Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (1984)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Safety Relief Valves
Author(s): Gary B. Emerson
Abstract/Introduction:
A safety relief valve (SRV) is a pressure relieving device which automatically relieves a system of excess pressure when abnormal operating conditions cause the system pressure to exceed a set limit, and recloses when the abnormal pressure decreases below the set limit. The following summary of basic SRV types - weight loaded, direct spring operated, and pilot operated - outlines the operation and the pros and cons of each type. It is intended to be relative and not absolute.
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Document ID: 74DB94DD

Measurement By Battery-Operated Field Computers
Author(s): William E. Sheen
Abstract/Introduction:
A battery-operated, computer based measurement and telemetry system is now available. This system provides accurate measurement of flow data at a central location and incorporates capabilities for remote monitoring and control. It has been successfully field tested.
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Document ID: AE76C555

On-Line Gas Chromatography
Author(s): William A. Garratt
Abstract/Introduction:
The on-line, or process, gas chromatograph is a sophisticated and highly automated instrument commonly used in natural gas analyses. This paper describes the chromatographic method for separating, measuring, and identifying gases, and explains how an on-line chromatograph differs from a laboratory model. Gas chromatography is the most widely used method of gas analysis employed in the market place today for good reason. The gas chromatograph is basically simple to use, maintenance and repairs are easily made, it is accurate and precise, and its down time is very low when compared to other instruments. The initial cost of the instrument can vary from five to forty thousand dollars depending on what data reduction accessories are included.
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Document ID: 7CD64DF1

Problems In Offshore Gas Measurement
Author(s): William H. Hall
Abstract/Introduction:
When problems in measurement are discussed, in particular offshore measurement most people immediately think of the severe environment, harsh gas quality and its impact on the orifice plate, bellows or turbine meter blades. Little consideration is given to the overall design, location, and auxiliary equipment. The following will be a broad discussion of problems encountered with offshore measurement facilities, particurlarly the selection of equipment, meters, and steps that have been taken in recent years to provide a more accurate and timely measurement of natural gas offshore.
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Document ID: 2BC8AD3A

Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): m. J. Sergesketter
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will provide information for use in selecting, applying, and checking the orifice metering system, with emphasis on gas measurement. The primary reference for mechanical tolerances of the orifice meter tube, plate holder and plate is American Gas Association Report No. 3, Ofifice Metering of Natural Gas, now published as ANSI/API Standard 2530. Much of this information is also published in a simpler, condensed format by orifice meter manufacturers. An excellent reference is Singer American Meter Division Handbook E-2. Meter tube and orifice plate information is contained in the Daniel Industries Flow Products Division Catalog, and recommended installation practices for differential pressure instruments are contained in the ITT Barton Model 202A Flow Recorder Manual.
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Document ID: 9FDEA487

Application Of The Anhubar Heasurehent In Gas Production And Processing
Author(s): Darrell Pebley
Abstract/Introduction:
Just because a flow measurement device is complex and/or expensive does not automatically mean that it is the best or most accurate. Oftentimes the most simple device is just as good and accurate and frequently even better. Economic pressure encourages the emergence of better all-around devices with greater reliability and accuracy. These and other factors have brought to the fluid flow measurement industry the Multiport Averaging Pitot Primary Flow Measurement Device. This refined version of the basic pitot tube, the same as the orifice and other head-type primaries, is based on the same standard hydraulic equation, continuity equation and Bernoullis Theorem. Thus, an extension and improvement of proven concepts and device makes available to the industry a primary flow measurement device which offers many benefits, including a simple design, with equal or better performance for fluid flow measurement and process control applications.
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Document ID: 641D2CA5

Application Of Gas Chromatograph For On-Line Analysis Op Natural Gas
Author(s): Lelghton Fields
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas chromatography is a method by which gas or vaporizable liquid mixtures are physically separated into their individual components and quantified. There are four major elements in any gas chromatograph: (l) carrier gas for transporting the sample along the column, (2) means of introducing the sample, (3) separating column, and (H) detector. The carrier gas is regulated for a constant flow through the column and detector. The sample is introduced at the head of the column and the progress of the individual component through the column is governed by its vapor pressure and its interaction with the stationary phase. The individual components will sequentially exit the column into the detector which produces a signal proportional to its concentration. Figure 1 shows a basic on-line chromatograph which has the additional elements required to bring the sample to the chromatograph and record the data.
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Document ID: 3295E450

Charts, Pens & Ink
Author(s): Donald R. Bachle
Abstract/Introduction:
A chart is a relative Inexpensive piece of paper with a hole in the center. However, when you place it on a recorder that thru linkages translates pressures to a couple of lines on a chart, you suddenly have a record of a purchase or sale of a companys product. These lines are then translated to data, to volumes of product, and to millions of dollars. The purpose of this paper is for you to learn as much as possible about these charts and to have a greater appreciation for them. AGA Gas Measurement Committee Report #4 - A Report on Recording Charts gives these definitions in paragraph two.
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Document ID: 65E88EF6

Combustible And Toxic Gas Monitors - Selection, Installation And Maintenance
Author(s): Richard m. Sins
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to quickly and accurately detect combustible and toxic gases is tantamount to the safe operation of a facility. This paper will deal with the selection, installation, operation, and maintenance of combustible and toxic gas monitoring systems with emphasis on system design considerations .
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Document ID: F626290F

Light Hydrocarbon Measurement
Author(s): E. L. Upp
Abstract/Introduction:
Light hydrocarbons roughly, pentanes and lighter in the hydrocarbon chain, have become a more popular feedstock for the chemical industries. Sufficient demand has generated international trading in these fluids. This has created a need to reexamine our measurement practices, since at the same time the value of the product and the need for accurate measurement at much wider transfer conditions has increased. A discussion of the latest practices in the measurement of these products considering these requirements, is the subject of this paper.
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Document ID: AD9934AB

Computer Applications To Chart Processing
Author(s): Ted J. Glazebrook
Abstract/Introduction:
Most of us are familiar with the orifice meter and the orifice chart. We recognize that the chart is the key to determining the amount of gas used or produced. However, somewhere between the meter and the volume statement the information on the chart must be interpreted and calculated. It is important to bear in mind that the orifice chart does not contain all the Information necessary for that final volume. Gas measurement would be quite simple if all we had to do was go into the field, read a little black box, assign a monetary value to the amount and then send a check or a bill. Unfortunately, there is no single instrument which can measure all of the different types of information needed to calculate a volume or an MMBTU value. Some of the information which is required and the associated instruments used to capture that data are:
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Document ID: EA996F86

Chart Auditing: Another Perspective
Author(s): John P. Anerousis, Gerald A. Fillman
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject for this meeting is chart auditing and it has occurred to us that our audience is probably composed primarily of representatives from the pipeline companies. Although we are both engaged in the same profession of gas measurement, we often represent distinctly different points of view: that of the Buyer, generally defined herein as the pipeline companies, and that of the Seller who, for the purpose of this presentation, is the gas producer and who is often represented by independent measurement firms such as our own. Therefore, whether our premise concerning the composition of our audience is accurate or not, we fee that a few observations about those sometimes divergent points of view might be useful.
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Document ID: 578DE5A1

Principles Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): James A. Simpkins
Abstract/Introduction:
Rockwell introduced the gas turbine meter to the U.S. market in 1963. The original units were 6 flanged meters with a capacity of 30,000 CFH at 4 ounces inlet pressure and 125 pound working pressure cast aluminum bodies. Due to the rapid acceptance of the relatively new gas metering concept by all phases of the gas industry, development of additional sizes and working pressures of gas turbine meters has been fairly rapid. Today, turbine meters are available in the following sizes and working pressures:
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Document ID: 9CDF99BD

Understanding Basic Electronics
Author(s): Louis A. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
It has been practical for some time to use electronic systems to duplicate the control effects that can be produced with pneumatics. The refinement of solid state electronics has given a decided economic edge to the electronic systems over the pneumatic. Now the Integrated Circuit (IC) has increased the electronic advantage with a combination of lower cost and higher reliability. In addition to the lower cost and higher reliability, the electronics has the advantage of almost instant transmission of signals to remote locations, and the signal is easily adapted to a variety of control systems. The electronic systems can be monitored and controlled by microprocessors. The instrument technician needs to have an understanding of electricity and electronics to maintain and operate electronic instrumentation properly. The complete theory of electronics is far beyond the scope of this paper and will not be attempted. The basic theory used in this paper is only to the depth to explain the general concepts.
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Document ID: 08742D20

Fundamental Principles Of Displacement Meters
Author(s): W. N. Donachy
Abstract/Introduction:
The first practical gas meter was made in England in 1815 by Samual Clegg. The meter was a revolving drum, water sealed Wet gas meter. Various imrovements were made to this basic mechanism and one of the last improvements being the Hinman Drum patented by Charles Hinman of Boston in 1896. The Hinman Drum offers less resistance to rotation in water and an increase in capacity. The Hinman Drum principle is still used today in laboratory wet test meters. The early Wet meters were mainly used to measure the send-out of gas manufacturing plants. These meters ranged in sizes up to 18 feet in diameter with lengths about equal to the diameter.
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Document ID: 5A73E71C

Inspection And Maintenance Planning And Record Keeping Using Pcs
Author(s): Terry D. Boss
Abstract/Introduction:
My job as Superintendent of Codes and Standards at Natural Gas Pipeline is to compile, interpret and implement safety regulations under the Department of Transportations Part 192 regulations. These regulations govern the minimum federal safety standards for natural gas pipelines. Verifiable recordkeeping is an important facet of the regulations. The regulations require inspection and maintenance procedures be performed at regular intervals. Implementing a system to cover company locations established in 13 states is a difficult task.
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Document ID: 8BF13FFD

Design Considerations For Orifice Measurement Installations
Author(s): Harry Harrison
Abstract/Introduction:
The design of a metering station should be of the utmost importance to anyone involved in the transmission, production, purchase or sale of fluids. A sound design based on known criteria, past history, industry standards and common sense will yield not only an accurate station but also one that is reliable. The staiadard most U.S. companies adhere to for their orifice measurement is the American National Standards Institute, Orifice Metering of Natural Gas. This one publication encompasses three previously independent publications, namely the American Gas Association Report No. 3 (AGA#3), the American Petroleum Institute No. 2530 (API 2530) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI/API 2530).
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Document ID: 7C8B3334

Conditioning Natural Gas For Measurement And Transportation
Author(s): James Bradley
Abstract/Introduction:
Solid and liquid contamination of natural gas streams can be very costly both in terms of maintenance costs and loss of measurement accuracy. Various designs of filtration and separation equipment have proven successful in minimizing these problems at reasonable cost and low maintenance requirements. A basic understanding of these contaminants and the equipment used to remove them should be very beneficial to personnel involved with the design and/or operation of gas measurement equipment and compression stations.
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Document ID: 793DA723

Training Chart Processing Office Personnel
Author(s): A. m. Leisz
Abstract/Introduction:
Whether your department currently has a training program or youre just thinking about starting one, you may need to re-examine certain questions about training. What is training? Why should we train employees? Who should conduct this training? What should be taught and by what method? The purpose of this paper is to suggest some answers to these questions and to stimulate your own Ideas with perhaps some novel approaches to training. Training is defined as coaching in some mode of behavior or performance, to make proficient with specialized instruction and practice. In other words training is transferring knowledge or information so that another is enabled to perform or understand.
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Document ID: 2B990F09

Electronic Chart Scanning And Related Equipment
Author(s): T. Y. Tramel, Bill Horner, R. L. Pointer
Abstract/Introduction:
With the ever-Increasing cost of natural gas, more emphasis is being placed upon the speed and accuracy of all gas measurement systems. Our objective is to present to you an overview of the state-ofthe- art equipment and procedures currently used in gas measurement offices. We will Illustrate three major points of interest which Include field preparation, equipment, and operations.
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Document ID: 72E41FA0

Field Testing By Transfer Proving
Author(s): Kevin C. Beaver
Abstract/Introduction:
The escalating cost of natural gas, and greater emphasis on accurate measurement by gas companies has enhanced the need for better methods of field testing meters. There are presently three methods for field testing meters: 1. Low Pressure Flow Prover 2. Critical Flow Prover 3. Transfer Prover The low pressure flow prover and the critical flow prover involve the measurement of several variables which in turn may cause the compounding of errors before the final accuracy can be calculated. The transfer prover requires only the sending of temperate and pressure differences between the prover and the meter under test. Results obtained from a transfer prover should be more accurate and repeatable and compare more favorably to the accepted standards of the bell and piston provers.
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Document ID: 59AAEE89

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Robert H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
For several years gas men have been giving more thought to aerodynamic turbulence within their pipeline systems and, in particular, the turbulence that is a result of pressure regulation. Considering the noise from a measurement or regulating station, it is generally conceded that measurement facilities alone will rarely be a major source of noise, since we can design the pipe to give a desired and normally tranquil velocity. On the other hand, we must expect that in a regulator station control of the gas velocity is possible only up to the inlet side of an active regulator. At the point of regulation within the regulator body, the velocity of the gas may be expected to increase greatly, perhaps up to sonic velocity. Now the question becomes, What is the best way to handle gas when it is traveling at high velocities?
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Document ID: 4E7F7E11

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Herbert L. Dehart
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject title is only one of many which could be applicable, such as: DoYour Measurement Books Balance? Does Your Sales Volume Your Purchase Volume? Are You Selling All The Volume Youre Entitled to? Do You Really Have Good Measurement? If you honestly answer No to any of the above, then it will be beneficial to explore a few basic reasons for measurement problems. When the word measurement is mentioned, the majority of the gas industry measurement personnel automatically convert their thoughts to a meter. The meter contributes only 1/2 to 1/4 toward the total science of measurement depending on the application.
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Document ID: 89CEF168

Periodic Inspections - District Regulators And Relief Valves
Author(s): Alford Boydston
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years the gas regulator has been taken for granted. It has become such a familiar sight we dont stop to realize the importance of this piece of equipment. With the complex pipeline systems of today, every cubic foot of gas passes through many regulators before it is consumed in some process or customer appliance. One of the most important regulating facilities in the gas industry is the district regulator station. It is the source of gas supply to industrial, commercial, and domestic customers from transmission and distribution pipeline systems. Periodic inspections of regulators, relief valves, and control instruments are very important in preventing interruptions. Accurate and dependable service of a regulating facility means constant attention to operating and maintenance and is directly related to a workable inspection program. Todays regulatory agencies, safety practices, new and sophisticated equipment, make more detailed inspections necessary The purpose of this paper is to present guidelines, methods, procedures, and expected results of a district regulator station inspection program. However, each company must make its own interpretation of what is necessary for Regulatory and Contractual Compliance requirements.
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Document ID: 8445AD9B

Flow Measurement By Insertion Turbine Flowmeters
Author(s): Jerry Mcintosh
Abstract/Introduction:
Insertion turbine meters are designed to offer a cost effective means of measurement of gas or liquids in large area ducts and pipelines. Measurement is achieved with a small rotor mounted on a strut giving a pulse output each time a rotor blade passes the plckoff. This turbine rotor rotates at a rate directly proportional to the velocity of the media being measured. The retractable insertion turbine meter can be installed or retracted from the line through an isolation valve which has been mounted on a riser. A conventional hot tap tool is normally used to cut an opening in the line through which the probe is inserted.
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Document ID: 75137097

Field Inspections And Calibrating Measurement Instruments
Author(s): Mike Eads
Abstract/Introduction:
The rising cost of gas has placed accurate measurement the number one prioirity on most companies list. Most companies management are willing to spend much more money to accomplish good measurement than in past years. In the past, the phrase unaccounted for gas related mostly to leaks. Management is now looking to measurement supervisors for assistance in reducing unaccounted for gas. Over the years meter accuracy was and is a routine topic of conversation. Very seldom do you hear much talk of instrument accuracy. Our company has for years had a very od maintenance program on all types of meters. Recently, we have initiated steps to completely rework or replace all measurement instruments. Following are basic steps and determining factors in achieving this function.
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Document ID: 6DF762DA

Computer Measurement For Custody Transfer On The TRAILBLA2ER System
Author(s): Gary m. Buckler
Abstract/Introduction:
In this day ou fast living, small computers and microprocessors, people are no longer satisfied with old methods of gathering measurement information. Today time is money and the faster and more accurately we can gather information, the better it is for all parties involved. The Trailblazer System has opted to abandon standard chart measurement and go with a faster system of computer measurement. The object of this is to not only strive for more accurate measurement, but to have real time volumes available to all partners as they are calculated on site. Also, this system will eventually eliminate the necessity of storing large amounts of paper. In the paper I will look at the types of equipment used at the different locations and how this equipment is being used.
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Document ID: A2029D4A

Trouble Shooting Glycol Dehydrators
Author(s): Don Ballard
Abstract/Introduction:
Millions of dollars per year are lost unnecessarily in high glycol losses, excessive plant shutdowns and equipment replacement. However, a glycol plant, when properly designed, operated and maintained, will provide a low-cost operation, with little difficulty and attendance . This can be accomplished by thoroughly understanding the process principles and physical limitations of the equipment. With this knowledge, plus these operating and maintenance suggestions, most plant problems can either be prevented or quickly eliminated.
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Document ID: D9DB38C9

Innovative Odorant Handling
Author(s): John A. Knoll
Abstract/Introduction:
The Department of Transportation tells us that the gas must be odorized so as to be detectable at one fifth of the lower explosive limit by a person with the normal sense of smell Section 192.625. The new AGA manual on odorization is the latest publication that I recommend referring to for additional assistance in complying with the above. The catalog number is X00683. In addition, we must educate our public to the unique smell that is added to the gas. This is easily done by mailing out the scratch and sniff that is available from Eurand America, 1464- A Miamisburg-Centerville Rd., Governours Square, Dayton, Ohio 45459, Tele: (513) 433-2222. In addition to the mail out you may want to take the scratch and sniff to your local high schools and other in situtions of learning and acquaint the soon to be adults and customers as to the safety, smell and economics of natural gas.
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Document ID: D1695B9E

Gauges And Deadweight Testers
Author(s): A. R. Rahmann
Abstract/Introduction:
The Deadweight Gauge is the most accurate instrument available for the measurement of pressure. Repeatable readings with accuracies of 0.1% of measured pressure are obtainable. The device does not require recalibration unless the components have excessive wear or weights are replaced. It is easily transported and set up in the field, requires minimum maintenance, and is simple to operate. Tripod mounting is available for most instruments. With the addition of a pressure pump, valves, and pressure connections, the hydraulic Deadweight Gauge becomes a Deadweight Tester and can be used to calibrate pressure transducers and other, less-accurate pressure gauges. The pneumatic deadweight instruments are testers since they deliver air at an accurate pressure using an unregulated supply.
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Document ID: 314EE034

Fundamental Methods Of Heating Value Determination
Author(s): Douglaa Wilda, Edward Webster
Abstract/Introduction:
The accurate measurement of the heating value of natural gas is one of the difficult problems that occur in the fuel gas industry. In this paper we will examine the methods commonly used over the last 30 years and briefly diacuss the major advantagea and disadvantagea of each of the three major techniquea. To underatand the need for this measurement and its rapid increase over the last ten years, one needs aome hiatory of the U.S. fuel gas industry and the factors which make it such an interesting business.
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Document ID: D4EFEC4A

Operational Procedures Of Electronic Chart Processor
Author(s): E. J. Dupuis
Abstract/Introduction:
The UGC Chart Processor Is a microprocessorbased system designed to translate orifice meter chart records Into accurate billing-compatible data of integrated flow (chart extension), flow time and average pressure. It will handle American (Westcott) and Foxboro charts as the pens can be mounted so as to pivot in the same geometric paths as the recording pens of these types of meters. As an option, the Chart Processor can be fitted with pen mounts for Taylor and/or Rockwell charts. The operator directs the pens to follow the records by moving the trace handles as the chart rotates. The rotational speed of the chart table is governed by a variable foot control. The chart is secured to the chart table so Its rotation and the motion of the pens by the operator simulate the actions In the recording meter- The Chart Processor computes and prints (for each chart) the chart extension ( /H-P), average pressure and flow time. It also stores and prints batch totals on command.
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Document ID: B50E1B20

Effects On Entrained Liquid Oh Orifice Measurement
Author(s): C. V. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
In the measurement of natural gas in field operations using the conventional orifice meter, all of the factors used in the calculation of flow are based on the assumption that the gas is dry. This condition is rarely the case in field measurements. The A.G.A. Committee Report No. 3, (1), does not give any information or data regarding the effect water and/or distillate may have upon gas measurement by the orifice meter. It was in this area of gas measurement that graduate-engineering students at Texas A&I University, Kingsville, Texas have conducted research operation in the laboratory and in the field. Schuster, (2) has conducted full range field tests of gasliq.uid mixtures at 6OO and 1,000 pounds per square inch pressure using the orifice meter.
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Document ID: 9E978A86

Calorimeters
Author(s): T. L. Hayner
Abstract/Introduction:
The term calorimeter applies to any of a number of apparatuses used to measure the heat energy of combustible gases, liquids or solids. This discussion is limited to two of these devices. They are the Therm-Titrator, manufactured by Precision Measurement, Inc. and the Cutler-Hammer calorimeter. Either of these instruments will accurately measure the heat energy of combustible gases and display that measurement on a strip chart recorder providing a permanent chart record of BTU per cubic foot.
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Document ID: 5BA2A5A2

Water Vapor Determination And Effects On Gas Measurement
Author(s): Douglas E. Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
The determination and the effect of water vapor on gas measurement Is of importance to the gas pipeline industry because of the necessity for accurate gas measurement and for the maintenance of quality control. The following discussion covers typical methods which are used by the gas industry for water vapor determination. Each of the dew point instruments discussed use a specific method for water vapor measurement, and all are designed for use as either portable or fixed location instrumentation. In addition to a discussion of the typical methods for water vapor determination, the effects of water vapor on gas volume and heating value measurement is reviewed. The determination of the water vapor content within a gas pipeline system is essential for the maintenance of quality control. Poor gas quality can produce both operational problems and measurement errors. Water vapor determination is important because of the following:
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Document ID: 319BE2B2

Various Applications Of Telemetering In Gas Distribution
Author(s): Robert P. Schwartz
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the problems faced by gas distribution companies Is to maintain low point system pressures in the gas distribution system. The distribution system itself is a complex network of piping with a given area fed by one or more district regulators. The far ends or low points of the system must maintain a minimum pressure in order to furnish an adequate service of gas to the customers in that particular area. Since the system low point is fed by one or more regulators, the regulator setting must be changed periodically to maintain the desired pressure at this system low point. Increase in the system load between the regulator and the low point will cause the low point pressure to drop, requiring that the regulator setting be Increased In order to maintain adequate pressure. The pressure in the system must also be kept as low as possible and still maintain adequate service to prevent excess leakage loss in the distribution system between the regulator and the low point.
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Document ID: E6271839

Instruments For Leakage Detection
Author(s): David E. Bull
Abstract/Introduction:
Leaks and leakage detection have been with the pipeline industry since the first joint of pipe was installed. Undoubtedly leaks will continue to happen and be a problem as long as these systems exist. Over the years, many instruments and techiques for leak detection have been developed, from soap suds to infra-red detectors. The gas industry has standardized on several basic instruments that best suit their requirements for safety and reliability.
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Document ID: 2E640FFA

Low Power Field Flow Computers
Author(s): James H. Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas - the commodity that we have all come to know, was not considered a primary source of energy in the early 1900s. Manufactured gas was used predominantly in the cities for operation of street lamps and to some extent, heating and other processes. Although natural gas was considered to be a more efficient fuel, the problem of transporting this fuel from the production field to the consumer was a monumental task. Oil from the production fields could be easily transported via truck or rail tankers to processing plants but an efficient means of transporting natural gas was another story. In the process of searching for crude oil, the natural gas discovered was in many cases simply vented to atmosphere. It was not until gas transmission networks were completed that natural gas became a primary fuel for the end user, and therefore measurement of the fuel became important.
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Document ID: 627288A8

Problems In Dealing With H S
Author(s): J. T. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen Sulfide occurs in a broad range of industrial areas, including Che natural gas industry. Since you in the natural gas industry may expect to encounter a condition where the presence of Hydrogen Sulfide exists, one should know the basics of survival. The object of this paper is to acquaint you with the properties of Hydrogen Sulfide, and with tips on survival gained in twenty-four years of working with high purity Hydrogen Sulfide.
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Document ID: 1C1A3B9E

Fundamental Gas Laws
Author(s): Rogers G. Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
We as gas measurement people are concerned with gas laws. To become proficient in all phases of gas measurement, one must fully understand what natural gas is and the theory of its properties. The theories about natural gas properties are the gas laws, and their application is essential to gas measurement. Quantities of natural gas for custody transfer are stated in terms of standard cubic feet. To arrive at standard cubic feet from actual flowing conditions requires application of correction factors that are defined by the gas laws.
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Document ID: DFBFCB5A

Chart Integrators
Author(s): E. S. Messer
Abstract/Introduction:
With the recent advance in the price of gas at the wellhead, gas companies during the past six years have become more cognizant to the importance of accuracy in the determination of true gas volumes flowing from a well or to the distribution lines, hence, to the user. The term accuracy applies to all areas of measurement. The volume calculation, therefore, can only be as accurate as the weakest link in the chain of measuring the variables that comprise a volume measurement.
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Document ID: 17E9A75A

Fundamentals Of Gas Pressure Regulation
Author(s): Doug Butler
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside, and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a tendency to take them for granted. Even the gas man who handles regulators every day as part of his job frequently tends to view the regulator simply as a piece of hardware which fits in the line and regulates pressure. The fact that it will do precisely that, for months on end without human intervention, makes it easy to maintain such a view. Its only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application, that we need to look more deeply into the fundamentals of the regulators operation.
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Document ID: 97E85DFE

Fundamentals Of Orifice Recorders
Author(s): David E. Pulley
Abstract/Introduction:
What is an orifice meter? What is being referred to when the expression orifice meter is used? The answer usually depends upon who you are talking to. The term orifice meter is used to mean everything from the orifice meter gauge recorder to the entire meter station. The American Gas Association defines the orifice meter as the complete measuring unit comprised of primary and secondary elements. The secondary elements consist of the differential pressure recorder, static pressure recorder, flowing temperature recorder, and any other required recordings such as specific gravity and heating value.
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Document ID: 207E34A3

Electronic Instrumentation For Orifice & Turbime Meters
Author(s): Bill Eckenrode
Abstract/Introduction:
Computation of volume and flow rate information from orifice and turbine meters has been accomplished by the use of mechanical devices for many years. This equipment has provided valuable information, but due to its mechanical nature, has been subject to frequent need of re-calibration and maintenance. With the onset of microprocessors in the mid 1970s, a perfect niche for their application in gas measurement was seen by several manufacturers of gas measurement equipment. Improvements in technology and reliability are providing gas correcting devices with unsurpassed capability.
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Document ID: 4F55CFA4

Contract Interpretation
Author(s): J. C. Raper
Abstract/Introduction:
The purchase and sale of gas is not simply an exchange of natural gas for money, but is a legal transaction governed by written agreements. These agreements often require negotiations and interpretations. The gas industry began over a hundred years ago when gas was first transported successfully and used effectively for domestic purposes. During the next several decades, no one deliberately searched for gas and even as late as 30 or 40 years ago, contracting for the sale of gas was often a matter of someone having gas to sell finding someone who would simply agree that the gas would be taken at some price, often less than two or three cents per MCF. In more recent years gas sales have been made under verbal agreements, but such sales have usually been short-term transactions that were often confirmed later in writing. Some gas sales are currently made under terms of brief written agreements, sometimes in letter form and not more than two or three pages in length. Gas maintains a completely different position now than in these early days. It is a superior fuel and is in demand. The sale of gas should therefore be made under terns of formal type contracts negotiated between purchasers and sellers wherein all the terms covering conditions known or reasonably anticipated are clearly spelled out. In many instances, differences arise because of unclear wording in the agreements and unforseen circumstances. These differences must be negotiated and interpretation of the contract is necessary.
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Document ID: 0E53E49C

Micrometer Measurements Of Orifice Meter Tubes
Author(s): Kirby G. Mcrae
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most important devices in accurate orifice measurement of natural gas is the orifice meter tube, through which a created differential pressure, static pressure, and gas temperature are measured for the purpose of calculating gas volumes. Much research has been done concerning the accurate measurement and proper calculation of natural gas by orifice metering, the results of which are contained in the American National Standard/American Petroleum Institute publication number 2530 - Orifice Metering of Natural Gas. This specifies certain dimensions that must be closely controlled, which are:
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Document ID: D1120C3A

Problems In Two-Phase Pipeline Operations
Author(s): Robert J. Rau
Abstract/Introduction:
Two-phase pipelines are becoming a common means of transportation of oil and gas from offshore both in the Continental Shelf of the United States and the North Sea, and other places all over the world. As we all know, offshore gas pipeline systems are a necessity to actively njeet the energy necessitites of our Nation and the energy crisis facing us today. Today, I wish to discuss with you some of the problems encountered in offshore two-phase pipeline operations.
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Document ID: 47FE0508

Regulatory Commission Safety Evaluation
Author(s): m. L. Fegenbush, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
By act of the Texas Legislature, the Gas Utilities Division of the Railroad Commission of Texas has authority to enforce compliance with safety standards and practices applicable to the transportation of gas and all gas pipeline facilities. Minimum safety standards were established under the federal governments Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968. However, in some areas such as odorization, Texas has safety requirements more stringent than the federal minimum standards. For example, odorization requirements are more strict in Texas because of a natural gas explosion in 1937 at a New London school that killed 290 students and faculty members.
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Document ID: 51444780

Meier Selection For Various Load Requirements
Author(s): Lou Lehr
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas meter has the extremely important function of registering the volume of gas passing through it. Inters may be classed as: 1. Positive Displacement Meters 2. Inferred Volune Meters In selecting a specific meter which is to be used for measuring a custcmer load, the Measurenient Man should not forget any types of meters. The basic types of meters available to us and a brief description of each will be helpful at this time:
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Document ID: B5059BD8

Pulsation Effects On Gas Measurement
Author(s): Galen m. Cotton
Abstract/Introduction:
The existence of pulsation has long been recognized as a source of measurement error however, the mechanics and degree of error are not well understood. Errors resulting from pulsation have been witnessed in a variety of instances both in the laboratory and in the field. These occurances have ranged from inferred flow through capped lines, to large differences in measured thruput between series meters, to common nioderate examples exposed as square toot error. Pulsation effects in orifice meters are not simply the result of the readout system (lead lines, mercury meters, etc.). Though the components of the readout system can contribute error components, the basic error is directly across the orifice plate and is independent of the readout system.
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Document ID: 16733919

Design Of High Pressure Measuring & Regulating Stations
Author(s): W. F. Bronsell, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
From the large Industrial Customer to the smallest City Gate, safe operation, dependable regulation and accurate measurement are the three primary goals for a high pressure measuring and regulating station. With this in mind, lets formulate a basic design criteria.
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Document ID: 3E0E41C6

Chart Editing And Integrating
Author(s): Larry D. Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is one of our most important resources. The gas industry consists of three main activities: (I) producing gas, either by drilling natural gas wells or by manufacturing gas (2) transmitting gas, usually by pipeline, to large market areas and (3) distributing gas to the user. Each part of the industry requires its own special skills and equipment. Some gas companies conduct all three activities, but most handle only one. In processing natural gas it requires some means of calculating the total volume of gas produced or sold. We previously sight read charts to provide values for volume calculations, but now we use two types of sophisticated electronic equipment known as the chart integrator and the Electroscanner to provide those values. Since the accuracy of measurement plays a big part in the gas industry these machines are vitally important.
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Document ID: 00B17918

Composite Sampling Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
The sampling of natural gas has been discussed and studied for many years. Serious testing on the proper sampling methods has been done in a number of locations in the recent past. From these tests, It has been determined that the sampling of natural gas is no easy operation. For a person to collect a representative sample of natural gas, the procedures learned in spot sampling operations must be followed. To collect a continuous or composite sample of gas, the following items must not be Ignored: Sample point Sample probe Hook-up and manifold of sampler and cylinder Sampler Purging of sampler and cylinder Sample cylinder, cleaning, purging, valving Cylinder transport Leaks on sampler and cylinders and related piping Preventative maintenance of the sampler To ensure the continuous or composite sampler will give accurate and repeatable results, the above points will be covered briefly.
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Document ID: F9BB59FC

Training Field Measurement Personnel
Author(s): James W. Sutton
Abstract/Introduction:
Reasons for providing adequate measurement training have been presented in numerous articals and publications. Most companies involve upper management in meetings designed to resolve the problems associated with this technical training. Unfornately the conclusions reached in most of these meetings result in one of two things happening: (1) the good intentions, like a politicians promise, seem to evaporate with time or (2) a program is initiated using non-technical instructors who can only convey information read from a book. Good training, like good whiskey, takes a lot of time and is expensive. Many managers thrash this problem around in an effort to justify the expense of providing training when, in reality, it is more difficult to justify the expense of not providing the training.
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Document ID: 6193B8CC

mm Pen Tip To Voume Statement
Author(s): John D. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
As gas measurement people we must realize that the fruit of our labor is the volume statement and the seed is planted by the pen tip, we will consider the problems encountered and the effect on the volume statanent.
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Document ID: D43E6F9A

Low Power Field Computers
Author(s): Tom Fritts
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary goal of gas measurement systems is to provide accurate, timely production information for accounting purposes. If gas prices rise in the future as fast as predicted, this goal is sure to assume increasing importance. New standards of accuracy will likely be necessary to satisfy both buyers and sellers that transfers of ownership are fair and equitable. With the prospect of high interest rates, more attention will likely be focused on reducing the delays between field measurement and billing or invoicing. The vast majority of field production systems utilize the time-proven orifice measurement method and are committed to circular chart recorders as the secondary measurement device. It is by no means certain that it is good economics to improve these systems sufficiently to satisfy the demands for increased accuracy and shorter reporting periods that are expected. The increased costs necessary for more frequent chart changing and processing, and equipment calibration, inspection, and maintenance may easily offset the marginal gains that are obtained.
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Document ID: FCE1552C

Inverted Orifice Meters
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increased value of natural gas an operations costs, the importance of Better and more efficient measurement practices has Become stringently pronounced. The use of the reverse scale meter offers solution for certain measurement problems.
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Document ID: C0260B2A

An Analysis Of Unaccounted-For Cas
Author(s): Winston C. Meyer
Abstract/Introduction:
Unaccounted-for gas, by definition. Is the difference between the amount of gas purchased and the amount of gas sold through a system. Most accounting statements reflect this difference in percentages and large dollar figures to report the economic significances whereas, our public utility commissions have historically viewed the safety aspects. Both viewpoints are extremely important. Customer safety, without question, along with service, are of the foremost concern to a gas utility. However, when one refers to unaccounted for gas he must realize that not all contributing causes are hazardous. Many are of primary economic concern. As an illustration, the major contributing factors to unaccounted-for gas and the primary concern of each can be listed as follows:
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Document ID: CC0BAED1

Fundamentals Of Rotary Metering
Author(s): T. L. Vance
Abstract/Introduction:
The first positive displacement rotary gas meters were built around the year 1920 by the PH & FM Roots Company and the Connersville Blower Company, both located in Connersville, Indiana. In 1966 this gas meter operation was renamed Dresser Measurement Division. However, these rotary meters today are still known as ROOTS Meters. Rockwell International entered the market in the early 1960s with a rotating vane design known as the ROTO-Seal Meter, and in the late 1960s Singers American Meter Company introduced still another rotating design known as the CVM gas meter, The operating principles for each of these three meters are depicted and explained in Exhibit #1.
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Document ID: 7170B982

Operation And Maintenance Of Catalytic Heaters
Author(s): Jim Reel
Abstract/Introduction:
Ihe use of a catalyst to speed combustion of gas-air mixtures was recorded as early as 1817 by Sir Humphrey Davy. He concluded that hot solids, particularly the platinum group, speed the oorrbustion of gas at realtively lew temperatures. Further research in 1912 by Bone and collaborators into the discovery by Davy determined that: 1. All surfaces possess the power (in varying degrees) to accelerate gaseous ocaibustion at terrperatures below the ignition point. 2. Acceleration is dependent vxun absorbtion of gas by the surface. 3. Tests determined that platinum was a very good catalyst for surface ccntousticn and was proven to be most dependable as a catalyst.
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Document ID: 677E872F

Instrumentation Of Distribution Meters
Author(s): C. Wayne Burrell
Abstract/Introduction:
Distribution measiarement commonly involves reading the meter index, usually once a month. This is normal practice whenever it is understood that the metering pressure or temperature does not vary to any degree between meter readings. But if line pressure fluctuates, or if regulators dont hold close to set pressure, then instrumentation should be used on the meter. This is also true when wide variations in gas temperature are experienced.
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Document ID: 7493D1AC

Orifice Recorder Testing
Author(s): Fred 0. Pitts
Abstract/Introduction:
The exchange of billions of dollars is hased on the results of the orifice meter recorder test. The accuracy of these tests is based on three things the quality of the recorder, accuracy of the test equipment, and the ability of the technician. Most companies purchase good quality recorders that have been proven in the field over the years. Some of the things to look for in a recorder are the type of material used in the recorder housing, the quality in the assembly of the linkage, access to the adjustments, the amount of difficulty required to make adjustments, and the ability to maintain accuracy. One other factor that might be considered is the geographic location in which the recorder will be used. For example, because of the expansion and contraction of mercury, a mercury type recorder may not be as well suited for locations where there are drastic temperature changes as would a bellows type recorder. On the other hand, in locations where the temperature does not change drastically, the mercury type recorder, which normally has very little linkage, may be more suitable because of its ability to maintain its accuracy over longer periods of time.
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Document ID: 62526569


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