Measurement Library

Measurement Science Conference Publications (1983)

Automated Systems At The State-Of-The-Art
Author(s): Loebe Julie
Abstract/Introduction:
overview of automated systems operating at the present-day limits of measurement performance and accuracy. The members of the panel wi 11 give a brief background of the subject, covering a broad range of measurements from DC to Microwave and from Electrical to zphysical and leaving time for a discussion of the automation/accuracy state-of-the-art for a wide variety of measurement disciplines.
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Document ID: FC8F1F4A

Calibration Cost: A Function Of Calibration Data Accuracy
Author(s): H. F. Gonealez, J. A. Harmon
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the effect of inaccur: management data on the costs of calibration. cost sensitivity is discussed for errors of the first and second kind in recorded data of in or out of tolerance condition where this data is used to determine the calibration interval. White Sands Missile Range ex erience B is related to the use of computer aded etermination of instrument conditipn upon receipt for calibration. The cost model includes lnventor ?nd service coat, but does not Include compu atIon of intanglble or unauditable costs associated with measurements made with a defective instrument. It is concluded that considerable cost savings can be achieved with improvement in management data quality.
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Document ID: 891BA116

Calibration Cost: A Function Of Calibration Data Accuracy
Author(s): H. F. Gonzalez, J. A. Harmon
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discussea the effect of inaccur management data an the costs of calibration. cost sensitivity is discussed for -POPS of the firat and second kind in recorded data of in or cut of tolerance condition where this data is used to determine the calibration interval. White Sands Missile Range ex erience is related to the se Of ccmpter alaed B eterminaticn of instrument conditipn upon receipt for calibration. The ccat model lnclpdes wentor ?nd serv+ce coat, but does not include ccmpu atlon of lntanglble 01 unauditable ccsts associated with measurements made with a defective instrument. It is concluded that considerable cost savings can be achieved with improvement in management data quality.
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Document ID: 4E7E94A8

Implementation Of An IEEE-488 Gpib Automated Oscilloscope Calibration System
Author(s): Milton J. Lichtenstein
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most ubiquitous of electronic test instruments in use today is the cathode-ray oscillOSCOpe. The quantities of these units are exceeded only by small multimeters. As a complex instrument, verification of performance is generally performed one to four times per year in well directed quality assurance programs. Since checks made with manual test equipment, such as amplitude calibrators and time mark generators, can require from two hours to a full day, and require high skill level technicians, the cost and time spent to verify, calibrate and maintain a oscilloscope inventory of as few as 40 instruments can be a substantial overhead expense. Computer controlled oscilloscope calibration systems are now available to address such testing and to provide quality controlled checks, at high speed with a most salutary effect on cost reduction.
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Document ID: A4750FFD

Automated Calibration Systems At Nbs An Overview
Author(s): Arthur . Mccoubrey
Abstract/Introduction:
Automation of calibration systems at the National Bureau of Standards began when minicomputers suitable for dedicated applications became available more than fifteen years ago. Progress was substantially accelerated, about ten years ago, when a special NBS program was initiated to make minicomputers available and encourage their use for laboratory automation. This program involved the establishment of a technically competent support group to provide consulting help and the purchase of standardized hardware in quantity lots. A significant part of the computer technology now incorporated in automated calibration systems resulted directly from this program. Progress was further accelerated by the advent of microcomputers and particularly, during the past six or seven years, the availability of increasingly large random access memories and low cost mass storage media.
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Document ID: BD3002DB

Calibration System Automation At Grumman Aerospace Corporation
Author(s): Charles E. Weber
Abstract/Introduction:
Calibration automation at Grmman Aerospace Corporation had its beginnings in the late 1960s. At that time, the companys calibration facilities were under great stress dealing with a peak workload which exceeded 80,000 calibration and repair operations per year. Active aerospace programs supported by the calibration laboratories covered an extremely wide application range resulting in a verv diverse calibration and repair workload.. The major programs included:
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Document ID: C3AE106D

Ate Software - A Productivity Tool
Author(s): Frank Sevean
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of Automatic Test Equipment and its test software has entered into all levels of electronic testing and is growing. This is due to the cost savings which this equipment and software provides, especially when compared to manual testing methods and techniques. With electronic equipment becoming more complex per square inch of board real estate, more and more highly skilled technicians are needed to provide the proper manual support. Automatic testing does much to alleviate this problem but certain software elements could, if not properly identified and controlled, cause these savings to be less than anticipated.
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Document ID: A6F7E440

Systems Approach To Automatic Certification And Calibration Of Ate
Author(s): Ronald Ruotolo
Abstract/Introduction:
The proposed paper will address system approaches to providing efficient and practical automatic Major certification and calibration problems ATE field certification that solves the types of exist with sophisticated Automatic Test Equip- problems highlighted previously. The techniques ment that contains extensive analog, video and that will be explored in the paper will consider RF test capabilities. Generallv. individual impacts on: instrumentk within such ATE reqiire certification against a secondary standard located at some remote calibration facility. The remote calibration of individual instruments creates numerous problems and results in inefficient and ineffective utilization of ATE. Some of the more sever problems are:
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Document ID: 8B9989EA

Gage Block Calibration With Computer Assist
Author(s): Lloyd A. Carver -
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past we have had the same problems with repeatability on gage blocks as have many others. Among the steps we took to eliminate this problem was the initiation of a semi-automatic calibration program. The heart of this was to be a micro-computer. To this end we wanted a unit that would (A) Store data from our Standard Blocks, (6) Store data on each set of blocks brought in for calibration, (C) Store the tolerance for each block brought in for calibration, (D) Store the in tolerance or out of tolerance condition found on each block, (E) Determine whether or not a set of blocks must be down-graded, (F) Print a Certification for each block set brought in for calibration, (G) Measure each block for length, (H) Calculate parallelism for each block, (I) Perform calculations to determine if the block set in for calibration is within tolerance, (J) Close the measurement loop on the standard block to insure the measurement was good and determine the uncertainty of the particular standard block, (K) Store measurement assurance data for determining random uncertainty at any give time
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Document ID: F18CEF77

Accuracy And Automation In Wine Production
Author(s): Larry E. Brink
Abstract/Introduction:
The wine industry, over the past decade, has made revolutionary advances in the application of science to the farming of grapes, fermentation technology, and preparation of wines for bottling. However, we cannot explain wine making in a completely scientific manner since neither the chemical composition of the grape or of wine is fully known.
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Document ID: 0B622BC3

A Fully Automatic System For AC/DC Difference Calibration
Author(s): K. J. Lentner, R. Flach
Abstract/Introduction:
An automatic ac/dc difference calibration system using direct measurement of thermocouple emfs iS described. The system operates over a frequency range of 0.02 to 100 kHz, and a voltage range of 0.5 to 1000 V. Analysis of the estimated systematic uncertainties and experimental data indicates that the ac/dc differences of single-range, coaxialtype thermal voltage converters (TVCs) were determined with total uncertainties in the range of 20 to 35 ppm (depending on frequency). Of these uncertainties, about 12 to 20 ppm represents the three standard deviation bounds for the effects of random errors, and the remainder the root sum of squares of bounds to possible systematic effects
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Document ID: C23B07BB

Enjoying The Pursuit Of Quality By Operating A Small Winery
Author(s): Reinhold Banek, Dennis Bassano
Abstract/Introduction:
Concern for quality in producing premium red wines is a foremost objective. The road to developing a winery is strewn with obstacles, trials and pitfalls. The authors take the readers through the whole process frMn applying for governmental permission to marketing the finished product.
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Document ID: 5EC8CF5E

Product Assurance Of Test Software
Author(s): R. N. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
As the making of test measurements becomes increasingly automated, it is increasingly important to assure the accuracy and robustness of the computer software which drives the measurement process. Latent faults in software can manifest themselves in several ways, among them being:
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Document ID: C115DB76

Planned Screens To Improve Quality And Reliability
Author(s): Irving Quart, Albert Samuels
Abstract/Introduction:
To achieve modern field reliability requirements, the quality and reliability effort must go beyond the use of standard quality control techniques, high reliability parts and intensive design analysis. Planning and subsequently implementing effective quality and reliability programs has become crucial. An unfortunate separation of quality and reliability has taken place over the years which no single effort will undo. Recently, however, there has been recognition and some correction of the problem. One such recognition concerns the fact that, although good reliability is conceived in design, it is born alive in manufacturing operatio
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Document ID: 07BDFD86

The Application Of Quality Assurance Programs To Seryice Industries
Author(s): Fred H. Sieg
Abstract/Introduction:
The concept that the quality of product can be better assured through a formal program of planning and control is just as valid for organizations that provide services as it is for manufacturing organizations. An increasing number and variety of service organizations are recognizing this fact and are finding that accepted quality assurance principles can be effectively applied to their special needs.
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Document ID: 28E3024D

The Challenge Of Semiconductor Metrology
Author(s): Judson C. French, Kenneth F. Galloway, Robert I. Scace
Abstract/Introduction:
Semiconductor technology has placed challenging demands on the metrologist to provide state-ofthe- art capabilities for measurements of dimensional, electrical, thermal, and other physical properties of semiconductor materials. devices, and circuits in a form suitable for meeting the practical needs of science and of industry and its customers. The National Bureau, of Standards is responding to these demands by providing generic new measurement methods, physical standards, and services, highlighted by examples given in this paper.
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Document ID: 8D34A564

The Mi Kasurement Challenge*
Author(s): C. K. S. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increasing proliferation of radiating sources to the electromagnetic (EM) environment and the increased use of semiconductor technology in consumer and industrial products, incidents of electromagnetic interference (EMI) to electronic products have increased. Current EMI measurement difficulties are reviewed and a description is given of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) measurement research, both planned and in process.
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Document ID: 627BB990

Laser Measurements*
Author(s): Aaron A. Sanders
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the discovery of the laser some twenty years ago, applications have proliferated to where their use includes nearly all disciplines of engineering and science as well as medicine, art, information processing, communications, weapons, display effects for rock concerts, and industrial processing. These applications include lasers of various wavelengths from the ultraviolet to the far infrared and encompass cw as well as pulsed lasers varying from very low levels of power, at the limits of detection, to levels of power so high as to include applications of laser weaponry.
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Document ID: 76B44D1F

Transient Field Infrared Video Thermography As A Procedure For Nondestructive Testing
Author(s): C. P. Burge, J. Gryzagoridis
Abstract/Introduction:
A feasibility study has been completed which indicates that infrared scanning of transient heat flow has great potential as a technique for nondestructive evaluation of metal components. Analytical predictions have been substantiated by qualitative experimental results.
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Document ID: C8E0DB16

Ultra-Stable Temperature Monitoring And Control Systems
Author(s): Mark F. Smith, Roger m. Hart
Abstract/Introduction:
Most of the electronic temperature monitoring and control systems that are being manufactured have a problem with stability. A DC system has three main contributors to the stability problem. They are thermocouple effects, input offset voltage drift of the input amplifier, and temperature coefficient of the components. The DC system stability problem can be reduced by using higher quality parts and good engineering practices. Ultra-stable temperature monitoring and control systems can be made by using an AC system which greatly reduces the thermocouple effects. Stability can also be increased by using the proper sensor. A good stable sensor is the platinum RTD.
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Document ID: 859DBAD0

Ultra-Stable Temperature Monitoring And Control Systems
Author(s): Hark F. Smith, Roger m. Hart
Abstract/Introduction:
Most of the electronic temperature monitoring and control systems that are being manufactured have a problem with stability. A DC system has three main contributors to the stability problem. They are thermocouple effects, input offset voltage drift of the input amplifier, and temperature ooeffioient of the components. The DC system stability problem can be reduced by using higher quality parts and good engineering practices. Ultra-stable temperature monitoring and oontrol systems can be made by using a AC system which greatly reduces the thermocouple effects. Stability can also be increased by using the proper sensor. A good stable sensor is the platinum RTD.
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Document ID: 2BE1B953

High Speed, Accurate Measurements On Tee Shop Floor
Author(s): Russell S. Shelton
Abstract/Introduction:
Any attempt to look into the future is risky, as anyone who has ever played the stock market can verify. Still, there are times when we must try. A case in point is the factory of the future, so called because it will be a combination of existing capabilities together with others yet to be developed. In general terms it will maximize productivity and minimize labor and scrap in order to generate the greatest profit for the manufacturer.
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Document ID: 12A44CFF

A Computer Controlled Systeii To Calibrate Microwave Power Sensors And Attenuators
Author(s): Mike Cuevas, John L. Minck
Abstract/Introduction:
Power at microwave frequencies is expensive, the higher the power! the higher the price. FT exaap1e, the typlcal price of a one watt amplifier at x-band is in the neighborhood of 5K. But a two watt amplifier can cost as much as 50% more than its one watt counterpart. Double the frequency and the price can also easily double.
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Document ID: 8D7C8618

Multi-Port Characteristics
Author(s): A. L. Lance
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents a detailed analysis of multi-port structures used as network analyzers to determine phase and magnitude of impedance (reflection coefficient) from measurements of magnitude only. Physical interpretations using phasor signals are used to illustrate, describe and compare mathematical solutions, complex plane representation and the corresponding magnitude measurements of voltage or power.
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Document ID: 270FCEB9

Recent Innovations In Direct Volts Calibrator Design
Author(s): Neil Faulkner
Abstract/Introduction:
High acourecy direct voltage calibration systems have traditionally been based upan p r e c i s i o n resistive voltage dividers which are manually calibrated at frequent intervals to maintain the required resistance ratio. Due to resistance temperatiure coefficient, high accuracy is o n l y attainable when the systems are used in a temperature controlled ambient, typically 23 +/- 1 degree C.
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Document ID: DE4A34F7

Inventory Data Management Using A Microcomputer
Author(s): Paul Baldock
Abstract/Introduction:
Traditionally, inventory data management systems have required large high-speed computers for their implementation. The limited storage and processing capabilities of microcomputers have precluded their use from extensive data handling.
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Document ID: 7E3B6221

An Automated Vibration Calibration System
Author(s): Philip Benoit
Abstract/Introduction:
The calibration of accelerometers and velocity transducers is a growing problem for the Naur. As more of these serlsoi-9 are incorporated into systems the demands o the limited calibration resources have increased sharp1 y. The Navy chose to automate the vibration systems to solve this problem. The system design criteria and the approaches used are described. The automated vibration calibration srstem used both software and harchuare techniques to overcome the problems of increasing workload and decreasing resources.
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Document ID: 75636007

Contemporary Applications Robots
Author(s): Leonard B. Gardner
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to illustrate, to a group of engineers primarily engaged in measurement sciences, the major contempora+ y applications of industrial robotics. It assumes that this group has heard and read much genera1 information about robots. This has arroused their curosity for a concise in-depth authoritive summary of this fast growing branch of science and technology. The science o f robots involves the COmplSX interactions of coordinate transformations (in six degrees of-freedom), optimal and adaptive control systems, neurological modeling, artificial intelligence and the common thread of computer programming that puts this all together for use by the technologist. These subjects are mentioned only to give the reader a idea of the sophistication and complexities of industrial robots. They are far too vast to treat in this PaPer and So their details have bee properly excluded from further discussion. The technology of robots considers the science to be mainly transparent to the user. It is concerned with applications here industrial robots can be used primarily to increase productivity. Her.?, productivity equates to the cost of manufacturing a finished product. Certainly there are other benefits from robots such as the ability to remove workers from a hostile environment and the reduction in material Spoilage and accidents. However, the main concern is with increasing productivity.
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Document ID: CA4DC5A0

Measurement Assurance In Your Own Laboratory
Author(s): Rolf B. F. Schumacher
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement assurance is the application of broad quality control principles to measurements and calibrations. This paper demonstrates how quality control methods can be used to control the accuracies of measurements and calibrations.
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Document ID: B5FBC85F

Application Of General Linear Models To Calibration Data
Author(s): L. S. Mordecai
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement processes and measurement systems exhibit variability which forms part of the limit on calibration accuracy. Standards laboratories often maintain separate recurds of in-house intercomparisons and customer calibrations. If data from customer and in-house measurements all originate from a single, cornnon measurement process, then inter-comparisons of both sets of standards can be included in one general linear model. The process of estimating the values of the standards and the variability of the measurement process can be both the single most powerful and the most convenient at the same time. This paper discusses the principle of general linear statistical models and their typical application to calibration data. Segments from typical basic language computer programs are included to demonstrate their implementation on desktop computers.
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Document ID: A51C0563

Improving Dmder Calibration Techniqujs
Author(s): Ross Endsley
Abstract/Introduction:
This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty. express or implied. or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy. completeness. or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.
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Document ID: 0D1E2718

Laser Metrology
Author(s): C. W. Gillard, N. E. Buholz, C-C.Huang, R. H. Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the results of research undertaken to develop a number of laser metering systems which, although not developed for general metrology applications, will no doubt become important in the science of measurement. Two of these systems will be highlighted: the first is a laser interferometer capable of making precision absolute distance measurements over extended ranges the second is a multi-channel interferometer/vibration sensor. Absolute distance interferometry is needed, and was developed, for the precision figuring of large structures the multi-channel interferometer/vibration sensor was developed to assist with the active (dynamic) control of the extended, lightweight structures being developed for space. Attractive potential uses of this new technology are apparent in many areas of science and industry. Examples include manufacturing, batch process control, machine control, materials research and testing, the control of robots, and the establishment of improved measurement standards.
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Document ID: B0094EBA

Lasers Role In Modern Optical Metrology
Author(s): John J. Lee
Abstract/Introduction:
Optical Metrology has in recent years had a rebirth primarily due to the development of laser systems. This paper discusses two of the roles lasers play in modern optical metrology. First, the laser as a research and manufacturing tool must be characterized and calibrated. The calibration needs and basic characteristics of several lasers will be defined and discussed. Second, several examples of the laser as a measuring tool will be discussed.
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Document ID: AADE01B5

Why Is IEEE-488 Popular
Author(s): George C. Stanley
Abstract/Introduction:
IEEE-488 was intrcduced in 1975 and today there are close to 2000 products which conform to this interface standard. This paper examines interfacing problems prior to IEEE-488 and the solutions provided by the standard. Key technical specifications are examined with emphasis on what set* their technical limit and how these limits can be extended if necessary.
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Document ID: 355CB4B2

The Effects Of IEEE-ST0 488 Interface Design Trade-Offs On Instrument Performance
Author(s): Norbert Laengrich
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper covets trade-offs of different IEEESTO- 488 interface designs from the test equipment users viewpoint. Brief descriptions are given of the interface circuit design using discreet components, software, and some popular LSI interface chips. These are followed by a review of how the designs effect the performance of the instruments when used in an ATE system. A sumnary lists several of the most popular LSI IEEE-STO-488 chip sets available.
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Document ID: 33144C1B

Real-Life Bus Problems
Author(s): Robert G. Irvine, Kerry Kugler
Abstract/Introduction:
POWER-ON vs. SDC vs. DLC It is normally presumed that the Power-On (PON), Selected Device Clear (SDC), and Device Clear (DLC), commands place the instrument in the SAME cleared condition.
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Document ID: 93CA9165


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