Measurement Library

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (1983)

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course

Natural Gas Storage
Author(s): Ronald R. Walsmith
Abstract/Introduction:
Storage of natural gas has been used for decades by the gas industry to meet consumer demands for fuel during bitter winter months when peak demand exceeds regional production and interstate transportation capabilities. In the United States we have over 380 underground storage reservoirs spread over more than 25 states with the capability of holding roughly one-third of the gas produced in this country during a year. Although the storing of natural gas in depleted gas fields is the most common means of banking this fuel there are other methods. These include the use of an abandoned coal mine in Colorado, use of depleted aquifers (underground water reservoirs), and liquefaction. Turning natural gas into a liquid, however, requires temperatures of -260 F (-162 C). Although liquefaction greatly condenses the volume of the gas (a ratio of 600 to 1), the energy and therefore cost is tremendous when coupled with the necessary technology. On the other hand underground water reservoirs are usually relatively shallow with a tendency to permit the leakage of gas.
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Document ID: 03420DB7

Microprocessor Technology In Orifice Measurement
Author(s): Russ Arsianian
Abstract/Introduction:
With the present trends in the cost of natural gas, it is easy to see where the measurement and accounting for gas will receive much more attention in the years ahead. When the price of natural gas was low it was difficult to justify the use of good measuring equipment however, since new contract gas prices are sometimes more than 10 times earlier rates there Is a definite need for more accurate and convenient methods of determining gas volumes. Until recently very few innovations have transpired with the mechanical chart recorders and people have accepted the traditional problems of clock malfunctions, non-inking, changer errors, and the lengthy lag time between time of actual gas flow and time of reporting.
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Document ID: 949A81F1

Basic Construction And Recommended Maintenance For Turbine Meters
Author(s): John S. Dugan
Abstract/Introduction:
In the late 1960s and early 1970s a replacement program of orifice meters and stations containing multiple diaphragm meters was developed. One of those meters selected as a replacement was the Turbine Meter. Applications range from the production fields through transmission lines and distribution systems. The Turbo Meter produced today can be removed for inspection or replacement easily and quickly by simply removing the bolts on the top plate. The dependability of the Turbine Meter has been increased through better internal parts and design. This has enabled the Turbine Meter to retain its accuracy at reduced flow rates, this establishes rangeability which is very important. This places the ratio between the maximum and minimum flow rates at a specified operating pressure where an accuracy bond of 1% is maintained, permitting the Turbine Meter more applicability to a wider spread of flow rates.
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Document ID: A9CC1D21

Temperature Compensation Diaphragm Meters
Author(s): W. A. Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
Temperature compensation of diaphragm meters was introduced in 1957. A revolutionary concept at the time, years of experience have varified both the accuracy and value of temperature compensation for diaphragm meters, The development of internal temperature compensation for diaphragm meters was the result of a number of influences. Both the value and the consumption of gas was increasing markedly during the 1950s. Heating loads were being added to existing cooking and hot water loads creating a seasonal variation not generally experienced before. A growing trend toward outdoor sets with the availability of synthetic diaphragms placed the meter in a varying environment. It is the environmental effects - greatest consumption when the weather is coldest - that spurred adoption of temperature compensated diaphragm meters by gas distribution companies.
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Document ID: BC11C4F1

Fundamentals Of Flow Computers
Author(s): James H. Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronics in Orifice Measurement fias only recently become more prevalent for on-site use. When gas was inexpensive the need for accurate measurement was not there. Historically mechanical circular charts have filled the need to record flows, pressures, and temperatures, But, with spiraling gas prices and penalty clauses for excess rate deliveries, both customer and supplier are requiring faster ways of obtaining flow information. Over the past decade refinements in electronics have provided more reliable and useful instruments for on-site use. Improved methods of calibrating, programming and operation of these instruments have prompted many new applications.
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Document ID: 67CF9F9A

Introduction To Chart Processing
Author(s): Iris King
Abstract/Introduction:
Chart processing Involves receiving chart recording data from the field in various forms and converting the data into accurate units of quantity or quality. The common practice in the United States is to measure gas in units of cubic feet and record the data on circumferential (round) type charts. The recording gauge of the orifice meter uses a round chart. A simplified explanation of the operation of the orifice meter and the orifice recording gauge is shown below.
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Document ID: 2CCF0A4E

Calculation Of Gas Losts Due To Line Breaks, Purging, Etc.
Author(s): William L. Wadsworth
Abstract/Introduction:
The increasing value of natural gas in recent years has necessitated the need for improved methods of calculating/ estimating unmetered gas used or lost in various pipeline operations. This paper will cover methods of calculating used/lost gas for five different situations: 1. Gas loss due to leakage, punctures, blow/ outs, ruptures, etc. 2. Emptying or filling lines 3. Purging 4. Open end blowing 5. Pigging The methods and formulae presented were tailored for use in Columbia Gas Transmission Corporations operations, but can be adapted as desired by altering the numerical values to fit almost any situation and circumstance.
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Document ID: EE3DFA47

Chart And Mechanical Correcting Devices For Displacement And Turbine Meters
Author(s): Alvin C. Casto
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of volumes of natural gas flowing through positive displacement meters can be accomplished by the use of various instruments. One instrument, the direct driven integrator, automatically provides gas volumes corrected for temperature, pressure, pressure-temperature, or pressure-temperaturesupercompressibility. This instrument is designated direct driven because it is driven directly by the wriggler of the meter on which it is mounted. The cams, gears, linkage and counters are operated by the force provided by gas flowing through the meter. The pressure and temperature of the same flowing gas operate the pressure and temperature elements respectively in the integrator which automatically applies a volume correcting factor for pressure and temperature and supercompressibility.
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Document ID: BA0C5F44

Rotary Meters And Correcting Devices
Author(s): R. H. Schieber
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry employs several different types of meters to measure gas from the wellhead to the burner tip. Each type of meter has a distinct range of capacities and application advantages. One of the most versatile of the group is the rotary meter which has found application in gas production, transmission and distribution systems. When combined with a variety of correcting devices the rotary meter becomes part of a total measurement system that provides totalized flow in standard volumetric units, corrected for the effects of temperature, pressure and compressibility. This paper describes the fundamentals of rotary meter measurement and the principles of pressure and temperature correction.
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Document ID: 3847AABF

Plastics In Meters Why, What And How They Are Doing II
Author(s): John L. Esola, James F. Hrin
Abstract/Introduction:
Recent increases in the price of natural gas have caused gas consumers to place more emphasis on gas measurement accuracy. Gas meter and regulator manufacturers must therefore continually search for new ways to improve the performance of their products. These improvements might be in the form of a new mechanical device to be installed in a meter or regulator or simply the making of an existing part from a more durable or better performing material- One of todays more common methods of improving performance of gas meters and regulators is through the use of plastic materials. Properly applied, plastic materials can be usedfora wide variety of applications. Some of the important characteristics of these materials are: 1. Wide Variety of Materials and Properties 2. High Lubricity with Low Coefficients of Friction 3. Corrosion Resistant 4. Good Wear Characteristics 5. Lightweight 6- Can be fyiolded into Intricate Shapes to Perform fvlore Than One Function 7. No Machining Operations.
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Document ID: 82328DB6

Regulator Selection And Sizing
Author(s): John m. Kruse
Abstract/Introduction:
Prior to discussing the application and selection of a regulation device, lets first define a Pressure Regulator. A Pressure Regulator is an automatic device which controls the media flow and maintains a desired media pressure while reducing the media supply pressure. The basic regulation device to perform its design function consists of three basic elements. First is the restrictive element which can be a single, double, or multi ported variable opening. Second is the responsive element by which a throttling device is activated. The responsive element usually takes the form of a flexible diaphragm however, it can be a piston or other device which can readily respond to pressure changes. The third element of the Pressure Regulator is the standard. This is the element to which the controlled pressure is referred. It opposes the force exerted by the pressure being controlled. Any change in the balance of these forces results in a movement of the responsive element or diaphragm which in turn affects the movement of the throttling device. The standard also can be of several forms. The type standard utilized will depend on the application and the desired performance. These basically can be spring, pressure or weight type - either direct or by lever. The latter type is basically becoming obsolete.
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Document ID: 08602F0B

Testing Large Volume Diaphragm Gas Meters Using Sonic Nozzles
Author(s): Paul F. Giglio
Abstract/Introduction:
There have been several people within the Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation who were involved with the development of using sonic nozzles to productively shop test gas meters. However, Mr. Sam Fini, the former Manager of the Meter and Laboratory Facilities Department (retired December, 1981), is unquestionably the reason for its implementation. His farsightedness in recognizing the potential of sonic nozzles with regard to testing gas meters, and his tenacity toward the design and construction of a workable model, is the primary reason for Niagara Mohawks development of a Gas Meter Shop Sonic Nozzle Test Facility. I am confident that without his direction and guidance a Sonic Nozzle shop testing facility would have been eventually constructed. However, his desire to improve the state of the art, obviously made it happen faster. In addition, the electronic controls and parameter measuring enhancements provided by the Electrical Standardizing Laboratory group of the Meter and Laboratory Facilities Department for the sonic nozzle testing chamber, were important contributions.
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Document ID: 379E7FA6

How To Take A Representative Gas Sample
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Defined by the Gas Processors Association Publication 2166-68, The object of any sampling procedure is to obtain a representative sample of hydrocarbons from the system under investigation. Any subsequent analysis of the sample regardless of the test, is inaccurate unless a representative sample is obtained. Due to the wide variation in flowing streams and the components in these streams, the proper sampling techniques must be employed in order for the sample to be taken, transported, stored, and finally analyzed by some type of test device. The first factor that must be covered is the person chosen to physically take the spot sample, or install and maintain the sampling device. This person is the beginning of a successful sampling program. The final outcome of the sample operation will be determined by the efforts of this first link in the unbreakable chain of operations that must be performed without variances which can and will affect the outcome of the results obtained.
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Document ID: 33E55E2D

Testing And Repair Of Large Capacity Diaphragm Meters In The Shop
Author(s): Frank m. Koch
Abstract/Introduction:
The year 1820 was probably the birth of large capacity displacement meters. It was the year that Samuel Crosby improved the revolving drum water sealed wet gas meter. This improvement in large sizes became known as the Hinman Drum. One of these meters was 16 feet in diameter and proportionately long. A size 16 station meter had 24 connections and a capacity of 173,000 C.F.H. at 1 in. differential and 215,000 C.F.H. at 1.5 in. differential. The weight of the meter was 95,000 pounds with an additional 136,000 pounds of water.
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Document ID: 57CC4013

How Three Measurment Needs Are Addressed
Author(s): A.R. Kahmann
Abstract/Introduction:
Instruments commonly used for measuring pressure are the manometer, the dial or spring-type gauge, and the deadweight gauge. The choice between these instruments usually depends on the pressure being measured, accuracy and repeatability of device, ease of device application in the field, need for device recalibration, and cost of purchasing and maintaining the instrument. The deadweight gauge is the most accurate instrument available for the measurement of pressures above the range of the manometer. Repeatatile readings with accuracies of 1/10 of 1 percent 1 pound in 1000-pounds indicated pressure) or better are obtainable. The device does not require recalibration unless the piston and cylinder have excessive wear or a piston or weights are replaced, is easily transported and set up in the field, requires minimum maintenance, and is simple to operate. With the addition of a pressure pump, valves, and pressure connections, the deadweight gauge becomes a deadweight tester and can be used to calibrate pressure transducers and other, less-accurate pressure gauges.
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Document ID: BBAC777A

An Electronic Primer
Author(s): William P. Somers
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is meant to be a simple practicel level presentation to make one comfortable with the terms and functions of electrctiic components and systems used in gas measurement. As you know, electronics is rapidly and profoundly changing our iives. Such things as electronic banking, robotics and artificial intelligence are only the beginning. One observer recently wrote that future historians may consider the marriage of Boolean Algebra and Semiconductor Electronics to ba a major milestone in human development.
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Document ID: 86918691

Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice is one of the oldest known devices for measuring or regulating the flow of fluids. The Romans are credited with using it to regulate the flow of water to householders. Howjpver, the development of the orifice or orifice meter on which the purchase of fluids may be based, took place in the early 1900s. According to the Report of the Joint A.G.A. -A.S.M.E. Orifice Coefficient Committee dated November 1935, there were numerous research projects conducted on the flow of fluids through orifices during the nineteenth century. Just when and where a thin-plate orifice was first used in the measurement of fluids, particularly for sale purposes, has not been definitely determined, but it was probably before 1890. It was about this time that Mr. Forrest M. Towl witnessed orifice meters being used for measuring natural gas in the vicinity of Columbus, Ohio. These particular orifices had been installed and were being used at the suggestion of the late Professor S. W. Robinson of Ohio State University.
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Document ID: 94633054

Design And Operation Of Rotary And Turbine Meter Installations
Author(s): John J. Janicki
Abstract/Introduction:
The first rotary meters were developed in the early 1920s and have been used as a gas measuring device for many years. A rotary meter is classified as a positive displacement meter since it measures volume by alternately filling and emptying measuring chambers of constant volume in a repeating process. There are two basic rotary design types in use today, the first being the original impeller type as shown in Figure 1, which consists of two figure 8 contour impellers rotating in opposite directions, providing four separate gas volumes per revolution.
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Document ID: 3A548E4C

Solar Powered Flow Computers
Author(s): James H. Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas-the commodity that we have all come to know, was not considered a primary source of energy in the early 1900s. Manufactured gas was used predominantly in the cities for operation of street lamps and to some extent, heating and other processes. Although natural gas was considered to be a more efficient fuel, the problem of transporting this fuel from the production to the consumer was a monumental task. Oil from the production fields could be easily transported via truck or rail tankers to processing plants but an efficient means of transporting natural gas was another story. In the process of searching for crude oil, the natural gas discovered was in many cases simply vented to atmosphere. It was not until gas transmission networks were completed that natural gas became a primary fuel for the end user, and therefore measurement of the fuel became important.
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Document ID: 082DA6EE

Multiport Averaging Pitot Tube In Gas Measurement And Control
Author(s): Norman A. Alston
Abstract/Introduction:
Just because a flow measurement device is complex and/or expensive does not automatically mean that it is the best or most accurate. Oftentimes the most simple device is just as good and accurate and frequently even better. Economic pressure encourages the emergence of better all-around devices with greater reliability and accuracy. These and other factors have brought to the fluid flow measurement industry the Multiport Averaging Pilot Primary Flow Measurement Device. This refined version of the basic pitot tube, the same as the orifice and other head-type primaries, is based on the same standard hydraulic equation, continuity equation and Bernoullis Theorem. Thus, an extension and improvement of proven concepts and device makes available to the industry a primary flow measurement device .which offers many benefits, including a simple design, with equal or better performance for fluid flow measurement and process control applications.
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Document ID: 1519D090

Closed Loop Odorant Injection Control - Utilizing A Feedforward And Titrator Control System
Author(s): Thomas A. Nickells
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper introduces a new concept in odorant control. This new concept incorporates a closed-loop system of automatic odorant injection utilizing an indicating process controller and an odorant analyzer (titrator) as a feedback control for a precise downstream odorant concentration. The system also has a feedforward control enabling quick response during flow changes. This paper will also cover a general description of all the principal components that make up the automatic control system.
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Document ID: 72D0F6A2

Micrometer Measurements Of Orifice Meter Tubes
Author(s): Ray Forbes
Abstract/Introduction:
Micrometer measurement of meter tubes are often taken during initial inspection of the meter tube prior to acceptance by the user, during regularly scheduled Inspection periods in accordance with company policy, and during periodic inspection of custody transfer measurement stations. Most important, however, are those measurements taken during fabrication and calibration of the meter tube. It is generally difficult to fabricate meter tubes properly in the field due to lack of experience and continuity in the process, therefore it is desireable to use only factory fabricated meter tubes where proper tools and techniques are available. The meter tube is generally referred to as the section of pipe immediately upstream and downstream of the orifice plate holding device, (Fig, 1) and careful attention must be given to its fabrication.
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Document ID: 8903D273

Effects And Control Of Pulsatioins In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Robert H. Pish
Abstract/Introduction:
The undesirable effects of pulsations on gas flow measurements made with orifice, turbine and vortex flow meters indicate the need for methods to effectively control pulsation. Several practical techniques for the prediction and control of pulsations are discussed and illustrated in this paper. These techniques make it possible to design gas flow measurement facilities which minimize the effects of pulsation.
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Document ID: AA9F7C96

Control Valves For Large Volume Regulation
Author(s): Terry Buzbee
Abstract/Introduction:
Although gas pressure regulators dominate much of the control applications in the Gas Distribution and Transmission Industry, they are limited to applications with small flow requirements. These applications are numerous in any Gas Distribution System and include commercial, industrial, and domestic service, farm taps, and district pressure control. Large volume gas pressure control is less frequent but necessary in many gas industry applications including city gate stations, some district stations, and gas transmission. Control valves offer much more capacity, as well as other advantages, to meet these large volume gas pressure control requirements.
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Document ID: 4E44765F

Periodic Testing Of Turbine Meters
Author(s): Joseph L. Pond
Abstract/Introduction:
The recommended procedures to be followed during the periodic inspection of turbine meters in the field are detailed in manufacturers literature in AGA Report #7. Generally, these procedures include a visual inspection of the meter mechanism and spin-test. As stated in AGA Report #7, If the mechanical friction has not significantly changed, the meter is clean internally and the internal portions of the meter show no damage, the meter should display no change in accuracy. If the mechanical friction has increased significantly, it would indicate that the accuracy characteristic of the meter at low flow rates has degraded.
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Document ID: 05A507C0

A Detailed Look At Volume Calculation
Author(s): J. P. Stewart
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 03E53D05

Monitor Regulators And Relief Valves
Author(s): Don Day
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is a general discussion of the philosophy behind the use of monitors for overpressure protection as well as an analysis of the types of equipment that can be used. Whenever a device is used to feed gas from a high pressure system to a low pressure system, there Is alway the possibility that the device will fail in a manner which will allow the pressure to go to a dangerously high level. We must always assume that the pressure regulator could fail in the wide open position. There are two popular methods of providing protection against overpressuring the system downstream of a failed regulator. One method is the simple installation of a properly sized relief valve however, this method is falling into disfavor because a quantity of gas is lost whenever the relief valve operates. The other method is the use of a monitor regulator and this method is becoming more popular because no gas is lost.
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Document ID: 05FCB804

Kinetic Type Indicating And Recording Instruments For Determining Specific Gravity
Author(s): H. E. Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
This class offers a comprehensive presentation of the kinetic type gas gravitometer, including: Simple explanation of operating principle Equipment set-up and operation in field Trouble-shooting, repair and adjustment The kinetic type gas gravitometer is manufactured as a portable indicating type instrument illustrated in Figure 1 and as a stationary recording type instrument illustrated in Figure 2. The basic operating mechanism is identical for both types, but the case, motive power and linkage are modified to adapt them to either portable use or permanent mounting.
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Document ID: 19132E27

Fundamentals Of Diaphragm Meters
Author(s): W. A. Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
The first gas company in the United States, The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1816, struggled for years with financial and technical problems while operating on a flat-rate basis. Its growth was slow, its charge for gas service beyond the pocket-book of the majority. By comparison, the New York Gas Light Company founded in 1823 prospered and expanded. They had built their system on the use of gas meters to measure the supply of gas to customers, and a large one to register the quantity made at the station before it is conveyed to the gasometers. The pattern of operation used by this New York company was quickly copied by other companies throughout the east coast, including the Baltimore company. Seeing the success in New York, businessmen formed new gas companies in Albany, Boston, Philadelphia, New York, etc., and the new industry in the United States began to flourish.
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Document ID: 55B7AB36

Fundamentals Of Rotary And Turbine Meters
Author(s): Joseph L. Pond
Abstract/Introduction:
The 50 million gas meters currently in service with the different phases of the gas industry in the U.S., plus the majority of a similar number of meters installed elsewhere in the World, use two different physical principals to measure gas volumes. In positive displacement measurement, a barrier of some sort is inserted in the gas stream to separate the unmetered upstream gas from the metered downstream gas. Precisely known volumes of gas are transported across this barrier during each cycle of the measuring device. Adjustments are employed to calibrate the volume per cycle to desired engineering units. The product of the volume trapped per cycle times the number of cycles is displayed on any of a wide variety of readout devices as totalized volume at line conditions.
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Document ID: 5608F410

Industrial Metering With Rotary And Turbine Meters
Author(s): John F. Hunt
Abstract/Introduction:
Before the development and acceptance into the gas industry of rotary and turbine meters, large volume measurement was generally accomplished with orifice or banks of paralleled diaphragm meters. The latter designs, although still useful in certain installations, can be costly, space consuming and require additional maintenance and operational manhours. This discussion covers the details and logistics of metering large industrial customers for billing purposes with rotary and turbine type meters. It is from a gas distribution companys point of view, with main pressures up to 100 PSIG and customer loads up to the 400 MCFH range. City gate, transmission or production applications may not necessarily follow the same economic and technical criteria.
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Document ID: BBA6713C

Theoretical And Practical Aspects Of Meter Sampling
Author(s): Sharon J. Siggins
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays economy utilities need to reduce their costs in order to remain competitive with alternate energy sources. One way to contribute to this reduction is to employ a more economical program for the removal and testing of meters in service. Many methods are available to accomplish this end, but they all have one factor in common. All concentrate on removing the poorly performing meters and leaving the more accurate ones in service. The purpose of this paper is to review the methods of monitoring and controlling meter performance through statistical sampling. We will show this to be a better method than just replacing meters based on length of service. Implementation of the methods that will be discussed should provide reduced change-out costs while maintaining high measurement accuracy. The purpose is thereby in line with the American National Standard B109.1 for In-Service Performance Programs of Gas Displacement Meters. The objective section of this Standard is reprinted below for reference.
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Document ID: FA9DFF8B

Finer Points In Rotary Measurement
Author(s): Vincent P. Oconnor
Abstract/Introduction:
The first positive displacement rotary gas meters were built around the year 1920 by the PH & FM ROOTS Company and the Connersville Blower Company, both located In Connersville, Indiana. In 1966 this gas meter operation was renamed Dresser Measurement Division. However, these rotary meters today are still known as ROOTS Meters. Rockwell International entered the market in the early 1960s with a rotating vane design known as the ROTOSearMeter, and in the late 1960s Singers American Meter Company introduced still another rotating design known as the CVM gas meter. The operating principles for each of these three meters are depicted and explained in Exhibit #1.
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Document ID: BD78156B

Plastic In Meters Why, What And How They Are Doing I
Author(s): G. S. Veraa
Abstract/Introduction:
How are plastic meter parts doing? The answer to that question is well, but not perfect. The inclusion of plastics in meters is a part of an increasing use of plastics in a wide variety of manufactured goods. Let us first look at the use of plastics in general. The term plastic actually refers to a very wide variety of materials of varying characteristics. Over the last two decades, plastics have greatly increased in number, quality, and use. The techniques used to design and select plastic materials have developed to account for the different characteristics of plastics-such characteristics as creep, environmental stress crack resistance, thermal expansion and contraction, ultraviolet degradation, and resistance to softening when in contact with various chemical agents. The development of engineering techniques, improved plastics, and more complete information about the performance of those plastics has led to expanding uses. Their use in gas meters, particularly the changes in the last decade, is a good example of these new uses.
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Document ID: E32DBDB8

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Howard W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject title is only one of many which could be applicable, such as: DoYour Measurement Books Balance? Does Your Sales Volume Your Purchase Volume? Are You Selling All The Volume Youre Entitled to? Do You Really Have Good ment? leasure- If you honestly answer No to any of the above, then it will be beneficial to explore a few basic reasons for measurement problems. When the word measurement is mentioned, the majority of the gas industry measurement personnel automatically convert their thoughts to a meter. The meter contributes only 1/2 to 1/4 toward the total science of measurement depending on the application.
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Document ID: 928978A7

Inspection, Maintenance And Testing Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): Harold B. Sempsrott
Abstract/Introduction:
To those of us directly involved with instruments of gas measurement, accurate and continuous records have always been a prime concern. With the drastic increase in energy consumption during the past decade and the increase in gas prices, more people have become interested in precise gas measurement. Exchange contracts, transport contracts and multi-company participation in common storage facilities are commonplace. In severe weather, many companies routinely exchange gas in an effort to see that no area is left without sufficient fuel. All of these programs involve large volumes being measured in and measured out. Because of these and other complications, measurement accuracy has taken on added importance. No matter where our interest lies-in production, transmission, distribution or consumption, we all want to know that the full value for our dollar is being received.
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Document ID: CFFE3170

Application Of Regulators For Proper Measurement
Author(s): William H. White
Abstract/Introduction:
In installations where both pressure regulation and measurement facilities are Installed, measurement errors can occur as a result of poor pressure control. In any installation, the proper design, installation, and operation of pressure regulators Is Important for good pressure control and safe operations. Where measurement is installed also, these areas become more critical in order to obtain not only good control, butalsoaccurate measurement. This paper is intended to describe those areas where regulator problems can affect measurement accuracies. It will also address those areas of design, installation, and operation that are important to obtaining good pressure control along with accurate measurement.
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Document ID: 8CFCC847

Accounting For Purchases Of Appalachian Production
Author(s): Fred D. Price
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1981 the Appalachian states of West Virginia, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York produced 327 BCF of natural gas. The estinnated proved reserves in the same four states at year end 1981 totaled 4,327 BCF. New gas well completions for those Appalachian states in 1981 were 6,383 or 36% of the United States total. Natural gas production in Appalachia is big business. Accounting for the purchases of Appalachian production requires a flexible accounting system. The accounting requirements for purchases of Appalachian production have changed drastically in recent years. The regulatory, political, economic, and market environments have demanded that accounting systems and methods become more sophisticated to adequately reflect the increasingly complex relationships between buyers and sellers of Appalachian natural gas.
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Document ID: E06B8BBE

Field Transmission Of Measurement Data
Author(s): John Mosier
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation will offer a new procedure for oil/gas well production which has been performed for years by the well tender or pumper. The pumpers procedure has been finely honed through the years and has proven effective given the proper personnel to train. However, time honors no system, and improvements are now made possible through the use of present electronic technology. Without question, the field production Is the last hold-out in the application of electronics our industry long ago accepted exotic seismic and downhole logging procedures using electronics most extensively. Its time to take a fresh look at how we are handling our routine production procedures, and look at alternate opportunities which utilize the latest technology available to transmit well data into our production office. The pumper can then be directed to problem locations.
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Document ID: 04351081

Basic Gas Laws
Author(s): Ronald R. Walsmith
Abstract/Introduction:
With the risk of over simplification, it should be stated the behavior of gases at relatively low pressures and normal temperatures can be condensed into two ideas: (1) Gas volume increases as temperature increases and gas volume decreases as temperature decreases if we hold an unchanging pressure, (2) Pressure times volume equals a constant number value which does not change at a steady temperature. The volume-temperature relationship was first observed and understood by a French chemist named Jacques Charles In the year 1782. Nearly two centuries later we observe the same volume-temperature relationship when we fill a basketball with air in a warm house and then take it outside on a cool day. The cooler outdoor temperature decreases the volume of air inside the ball. This is the same reason that tennis balls dont have as much bounce on a chilly day as during a hot summer afternoon.
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Document ID: C0253657

Production Measurement Equipment And Application
Author(s): Jeffrey T. Wise
Abstract/Introduction:
As with any measurement facility, the importance of accurate and reliable measurement on production wells cannot be over emphasized. With the ever increasing cost of natural gas at the wellhead, accurate determination of volume and energy produced by those wells is becoming more and more critical to the economics of companies in the Natural Gas Industry.
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Document ID: C1F18EB2

Diaphragm Meter Capacity Ratings At Elevated Pressures
Author(s): Howard W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
Through the years, the gas industry has been steadily improving, especially from a technological and product improvements viewpoint. Today, the gas industry has standardized on most applications, methods and definitions as compared to the knowledge possessed just twenty short years ago. Within the measurement field, two important areas are still open for discussion and at the discretion of the individual persons or companies operating within these areas. One is the lack of an industry standard definition for a standard cubic foot of natural gas and a second is the lack of an industry standard for diaphragm meter capacity ratings at elevated pressures. There are presently in use a minimum of ten different base pressures, each of which defines a standard cubic foot of natural gas. There are many different methods of gas measurement in use today-the three most common are diaphragm displacement meters, rotary displacement meters, and inferential meters.
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Document ID: 0B1B7541

Censoring And Analysis Of Meter Charts
Author(s): Carl Freeman
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry of today is faced with a tight economy, a reduction in the demand for gas, and a record level of prices for the selling and purchasing of gas. With these factors in mind, the accurate measurement of gas is not just important-it is critical. Perhaps the single most important step in the measurement process is thAt of chart censoring. Chart censoring is vital because of the many variables that can, and do, affect the recording of production on a chart. The variables that must be taken into account include defective instruments in the field, sudden and unpredictable changes in the weather, the problems caused by the peculiarities of a well, human error and a general lack of knowledge concerning the measurement process where charts are involved.
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Document ID: 3EE261DE

Hands On Calibration And Operation Of Mechanical And Electronic Integrators And Chart Processors
Author(s): Teresa Moore
Abstract/Introduction:
The pressure is recorded in pounds per square inch, and the difference is recorded in inches of water at 60F. With the advent of orifice measurement, the pressure, difference and square root were manually calculated. The integrator was developed to extract the square root of the product of the pressure and differential since the calculation of pulsating charts was time consuming. When the meter tracings are duplicated with the integrator pens, the integrator instantaneously extracts the square root of the product of the pressure readings and the differential readings. A chart, placed on the integrator, duplicates the meter motion the speed of rotation is controlled by a foot-operated pedal.
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Document ID: 5FFF62CA

Adverse Effects On Orifice Measurement
Author(s): Kenneth A. Hoch
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this demonstration is to show the effect on orifice meter measurement created by undesireable conditions that may exist in a meter tube. For the purpose of illustration, these undesireable conditions may be somewhat exaggerated. By means of this demonstration, I hope to show that small deviations from perfect metering conditions can result in inaccurate measurement. Also keep in mind that more than one of these undesireable conditions can exist simultaneously in a meter tube thus possibly creating an additive or compensating error.
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Document ID: 4A242FE0

Freeze-Up Protection For Instrument And Pilot Gas Lines
Author(s): A. J. Kerr, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Many natural gas systems suffer from time-to-time from bothersome equipment failures or line shut-off due to freeze-up. Instrument and regulator pilot supply line freezeups can be avoided by the use of flameless, gas-fired catalytic heaters to externally heat the instrument piping and equipment or by adding a packaged, gas-fired catalytic instrument gas heater to preheat the instrument gas stream. Cold, moist climates accentuate the problems of external freeze-up. With the temperature drop accompanying gas regulation, ice often accumulates on instrument gas regulators, plugs the vents and makes the equipment inoperable.
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Document ID: 2355130C

Ultrasonic Flowmeter A New Approach To Gas Measurement
Author(s): Michael J. Sceizo
Abstract/Introduction:
Testing of a 24-inch line over several years has demonstrated that a single-path, contrapropagating ultrasonic flowmeter can be calibrated to accurately measure gas flow rates in large diameter pipe lines over a wide range of flows. The following is an adaptation of a paper on this subject, which has been previously presented by Mr. W. D. Munk, Senior Research Engineer, Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Research Department, Columbus, Ohio. It is presented again here as Part 1 of a two part lecture with the intention of serving as a basis for the second part. Part 2 will consist of actual experience gained during field testing of the device, and will be in an audio/visual format.
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Document ID: 687CEAC9

Theory And Operation Of Pneumatic Controllers
Author(s): Robert H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
It is important for gas men working with pneumatic controllers on a day to day basis to really understand them. Not to understand the controller can be a continual burden to the operator, in addition to presenting circumstances for an operation of lower quality than generally desired. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to try to help develop an understanding and attitude toward the controller that is absolutely essential to high quality gas control. When we speak of controllers, we want to differentiate them from the pilot type of control. In general terms, a pressure controller is a separate unit from the control valve and it will have some constant bleed to atmosphere. Again, in general terms, we think of pilot controls as being an integral part of the regulator and having a downstream bleed. What is the difference in these two types of control? One important difference is the fact that the pilot system can never match the efficiency of a pneumatic controller because it is the controller which can utilize reset, the function that keeps our process on set point regardless of changes in upstream pressure or load conditions.
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Document ID: 86D836BA

Fundamentals Of Instruments
Author(s): Daniel R. Fulton
Abstract/Introduction:
The instruments used in gas measurement and pressure regulation are classified in two basic categories: (1) indicators and (2) recorders. As the name implies, an indicator shows the value of what is being sensed at the time you look at it. For instance, your wrist watch indicates the time of day. A meter index indicates the total amount of gas which has gone through a meter. A pressure gauge indicates the pressure in a gas line it could be a manometer or a dial gauge. Temperature gauges indicate the temperature of the gas and could be the glass stem thermometer or the dial gauge thermometer. Volume indicators may be something as simple as a meter index or a more complex volume correcting instrument such as a BPI Emcorector or Mercor III. Recorders on the other hand provide a permanent record of whatever values are being sensed, usually related to time. For example commercial airlines equip each of their planes with a recorder which continually logs important values such as air speed, altitude, engine performance and even voice communication, all related to time. In gas measurement, recording gauges provide a permanent time record, usually on a circular chart, of either pressure, differential pressure, temperature or volume and/or combinations of these values.
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Document ID: CCD07E28

Fundamentals Of Pressure Control
Author(s): Terry Buzbee
Abstract/Introduction:
For all practical puhoses, regulators used by the gas industry can be placed in either of two categories: I. Self Operated, or II. Pilot Operated. This categorizing of all regulators plus all construction modifications) tends to be an over-simplification, but exceptions are rare. Lets examine each of them closely.
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Document ID: F2DB6F0A

Criteria For Single Versus Multiple Run Regulators
Author(s): Robert T. Burrows
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to point out certain factors that must be considered by the Distribution Company engineer when deciding whether to install single versus dual run (manifolded) regulator settings. By individually reviewing these considerations and relating these considerations to specific examples, it is hoped that this paper will provide guidelines for the Distribution Company engineer to use when planning future district regulator or town border station installations or when rebuilding existing regulator settings.
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Document ID: 8D93030A

Flow Measurement By Vortex Shedding Flowmeters
Author(s): Barry S. Young
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past few years, the use of the vortex flowmeter has become a prominent way to measure the flow of fluids. It has replaced the orifice and turbine flowmeters In many fluid flow measurement applications because of its high reliability and accuracy. The increasing number of vendors offering a vortex flowmeter attests to its growing popularity. Vortex flowmeters measure the flow of fluids by sensing induced vortices, caused by fluid impinging on a nonstreamlined vortex generating element. Liquids, gases, and steam can now be measured by vortex flowmeters. The principle of vortex shedding has been used for measuring flow for over 10 years. However, the basic observation of the vortex shedding phenomenon dates back to the late 1800s, when F. Strouhal noted that the shedding frequency of a wire vibrating in the wind was related to,the wire diameter and wind velocity. Considerable research and testing has since produced a flowmeter which now compares favorably with other flowmeters because of its accuracy and simplicity of construction.
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Document ID: 09AA8F96

Field Testing With A Transfer Prover
Author(s): Vincent Oconner
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for an accurate, reliable, and portable field transfer testing system has resulted from the growth of the gas industry, the growth has brought about the desire for better methods of field testing meters. There are presently available three methods for field testing meters: 1. Low-Pressure Flow Prover 2. Critical Flow Prover 3. Transfer Prover The low-pressure flow prover and the critical flow prover involve the measurement of several variables which in turn may cause the compounding of errors before the final accuracy can be calculated. The transfer prover requires only the sensing of temperature and pressure differences between the prover and the meter under test. Results obtained from a transfer prover should be more accurate and repeatable and compare more favorably to the accepted standards of the bell and piston provers.
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Document ID: 785C12F7

Operation And Maintenance Of The Cutler-Hammer Calorimeter
Author(s): A. F. Kersey
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will touch briefly on the operation and installation of the recording Calorimeter and cover in more detail the maintenance of the instrument. The recording Calorimeter is a gas burning device. The heat of combustion in the main burner is used to determine the BTU of the gas being analysed. Combustion is supported by primary and secondary air. There is 40% excess secondary air to assure complete combustion. When observing the flame, there should be no signs of incomplete combustion (carbon).
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Document ID: DB110758

Instrumentation For Determination Of Water Vapor
Author(s): Steve Dunkle
Abstract/Introduction:
I am sure that most of you are very familiar with the subject of determining dew points however, I would like to present this paper with the thought that perhaps some portion of the paper can be useful to some of you in our industry. The accuracy of determining the dew point cannot be overemphasized. Transmission companies usually specify by contract a maximum allowable water content when purchasing dehydrated gas. The maximum amount allowed by most purchasers is usually 7#/MMCF at 14.73 PSIA and 60F. Transcos statement of basic practice is to maintain a moisture level of less than 6# of H2O per MMCF incur main lines and sales points. Therefore, our moisture monitoring is critical and requires more attention.
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Document ID: DE6F7C55


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