Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (1983)

Download collection of documents about ISHM 1983 including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, etc.


International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Custody Transfer Measurements For LNG/LPG
Author(s): R. A. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: E642C676

Automated Measurement On Loading Racks
Author(s): George W. Bradley
Abstract/Introduction:
IN RECNT YEARS LOAD RACKS HAVE BEEN INSTALLING AUTOMATION SYSTEMS TO UPGRADE THEIR FACILITIES.
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Document ID: AF1288AF

Measurement Of Ethane-Rich Streams
Author(s): Douglas E. Monkres
Abstract/Introduction:
FOR YEARS, THE VOLUMETRIC MEASUREMENT OF FLUIDS HAS BEEN THE STANDARD METHOD FOR MEASUREMENT IN THE PETROLEUM INDUSTRY.
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Document ID: 6D3CB1B9

Ethylene Measurement
Author(s): Edgar E. Buxton
Abstract/Introduction:
ETHYLENE HAS A CRITICAL TEMPERATURES OF 49, 59, DEGREES F, THIS FACT CAUSES ETHYLENE TO BEHAVE VERY DIFFERENTLY AT AMBIENT TEMPERATURES IN THE GENERAL RANGE OF 0 DEGREES F TO 100 DEGREES AS COMPARED WITH METHANE WHICH HAS A CRITICAL TEMPERATURE OF 116 DEGREES OR N-OCTANE WHICH HAS A CRITICAL TEMPERATURE OF 564.1 DEGREES.
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Document ID: BA20BEB0

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measuring And Regulating Station
Author(s): R. H. Helker
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbulence anywhere in a pipeline system is no asset. However, immediately downstream of pressure regulation, its effect can be especially harmful due to the high velocities that are set up within the regulator body. Design engineers and field men alike will be equally interested in keeping turbulence to a minimum. Both are thinking of maximum throughput with the least amount of noise, plus the best site for analytical instruments such as calorimeters, chromatographs or dew point instruments and a steady sense point for control. In addition, we should be fully aware of the effect of harsh noise on the working efficiency of operating personnel. A person with normal hearing will have a tendency to rush his work in a noisy environment and the result of this is a lowering of the quality of the work.
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Document ID: 111FD86F

Volume Recorders For Rotary, Turbine And Displacement Meters
Author(s): Daniel R. Fulton
Abstract/Introduction:
Optimum measurement accinracy should be the ultimate objective of any measurement function, whether in the production, transmission or distribution of natural gas. Volume recorders are basic instruments which utilize simple sensing devices such as pressure elements and temperature systems along with the meter index and a circular chart to graphically display Che conditions of pressure and temperature under ich the metering takes place.
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Document ID: C40CE899

Ultrasonic Flowmeters
Author(s): Kim Mohajar
Abstract/Introduction:
THERE IS A WIDE VARIETY OF FLOWMETERS IN THE MARKET TODAY HOWEVER, MOST ARE LIMITED TO A 12 DIAMETER.
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Document ID: 348EADC3

Effects Of Abnormal Conditions On Accusacy Of Orifice Measurement
Author(s): Norman B. Lansverk
Abstract/Introduction:
THE PURPOSE OF THIS PAPER IS TO REVIEW CERTAIN SPECIFICATIONS, CONDITIONS AND TOLERANCES FOR ORIFICE MEASUREMENT ESTABLISHED IN A.G.A. COMMITTEE REPORT NO. 3 AND TO EXAMINE THE EFFECT UPON MEASURMENT ACCURACY WHEN SUCH SPECIFICATIONS ARE NOT MET. THIS WILL BE ACCOMPLISHED BY REVIEWING THE TESTS RESULTS SPONSORED BY THE COMMITTEE AND SOME TESTS CONDUCTED BY FLORIDA GAS TRANSMISSION COMPANY AND OTHERS.
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Document ID: FA1F7EBB

Selection Of Control Valve And Associated Instrumentation
Author(s): Lohit Datta-Barua
Abstract/Introduction:
A control valve is used primarily to match fluid flow to the demand. It is used as a primary restricting device in regulation and control of pressure and flow. It is mostly used for throttling service. However, it can be also used for On/Off service such as tube switching or liquid level control. A control valve in general consists of two elements - a valve body and an actuator. The actuator can be a diaphragm, piston, electrical or hydraulic equipment. Selection of the actuator primarily depends on the valve selected for the purpose. Proper selection of the control valve is e::tremely important for smooth operation and performance of the control loop and the process.
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Document ID: 43C44B59

Acrivities Of The AGA Transmission Measurement Committee
Author(s): Carl B. Mercer
Abstract/Introduction:
UNDER THE PRESENT AMERICAN GAS ASSOCIATION ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE, THE TRANSMISSION MEASUREMENT COMMITTEE FUNCTIONS AS A STANDING COMMITTEE IN THE TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS DIVISION OF THE OPERATING SECTION. THE COMMITTEE IS GOVERNED BY A STEERING GROUP HEADED BY THE TRANSMISSION MEASUREMENT COMMITTEE CHAIRMAN. MEMBERS OF THE STEERING GROUP INCLUDE THE CHAIRMAN, FIRST VICE CHAIRMAN, SECOND VICE CHAIRMAN, IMMEDIATE PAST CHAIRMAN AND SPONSOR.
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Document ID: D4FDE25A

High & Low Pressure Gas Regulators
Author(s): Don Day
Abstract/Introduction:
All regulators used In the gas industry can he classified as either high or low pressure regulators. In fact, many regulators could he considered both, depending on the definition of high and low pressure. Regulators are required in the production, transmission, measurement and distribution of natural gas. Pressures can range from several thousand ppig at the gas well to under 1 psig at the end user.
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Document ID: 180AAB25

Gas Accounting Schematics
Author(s): R. G. Carver
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Accounting schematics can be a useful tool for management, operations, and accounting when used for a visual representation or in conjunction with measured volumes. Schematics are (simplified) drawings summarizing and defining a system. This is a very straight-forward simple idea but the usages and benefits are limited only by your system and your imagination.
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Document ID: 2187044F

Application Of Densitometers To Liquid Measurement
Author(s): James P. Black
Abstract/Introduction:
IN 1970 THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE USING DENSITOMETERS FOR PRODUCT MEASUREMENT WERE RELATIVELY FEW, WHEREAS TODAY DENSITY MEASUREMENT IS USED IN ALMOST EVERY PHASE OF THE PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY.
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Document ID: 6593B785

Advances In Lact Measurement
Author(s): Carl m. Eibl
Abstract/Introduction:
LEASE AUTOMATIC CUSTODY TRANSFER (LACT) UNITS WERE FIRST USED IN THE LATE 190S. THESE EARLY LACT UNITS PAVED THE WAY FOR THE IMPROVED FLOW MEASUREMENT ACCURACY DESIRED BY THE PETROLEUM INDUSTRY TODAY.
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Document ID: 6B672D3E

Rotary Meters
Author(s): T. L. Vance
Abstract/Introduction:
The first positive displacement rotary gas meters were built around the year 1920 by the PH & FM Roots Company and the Connersville Blower Company, both located in Connersville, Indiana. In 1966 this gas meter operation was renamed Dresser Measurement Division.. However, these rotary meters today are still known as ROOTS Meters.
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Document ID: ED70D12E

Conditioning Of Natural Gas For Measurement And Transportation
Author(s): Khossrow Dave Diba
Abstract/Introduction:
FLOWING GAS STREAMS ARE OFTEN MEASURED UNDER ADVERSE CONDITIONS EVEN WHEN THEY DONT YET MEET CONTRACT STANDARDS OF QUALITY. FOR EXAMPLE, OFF SPECIFICATION GAS MUST BE METERED BEFORE IT LEAVES THE PRODUCING LEASE SO THAT ROYALTY PAYMENTS CAN BE MADE TO MINERAL OWNERS. TO MEASURE THIS RAW GAS ACCURATELY, ITS PHYSICAL PROPERTIES MUST BE DETERMINED AND ALL FREE LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS MUST BE REMOVED.
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Document ID: 201B03BA

New Concepts In Recorder Marking Systems For The Gas Industry
Author(s): David Kraus
Abstract/Introduction:
Ink, as a fljid, is virtually worthless...ink as a line could be priceless...if its in the right place at the right time. For example, a droplet of ink, as a signature on a check, could represent a virtually limitless value...even millions of dollars. Well, the ink lines on your gas measurement charts dre signatures showing the value of gas being measured. From the smallest amount...several hundred dollars...up to major systems transfer or sales points where the value could be millions of dollars.
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Document ID: F2F3BEE5

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Stephen D. Loeffler
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas turbine meter has become firmly entrenched as a measurement tool in our industry over the past fifteen years. This paper w i l l present operating principles, construction, application and testing of the gas turbine meter.
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Document ID: 6985F308

Measurement By Battery Powered Field Computers
Author(s): Stephen T. Stark
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow computers have been used for natural gas and liquid hydrocarbon measurement since the mid 1960s. Their practical use, however, has been limited to processing plants, refineries and other locations having a dependable and uninterruptable supply of AC power. Until the late 1970s flow computers required a continuous power supply to either maintain storage battery voltage or for use as a direct source of power. Many well sites and other critical exchange points do not have this power available which has hampered their use in remote areas.
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Document ID: F4339808

Measurement By Battery Powered Field Computers
Author(s): Robert W. Rutledge
Abstract/Introduction:
For some forty years, the standard for gas measurement has been the circular chart. The circular chart has also become an integral part of custody transfer procedures which deal with data gathering. Circular charts are collected, transported, integrated, and stored in case of a future legal challenge. What has permitted the circular chart to become the standard for gas measurement in the face of widely held shortcomings in the areas of accuracy with fluctuating flows, physical problems associated with ink and physical linkages, and the growing cost of physical handling of an enormous number of charts? The answer becomes apparent when we examine the requirements of a field gas measurement system. The equipment must simultaneously meet a number of difficult requirements, including:
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Document ID: 9366041F

Measurement By Battery Powered Field Computers
Author(s): James H. Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas - the commodity that we have all come to know, was not considered a primary source of energy in the early 1900s. Manufactured gas was used predominantly in the cities for operation of street lamps and to some extent, heating and other processes. Although natural gas was considered to be a more efficient fuel, the problem of transporting this fuel from the production field to the consumer was a monumental task.
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Document ID: E3B554A8

Measurement By Battery-Powered Field Computers
Author(s): William E. Sheen
Abstract/Introduction:
A battery-powered, computer-based measurement and telemetry system Is now available. This system provides accurate measurement of flow data at a central location and incorporates capabilities for remote monitoring and control. It has been succesfully field tested.
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Document ID: A5AD561E

Design Of Distribution Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Richard m. Nicholson
Abstract/Introduction:
Distribution metering and regulating stations can be of any size and capacity from the small domestic house meter to a large industrial plant. Proper design of metering and regulating stations is essential to attain accurate measurement at minimum cost, to allow for future expansion, and to meet all standards of safety which apply. To accomplish this, the engineer or designer must have available to him full information as to the requirements of the facility, the system from which it is served, and the various types of meters, regulators, safety devices, and associated equipment available for use.
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Document ID: 7D8611E4

Measurement By Battery Powered Field Computers
Author(s): Peter J. Hanowich
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine meters, like all other metering devices, measure natural gas at line conditions. Gas volumes, unlike liquids, vary with changes in temperature and pressure following the well known Boyles & Charles Laws. Base conditions have been defined as an inlet pressure of 4 oz. at a temperature of 60F. This defines a coiranon set of conditions for gas measurement. Any variance in these parameters require a calculation to correct the gas volume to base conditions.
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Document ID: 0860E2CB

Use Cf Video Tape Vtr() In Measurement Training
Author(s): Fred Pitts
Abstract/Introduction:
In March of 1976, Houston Natural Gas Corporation sold their distribution system and transferred two of us over to the Nteasurement section of Houston Pipe Line Ccitpany, whidi is a part of the Houston Natural Gas Corporation Transmission System. Vfe were given the job of initiating and installing a training program for measiorement tedhnicians at Ifoustcn Pipe Line, Intratex Gas Cofpany, and Valley Pipe Line. The nethods of iirplementing the program was left vp to our imagination.
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Document ID: FED25B32

Thermal Energy Measurement
Author(s): Gary L, Sypolt
Abstract/Introduction:
The necessity for energy measurement becomes more apparent each day. Several viable alternatives exist for determining energy based quantities. This paper discusses five methods which may be applied. There is no standard method which should be followed. Each company must consider its individual operational needs and determine (riiich application best satisfies those requirements.
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Document ID: 30EE13C7

Liquid Proving COMPUTERS/CONTROLLERS
Author(s): Mel Berraan
Abstract/Introduction:
I n the l a s t few years s i g n i f i c a n t technol o g i c a l improvements have occurred in the basic mechanical design of l i q u i d flowmeter provers and i n the e l e c t r o n i c p r o c e s s i n g and data r e d u c t i o n of parameters associated with the proving o p e r a t i o n. Microprocessor-based proving c o m p u t e r s / c o n t r o l l e rs a r e now a v a i l a b l e . These smart boxes are capa b l e of working with conventional provers as well as the new breed of small volume flowmeter p r o v e r s.
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Document ID: 3CF2E633

Flow Heasurement Bt Vortex Shedding HETE&S
Author(s): Lee E. Grosshans
Abstract/Introduction:
Vortex flowmeters measure the flow of fluids in pipelines by monitoring induced vortices caused by the fluid impinging on a nonstreamlined body (element) mounted in the meter body. Vortices are rotational flow zones that are similar to natural whirlpools. They may be seen in the flow of a stream near to and just downstream of an intruding rack. The effects of vortices produce the fluttering of a flag in the breeze the flag pole causes vortices to form, which then move along the length of the flag creating high and low pressure areas on either side.
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Document ID: 60FB2470

Skid Mounted Liquid Measurement Stations
Author(s): Drew S. Weaver, P.E
Abstract/Introduction:
Efficient implementation of metering stations Into facilities for transportation and storage of hydrocarbons has demanded that complete measurement systems be assembled and thoroughlyi checked prior to field installation. The optimum means to accomplish this is to provide all metering and proving equipment, piping, and instrumentation packaged into a unit or skid, which may be easily transported to the field and connected to the other facilities.
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Document ID: A5CCB0A4

Elements Of Sound And Station Noise Forecasting
Author(s): Terry Buzbee
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years noise was considered a necessary evil In heavy industry, in the oil patch, and on high pressure gas transmission lines. This certainly Is not the case today. Society values people and their health and welfare. Federal and state governments, through legislation and through decree, determine standards and penalties which are intended to protect people. There are three elements of noise standards which are essential considerations of any industrial noise problem. People! Noise Level! and Exposure Time!
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Document ID: 8001E9B0

High Pressure Farm Taps And Service Regulators
Author(s): Terry Buzbee
Abstract/Introduction:
High Pressure Farm Tap Regulators and the low pressure service regulator are the most basic and numerically the most common regulators utilized In the gas industry. They are simple, reliable, low in cost, easy to install and require practically no maintenance. Both the high pressure farm tap and the low pressure service regulators share many similar construction features spring and diaphragm, boost effect, single soft seat, mechanical advantage (lever arm) between valve and diaphragm. Despite the relative simplicity of this class of regulator, countless engineering hours have been spent on its development and refinement, Most of this work has been spent In the low pressure version-the service regulator.
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Document ID: C05913F2

Techniques Of Gas Sampling
Author(s): T. F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Defined by the Gas Processors Association Publication 2166-68, The object of any sampling procedure is to obtain a representative sample of hydrocarbons from the system under investigation. Any subsequent analysis of the sample regardless of the test, is inaccurate unless a representative sample is obtained.
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Document ID: 9405E0A9

Procbss Heasurehbnt And Control
Author(s): G. Frederic Hall
Abstract/Introduction:
Thanks to the foresight of a few innovative people sometime baclc, we do not have to manually stoke home furnaces or fill toilet tanks. These control engineers have designed and fabricated automatic control devices to perform these functions. However, for these control engineers to be successful, it was necessary for them to thoroughly understand the operation of the equipment and its application, determine what was needed to increase operational efficiency, select the most effective strategy to accomplish the task, and finally, test the performance of the design.
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Document ID: DFC6B272

Program For Training A Measurement Technician
Author(s): J. V. Bryan
Abstract/Introduction:
Training has been defined as a planned means of changing human behavior in a favorable direction. Various techniques and training methods have been employed by gas companies throughout the years, but the most common means of developing people has been an on the job type instruction while working with other, more experienced people. There has been a common notion in the past that experience, and experience alone is the best way to develop people, and of course the result has been a long, drawn out, situation which has not produced the expertise fast enough to keep up with the rapidly growing gas industry and new technology. Many thought experience Is the best teacher and most of us will agree, but we must consider how time consuming and costly it is.
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Document ID: 4C0C7E35

Some Fundamental Principles Of Orifice Flouhetering
Author(s): Walter E. Ulktorowicz
Abstract/Introduction:
The basic concentric, square-edged orifice plate continues to be the most widely used primary element for both liquid and gas flow measurements. Other types of flowmeters, such as displacement, turbine, target, and vortex, continue to increase in popularity, but for the measurement of large volumes of gas at high pressure, the simple orifice flowmeter is preeminent.
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Document ID: 33558865

Nace And Its Impact On Gas Measubekemt
Author(s): N. E. Doyle. Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
National Association of Corrosion Engineers. NACE is a scientific, educational, and research association of individuals and companies concerned with the protection of materials in corrosive environments. Founded and incorporated as a nonprofit organization under the laws of Texas in 1945, NACE had its earliest beginnings in groups of pipeline operators meeting between 1936 and 1940 to discuss mutual problems of cathodic protection. In 1943, 11 engineers met and drafted the first organization and bylaws.
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Document ID: 54F77C5C

Electronic Chart Scanning And Related Equipment
Author(s): Tommy Y. Tramel
Abstract/Introduction:
With the ever Increasing cost of natural gas, more emphasis is being placed upon the speed and accuracy of all gas measurement systems. Our objective is to present to you an overview of the state-ofthe- art equipment and procedures currently used in gas measurement offices. We will illustrate three major points of interest which include field preparation, equipment, and operations.
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Document ID: 4A9E0D52

Double Chronometry As Applied To The Compact Prover
Author(s): Edward J. Dahn
Abstract/Introduction:
The Compact Prover is a passive device which serves as a primary standard in the accurate determination of flow rate and volume through a transducer (measuring device) under test. Operation is fully automatic requiring the operator to initiate the run only, with all subsequent actions automatically accomplished.
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Document ID: DD2C3FB3

Field Transfer Proving
Author(s): John Hoi Land Heath
Abstract/Introduction:
Transfer proving, now depended upon by the gas distribution industry, was initially developed as a means of testing gas meters on location to avoid the cost in time, space and manpower of transporting meters, especially the larger, heavier industrial models, to and from remote locations to a meter shop. The growth of the gas industry and the ongoing escalation in the cost of natural gas have increased the need for accurate, reliable, and portable transfer proving systems.
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Document ID: E23A5D72

Gas Chromatography - Equipment, Techniques And Operation
Author(s): Carl G. Hefley
Abstract/Introduction:
Chromatography has been in development as an analytical technique since 1905. In that year, Ramsey used selective absorption to separate a gas mixture. In 1906 Tswett separated the colored components in plants on a column and coined the word chromatography. In the 1950s, chromatography was established as a highly sensitive analytical technique. Today various chromatographic techniques are in use in fields as diverse as the medical science and petroleum industry.
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Document ID: 09F154DF

Fundamental Principles Of Pilot Control Of Flow Rate And Pressupe
Author(s): Patrick Cave
Abstract/Introduction:
A gas regulator has but one fundamental operation. HATCH THE FLOU OF GAS WITH THE DOWNSTRFJUI DEMAND
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Document ID: 0429842B

Relief Valves - Design And Calculations
Author(s): Doug Butler
Abstract/Introduction:
Relief valves have long been used as a reliable form of over pressure protection. In general, they are simple, easy to test, and reasonable in cost. Even so, many factors should be considered to properly compare and select a relief valve.
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Document ID: 138949D5

Fundamentals Of Gas Pressure Regulation
Author(s): Doug Butler
Abstract/Introduction:
Gap pressure regulators have becoine very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside, and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a tendency to take them for granted. Even the gas man who handles regulators every day as part of his job frequently tends to view the regulator simply as a piece of hardware which fits in the line and regulate pressure. The fact that it will do precisely that, for months on end without human intervention, makes it easy to naintaln such a view. Its only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a Tew application, that we need to look more deeply into the fundamentals of the regulators operation,
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Document ID: 80EAA997

Operation And Maintenance Of Single Bellows Meters
Author(s): Mlchael D. Beall
Abstract/Introduction:
The bellows orifice meter was developed to replace the Mercury meter which has been the industry standard for measuring differential pressure generated across an orifice restriction. Bellows orifice meters produced today are of two types: a liquid filled dual bellows system and the single (no fill) bellows system. Each of the two available types, although similar in theory, are different slightly in design, construction, and operation. We will deal in this paper with the single (no fill) bellows type meter.
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Document ID: F7FB7E86

Problems In Offshore Measurement
Author(s): William H. Hall
Abstract/Introduction:
Discoeries of vast new eneroy rescurces in the Gu3 f of Mexico during the fort i es and the desire to produce and transport to onshore narkets lead the industry down a nfw uncharted path. Tt became apparent early that securino t h i s new energy wculd be costly and require deveJcpeirent of new techniques to supplement proven procedures in construction, measurement and trensport.aticai of these natural resources.
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Document ID: CDBDEF3D

Proving Domestic Meters
Author(s): Jim Lancaster
Abstract/Introduction:
Domestic gas meter t e s t i n g and proving must be done with an accuracy and frequency to s a t i s fy the company, the consumer and the r e g u l a t o ry commissions.
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Document ID: 079C785A

Using Space-Age Electronics To Odorize
Author(s): Joe F. Arnold
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most dramatic changes seen in the gas industry in recent years has been in the field of metering. Our nations involvement in the space race, coupled with our competitive free enterprise system has brought about widespread use of solid state electronics to the field of gas measurement.
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Document ID: 01855AE9

Gas Odorization: An Introduction With Hints For Safe Handling
Author(s): John D. Taylor
Abstract/Introduction:
The odorization of natural gas is becoming an increasingly established practice throughout the United States. Today, both distribution and transmission companies are required to odorize by government mandate a larger percentage or all of their gas lines. As more laws are legislated and rigid guidelines enforced by state and federal agencies, it becomes exceedingly important for us to stay abreast of regulations and guidelines to insure both safety and economy.
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Document ID: DBC34111

Elements Of Natural Gas Liquids Contracts
Author(s): Jenifer L. Lucas
Abstract/Introduction:
As most people in the energy industry are aware, natural gas liquids were originally thought of as mere nuisances. They were elements which had to be removed from natural gas after it left the well so that the natural gas would then be marketable. Over a half century later, the natural gas liquids industry is big business. Natural gas liquids contracts have the same basic elements as any contract, and they have certain elements similar to pure gas purchase contracts. Yet, the liquids industry is unique, and thus the contracts used in this business have some unique provisions. The scope of this paper will be limited to gas processing agreements and exchange agreements.
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Document ID: B1CD7FA4

Measurement Of Liquified Petroleum Gas
Author(s): William C. Reitz
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquified petroleum gas, or LPG, commonly used to refer to either bulrane or prcpane or a mixture of the two is used as a fuel for home, industry, transportation and as a propellant in aerosol applications.
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Document ID: 8C883A80

High Capacity Tanker Offloading Metering Systems
Author(s): Harold E. Osborn
Abstract/Introduction:
The Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP) is the first deep water port in operations in the United States for the importation of foreign crude oil. The port facility is located in the Gulf of Mexico southwest of Grand Isle, Louisiana. The LOOP deep water port is capable of unloading ships up to 700,000 DWT via single anchor leg mooring (SALM) systems, a pumping platform complex (PPC), and suimarine pipelines directly into underground storage cavities located onshore at Clovelly. Frcan the onshore terminal, pipelines distribute the crude oil to various parts of Louisiana and the Midwest.
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Document ID: 7DA93944

Gauging, Testing And Running Of Lease Tanks
Author(s): Lloyd Moon
Abstract/Introduction:
When writing a run ticket a gauger Is writing a weigh bil, bill of sale and a check combined in one document. It is written to allow s change of ownership or custody of the content of a tank. A gauger, acting as agent, has the responsibility to see that accurate information is ascertained and recorded. Each true datum can only be obtained by careful observation and correct use of proper tools.
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Document ID: 5E808F0A

Instrument Calibration Using The Pneumatic Deadweight Tester
Author(s): Eugene R. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most difficult problems facing the instrument engineer is the accurate calibration of orifice meters, particularly at remote or inaccessible locations.
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Document ID: D0605438

What The Field Expects From The Office Group
Author(s): Louis L. Smolik.
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject matter that I am about to present deals basically with the working relationship between field personnel and office personnel. Types of operations vary between companies. Some companies choose to have their field people report directly to a central office, while others have their field people report to a field supervisor,
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Document ID: 17F284E6

Positive Displacement Liquid Met
Author(s): Phi I P D. Baker
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper Is to examine the application of Positive Displacement (P.D.) Meters for liquid flow measurement. The focus will be on petroleum service, but the principles can be applied to other Industrial, chemical and commercial applications. To accomplish this objective, the basic design and operation of P.D. Meters, and factors Influenclng the i r performance, will be dIscussed.
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Document ID: A0B03DCC

Measurement Of Free Water On Tankers
Author(s): Robert W, Goldstraw
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate measurement of non-hydrocarbon elements of crude oil and oil products on marine vessels has become a principal goal of shippers and receivers especially during the last decade. This need is directly attributable both to the increased cost of oil and the development of more sophisticated marine accountability systems. One of the non-hydrocarbon constituents of many oil shipments is free water and the measurement of free water by several means has been examined closely both by independent manufacturers, refiners and inspectors as well as by the American Petroleum Institute* The findings of these research projects are the basis of this document.
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Document ID: FF4125CF

Effects And Control Of Pulsations In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Walter W. Von, Nimitz John
Abstract/Introduction:
Pulsations have detrimental effects on the accuracy of gas flow measurement. Consequently, effective pulsation control in meter runs is needed to minimize flow measurement uncertainty due to pulsations. This paper discusses techniques available for pulsation control and illustrates the application of such techniques to several gas gathering systems.
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Document ID: 847E8AC4

Controlling Surges In Liquid Pipelines
Author(s): Gerald T. Moreland
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid pipelines seldom operate under true, continuous steady state conditions. Operating requirements change as supply sources and demand needs fluctuate, fluid properties change, or equipment is operated. The process oE changing the flow conditions can take many forms. The basic idea for all forms involves changing the velocity of the flowing mass. Any time the flowing velocity Is altered the pressure in the system will change. These pressure changes, called waCerhammer, surges, hydraulic transients, or hydraulic shock can severely damage a pipeline system if the magnitude of the pressure surges is extreme.
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Document ID: FF66FC3F

Liquid Meter Proving Techniques
Author(s): Daniel m, Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
LIQUID METER PROVING TECHNIQUES Daniel M, Comstock S G S Redwood Fluid and Gas Measurement Service P.O. Box 550 Deer Park, Texas 77536 Liquid Meter Proving is the physical testing of the performance of a meter in a liquid service that is measuring the flow or volume throughput. The meter proof, or test, is performed by placing a meter in series with a meter prover, which has a known base volume at standard conditions, in such a way that during any given test run, all the product measured by the meter is also measured by the prover, and equally important, only the product measured by the meter is measured by the prover. Then the meter registration is compared to the known prover volume.
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Document ID: CDA9E44C

Gas Service Regulators Installation And Operation
Author(s): Donald A. Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many types of service regulators available for use by Che utilities today. Each type has certain advantages and disadvantages that must be understood by their users in order to pick the correct type for the particular application in mind.
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Document ID: 45CCB93C

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Ray Forbes
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice fitting, complete with orifice plate and meter tube make up the primary device of the measurement system. The single most important item of the primary device is the orifice plate, since it is the orifice plate whichcreates the differential pressure within a flowing medium. The measurement of a pressure differential, along with certain other data, permits one to compute the rate of flow on the basis of well established physical principles. Frequent inspection of the orifice plate is necessary in some types of service to insure that It is in proper condition to meter accurately, i.e., it is flat and clean and the inlet edge of the orifice bore is stilt sharp, square and free from nicks or other damage.
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Document ID: 194480E0

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Jerry Davis
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to the continually increasing cost of hydrocarbon products, both liquid and gas, there is a growing concern for accurate measurement. In many applications this begins with a signal from the primary element, consisting of the Orifice Fitting, Orifice Plate and Meter Tube.
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Document ID: 0F9B1D3B

Operational Experience With Compact Provers
Author(s): Wayne A. Latimer
Abstract/Introduction:
Compact small volume provers, which incorporate the use of electronic pulse interpolation counting techniques, have continued to be field tested during 1982. Results of a field test comparison between a large conventional ball prover and a small compact prover used to v.olumetrically prove large diameter liquid turbine flowmeters are presented.
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Document ID: 2D5B7621

Elements Of Gas Purchase Contracts
Author(s): John H. Cary
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will deal with the elements of gas purchase contracts from the perspective of an attorney with an Interstate pipeline. While my experience is with the purchase of onshore gas by an interstate pipeline, this paper will be general enough in nature to be applicable to all gas purchase contracts.
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Document ID: 29DA2A70

Fundamental Gas Laws
Author(s): Rex T. Ellington
Abstract/Introduction:
Determination of the volume oi mass of gas existing at a given set of pressure and temperature conditions is fundamental to gas measurement. The relationships which tell the values of these quantities and how they are tied to each other are known as gas laws, or different versions of the same fundamental law.
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Document ID: 0EE210A3

Gas Custody Transfer Measurements In Western Europe
Author(s): Sip R. Reintsema
Abstract/Introduction:
Custody transfer measurement of natural gas in Western Europe differs in several aspects from the basic measurement methodology in the U.S. The methods that are preeminent in Western Europe will be presented. This includes a brief description of turbine meters and densitometers, their calibration and installation, and the experlenre that has been obtained with these instruments in the field. Particular attention is given to a field operated compressibility factor meter. The micro processor based flow computer, replacing the chart recorder, will be discussed. Finally, some thoughts will be given on the continuous meas-ure-r ment of the heating value.
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Document ID: A3B320BE

Operation Of Orifice Meter Chart Integrator
Author(s): Stan Taylor
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter chart integrators in use by the industry today is a specifically designed machine utilizing state of the art micro-processing technology to compute a chart value depending on the static and differential pressures as recorded by an orifice meter.
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Document ID: 0E1A8D94

The Calculation Of Gas Properties - Past, Present And Future: 1983 Status
Author(s): Kenneth E. Starling
Abstract/Introduction:
GAS PROPERTIES CALCULATION METHODS USED IN THE PAST AND AT THE PRESENT TIME ARE DISCUSSED AND A PROJECTION OF FUTURE GAS PROPERTIES CALCULATION METHODS IS PRESENTED. NOTE IS MADE OF THE FACT THAT GAS PROPERTIES CALCULATION METHODS PRIOR TO ABOUT 1960 GENERALLY WERE MADE USING TABLES AND/OR CHARTS, WHILE SINCE THE EARLY 1960S THE COMPUTER HAS BEEN UTILIZED EXTENSIVELY. SOME OF THE INADEQUACIES OF PRESENT-DAY GAS PROPERTIES CALCULATION METHODS ARE NOTED AND IMPROVEMENTS WHICH CAN BE EXPECTED IN THE NEAR FUTURE ARE DISCUSSED. THE CONPRESSIBILITY FACTOR OF NATURAL GASES IS GIVEN PARTICULAR ATTENTION.
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Document ID: 3B92DB72

Odor Level Testing Instruments And Applications
Author(s): Gordon R. Plunkett
Abstract/Introduction:
THERE ARE TWO GENERALIZATIONS THAT ARE OFTEN HEARD WHEN GAS MEN DISCUSS ODOR LEVEL TEST INSTRUMENTS. THEY ARE CONTROVERSIAL AND THEY ARE IN GENERAL USE THROUGHOUT THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY. THEY ARE CONTROVERSIAL BECAUSE MANY FEEL THAT A MORE SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENT SHOULD BE USED. THEY ARE IN GENERAL USE BECAUSE THEY FILL A REAL NEED. THEY SATISFY THE CODE REQUIREMENTS THEY ARE QUICK AND EASY TO USE, AND RELATIVELY INEXPENSIVE AND, AS MUCH AS IS PRACTICAL, THEY DUPLICATE THE WAY THAT GAS CUSTOMERS FIND LEAKS BY SMELL. IN OTHER WORDS, ALTHOUGH THEY MAY BE IMPERFECT IF THEY WORK.
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Document ID: B5B57156

Multiport Averaging Pitot Tube In Gas Measurement And Control
Author(s): Norman A. Alston
Abstract/Introduction:
JUST BECAUSE A FLOW MEASUREMENT DEVICE IS COMPLEX AND/OR INEXPENSIVE DOES NOT AUTOMATICALLY MEAN THAT IT IS THE BEST OR MOST ACCURATE. OFTEN TIMES THE MOST SIMPLE DEVICE IS JUST AS GOOD AND ACCURATE AND FREQUENTLY EVEN BETTER.
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Document ID: 93320593

Calibration Of Liquid Provers Using Master Meter And Water Draw
Author(s): Charles H. Drane
Abstract/Introduction:
A mechanical displacement meter prover is a critical element in many liquid metering installations because the prover is the volumetric standard against which the flow meters are calibrated. It is for this reason that the Base Volume of the prover must be accurately determined. A prover is calibrated, in order to determine its base volume, by either the water withdrawal method or the master meter method of calibration. These methods are presented separately and the unique features of each discussed. The illustrations, Figures 1 thru 3, located following the conclusion of the text will be referred to in the discussions of the calibration procedures and of the equipment required.
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Document ID: E66AAD91

Royalty Verification Of Oil And Gas Accounting
Author(s): Jerry D. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Because of high oil and gas prices, oil windfall profits tax, and gas regulations arising out of the Natural Gas Policy Act, royalty owners are spending time and money to verify the accuracy of their royalty payments. The most active royalty owner, the Federal government is setting the pace In verification of royalty by Issuing new or revised regulations concerning the method of pa3Tnent calculations and the method of reporting. New forms are being developed and old forms are being revised to allow the federal government to ensure that top dollar is being received. Other royalty owners are developing programs which they have not previously had to verify royalty ranging from phone calls to formal audits or investigations.
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Document ID: DE47BF6D

Pneumatic Cohtrollers And Transmitters
Author(s): Lester Souter
Abstract/Introduction:
Amongst the most important instruments that those involved in the gas industry will come across are pneumatic controllers and transmitters. These devices are relatively uncomplicated but often misunderstood and because they are so essential to modern day gas control the objective of this paper will be to try and create a better understanding of them.
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Document ID: 14EF83DC

Sampling Light Liquid Hydrocarbon Product
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Driven by the price and demand for natural gas liquids, the measurement and sampling of the natural gas liquid product has had to become a precise operation. Measurement equipment is becoming more sophisticated and, with the advent of mass measurement, the probable errors in the transfer of a quantity of product from buyer to seller becomes more important.
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Document ID: 053530C6

Application Of Flow Computers For Gas Measurement And Control
Author(s): Fred N. Debusk
Abstract/Introduction:
WHEN DISCUSSING THE ABOVE MENTIONED TOPIC SEVERAL OTHER KEY WORDS START ECHOING BACK, I.E., CONSERVING ENERGY, ACCOUNTABILITY, COST ACCOUNTING, PIPELINE AND PLANT BALANCE, AND DISTRIBUTION HILLING. THESE ARE JUST A FEW REASONS WHY WE NEED FLOW COMPUTERS FOR GAS MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL.
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Document ID: E1E0E862

Invert Orifice Meters
Author(s): Gerald L. Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
CONTRATY TO POPULAR OPINION, THE ENVERTED ORIFICE METER IS NOT A NEW CONCEPT. EVEN THOUGH THE FIRST INVERTED METER WAS NOT MANUFACTURED UNTIL 1932, INVERTING METERS WAS ACTUALLY ENVISIONED AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY.
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Document ID: C1A22246

Fundamentals Of Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Louis m. Cox
Abstract/Introduction:
Chromatography is a physical method of separation in which the components to be separated are distributed between two phases, a stationary bed of large surface area and a fluid that moves through the stationary bed.
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Document ID: 6912DC80

Determination Of Leakage & Unaccounted For Gas Transmission
Author(s): C.K. Mitchell
Abstract/Introduction:
AS MEASUREMENT PEOPLE, OUR JOBS HAVE INVOLVED US MORE AND MORE IN THE LOST AND UNACCOUNTED ASPECT OF GAS ACCOUNTING. FIRST BY REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS, THEN LATER BY THE INCREASED VALUE OF THE PRODUCT WE BUY, SELL AND TRANSPORT OUR ATTENTION HAS BEEN DIRECTED TO ELIMINATING THESE LOSSES. AS OUR JOB OF SIMPLY MEASURING
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Document ID: 3FBD3FD0

Battery Operated Totalizers For Measurement Stations
Author(s): James H. Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas - the cotranodity that we have all come to know, was not considered a primary source of energy in the early 1900s. Manufactured gas was predominantly in the cities for operation of street lamps and to some extent, heating and other processes. Although natural gas was considered to be a more efficient fuel, the problem of transporting this fuel from the production field to the consumer was a monumental task.
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Document ID: 3E6A6632

Instrument Calibration Using Electronic Pressure Indicator
Author(s): David B. Savells
Abstract/Introduction:
The scope of this presentation is to illustrate the use of electronic pressure gauges in calibration of chart recorders used in gas orifice meter measurement. Also, a brief discussion of the electronic gauge itself and the manner in which they operate.
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Document ID: 98DD031F

Industrial And District Regulators And Applications
Author(s): A. Rea Cameron
Abstract/Introduction:
I n the n a t u r a l gas i n d u s t r y , the terms I n d u s t r i a l and D i s t r i c t when applied to p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o rs u s u a l l y r e f e r to those i n s t a l l a t i o n s which supply g r e a t e r c a p a c i t i e s or operate at higher p r e s s u r es than the Domestic or S e r v i c e type r e g u l a t o rs normally used for t h e supply of gas to r e s i d e n t i al d w e l l i n g s .
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Document ID: 8AAC4B83

Installation And Operation Of Densitometers
Author(s): F.A. Husson
Abstract/Introduction:
The density of a f l u i d is an important physical property. A knowledge of f l u i d density is vital to a broad spectrum of measurements in f l u id mechanics. In f l u i d flow measurement, an exacting knowledge of flowing density is primary to the precise metering of volume and mass flow.
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Document ID: 23D56B5F

Operating Experience For A Gas Pipeline Leak Detection System
Author(s): Terry Alexander
Abstract/Introduction:
Tennessee Gas Pipeline has been operating with electronic line break detectors since 1972. The early systems are becoming obsolete and are being replaced. In 1981 we decided to install a new system designed by our Electronic Services Section rather than use a coiranercially available unit. This paper relates scsne of our experience with this new system.
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Document ID: 75515EE6

Liquid Flow Provers
Author(s): Eugene L. Dobesh, P.E.
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the first inception of a liquid meter, there has been a need for a method of verification of the indication. The indicator, or register, tells the user the quantity of liquid that has flowed through the meter and is operated by either mechanical or electronic means linked within the meter. An example is the quantity register on the gasoline pump at a service station.
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Document ID: 61EA1AA9

Operation And Maintenance Of A Rubber Plug Type Regulator
Author(s): Mike Mckay
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1958, a rubber plug control valve was created which, unlike the control valves of the day, used a solid rubber plug for the inner valve and a hydraulic source to actuate the annular expansion of the expandable plug. It is interesting to note that this rubber plug type control valve is the only control valve used in the gas industry that was designed within the industry specifically for gas service. The rubber plug control valve has demonstrated a unique capability for precise controllability.
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Document ID: 5014F076

Instruments For Leakage Detection
Author(s): David E. Bull
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many factors involved in selecting the proper instrument for leakage detection. Of critical importance is a knowledge of the combustible gas we want to detect, along with information concerning the problem areas, economic considerations and specific applications of instruments available. Ease of operation and training of personnel to interpret the findings of the instrument are areas that should also be given consideration.
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Document ID: C6FA845B

Determination Of Btu And Volume Reduction In Plants
Author(s): . W. Kilmer
Abstract/Introduction:
When natural gas is processed in a plant for the total or partial removal of some components, a reduction in volume and total heat content occurs which must be accounted for. Because of the differing heating values per unit volume of the various components, the percentage of volume shrinkage will be different from the percentage of heat content shrinkage. Normally the latter will be larger than the former. This paper will outline a method for calculating the reduction of volume or heat content and the allocation of products and overall shrinkage.
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Document ID: F6B72E47

Measurements And Data For Carbon Dioxide In The Near Critical And Supercritical Region*
Author(s): James F. Ely, Neil A. Ollen
Abstract/Introduction:
Large scale use of carbon dioxide in enhanced oil recovery and supercritical extraction processes has given rise to a need for accurate thermophysical properties of this fluid and its mixtures. This is also true for metering associated with CO2 pipelines. Due to the proximity of Che critical point of CO2 to ambient temperatures (30A K or 88F), most engineering models are not of sufficient accuracy to be used in this custody transfer calculation. The capability of modeling the behavior and properties of CO2 and its mixtures in the extended critical region is essential to the development of efficient and scalable supercritical processes. An accurate model or equation of state does not presently exist. To overcome some of these problems a consortium of industrial corapanies has been formed to sponsor research at the National Bureau of Standards on near critical CO2 mixtures. This paper outlines the general problem being addressed at NBS and the anticipated results of the program.
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Document ID: 6BDF0CF3

Conversion From Volume To Energy Measurement
Author(s): . W. Kilmer
Abstract/Introduction:
Differences of opinion as to the amount of energy transferred caused by the profusion of existing pressure bases and condition of water content are eliminated by use of a method of custody transfer which is independent of pressure base, temperature base, or water content. Custody transfer by energy measurement as described herein, rather than volume measurement, is such a method.
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Document ID: E4F445D7

Large Capacity Gas Regulators
Author(s): B. m. Frantzen
Abstract/Introduction:
The definition of a large capacity regulator is often difficlut to formalize. There are many types of regulators which could be classified as large capacity. This discussion will be concerned with the conventional double ported regulator. The double ported balanced valve regulator is probably the most commonly used style of regulator labeled as large capacity. The large capacity is also often classified as high pressure due to the function of the restriction. The restricting element is positioned by an operator to permit equal flow into and out of the downstream system. The capacity of a restrictor is a function of the pressure differential across that restriction,
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Document ID: DBD3B976

Calibration Of Liquid Density Meters
Author(s): m. J. Joe Sergesketter
Abstract/Introduction:
A knowledge of the density of a flowing liquid has been an important process variable for many years. It is used in process control applications where the quality of the product is directly related to its density. It is used in chemical reactions where the reaction occurs on a mass basis and control can be more precise when the actual mass of the liquid is known. Another common use of this variable is for batch detection in pipeline operations. But one of the most important uses for the measurement of liquid density in the petroleum industry is for accurate flow measurement
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Document ID: 46FBA0E7

Selection, Operation And Maintenance Of Regulators
Author(s): L. Alan Hess
Abstract/Introduction:
Extended trouble free operation of a regulator installation can only occur if initial equipment selection is properly made, and that equipment properly maintained. Proper regulator selection is a process of analyzing the system requirements and then selecting the type and size of regulator or regulators to satisfy these requirements.
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Document ID: 6E22897B

Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): Wayland Sligh
Abstract/Introduction:
A Positive Displacement Meter is one in which a known volume of gas is alternately trapped and released, and the number of cycles recorded. Another term for trapping may be sealing. This principle is applied on both diaphragm type and rotary type meters. Although the operational principle is different, the fact remains that both types measure by means of sealing off a known quanitity of gas, and subsequently releasing it. The bulk of the meters in use today are of the positive displacement type. Other measurement principles are applied in the case of the Turbo Meter, Orifice Meter or Swirl Meter.
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Document ID: 96913F5B

A P P L I C A T I O N And Operation Of Ball Valve Regulators
Author(s): Roy J. Becker
Abstract/Introduction:
OVER TWENTY YEARS AGO A PLUG VALVE WAS EQUIPPED WITH A PNEUMATIC CYLINDER AND A POSITIONER AND USED AS A MONITOR REGULATOR. THE CONCEPT WAS A NEW METHOD OF GAS REGULATION AND WAS THE BEGINNING OF A NEW ERA.
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Document ID: 091C19A8

Recording Calorimeters Installation And Testing
Author(s): Donald F. Scholtes
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas, Synthetic, Liquid, Manufactured, or a combination of all of these,thats Gas. As the demand for gas Increases,there is a corresponding increase in the cost which is due in part, to the exploration, transportation and handling. This cost increase focuses a more direct attention to accurate B.T.U. measurement.
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Document ID: 219B5619

Kinetic Type Indicating And Recording Instruments For Determining Specific Gravity
Author(s): H. E. Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
This class offers a comprehensive presentation of the kinetic type gas gravitometer. Including: Simple explanation of operating principle Equipment set-up and operation in field Trouble-shooting, repair and adjustment
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Document ID: 23831F4D

Witnessing Orifice Meter Calibration And Fieu Tests
Author(s): Robert L. Fojt
Abstract/Introduction:
The principal reason for a witness, in the custody transfer of any product, is to Insure accuracy and validity of the physical tests on the measurement equipment. Since the product measured represents money, the physical test is comparable to an audit by an accountant. The witness should not only be of high integrity but be knowledgeable of the technical skills required to properly conduct the test. Being well versed in the use of the required test equipment is also an asset.
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Document ID: 41EEC6A1

Prevention Of Freezing In Measuring & Regulating Equipment
Author(s): C. V. Bishop
Abstract/Introduction:
Freezing in measuring and regulating equipment is a potential problem that exists throughout the gas industry. The severity and frequency of occurrence will depend upon: 1. Water content of the gas 2. Operating pressure 3. Temperature 4. Amount of pressure reduction
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Document ID: FE4003EA

Turbine Meters For Uquid Measurehemt
Author(s): Paul J. La Nasa
Abstract/Introduction:
Although the liquid turbine meter principle dates back many decades, the axial flow turbine meters presently employed for liquid measurement are quite new. The axial flow turbine meter was f i r s t used for driving the rotor and normally where accuracy of measurement was not of prime importance. Reliability was of greater importance, so parts were made rugged and the rotor was designed more to be non-clogging than to be accurate. However, through the evolution of technology, the turbine meter has maintained r e l i a b i l i t y and ruggedness while attaining a high degree of accuracy. Today, the meters used for water flow have accuracies oT 0.25 over ranges of 10 to 1 or more while maintaining the same high degree of r e l i a b i l i t y and ruggedness as did their predecessors.
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Document ID: D85C3D90

Flow Measurement By Insertion Turbine Meters
Author(s): Jerry Mcintosh
Abstract/Introduction:
INSERTION TURBINE METERS ARE DESIGNED TO OFFER A COST EFFECTIVE MEANS OF MEASUREMENT OF GAS OR LIQUIDS IN LARGE AREA DUCTS AND PIPELINES. MEASUREMENT IS ACHIEVED WITH A SMALL ROTOR MOUNTED ON A STRUT FIVING A PULSE OUTPUT EACH TIME
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Document ID: B60972E3

Manual Chart Calculations
Author(s): Frank B. Douglass
Abstract/Introduction:
The introduction and use of electronic equipment into the measurement and processing of volumes should not preclude each of us from knowing how to manually calculate gas chart volumes. It is an essential tool of operations for both the office and field to have the skill and knowledge to determine flows for sizing equipment and other routine items.
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Document ID: BE32CDA2

Installation And Operation Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): A.F. Kersey
Abstract/Introduction:
THE CUTLER-HAMMER RECORDING CALORIMETER MEASURES THE TOTAL CALORIFIC VALUE OF COMBUSTIBLE GAS. IT CONTINUOUSLY SAMPLES, INDICATES, AND RECORDS BTU PER CUBIC FOOT.
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Document ID: C2493136

Auditing Gas Measurement And Accounting Systems
Author(s): Robert J. Utter
Abstract/Introduction:
Definition Websters New Collegiate Dictionary defines audit as follows: 1 a: a formal or official examination and verification of an account book b: a methodical examination and review 2: the final report of an examination of books of account by auditors gudit vt 1: to examine with intent to verify 2: to attend (a course) without working for or expecting to receive formal credit.
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Document ID: 6DC5BF31

Determination Of Hydrogen Sulfide And Total Sulfur By Titration Methods
Author(s): Art Moen
Abstract/Introduction:
Electrolytic generation of bromine as a titrating reagent for measurement of sulfur compounds in the gaseous phase was introduced to industry nearly 20 years ago. With the development of transistor electronics and the discovery of a practical coulometric bromine sensing electrode system, a new, wide range electrolytic titrator was developed and designed to meet the specific requirements for continuous sulfur monitoring.
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Document ID: 412CA0B8

Liquid Measurement With Orifice Meters
Author(s): Edgar E. Buxton
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of the orifice meter for the measurement of liquid flow at some static pressures and temperatures requires special considerations during the flow measurement system design and operation. The specific static pressure and temperature regions vary with the liquid product being measured. This paper is devoted to explaining the design needs and requirements for orifice meters to attain repeatable and accurate flow measurement of liquids. Flow measurement should not be attempted near the critical point nor near the bubble point (vaporization) of the liquid because large flow measurement errors result from small errors of pressure and temperature measurements. These same thermodynamic properties can cause large errors when using densitometers due to systematic pressure and temperature differences between the orifice meter and the densitometer.
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Document ID: 800BB63B

Maintaining And Trouble Shooting Lact Units
Author(s): Bill Martino
Abstract/Introduction:
UNIT - AN OVERALL VIEW Lease automatic oastody transfer units are carefully assembled liquid measurement stations consisting of 5 major independent functions that merge into a complete system. The 5 major functions include:
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Document ID: BCA419BF

Technical Session, Specific Gravity Instruments Installation And Operation
Author(s): E, F. Blanchard
Abstract/Introduction:
THE WHAT AND WHY OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY Fundamental to understanding specific gravity instruments and their use is the definition of specific gravity. Specific gravity is formally defined as the ratio of weight of a body to the weight of another body of equal volume taken as a standard unit. For gases, the standard is generally dry air.
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Document ID: 4D0E412F

Rotating Vane Gas Meter
Author(s): Stephen D. Loeffler
Abstract/Introduction:
The rotating vane gas meter, manufactured by American Meter, Is one of two rotary meter designs on the market today. The lobed impeller design, although exhibiting many coinmon rotary meter characteristics with the rotating vane design, is not specifical1y d iscussed in this paper. The rotating vane meter is a positive displacement measuring device used in production, distribution, and industrial gas measurement to indicate total actual gas volume. When combined with a variety of correction devices or techniques, the meter is part of a total measurement system that indicates corrected total volume, corrected for the volumetric effect on the gas of temperature and pressure conditions. This paper will describe the fundamentals of rotating vane technology, and give comparisons with the nearest competing metering designs (diaphragm meters and turbine meters), in an attempt to describe the best applications for this versatile rotary meter.
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Document ID: C99887D5

Temperature In Orifice Flow Measurement
Author(s): Chris H. Spriggs
Abstract/Introduction:
Most people could very quickly tell us what the temperature is, but really havent given much thought to what temperature is. Temperature is the measure of the ability of a system to transfer heat. Heat can be transferred between systems if they are at different temperatures. A system may be a room, a building, the outdoors, the eartl the sun, and so on. Some systems applicable to orifice measurement are: the gas stream, piping, surrounding air, the ground, and others.
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Document ID: EC66754D

Gas Turbine Meters And Continuous Volume Integrat
Author(s): Giles m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
I. Turbine Meter Introduction Since the introduction of the turbine meter to the U.S. gas industry in the early 60s the turbine meter has found wide acceptance as a large volume measurement devi
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Document ID: E4EA8F18

Industrial And District Regulators And Applications
Author(s): Giles m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
In the natural gas industry, the terms Industrial and District when applied to pressure regulators usually refer to those installations which supply greater capacities or operate at higher pressures than the Domestic or Service type regulators normally used for the supply of gas to residential dwellings
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Document ID: 8F14A0C6

Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): W. A. Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
Positive displacement gas meters are divided into two general categories depending upon their flow capacities. Meters with capacities of 500 cubic foot per hour (CFH) and less are termed domestic or residential meters. Those with capacities greater than 500 CFH are considered large capacity meters. These are further sub-divided into two groups: displacement meters such as diaphragm and rotary meters sn inferential meters such as turbine and orifice meters. This discussion deals with large capacity diaphragm and rotary meters.
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Document ID: BBDF339C

Domestic Meters
Author(s): W. A, Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
The first gas company in the United States, The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1816, struggled for years with financial and technical problems while operating on a flat-rate basis. Its growth was slow, its charge for gas service beyond the pocket-book of the majority,
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Document ID: 976475BC

Design Of Metering Systems For Tanker Offloading
Author(s): Jack R. Chester
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most critical problems affecting any tanker offloading metering facility is the removal of free air on start-up and tank stripping.
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Document ID: 1B8E0B32

Pressure Regulation And Flow Control With Expansible Tube Type Valves
Author(s): John Heckaman
Abstract/Introduction:
In the natural gas and pipeline industries, expansible tube regulators are used to control flow or pressure. Control is achieved by reducing a high inlet pressure (Pi) to a lower selected outlet pressure (P2). Ideally, the pressure is maintained over a range of inlet pressure and flow conditions. Due to state-of-the-art techniques now being used to manufacture regulators and elastomers the variety of applications have been widened.
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Document ID: 3E1E1CE5

What The Office Group Expects From The Field Group
Author(s): Dorothy S. Strlngfellow
Abstract/Introduction:
To the uninitiated observers who are not d i r e c t l y connected with Measurement operations in the producing, purchasing, processing, s e l l i n g , transporting, and exchanging of natural gas as it exists today, the Measurement function may seem simplistic. The office and field r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are perceived as check the meters change the charts calculate the volumes! Other corporate e n t i t i e s then use the volume data to b i l l sales, issue royalty checks, translate volumes to revenue in, revenue out, e t c . and to generate reports and balance sheets for corporate perusal and to assess the r e s u l t s on a year-to-date basis. The turntables for this monthly corporate r i t u a l are the Measuranent groups in the field and office - and how the two groups interface and f u l f i l l Measurement obligations is a reflection of how well a transmission or distribution company is managed.
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Document ID: 8D0DBA42

Sediment And Water Testing And Monitoring
Author(s): Jimmy Raper
Abstract/Introduction:
Each time that the custody of crude oil is transferred from one party to another there are several things that must be known about the transferred crude oil before the accounting for the oil can be accomplished. First, the number of barrels or the volume of o i l that is involved in the transfer must be established. This volume is a gauged or metered amount of oil that has been corrected to a temperature of s i x t y degrees Fahrenheit (60F). Second, the API g r a v i t y, which is the observed gravity corrected to s i x ty degrees Fahrenheit 60F), must be known. Third, the volume of non-hydrocarbons or the amount of sediment and water that is present in the total transferred volume must be known. Fourth, the value or the price per barrel must be known. After these facts are known, the monies that are to be exchanged may be determined as fol1ows: (measured volume in barrels at 60F - sediment and water) X price per barrel (based on g r a v i t y) t o t a l monies exchanged As demonstrated in the calculation above the amount of sediment and water that is determined 1 s deducted from the total volume and d i r e c t ly a f f e c t s the total revenue that is exchanged between the concerned parties.
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Document ID: 71F1F6A1

Correcting Instruments Applied To Displacement And Turbine Gas Meters
Author(s): Thomas R. Comerford, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
THE ECONOMICS OF VOLUME CORRECTION Displacement and turbine gas meters provide an extremely accurate measure of the actual volume of gas consumed at the meter. If the density of the gas is also known at the meter, then the volume measured can be corrected to useful mass terms: to equivalent volume or standard volume for equitable contract billing. Correcting instruments calculate the density of the gas at the meter and directly modify the output count of the meter to provide a totalized reading in corrected contract volume. This effectively converts a volume meter into a mass meter. In order to understand how to best apply and use correcting Instruments, we will discuss the details of how pressure and temperature measurements are used to provide correction of volume to mass. Dont let the details obscure the simplicity of what is being accomplished: The Corrector takes the rotation output from the Meter and factors it for changes in gas pressure and temperature to compute corrected gas volume.
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Document ID: 5EA9B105

Chromatography Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): Patrick m. Mccann
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas liquids are simply that liquid product fraction customarily removed from natural gas. This often includes components Ci through as high as C30. The analysis of these products via gas chromatography will be covered in this paper. An overview and general guidelines of sample handling, instrumentation, along with procedures and calculations are to be discussed.
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Document ID: 6CA5BE0F

Mass Measurement Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): Bill R. Caffey
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement of natural gas liquids has been in a continual state of change since the conception of NGL recovery. Each particular product called for the physical properties to be studied, correlated, and various tables made to accommodate the measurement. However, normal methods to correct volumes to standard conditions by use of known temperature, pressure, and gravity data became inaccurate with the advent of various mixed hydrocarbon streams, especially those containing ethane.
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Document ID: 640222D0

Crude Oil Sampling For Custody Transfer
Author(s): Jack D. Stringer
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the beginning of the petroleum industry, crude oil has normally contained some amounts of sediment and water. In the early days this was not considered a problem because the price of crude oil was low and the returns on the end products were high enough to overlook it. However, the modern era has seen prices that hover around 35.00 per barrel and production volumes which are mind boggling. The United States alone is currently producing approximately 8,650,000 barrels of crude oil per day as well as importing 3,520,000 barrels per day. Although the amounts of sediment and water (S & W) contained in crude oil will vary depending on a number of factors, losses of over 150 million per year will be incurred in the U.S. alone for every 1/10 of 1% S & W sold as crude oil.
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Document ID: 75065C68

Specific Gravity Instruments & Gas Sampling Devices Installation & Operation
Author(s): Frank A. Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
The specific gravity is fundamental to natural gas measurement when the orifice plate is used as the primary flow measurement device. This paper will discuss several methods for determining specific gravity and the installation and operation of one of the more commonly used gravitometers, the Arcco-Anubis. This paper will also discuss the Arcco-Anubis Continuous Gas Sampler.
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Document ID: AE48D8F0

Bellows-Type Orifice Meters
Author(s): Henry A. Hubbard
Abstract/Introduction:
The bellows-type differential gauge has found widespread application and increasing populalarity in orifice metering. Its operation does not require mercury nor critical leveling for operation. The rapid response and high output torque make the bellows meter particularly adaptable to integrating and controlling devices. The meter is generally not affected by condensed liquid in the measuring system. The self-draining feature along with proper installation makes it very adaptable to wet gas measurement.
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Document ID: 0837933D

Sonic Nozzles For Gas Meter Calibration
Author(s): Henry A. Hubbard
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of critical flow elements was first introduced into the gas industry about 1930 as field proving apparatus for high pressure displacement gas meters. These primary devices have basic and fundamental advantages, along with a few disadvantages. The critical flow prover is protable and offers simplicity in the field computations required to obtain the proof of a meter under operating conditions,
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Document ID: B5001AE0

Energy Measurement Utilizihg On Line Chromatograph
Author(s): Wesley E. Sund
Abstract/Introduction:
It is no longer economical to consider the energy content of natural gas streams as constant and sell simply on volume measurement. Instead, it is becoming more common to use some type of on-line measurement to directly measure the BTU value.
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Document ID: B4C8A6A0

On-Line Computers Fob Custody Transfer
Author(s): Duane A, Neefe
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to supply and demand accurate gas measusement has become extremely important in our industry. The orifice chart has served us well in the past years, but due to increased prices per HCF, gas companies are looking for even more accurate, reliable and faster ways of measurement.
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Document ID: 34AFED0A

Calculation Of Liquid Petroleum Quantities
Author(s): Richard m. Sheppard
Abstract/Introduction:
With the rising prices of crude oil and related products over the past few years, every facet of the oil Industry has been going thru major changes: measurement, qualitative analysis, sampling and storage facilities, just to name a few. Calculation of liquid petroleum quantities Is no exception.
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Document ID: B70B46DD

Moisture Titrators
Author(s): H. E. Kwiatkowski
Abstract/Introduction:
Detection and accurate measurement of moisture in natural gas is an Important, yet an elusive, undertaking. The reasons to measure the moisture content of natural gas will be presented with this paper along with discussion regarding various methods for measurement and the history of their development. Primitive as well as state-of-theart moisture measurement techniques will he reviewed along with the benefits and disadvantages of each. This paper ends with an in-depth exploration of operation and maintenance on one such device-the Moisture Titrator. Information contained herein should equip the student with overall knowledge of all moisture measurement devices commonly used in the natural gas industry, and enable intelligent selection (based upon the inhr-rent advantages and disadvantages of each) of the correct instrument for any particular situation.
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Document ID: 3C91554A

Diaphragm Meter Capacity Ratings At Elevated Pressures
Author(s): How A R D W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
Through the years, the gas industry has been steadily improving, especially from a technological and product im prove men ts v i e w p o i n t . Today, the gas industry has s t a n d a r d i z e d on most a p p l i c a t i o n s , methods and definitions. Within the measurement f i e l d , two im p o r t a n t areas are still open for discussion and at the discretion of the i n d i v i d u a l persons or companies o p e r a t i ng w i t h i n these areas. One is the lack of an i n d u s t r y s t a n d a r d definition for a s t a n d a r d cubic foot of n a t u r a l gas and second i s the lack of an industry s t a n d a r d for d i a p h r a gm meter c a p a c i t y r a t i n g s at e l e v a t ed p r e s s u r e s . There are presently in use a minim urn of ten different base p r e s s u r e s, e a c h of which defines a s t a n d a r d cubic foot of n a t u r a l gas. There are many different methods of gas metering in use today - the three most common are diaphragm displacement meters, rotary displacement meters, and i n f e r e n t i a l meters
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Document ID: 7488B2B5

Automatic Bell Proving Of Domestic Meters
Author(s): Kenneth C. Peacock
Abstract/Introduction:
ANY OF YOU WHO HAVE MANUALLY PROVED GAS METERS KNOW WHAT A TEDIOUS TASK THAT CAN BE. AS LONG AS 50 YEARS AGO PEOPLE WERE ADDING EQUIPMENT TO PROVEI TO OBTAIN SOME DEGREE OF AUTOMATION. CURING THE LAST 20 YEARS, VERY SOPHISTICATED SYSTEMS HAVE BECOME STANDARD THROUGHOUT THE GAS INDUSTRY (SPRAGUE PULSE PROVER, ROCKWELL PISTON PROVER, AMERICAN METER AND ADAPTROL INC. SOLID STATE, ADAPTROL INC. AND ENERGY ECONCANIC MICROPROCESSOR CONTROLS). THE REAL TECHNICAL BREAKTHROUGH THAT ALLOWED FOR THE RAPID DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATED PROVING EQUIPMENT WAS THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATED PROVING EQUIPMENT WAS THE DEVELOPMENT OF EFFICIENT PHOTOELECTRIC SYSTEMS TO ALLOW AUTOMATIC CONTROL USING THE METER TEST HAND.
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Document ID: 421AD188

Domestic Meters
Author(s): R.W. Hckee
Abstract/Introduction:
THE PURPOSE OF THIS PAPER IS TO DISCUSS THE THEORETICAL AND OPERATIONAL ASPECTS OF THE DOMESTIC GAS METER. A DOMESTIC GAS METER BEING DEFINED AS ONE WHICH AS THE CAPACITY RATING OF 500 CUBIC FEET PER HOUR OR LESS. THE DOMESTIC METER IS COMMONLY REFERRED TO AS THE CASH REGISTER OF THE NATURAL GAS DISTRIBUTION INDUSTRY. IN 1980 THERE WERE OVER 43 MILLION DOMESTIC METERS IN SERVICE, METERING APPROXIMATELY 5 TRILLION CUBIC FEET OF GAS PER YEAR, AT A VALUE OF OVER 17 BILLION DOLLARS.
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Document ID: C2EA600B

Fundamental Principles Of Displacement Meters
Author(s): R.W. Nckee
Abstract/Introduction:
THE MAJORITY OF GAS VOLUME MEASURING DEVICES CURRENTLY IN USE UTILIZE THE POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PRINCIPLE OF MEASUREMENT. IN POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MEASUREMENT, AN ACCURATELY KNOWN WOLUME OF GAS IS ALTERNATELY TRAPPED AND RELEASED AND THE NUMBER OF TRAPPING CYCLES IS RECORDED ON A REGISTER CALIBRATED IN THE DESIRED MEASURING UNITS. TO ILLUSTRATE THE POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PRINCIPLE, IMAGINE A PISTON AND CYLINDER WITH AN INLET AND OUTLET PORT. WITH THE INLET PORT OPENED, THE CHAMBER WILL FILL WITH GAS AND CLOSE AT THE END OF THE PISTON STROKE. AT THIS INSTANT, WE WOULD KNOW HOW MUCH GAS IN IN THE CHAMBER. THE OUTLET PORT THEN OPENS EXHAUSTING THE GAS. BY SIMPLY COUNTING THE NUMBER OF TIME THE CYLINDER FILLS AND EMPTYS, WE HAVE AN EFFECTIVE MEASUREMENT DEVICE.
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Document ID: D6D34E6E

Test Instruments And Recorders For Specific Gravity
Author(s): M.S. Morrison
Abstract/Introduction:
Computation of natural gas flow volume, when measured by orifice meter, is made by using the formula Qb C X )JuwPf where Qb is the quantity, Hw is the differential, and Pf the absolute static pressure, with C being a constant. The constant C is only constant for a certain specified set of conditions, and in practice is made up of numerous factors including the basic orifice factor, the Reynolds number factor, the expansion factor, the pressure base factor, temperature base factor, flowing temperature factor, specific gravity factor, supercompressibility factor and manometer factor.
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Document ID: 028E5944

Effective Use Of Dead Weight And Dem Point Equipment
Author(s): A.R. Kahirann
Abstract/Introduction:
INSTRUMENTS COMMONLY USED FOR MEASURING PRESSURE ARE THE MANOMETER, THE DIAL OR SPRING-TYPE GAUGE, AND THE DEAD WEIGHT GAUGE. THE CHOICE BETWEEN THESE INSTRUMENTS USUALLY DEPENDS ON THE PRESSURE BEING MEASURED, ACCURACY AND REPEATABILITY OF DEVICE, EASE OF DEVICE APPLICATION IN THE FIELD, NEED FOR DEVICE RECALIBRATION, AND COST OF PURCHASING AND MAINTAINING THE INSTRUMENT.
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Document ID: B83BD594

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement
Author(s): D.A. Tefankjian
Abstract/Introduction:
IN ANY FIELD OF ENDEAVOR FOR A PERSON TO COMPLETELY UNDERSTAND THE ENDEAVOR, HE MUST HAVE A KNOWLEDGE AND AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE FUNDAMENTALS INVOLVED. PEOPLE CAN DO WELL IN THE PERFORMANCE OF THEIR WORK WITHOUT KNOWING THE BASIC PRINCIPLES, BUT TO EXCEL AND PROGRESS KNOWLEDGE OF THE FUNDAMENTALS IS NECESSARY. THIS IS PARTICULARLY TRUE IF ONES WORK IS TECHNICAL IN NATURE.
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Document ID: 0A565D86

Application Of Monitor Regulators In Distribution And Transmission Systems
Author(s): William H. Earney
Abstract/Introduction:
THE PRESSURE REDUCING REGULATOR IN FIG 1 IS THE BASIC DEVICE USED TO REDUCE THE PRESSURE FROM A HIGH PRESSURE SOURCE SUCH AS A TRANSMISSION LINE TO A LOWER PRESSURE SUCH AS A TRANSMISSION LINE TO A LOWER PRESSURE SUCH AS A DISTRIBUTION PIPING SYSTEM. THE REGULATOR HAS A HISTORY OF VERY RELIABLE SERVICE, BUT BECAUSE IT IS MECHANICAL IT CAN FAIL.
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Document ID: 52951C70

Field Experience With Installation, Operation, And Maintenance Of Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): J. Douglas Moseley
Abstract/Introduction:
As necessity is the mother to invention, the automatic chart changer came into being due to a need by the petroleum industry and other associated industries using circular chart recorders. The automatic chart changer is an adaptation kit that is made for attachment to existing chart recorders that utilize the polar graph or circular chart. It is designed to automatically remove charts from a recording instrument and store the charts until a time is more appropriate for such charts to be collected.
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Document ID: FEA0EC3D

Developments Oh Orifice Meter Stahdards
Author(s): E. L. Upp
Abstract/Introduction:
For measurement of high pressure, high volume natural gas, the orifice meter remains the predominant choice for flow measurement, AGA-3, which is the standard upon which the orifice measurement is based, maKes this statement in its foreword: This is not a final report, but is made with the understanding that the committee will continue its analytical studies of data already developed. The ccmmittee also fully expects that it will be necessary for it to conduct further experimental work of its own. This will make necessary one or more supplemental reports, in which data will be summarized uLnd the mathematical principles announced, which are the basis for the report, and such modifications and extensions will be made as additional data and further study may require.
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Document ID: 87F05F1B

Fundamentals Of Bellows-Type Orifice Meters
Author(s): E.A. Lommatsch
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to control and direct the flow of water was recognized at a very early stage in the development of civilization. In Europe and Asia can be seen the relics of hydraulic works, some of great antiquity, which display a high degree of engineering accomplishment, the best known of which are the agueducts, which the Romans built to bring water to their cities. In the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum can be still seen lead piping, which conveyed water to houses and gardens, and which included orifice plates to act as flow limiting devices, providing a basis on which the service was charged to the consumer.
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Document ID: 95AE1033

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Howard W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
When the word measurement is mentioned, the majority of the gas industry measurement personnel automatically convert their thoughts to a meter. The meter contributes only 1/2 to 1/4 toward the total science of measurement depending on the application.
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Document ID: 90B60DED

Maintaining A Chart Processor
Author(s): E. J. Dupuls
Abstract/Introduction:
When properly maintained, calibrated and operated, the Chart Processor is capable of providing one of the most accurate means of manually integrating orifice meter charts. The intent of this paper Is to supply the reader with maintenance guidelines and tips to insure the overall accuracy of the Chart Processor and possibly reduce or prevent down time. Operational checks and preventative maintenance measures can be broken down into three categories based on the frequency with which they should be performed. These categories are: Daily, Weekly, and Periodic.
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Document ID: 979A04D1

Selection, Testing And Haintfnance Of Digital Flow Computers
Author(s): E. J. Dupuis
Abstract/Introduction:
Digital flow computers have been around for several years. They have gone through many changes, taking advantage of the newest microprocessor technology available. As with almost all electronic devices, the prices of these flow computers have decreased over the years compared to their increased capabilities and accuracy.
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Document ID: 169CCBA7

Determination Of Water Vapor Content And Hydrocarbon Dew Point In Natural Gas
Author(s): Douglas E. Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
The determination of water vapor content and hydrocarbon dew point in natural gas Is of major importance for the maintenance of quality control between gas supply points and ultimate end use. The following discussion will cover those methods used by the natural gas transmission industry for the determination of water vapor and hydrocarbon dew point.
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Document ID: 23DCD170

Calibration Of Storage Tanks
Author(s): m. J. Yeandle
Abstract/Introduction:
This discussion will deal with the field measurement of upright, above ground, cylindrical, cone and floating roof steel storage tanks.
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Document ID: C378CA88

Office Application Of Computers For Flow Calculation
Author(s): Robert D. Starr
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement charts, along with their associated data, are processed in vast numbers daily throughout the gas industry. This information is processed by different means from one company to another. However, all companies share a common need for accuracy and speed in the handling of their gas measurement data.
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Document ID: 5890B2DA

Operaticw And Maintenance Of Catalytic Heaters
Author(s): Jim Reel
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of a catalyst to speed ccirbustion of gasair mixtures was recorded as early as 1817 by Sir Hunphrey Davy. He concluded that hot solids, particularly the platinim group, speed the ccinbustion of gas at relatively low tatperatures. Further research in 1912 by Bone and collaborators into the discovery by Davy determined that:
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Document ID: 5C66B6E1

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted-For Gas - Distribution
Author(s): R. L. Church
Abstract/Introduction:
For reasons of safety, profits and conservation of natural resources, the gas Industry has always shown a keen concern over leakage and unaccountedfor gas.
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Document ID: 777ABF96

Trouble Shooting In Metameter Telemetering Systems
Author(s): Robert W. Lowell
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is concerned with troubleshooting Pulse duration telemetering equipment. Initially a definition of telemetering is in order. Simple definitions simply state Telemetering is remote measurement or telemetering is measurement at a distance . A typical telemetering loop is shown in Fig. No. 1, basically consisting of: a. Transmitter b. Receiver c. Power Supply d. Transmission Line
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Document ID: 4B0A38D8

Basic Applications Of Telemetering Systems & Flow Computers
Author(s): Robert F. Schwartz
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will be a basic paper illustrating the various types of telemetering and flow computing systems as utilized in the Gas Industry. The paper will be general in nature, as the subject matter represents an entire field of endeavor. Therefore, only basic fundamentals of the various types of flow computing and telemetering systems will be covered in this paper.
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Document ID: D61A1427

Electronic Measureheent Correction Devices
Author(s): Robert R. Mahns
Abstract/Introduction:
The electronics semi-conductor revolution has touched every industry and home in the nation. The gas industry is no exception. Sophisticated gas measurement instrumentation has been with us for several decades now, but only in the last 10 years or so has it really begun to boom. First marketed were the flow computers dedicated to orifice meter measurement but with steadily decreasing manufacturing costs, electronic Instrumentation is now moving into the area of base volume, pressure and temperature correction previously handled almost solely by mechanical integrating instruments.
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Document ID: EEEFC9B7

About Ishm 1983
Abstract/Introduction:
Collection of documents about ISHM including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, exhibitor and sponsor information, etc.
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Document ID: 045163C7


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