques for the industry. Some of them are entering the market place, and are being used or adopted by some U.S. gas utilities in excavation and backfilling operations. Results of current research projects on products nearing commercialization are presented, along with estimated cost savings and dates when products will become available.
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Document ID: DCD302FD


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