Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (1983)

Procedures Required To Comply With Dot Part 193 Subparts( F, G, H, I, J) Covering Operations, Maintenance, Personnel, Fire Protection, And Security
Author(s): Michael A. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper explains how Northern Natural Gas Company modified its operating LNG facilities and developed procedures to comply with Subparts F, G, H, 1, and J of the new DOT Part 193 rules for LNG plants. The new procedures that were developed cover operating instructions, maintenance, personnel qualifications and training, fire protection, and security.
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Document ID: 76AEB8AA

Computerized Meter Shop Operations Using A Custom Designed Iviicroprocessor Bell Prover Control And Meter Data Acquisition System
Author(s): Donald L. Aquin
Abstract/Introduction:
The Meter Shop Operations computer system currently under development by Southern California Gas Company consists of a custom designed microprocessor bell prover control and meter data acquisition system reporting to a Datapoint host computer. Each microprocessor-based meter proving unit is individually controlled and provides a CRT for display of test results and prompting for meter data collection. The system uses a custom designed hand-held unit for bell prover control and key pad or bar code data input. This unit also provides all necessary bell prover controls including temperature compensation and meter differential measurement. The computer system is based on the generation of a bar code label and the creation of a file in the host computer for each meter upon entry to the shop for repair. The use of bar code readers provides accurate and efficient meter data collection for management of production, quality, and inventory.
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Document ID: 0A20FEBC

Nox Reduction Experience, Past And Planned, In Transamerica Delaval Enterprise Engines
Author(s): R. Kaiser
Abstract/Introduction:
In the early 1970s, Transamerica Delaval Inc. (TDI) began exploratory work related to uncontrolled exhaust emissions throughout the entire engine line. Through the succeeding years, various methods of control have been applied to the different engine types in a continuing effort to reduce the overall emissions level. The bulk of the work has been directed towards reducing NOx emissions which is the area of major current concern. This paper describes some of these past efforts, covering the complete engine product line, and also includes the immediate planned objectives for the spark ignition gas engine. While it is presumed that the American Gas Association members deal primarily with the spark ignited gas engine, this work will describe efforts made in all three fuel modes: diesel, dual fuel, and spark ignition gas.
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Document ID: 0B14D269

Underground Storage Of Natural Gas In West German
Author(s): Hans G. Haddenhorst, Peter Quasi
Abstract/Introduction:
With a current population of approximately 60 million in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) the present natural gas consumption (1982) is around 50 billion m corresponding to 1800 billion scft, 30 percent of which is derived from domestic production (Figure 1). The remaining volumes are imported essentially from the following regions: Netherlands (approx. 50%) North Sea (approx. 20%) USSR (approx. 30%)
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Document ID: E9CCE959

Gri Research Program On Crack Arrest In 9% Nickel Steel
Author(s): E. J. Ripling, m. m. Mamoun, R. D. Stout
Abstract/Introduction:
The structural integrity of 9% nickel steels used in the fabrication of cryogenic containment vessels was first demonstrated in tests conducted in 1960, termed Operation Cryogenics. Since then more than 50 liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tanks fabricated from 9% nickel steels have been put into service. No brittle fractures have been reported in LNG vessels fabricated from 97o nickel steels and built in accordance with the requirements of API 620 Appendix Q or other equivalent standards. In spite of the excellent safety record exhibited by the large number of LNG storage tanks in service, a question was raised as to whether or not adequate testing has been carried out to ensure that a running crack in the wall of an LNG tank made of 9% nickel steel will be arrested. Consequently, the Gas Research Institute (GRI) considered it pertinent and prudent to examine the ability of 9% nickel steels to arrest a running crack at LNG temperatures should a crack be triggered at a flaw and grow because of unfavorable local circumstances. GRI sponsored a study at Lehigh University to review and evaluate critically the published literature on the crack arrest properties of 9% nickel steels at cryogenic temperatures and the test methods used to characterize these properties and to identify data gaps and research needs where necessary.
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Document ID: D97B258E

New Federalism And Environmental Regulation
Author(s): R. G. Vogel
Abstract/Introduction:
I must admit a twinge of hesitancy about speculating at this time on the policy course of our national environmental affairs. With the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in turmoil, our national environmental policies have never been more confused and disordered. But with that disclaimer, I will attempt to make some sense out of the complicated and controversial set of issues that surround the Reagan administrations policies relative to New Federalism and environmental regulations. And, I intend to speak candidly as I see the issues.
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Document ID: 7341E4E7

First At The Scene
Author(s): J. m. Lennon
Abstract/Introduction:
As you know, a serious gas related accident or incident can occur in your service territory at any time of the day or night or any day of the week. Since it usually is true they occur at the most inopportune times, lets first agree that you should have a viable plan to handle the restoration of normal service conditions as well as the investigation of the incident in a logical coordinated manner. Today we do not, could not, and would not expect you, the gas management group, to be or take over the duties of a Claims Investigator. Because of the varying sizes of our member companies and our sometimes far afield physical territories, this coordinated plan is mandatory. The hard facts are that at some later date, sometimes as long as four to six years from the incident, you and your service personnel may be called to testify in significant detail before a judge and jury who will expect, and want to beUeve you are the gas expert you allude to be. As any of you know who have actually testified, the courtroom is the best display of Monday morning quarterbacking you will ever face in your Ufe. It is not to be feared though if we are wiUing to prepare for it with a minimum of effort.
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Document ID: 686C5526

Telemetered Billing Helps Maximize Sales
Author(s): James J. Korinek
Abstract/Introduction:
To best explain how Minnegasco reached the current agreement we have on telemetered billing with our supplier, Northern Natural Gas Company, I would like to give you a brief history of our Company, the Gas Control department, and past problems in gas dispatching and maximizing sales. I have had the opportunity to be a part of Minnegascos Gas Control department during a period of time when the Company has experienced its greatest growth. I started with the Company at the beginning of the 74-75 heating season as a night flow clerk and was responsible for manual flow calculations and monitoring of the distribution system, which proved to be a rewarding and challenging experience.
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Document ID: 0757C626

The Canadian Western LNG Project
Author(s): E. J. Kuczma
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the Canadian Western LNG project. The project is designed to ship LNG from Canada to Japan beginning in 1986 and continuing for 20 years. The paper reviews the projects development and its current status and describes some of the basic and distinctive features of the proposed facility. Included are descriptions of the pretreatment and liquefaction processes, the type of LNG storage, the cooling medium and primary drivers, and the basic construction methods.
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Document ID: C65F79A6

Low Pressure Gas Gathering Considerations
Author(s): Scott R. Peterson
Abstract/Introduction:
I would like to discuss the considerations and potential problems involved with low pressure (vacuum) gas gathering operations. Additionally, I would like to relate some of the experiences that Panhandle Eastern Pipeline Company gained while conducting their vacuum test in the Texas Panhandle. The availability of information on vacuum operations was limited, and, due to the fact Panhandle Eastern will be at a potential vacuum condition within a few years in the West Texas Panhandle Field, a test was designed for the purpose of obtaining additional information. Due to the relatively low field pressure and conceivably large increases in obtainable natural gas reserves, a test was conducted at Panhandle Easterns Neal Compressor Station to assist in determining if vacuum operations would be feasible in the near future. The objective of this test was to evaluate the characteristics and performance of a compressor, an engine, and four wells when the wells were operated below atmospheric pressure for an extended period of time. Included within this overall objective were several implied objectives.
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Document ID: DDA6C3AE

Computerized Cathodic Protection Records One Companys Program
Author(s): E. Dale Dooley
Abstract/Introduction:
192.491, Corrosion Control Records, of Subpart I of the Department of Transportation Regulations for Transportation of Natural and Other Gases states that records must be reteiined, for as long as the pipeline remains in service, of each test, survey, or inspection required by Subpart I, in sufficient detail to demonstrate the adequacy of corrosion control measures or that a corrosive condition does not exist. This regulation has made companies become more aware of their recordkeeping systems. Before the DOT regulations, and when most companies were starting corrosion control programs, various forms of manual record keeping systems were devised. As pipeline systems expanded and new information was added to the records system, the data began to pile up. Such was the case at Oklahoma Natural Gas Company, and it was decided in 1977 to conduct a study of their manual records system.
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Document ID: B78DD61C

Computer Control Features Of Equitable Gas Companys Copley Run Compressor Station
Author(s): Garry L. Willis, Louis P. Saas
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the features of Equitable Gas Companys Copley Run Compressor Stations on-site computer control system and the use of three programmable controllers for all permissive, sequential, and protective logic and analog control loops for controlling the operation of four engine-compressor units as well as station control modes. The system also provides color graphic CRT display, keyboard entry, hard-copy printouts, and the ability to control the entire station operation remotely from Equitables central control facility in Pittsburgh.
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Document ID: 9832EEA3

Cultural Resource Management For Gas Pipelines
Author(s): L. W. Patterson
Abstract/Introduction:
A review of cultural resource management for gas pipelines is made in regard to definitions, legal requirements, program objectives, and administrative considerations.
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Document ID: F4EAE621

Metrication Of Computer Programs
Author(s): T. E. Haynal
Abstract/Introduction:
Because of the Canadian Governments decision to adopt the internationally used metric system in Canada, TransCanada PipeLines had to similarly move to the use of the metric system in 1979. This paper describes TransCanadas objectives, how it handled the conversion of its computer programs, the alternatives available, and the information needed to convert. From the experience gained during the conversion some thoughts are presented on what could have been done differently for consideration by those who might be faced with the same challenge in the future.
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Document ID: 8451E8CD

Recent Developments In Residential/Commercial Gas Equipment Research
Author(s): Stephen D. Ban, Vincent B. Fiore
Abstract/Introduction:
GRIs mission is to plan and implement a research program providing mutual benefits to both the gas industry and the gas ratepayer through provision of improved energy services from a cost and performance standpoint. A major goal of the Gas Research Institutes program in utilization is to provide benefits through developing advanced technology options leading to increased efficiency and improved performance of present and future gasfueled equipment and appliances to serve the residential and commercial markets. These benefits can only be realized if the results of GRIs R&D are used. Therefore, GRI emphasizes the application of research results. GRIs objective in the current program is to provide the consumer with gas energy services of equivalent or higher quality and at competitive or lower cost than alternative energy sources. GRI believes that this is a good business strategy for the gas industry and is in the best interests of the gas consumer.
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Document ID: 94EE0A89

Vehicle Abuse, A Fleet Management Challenge
Author(s): Judith Lance
Abstract/Introduction:
Vehicle abuse is a problem with which all fleet operators are familiar. Some of us deal with it often and others on occasion, but it does appear as a negative side of our business whether your fleet is large or small. We pay a high price each year for vehicle abuse, both in repair dollars and downtime. Webster defines abuse as (1) to use wrongly (2) to hurt by treating badly(3) wrong, bad or excessive use. In order to find a solution to this problem of wrong, bad and excessive use of company vehicles, we need to deflne and understand the reasons for the abuse. Of course, sometimes the reasons are obvious, but many times the causes are not so recognizable and abuse may be written off as equipment failure, an accident, or routine repairs. This is one reason why investigations of vehicle accidents and other types of vehicle damage are necessary. Was the damage caused by abuse or was it unavoidable?
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Document ID: 8D71EDBA

The Expanding Role Of Natural Gas Imports From Canada In The U.S. Northeast
Author(s): James A. Rooney
Abstract/Introduction:
I have been asked to discuss with you today a topic which has received much attention recently. Unfortunately, a good deal of this attention has been focused on the current difficulties Canadian gas exporters are facing in establishing a pricing regime consistent with the realities of todays U.S. gas market. My remarks are intended to serve two purposes first, to suggest that overcoming these difficulties are demonstrably in both countries interests. Indeed, recent moves by the Canadian government to reduce the border price of natural gas exports demonstrate an accommodation can be expected over the coming months. Secondly, I hope that I will leave you with a clear sense that the United States Northeast represents an eager and attractive market for Canadian gas exports.
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Document ID: 29EA5A01

Education And Society In The Age Of Technology
Author(s): William O. Rieke
Abstract/Introduction:
Although I genuinely appreciate the opportunity to speak to this major gathering and auspicious group, I am concerned that a college or university president may not be the most appropriate person to occupy your time with an address. After all, the lives of such presidents are pretty confused and hectic these days. Gone forever, are the good old times when all university presidents had to worry about was parking for the faculty, sex for the students, and football for the alumni. Todays president finds life much more difficult as he/she struggles with increasing competition for a declining pool of students, progressively more limited resources to deal with increasingly greater demands, and, especially at this time in our history, tremendous concern about the quality of education.
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Document ID: 9BDD0A80

Economics Of Waste Heat Recovery For Auxiliary Drives
Author(s): Leo R. Stevens
Abstract/Introduction:
Fuel cost will increase in the long term and fuel shortages should be anticipated. Therefore, the requirement and incentive for heat recovery will be evermore important. The use of waste heat will be discussed in terms of basic system design, installation, maintenance, start-up, and payback. Examples using two currently operating systems are highlighted as well as theoretical examples. Economic analysis of the basic costs incurred during implementation are reviewed. Flow diagrams of specific installations and models are included.
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Document ID: 38A11286

Gas Research Institute Coal Gasification R&D Program
Author(s): Kermit Woodcock, Vernon Hill, John Hoppe, Howard Meyer, Dennis Leppin
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Research Institute is supporting research and development efforts to develop a variety of coal gasification technologies for economically producing substitute natural gas (SNG). The overall objective is to provide advanced processes that offer significant technical and economic advantages over the commercially available options. Studies involving both surface gasification and in situ gasification are in progress. The Westinghouse fluid bed gasifier and a series of new methanation catalysts for upgrading coal gasifier product gases to pipeline quality are major elements of the surface gasification program. The in situ program is directed toward evaluating basic technology including the Controlled Retracting Injection Point (CRIP) concept for controlUng the growth and geometry of the reaction zone within a coal seam.
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Document ID: D4563E15

Washington Update 83
Author(s): George H. Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
As always, its a pleasure to attend the annual distribution conference and to have an opportunity to share some thoughts with you on where our industry has come from, where it is today, and where we are going-with emphasis on today, for thats where the action is. I say this is an opportunity for this audience because you men and women serve the entire industry on its cutting edge-where the product meets the public. And where the heat is when things go awry. The gas industry really has gone through three periods. Right after World War II we saw a lot of gas discovered in the exploration for oil. That gas was cheap and we had no trouble at all in selling it. Literally, we were order takers. It was in this period that we built the image of gas as efficient, convenient, dependable, and cheap. We retain three of those four attributes today, and they can serve us well as we seek a workable solution to the pricing problems we face today.
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Document ID: CB192985

API Orifice Meter Program
Author(s): Wayne A. Fung, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The program has its primary objective to generate a data base of discharge coefficients and related parameters for flange tapped orifice meters. This data base will be used to develop an improved orifice equation leading to improved flow meter accuracy. Accurate measurement is required even more today than before because of the ever increasing price of the products bought and sold throughout the world using this differential fluid flow principle. An additional goal of this program is to use the improved orifice flow meter equation to update ANSI/API 2530, more commonly known as A.G.A. Report #3, into a more accurate and acceptable universal method of fluid flow measurement by orifice meter for custody transfer. This document today is being challenged through the International Standards Organization (ISO) by their issuance of their document 5167. The two standards, both of which are based on the same data, are in conflict and must be resolved internationally.
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Document ID: 3D712B04

Charts, Graphs, And Trends Of Third Party Damage Prevention
Author(s): Michael D. Hutchins
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the goals of the System Protection Committee since its beginning has been to collect, develop, and disseminate technical data and information especially related to damage by outside forces. In the fiscal year of 1977-78 the committee decided to study various means to develop useable measurement tools to evaluate the effectiveness of third party damage prevention programs. In the year of 1978-79, the committee developed a possible measurement tool to evaluate third party damage effectiveness and requested the System Protection Committee member companies to begin submitting data.
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Document ID: 29868C52

Unsteady Behavior Of A Simulated LNG Vapor Cloud Suddenly Released Into A Wind-Tunnel Boundary Layer
Author(s): Robert N. Meroney
Abstract/Introduction:
The behavior of dense gas volumes emitted suddenly into a simulated atmospheric boundary layer is used to calibrate a numerical volume-integrated box model. The box model which includes relations to account for surface heat transfer and atmospheric humidity is compared to field releases of Freon and Liquid Natural Gas.
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Document ID: 522BE5FD

Task Group Report: Outdoor Storage
Author(s): D. A. Marostica, S. Boysen, Jr., G. Duffield, m. m. Epstein, A. Rader, E. W. Reaney
Abstract/Introduction:
Task Group 81-4, OUTDOOR STORAGE, was established at the September 1981 meeting of the A.G.A. Operating Sections Plastic Materials Committee. The scope of the newly formed task group was: To compile information from plastic pipe users and manufacturers, as well as from industry research, in order to provide practical outdoor storage guidelines which consider material types and exposure conditions. Members of the task group represented utility, manufacturing and research interests.
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Document ID: 9D9318D5

Design & Handling Of A Large Pipeline Plugging Job
Author(s): B. Vernooy
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation highlights some of the details of the design, planning, and operating procedures used to accomplish a 48-inch pipeline repair job. The equipment was specifically designed for the extreme load conditions generated by high fluid pressures in a large-diameter pipe. The planning had to anticipate the unpredictable variables that could arise due to operational demands, weather, or whatever. The award-winning execution was completed with cooperation and effort, and without flow interruption. This is a short story about plugging a pipeline on purpose. This story begins or ends in Alaska, and the project was successful enough to win an award as that states outstanding engineering job of the year.
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Document ID: 89A307BB

Natural Gas Vehicles- Passing Fancy Or Genuine Growth Market?
Author(s): Thomas L. Moskitis
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas vehicles have been in use in our country for well over a decade, in other countries for several decades. The technical details of the application of natural gas as a motor fuel have been well documented in the trade literature and have been the subject of many presentations at previous conferences and seminars. This paper will attempt to provide an overall analysis of the current market for natural gas vehicles and to provide some insight into the Associations plans and thinking to develop the transportation market for natural gas. No attempt will be made to predict the numbers of vehicles operating on natural gas in the future, nor will there be any forecasts made of industry sales volumes in this market. However, gas sales in the neighborhood of several hundred Bcf to one Tcf or more are generally found to be possible in the transportation market beyond the year 2000.
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Document ID: 71BBE863

Recommendations For Research To Assess LNG Safety Hazards
Author(s): Steve J. Wiersma
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper reviews recommendations for research from the 1982 GRI LNG Safety Research Workshop on research needs for assessing hazards of accidental LNG spills. Three areas are addressed: (i) Dispersion of Dense Vapors, (ii) Rapid Phase Transitions, and (iii) Combustion and Radiation.
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Document ID: ED57B8BC

Evolution Of The High-Efficiency Gas Boiler
Author(s): Robert A. Buddington
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper focuses on the design features and seasonal operating efficiencies of residential gas-fired heating boilers. Lineage is traced from the early large mass and water content types to the presently available high and very high-efficiency models. Identified are causes of inefficiencies and measures to improve efficiencies. Described are general operating characteristics and AFUE Ratings.
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Document ID: 02DC7D45

Aging Of Polyethylene Pipe In Gas Distribution Service
Author(s): E. F. Palermo, Ivan K. Deblieu
Abstract/Introduction:
Polyethylene piping has become the standard system for distribution of natural gas. In 1982 more than 80 percent of distribution systems installed in the United States were polyethylene (PE). This conversion has evolved since the mid 1960s, when the total system concept was introduced to the gas industry. Now with twenty years of successful experience, utility management seeks to broaden their understanding about the technical aspects of long-term PE system performance. Specifically, they want to determine if Ufe of PE systems might be limited by some mechanism such as corrosion in metal piping systems.
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Document ID: D3A5BA77

Joint Mark-Out Of Underground Utilities
Author(s): Milton G. Mitchell
Abstract/Introduction:
After several years of discussion between representatives of the Central Division of New York Telephone and the Underground Facilities Protection Organization of Syracuse, New York, regarding single-visit joint locating of utilities, a contract locating trial was initiated on September 7, 1982. All underground and buried cable facilities in Onondaga County, which includes the metropolitan Syracuse area, were included in the trial. The primary objectives of the trial were to demonstrate contract services could satisfactorily perform utility locating at reduced cost and to share the trial results with other utility companies as a means of convincing them to join with New York Telephone in a joint locating program.
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Document ID: 1BE28210

Gas Processing Association Cooperative Testing Of Methods For The Analysis Of Natural Gas And Btu Measurements- An Evaluation Of Test Results
Author(s): W. J. Hines, Carl Hefley, Frank Sattler, George Mciver
Abstract/Introduction:
Twenty-one laboratories participated in a cooperative testing program of the analysis of natural gas by gas chromatography as defined in GPA Bulletin 2261-1972, GPA Standard of Analysis for Natural Gas and Similar Gaseous Mixtures by Gas Chromatography. The purpose of the testing program was to develop a statement of precision for the 1972 revision of the method, first adopted as a tentative standard in 1961 and revised and adopted as standard in 1964. Experimental design, sample collection, sample validity, statistical evaluation, and conclusions are reported. Also included is a round-robin test program of seventeen laboratories making BTU measurements with field calorimeters on the same gases used in the gas chromatography study.
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Document ID: 6E2B1E0C

A Comprehensive Overview Of Automotive Emission Controls
Author(s): Clement E. Drummond
Abstract/Introduction:
The gasoline powered automobile built in the United States today, incorporates good fuel economy, outstanding performance, and low emissions. Automobile manufacturers have been able to achieve these objectives through the use of the catalytic converter and an onboard computer. This paper provides an understanding of both the need for on-board computer systems and complex emission control devices and the unparalleled effect these systems have had on the service industry. The paper describes the three primary gaseous pollutants emitted by the internal combustion engine -hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen - and the progress that has been made to control them. The utilization of the three-way catalytic converter has been a major achievement in the reduction of the three major pollutants.
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Document ID: 402ACFB5

Revision Of The Plastic Pipe Manual
Author(s): Thomas P. Crean
Abstract/Introduction:
The A.G.A. Plastic Pipe Manual for Gas Service focuses on the use of plastic piping for gas distribution systems. Information is presented on plastic materials, piping components, and design and installation procedures covered in codes and standards for plastic gas piping at the time of publication. The manual analyzes and summarizes data from research facilities, manufacturers, trade associations, and users. It is prepared for use with Title 49, Part 192 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Transportation of Natural and Other Gas by Pipelines, Minimum Federal Safety Standards, and other referenced ASTM standards. The Plastic Materials Committee recognizes the manual material does not include the complete details of available information on plastic pipe. New knowledge from research, innovations in plastic technology by supphers and users, and modernization of referenced codes and standards tend, over time, to make obsolete each addition of the manual. As the manual is intended to serve both suppliers and users as a condensed framework of reference on the use of plastic piping systems for natural gas service, periodic revision is required. The Plastic Materials Committee (PMC) is committed to the periodic updating of the manual.
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Document ID: 2B81A7C0

Predicting Leaks And Optimizing Maintenance Of Cast Iron Mains
Author(s): James W. Peters
Abstract/Introduction:
Cast iron mains play an important role in Brooklyn Unions distribution activities as they do for many other utilities. In fact, in the United States today there are over 72,000 miles of cast iron distribution mains. Brooklyn Unions 2,297 miles of cast iron mains account for over 61 percent of our distribution network. While some utilities have initiated planned cast iron replacement programs, Brooklyn Union, after careful analysis of the current and projected future operating performance of our cast iron meiins, has made the commitment to maintain rather than replace its cast iron system. This paper details the approach Brooklyn Union uses to evaluate and direct our cast iron maintenance activities to ensure peak performance.
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Document ID: 498ADC10

Exhaust Emission Reduction For In-Use Engines
Author(s): C. F. Wilke
Abstract/Introduction:
Dresser Clarks exhaust emission reduction program for retrofitting existing field engines has been directed toward the TLA and TCV Series engines (See Figures 1,2, and 3). These units are two cycle, spark ignited, gas engines with varying degrees of turbocharging. The TLA Series uses either interal or external scavenging air coolers, while the TCV Series utilizes only the external scavenging air cooler. (There is over 2.2 million brake horsepower being produced by TLA and TCV Series engines in the field.) The formation of oxides of nitrogen during the combustion temperature and combustion cycle of a reciprocating engine is primarily a function of combustion time. Operating an engine with a lean air/fuel ratio results in lower combustion temperatures and subsequently lower NOx formation however, lean mixtures are difficult to ignite and burn slowly, resulting in misfiring and unsatisfactory engine performance. A reliable high energy ignition source capable of igniting the fuel lean mixture will permit operation in a region of reduced NOx formation. Dresser Clark has designed a power cyUnder head equipped with two torch chambers to satisfy these requirements.
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Document ID: 9BC15986

Tx LNG Vaporizer Design And Operation
Author(s): E. R. Vogel, J. Balfoort, D. Cobb, G. R. French
Abstract/Introduction:
TX Single Burner 100 MMSCFD LNG vaporizers have been installed and operated for the first time in the United States at both a baseload and a peak shaving LNG facility. This paper discusses the design, operation, performance, economics, and safety features of the TX vaporizer at the TRUNKLINE, Lake Charles, La., LNG Baseload Terminal, and at the Northern Indiana Public Service, LaPorte, Indiana, LNG Peak Shaving Facility.
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Document ID: D69272BE

What Can Go Wrong In A Gas Distribution System
Author(s): Franklin J. Morrison
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the results of a Workshop conducted during part of a recent Distribution Design and Development committee meeting. The purpose was to identify distribution system failures of major concern to distribution operators and engineers and then order them by ranking according to severity considering public safety and operating problems. Twenty-seven failures were cited after combining the work of three separate groups. Failure severity was ranked by each group, and, through a composite, the final ranking was completed in order of severity. It is the further intent of this paper to review the identified distribution failures in the context of how good design can minimize safety and operating problems.
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Document ID: 1A62C55C

Electronic Measurement Used For Gas Control Purposes
Author(s): Gary L. Sypolt
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1%5 Consolidated Gas Supply Corporation first began to control volumetric flow rates or pressure and operate valves remotely from a centralized dispatching point located at its headquarters in Clarksburg, West Virginia. Flow rates at 11 stations involving 42 separate metering devices could be controlled. Flowing conditions could be monitored at 22 various locations. Pressure, temperature, and differential pressure were sensed by electronic transducers at delivery points scattered throughout West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and New York. Tone equipment was used to transmit the parameter information via microwave and leased line back to a centralized computer located in Clarksburg dispatching office.
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Document ID: B9FB2FC3

Vehicle Downsizing
Author(s): Roy Dwyer
Abstract/Introduction:
The decade of the seventies, the one that started a revolution in the American automotive industry, is still continuing today. It was a period that awakened Americans and the world to energy, its sources, and the life-sustaining role energy has on the world economy and transportation. It was in 1973 that the first visible sign of change in the transportation industry took place. The change did not start in America, but was a result of the 1967 Arab-Israeli War which left the Arabs without any prospect of achieving a military victory. In 1973, the Arabs were again defeated in war but emerged with a victory at the negotiating table. In exchange for political concessions, the Arabs negotiated the right to dictate the availability and price of their crude oil.
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Document ID: 9C10A171

Gas Measurement Short Courses-An Industry Bargain
Author(s): George F. Steinmetz
Abstract/Introduction:
Training and education in gas measurement are vital activities for the gas industry. Short Courses serve to fill these needs today as they have for the past half century. This paper traces the origins of such schools, describes their organization, and discusses their operation. The curricula of various Short Courses address every aspect of gas measurement and pressure control. All segments of the industry coordinate their skills to provide accurate, current and complete information to students. These benefits derive with minimum direct costs to attendees. Gas Measurement Short Courses are of value to all participants well beyond the time, effort or money expended. As a result, they constitute a real bargain for the Industry and remain a shining example of cooperation for the common good.
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Document ID: 97C5AFC4

Infrared Paving
Author(s): J. L. Mathieu
Abstract/Introduction:
Escalating costs of construction and maintenance have necessitated innovations that will affect cost savings. Increases in the cost of pavement restoration in New England over the past twenty years have been dramatic. In the late 1960s, an Eastern Massachusetts based contractor began experimenting with an infrared heater to soften and rework bituminous concrete. Early results were beyond initial expectations. The use of the process spread rapidly. Unfortunately, many infrared units ended up in the hands of poorly trained operators and the acceptance of this method of restoring pavement quickly deteriorated. As a result of persistent efforts on the part of a few paving contractors, the infrared paving process is regaining its initial acceptance. Figure 1 depicts a typical infrared asphalt heater.
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Document ID: 3EFA35E2

Electronic Custody Transfer: The First Step
Author(s): King C. Oberg
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic custody transfer is becoming more widely accepted within the natural gas industry. Recognition of this technology by such major products as the Trailblazer Pipeline have given this basic gas control tool creditability and made it available to the accountant. The system of generating a paper chart and the processing required to interpret the chart and calculate flow has many opportunities for errors. By comparison the telemeter system reveals a lesser propensity for error. In our attempts to confirm validity by trying to force the telemeter to match the chart values, we could be sacriflcing the more accurate system. A several-year experiment in electronic custody transfer between Northern Natural Gas Company and two distribution companies telemetered values with adjustments to the integrated volumes on the subsequent months billing. The continuation of the chart system in parallel with the customers telemeters and the final adjustment of monthly differences allowed the procedure to operate under traditional gas tariff measurement provisions.
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Document ID: CCCE1FE1

I Smell Gas And It Happens Every Year Video Tape Training Aids
Author(s): Robert H. Reinauer
Abstract/Introduction:
I Smell Gas. How many times have you heard that? At Public Service Electric and Gas Company (PSE&G) we hear our customers say it 125,000 times per year. Of these 125,000 gas leak reports, less than half turn out to be actual gas leaks. Some customers call in gas leaks, not because they detect an odor but because they want immediate service on an appliance. They may detect other odors such as gasoline or sewer gas, or smell gas momentarily when lighting top burners on their gas range. With the large volume of gas leaks handled, we find it necessary to do some screening in order to ensure a serviceperson is not tied up on a nocause leake while another customeer with a true emergency is left waiting. Up until two and a half years ago when PSE&G began its change-over to a central computerized inquiry system, all gas leak calls were routed from local commercial offices to the serving Gas Distribution Headquarters, of which there were 14. The customers spoke directly to the local gas dispatchers, most of whom were former appliance service mechanics. Because of their familiarity with handling gas leaks in the field they were able to eveduate the customers request and in most cases determine the urgency of the call and at times cancel unnecessary calls. With this type of screening slightly over 50% of the calls covered turned out to be actual leaks.
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Document ID: 0E073873

A Gas T&D Material Salvage Center
Author(s): Henry F. Henderson
Abstract/Introduction:
This report reviews the steps taken by PSE&G to develop and implement a centralized Material Salvage Center for its Gas T&D Department. The economical factors which influenced the Company into concentrating its efforts to reduce materieil costs are reviewed. Significant cost savings experienced at the Salvage Center are outlined, as well as, the accounting procedures used to determine the savings.
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Document ID: 3A641835

Infrared Paving
Author(s): J. L. Mathieu
Abstract/Introduction:
Escalating costs of construction and maintenance have necessitated innovations that will affect cost savings. Increases in the cost of pavement restoration in New England over the past twenty years have been dramatic. In the late 1960s, an Eastern Massachusetts based contractor began experimenting with an infrared heater to soften and rework bituminous concrete. Early results were beyond initial expectations. The use of the process spread rapidly. Unfortunately, many infrared units ended up in the hands of poorly trained operators and the acceptance of this method of restoring pavement quickly deteriorated. As a result of persistent efforts on the part of a few paving contractors, the infrared paving process is regaining its initial acceptance. Figure 1 depicts a typical infrared asphalt heater.
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Document ID: 25B0A5FB

Development And Field Testing A Method For Detecting Flue Gas Leakage From Heat Exchangers
Author(s): Douglas W. Dewerth
Abstract/Introduction:
A procedure was developed for detecting leakage of flue gases through heat exchangers of warm air fumances. This procedure was particularly suited for field use and is more reliable than many of the existing test methods that have been used, e.g. smoke bombs, salt sprays, etc. The final form of the method consists of flooding the Ifue gas side of the exchanger with a 14.3% CH4 in N2 mixture and probing the air side of the heat exchanger with a calibrated combustible gas detector. The method was field test by 7 utilities during the 1982-83 heating season. Fifty six reports from these utilities verified and supported the accuracy and reliability of the test procedure.
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Document ID: 6A8BCB8A

Mid-Season Estimation Of Annual Degree Days
Author(s): Paul F. Vogt
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the method used at Public Service Electric and Gas Company to develop a probable range of the total degree days for the year based on the known degree day accumulation to date. This probability distribution is used in conjunction with a temperature history to estimate the annual degree days and to generate a daily temperature pattern for the remainder of the winter for any level of winter severity desired. The estimates and the temperature pattern assist in determining gas resources allocation strategy to meet the gas sendout. Though the method has shown the abiUty to provide a good estimate of the remaining winter severity by mid-December, its value is in providing planners with a rational evaluation of the probable range of severity for the remaining winter.
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Document ID: B509F554

Progress Of Research On Supercompressibility Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Kenneth E. Starling, K. Hemanth Kumar, Jeffrey L. Savidge
Abstract/Introduction:
This is a status report on the development of a new supercompressibility factor correlation for use in natural gas custody transfer calculations. The new correlation potentially can replace the presently used NX-19 methods and provide better accuracy over a wider range of temperature, pressure, and gas composition. In the work presented herein, the need for highly accurate experimental data for use in correlation development and the importance of careful data evaluation are emphasized. A brief introduction to the correlation methods and initial comparisons of compressibility factor values predicted by the correlation with experimental data for pure natural gas components and their binary mixtures are also presented. In most cases the provisional correlation is in excellent agreement with the experimental data.
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Document ID: 044B6707

Methods For Obtaining Natural Gas Samples
Author(s): R. L. Bailey
Abstract/Introduction:
Ten GPA associated laboratories participated in a cooperative gas sampling and gas analysis program to determine if GPA publication 2166-68 (Methods For Obtaining Natural Gas Samples for Analysis By Gas Chromatography) needed revision. The preliminary results of this program are reported. GPA pubUcation 2166-68 Methods For Obtaining Natural Gas Samples For Analysis By Gas Chromatograph has not been revised since 1968. Sampling has become more and more important since gas is being sold by the therm. Therefore analysis Section B of the Technical Committee of the Gas Processors Association decided it was time to review and revise publication 2166.
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Document ID: 5E3A88EF

Western Attire Or Corporate Attire: Pgandes Crew Leader Training Program
Author(s): George K. Kronenberger
Abstract/Introduction:
In designing training programs, we all too often forget that the people who are doing the training can be as important as the content of the material and the process of conveying that material. The trainers are the personification of the training program and, therefore, must have a certain level of credibility and respect from the trainees. The trainers are in effect role models for the supervisory skills that the trainees are to learn. When Pacific Gas and Electric Company designed its current crew leader training program, the people doing the training were considered key elements of the program. Rather than utilizing pinstriped corporate staff experts with little field exposure, we initiated a successful program using more ruggedly clad line managers as trainers.
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Document ID: 8034DC0A

Verifying Effectiveness Of The Leakage Search
Author(s): Marshall B. Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
The bottom line of any leakage survey program is public safety. This has been and continues to be our primary concern. Recently, another important issue has impacted our survey program: the control of leakage loss due to the significant rise in the cost of gas. As we establish survey intervals, federal and state rules are not the only criteria we must consider economics. This year we have shortened our maximum survey interval, primarily as a conservation measure, additionally safety oriented. In recent years more and more emphasis has been placed on increasing survey effectiveness. Although our safety record was indicative of an effective survey program, it did not measure survey quality. It was felt that a significant number of leaks were not being detected. The hydrogen flame ionization detector became the standard survey instrument. These units, with their extreme sensitivity, led to a more comprehensive training program, including classroom and field applications. A quality program was initiated consisting of two separate functions: one, a self audit program conducted by each operating division, the second, a centralized quality index program conducted by Distribution Department staff.
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Document ID: 872D2349

Appliance Input Adjustment- One Companys Solution For Gas Quality Change
Author(s): Al Coffern
Abstract/Introduction:
Recently, Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo) experienced low gas capacities on cold peak days because of a dramatic increase in customer load growth in a 384 -square-mile area of northern Colorado. To compound the problem, the natural gas required had to be transported 59 miles from the Mesa Compressor Station to the northern most point of the system. Therefore, PSCo determined that remedial action was required to supply this peak demand by using gas from local gas fields. An abundant gas supply was readily available from Wyoming (34 miles away), but the Btu value and specific gravity were not compatible with the PSCo system. Use of the Wyoming gas could create overfiring therefore, PSCo adjusted or reorificed its customers gas appliances so the nearby Wyoming gas supply could be used.
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Document ID: A2354825

Distribution Economics Of Marketing Natural Gas
Author(s): Edward J. Sondey
Abstract/Introduction:
When it was announced that I would discuss a distributors viewpoints on the current economics of marketing natural gas, a colleague of mine questioned what possible relationship these areas could share. Frankly, I was quite pleased with the thought. Not at having to give a speech, mind you, but pleased that the Operating Section members who have planned this conference share a common goal with the management of Brooklyn Union. That is, to explore and produce every possible method needed to competitively market our product, now and in the future. As responsible representatives of the natural gas industry, we owe this to our customers, our shareholders and ourselves. Your presence here today confirms that. Certainly, the complex nature of the natural gas industry has forced all of us to react differently to the serious economic issues currently facing our industry. Unless these differences are resolved in the foreseeable future, natural gas will continue to exist in an atmosphere of abnormal market conditions at non competitive prices.
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Document ID: 8BFFD0C5

Financial Considerations Of Natural Gas Exploration And Production-An Independents Viewpoint
Author(s): Harrison L. Townes
Abstract/Introduction:
A typical independent explorer might be defined as one who drills relatively few wells every year, owns no transportation nor marketing facilities, and who often differs with large corporations in business philosophy. Independents usually dont agree with each other much, either -hence the name. The independent approaches exploration for oil or gas differently from a larger concern because of his economic limitations. He generally cannot tie up large sums of money in the acquisition and maintenance of a large lease inventory, but competes by promoting wells and often exploring the leases of others. Usually he raises outside money in order to obtain sufficient funds and in order to share the risk. An independent is more concerned with short term needs even though his long term goals may be nearly identical to those of major companies. He also responds quickly to the business climate, good or bad, and will rapidly increase or decrease, even stop, exploration activity as he senses economic change.
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Document ID: 2073BA0C

Repair Of Pipelines Under Pressure
Author(s): L. J. Fast
Abstract/Introduction:
Repair of pipelines using bands or sleeves can be done safely while the pipeline contains pressure. This paper discusses a welding procedure, including a detailed sequence of welding. The author states that by using this procedure for fillet welds, bands and sleeves have withstood severe hydrostatic tests without failure. For many years. Southern California Gas Company has made repairs to its pipelines while they contain pressure. Before setting forth the background, history, and current procedures used to make such repairs, some information about the Southern California Gas Company transmission system would be appropriate. Southern California Gas Company is the largest natural gas distributor in the United States, as measured by the approximately 3.9 million meters served. The transmission facilities of SoCal stretch from near Fresno in the central part of the State to the California- Arizona border in the southeastern portion of the state. There are over 38,000 miles of pipelines of varying sizes in the SoCal system, including some 3,300 miles of transmission pipelines.
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Document ID: 4AFCA8C0

Altronic Ignition Systems For Large Engines Past-Present-Future
Author(s): Richard P. Schook
Abstract/Introduction:
It has been widely recognized that the ignition systems in use on spark ignited gas engines in compressor service can be a major contributor to efficient operation of a compressor. This paper deals with the past, present, and future design of gas engine ignition systems, as implemented by Altronic, and the resultant effects on system reliabiUty, engine fuel efficiency, engine emissions, spark plug Ufe, station automation, and other performance related factors. I will first describe the evolution of current Altronic designs, including what we see as the driving forces in system design namely, reliability, maintainability, and performance.
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Document ID: 30C24376

Third Utility Fleet Management Survey- Summary Of Results
Author(s): Salvatore L. Bibona
Abstract/Introduction:
Stone & Webster conducted a survey of the fleet management practices of gas, electric and combination utilities. A data base was developed from 92 responding utilities to provide insights to companies into industry practices and a basis of evaluation for their own operations. This survey is the third in a series of surveys that began in 1976. Topics included fleet size and mix, vehicle maintenance requirements, vehicle replacement guidelines, maintenance costs, facility data, organization data, maintenance record systems, preventive maintenance practices, work standards, fleet standardization and sizing, performance indicators, and spare parts management. Guidelines were developed relating the size and composition of maintenance organizations, facility, and spare parts values as functions of fleet size and mix and proportion of work performed in-house.
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Document ID: 16F1CB47

Active Corrosion: A Computerized Approach
Author(s): Adriano Santini
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes one procedure that is used to comply with a major requirement of Government regulation pertaining to corrosion control on gas distribution piping: the determination of Active Corrosion Areas. The method involves the computerized analysis of thousands of leak records using a high level computer system. Parameters are first established by which the severity of each leak can be assessed. The computer then calculates these parameters for each leak and summarizes them for each area. The relative corrosion activity of each area is thus determined. The computer then arranges these according to their relative corrosion activity, and from this distribution final criteria are established for choosing those areas that will be termed active corrosion. These areas are then individually reviewed by a corrosion engineer who applies his knowledge and experience to make the final judgement as to which specific pipe sections will be replaced and/or protected.
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Document ID: EB2F9780

Quality Circles In Utility Fleet Operations
Author(s): James D. Carlineo
Abstract/Introduction:
It would seem unfair for me to start off by telling you what we have accomplished at Baltimore Gas and Electric Company with Quality Circles in our fleet operations without making sure you know what a Quality Circle is all about. Therefore, I would like to give you a brief history of Quality Circles, how they operate, how we progressed, how circles fit into fleet operations, road blocks which you will encounter, and benefits your company can expect. If youre over thirty years old, you can remember when the stamp MADE IN JAPAN meant junk! In fact, in the 1950s the Japanese were known as the junk merchants of the world. Today, all that has changed. Japan sets the standards of quality in many fields such as electronics and photographic equipment. Japan also leads the worlds industrialized nations in productivity growth. Their productivity is real-for example, they manufacture automobiles in 1/3 the time of U. S., Swedish, and West German manufacturers using the same technology. What happened? How do they do it? Are they smarter? Do they work harder? Of course not. But they have done some things differently. In the early 1960s, Japan launched a nationwide effort to improve product quality. Under the guidance of W. Edwards Deming from Bethesda, Maryland and some prominent American statisticians the concept of Quality Circles was developed and firms all across Japan involved their workers in teams to solve productivity and quality problems. The growth of the idea was spectacular. Today there are over one million circles involving over ten million workers.
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Document ID: 061AF1FD

Bid Evaluation Using Mtbf
Author(s): John F. Mcdevitt
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides an introduction to the Reliability Engineering discipline which originated during the late 50s in the aerospace industry. The application of these principles are used to achieve high reliability in a system or purchased product. Two examples of the application of this discipline are provided.
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Document ID: 2EB9AD7E

Design Of The Washington Ranch Storage Project
Author(s): William H. Healy, Jr., Winston A. Johnson II
Abstract/Introduction:
El Paso Natural Gas Company is a major interstate natural gas transmission company that serves customers in Arizona, California, New Mexico, southern Nevada, and Texas, as shown in Figure 1. El Pasos market can be divided into two categories: California and East-of-California. The California customers have several sources of supply and have developed storage facilities of their own which allow them a measure of security during periods of tight supply and/or high demand. The East-of-California (EOC) customers are essentially totally dependent upon El Paso for their energy supplies and have no storage capability. As part of the gas allocation plan agreement reached between El Paso and its customers in 1981, El Paso agreed to construct and operate a gas storage facility to protect the high priority EOC customers from curtailments. This facility was to be designed to minimize disruptions in the PI and P2 markets and to allow the customer some flexibility in the timing of his receipt of gas through operation of the facility as a gas bank. The provision that the facility be capable of accommodating the banking and borrowing of gas required that whatever facilities were selected be very flexible and that the time required to switch from injection to withdrawal service be minimized.
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Document ID: FB33FBF6

Means, Consideratons, And Compromises For Exhaust Emission Reductions On Existing Natural Gas Fueled Engines
Author(s): R. N. Alford, R. W. Sheppard
Abstract/Introduction:
Although the subject of this discussion is the reduction of NOx emissions on existing engines, a word on new engine technology is in order to establish a base on which certain aspects of field conversions can be referred to. Ingersoll-Rand offers low emission versions of its current line of gas engines. These new engine versions are designed and shop tested to optimize turbocharger performance, cam timing, combustion stability, and control technology to produce very low NOx emission levels and economical operation over the load and speed range. The methods used includes precombustion chambers in combination with very lean mixtures for turbocharged engines and catalytic converters for naturally aspirated engines.
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Document ID: FCA0AD14

Plans For The Eighth Plastic Fuel Gas Piping Symposium
Author(s): m. m. Epstein
Abstract/Introduction:
The Eighth Fuel Gas Plastic Piping Symposium will be held at the New Orleans Hyatt Regency Hotel from November 29 to December 1,1983. Planning has been under way for more than a year, and I am pleased to report that this Symposium promises to be the most exciting and technically challenging since the event was initiated in 1968. The principal theme of the Symposium will be Plastic Piping Service Life. A variety of papers, covering general subjects such as quality assurance, field experience, failure mechanisms (fracture), and service life prediction models will be featured. The Symposium will also include papers on fusion joining, provide an overview of the impact of research on gas industry materials and practices, and review the status of failure and fracture research in the U.S. and Europe.
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Document ID: A8774A37

The Nace Accreditation Program
Author(s): John Swinburn
Abstract/Introduction:
The NACE Accreditation Program, which has its roots in an NACE program begun in 1962, is a program designed to assess and recognize competence in the field of corrosion control. All facets of the NACE Accreditation Program are administered by an NACE standing committee and its subcommittees. The program has five accreditation categories: Corrosion Technician, Corrosion Technologist, Senior Corrosion Technologist, Corrosion Specialist, and Corrosion Specialist in Training. Senior Corrosion Technologist and Corrosion Specialist are the two highest categories. With specific exceptions, all categories of accreditation require completion of the NACE Basic Corrosion Course and passing its examination. All categories require work experience in the field of corrosion, accumulation of NACE advanced corrosion education credits, successful completion of required examinations, and signing an attestation regarding professionalism.
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Document ID: 9B5D847F

Gri Research In New Excavating Technology
Author(s): Renny S. Norman
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the Gas Research Institute (GRI) progress in developing new excavation technology. Research in the areas of pavement cutting, digging, and soil removal is described.
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Document ID: 94A49BD4

Pcb Disposal
Author(s): Lawrence H. Liebs
Abstract/Introduction:
PCB liquids within the 50 to 500 concentration range may be disposed of in an incinerator, a chemical waste landfill (if the liquid does not exceed 500 ppm and does not have a flash point less than 60C (140F), or an approved non-thermal process. PCB liquids in this concentration range can be destroyed in a high-efficiency boiler. Many gas/electric utilities have boilers in their generation facilities which are suitable for PCB destruction. Baltimore Gas and Electric Company and Potomac Electric Power Company have received EPA approval to burn low level PCBs. If the boiler can be operated with 3% excess oxygen when PCBs are being fired and produces no more than 50 ppm carbon monoxide within the stack when fired with gas or oil (100 ppm with coal), that utility may consider seeking EPA authorization to utilize its own facilities for PCB destruction.
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Document ID: 68EB13D6

New Ideas And Methods In Gas Measurement
Author(s): J. N. Oling
Abstract/Introduction:
New Ideas and Methods is a topic of considerable importance to everyone in our changing industry. Technology and equipment changes are constantly providing us opportunities to do our jobs better and frequently with less overall effort expended. Changing technology and new equipment are inevitably the results of new ideas. Many times new technology or new equipment present new problems which require new ideas and methods to resolve. The need for innovation is endless. The word NEW according to Mr. Webster can have several different applications, three of which are: NEW: Freshly made and unused (a newly manufactured meter) NEW: Has not been known before (a new design or product) NEW: Has not been experienced before (not new as either of the above but new to an individual)
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Document ID: 35CC7230

Computerization Of Vehicle Parts Inventory Control Systems
Author(s): Dennis L. Hamilton
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is written to provide the basic method for computerizing vehicle parts inventory systems. It assumes that the current inventory is, or will be, controlled by an efficient manual system. Having such a system in place is mandatory before the computerization process can start. Though the road to automation may be difficult, the results are rewarding, so let the project begin.
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Document ID: E191CC60

How To Survive In The Ihigh Priced Gas Era
Author(s): Paul L. Hathaway
Abstract/Introduction:
In keeping with the subject of this presentation HOW TO SURVIVE IN THE HIGH PRICED GAS ERA, the logical question is -what is meant by survival and how does this term apply to the natural gas industry? Webster defines the word survival as -to remain alive or in existence (as after anothers death, or a time, event, disaster or development, or the end of a condition). It further defines survival as -to continue to exist, function or compete. Rogers Thesaurus defines survival as -exist, continue outlast, outlive remain, endure. The one thread consistent with all of these definitions is the word exist or existence. This probably more nearly describes the situation confronting the gas industry today. It is likely that most distributors will survive as investor-owned utilities in the normal and accepted sense, and the remainder no doubt will exist in some form since an essential public service is being provided. Our efforts should be dedicated to the goal that the entire industry not only will continue to exist, but will survive and grow in spite of an era of high-priced gas.
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Document ID: 5748C6C1

Predicting Lealcs On Bare Steel Distribution Mains
Author(s): Allan R. Fraser
Abstract/Introduction:
There is a growing concern over the increasing number of corrosion leaks being reported by gas operators on their bare and unprotected wrapped steel systems. In an effort to attack this problem, many companies make repair versus replace versus protect decisions using leakage history either by rules of thumb or scoring systems. Unfortunately, they rely only on what has happened, not what will happen which results in non-optimal expenditures, both operating and capital, subjecting the public unnecessarily to potentially hazardous conditions, and opening themselves to poor customer relations. We have sectionalized our bare steel system into 350 maximum sections and identified the leakage history with each section. However, using a weighted least-square fit of the data and adding 0 leak years where appropriate, we have developed an approach to predicting future leaks on our bare and unprotected wrapped steel mains. By using certain parameters, we have found an acceptable compromise between the accuracy which was achieved and the number of main sections which were evaluated.
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Document ID: 70D65F8F

Control Of Atmospheric Pipeline Corrosion Through Use Of Applied Coatings
Author(s): Willis Johnston
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents guidelines for the selection of suitable protective coating systems for a variety of exposure conditions, with emphasis on protection and beautification of above grade facilities of the gas distribution industry. Included also is descriptive information on high performance coating systems now available from the paint and coatings industry.
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Document ID: 654BE120

Road Casing Electrical Contact Characterization
Author(s): Virgil L. Johnston
Abstract/Introduction:
This discussion explores the reason that corrosion on pipe installed within a road casing may be less severe than that on the pipe adjacent to the crossing. Terms relating to the status of road casing insulation are explained and discussed. The methods available to determine the electrical status of casing insulation, including their advantages and disadvantages, are presented. The most universally accepted method of corrosion control for the external surface of a buried steel pipeline is to coat the pipe with a dielectric material. Supplementary Cathodic Protection (CP) is then added to protect the exposed steel at coating imperfections (holidays).
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Document ID: A9090529

U.S. Potential Natural Gas Resources
Author(s): Harry C. Kent
Abstract/Introduction:
In late February 1983, the Potential Gas Committee released their evaluation of the undiscovered natural gas resource potential of the United States based on data available through the end of 1982. The results of this evaluation reaffirm the Committees belief that U.S. natural gas resources provide a foundation for meeting the Nations natural gas energy needs well into the 21st century.
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Document ID: 5C527285

Acoustic Emission Testing-Questionnaire Results
Author(s): T. J. Filipski
Abstract/Introduction:
Acoustic Emission Testing is one of the methods currently being used by our electrical industry to structurally test mobile aerial boom equipment. In order to obtain a status report, a total of 93 questionnaires were mailed to utilities currently participants in the EEI/A.G.A. Transportation Committees. The major results are summarized in the illustrations accompanying this text, which is a narrative of the results.
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Document ID: D5BEC9B2

Hazardous Material Handling By Storeroom Personnel
Author(s): Gregory B. Heath
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary purpose of a hazardous material and/or waste accident investigation is to prevent similar or such occurrences, and thus improve the safety of an operation and the health of the workers associated. An emphasis here is the need to discover all the potential causeeffea relationships within gas transmission and distribution support operations such as stores and inventory, maintenance and repair, and material handling and receiving. From this, practical corrective remedial actions and work methods can be instituted within the internal guidelines of proper occupational health, hygiene, safety, and loss control programs. Such a development is not to place blame, for all people err, but to define and clarify the responsibilities in the handling and disposal practices associated with hazardous materials and/or wastes.
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Document ID: 309DDE87

Marketing Customer Service
Author(s): John D. Sovirock
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses a classic case history on Customer Service. Or maybe its a Marketing case history. Or maybe its a combination- or, if you will, a Customer Service Marketing case history. And, just maybe, we can throw in a little history, too, to make our scenario more complete. So-lets start with the history-in this case, the history of customer appliance service at Minnegasco, Inc., a 113-year-old gas distribution company based in Minneapolis and serving close to 600,000 customers in Minnesota, South Dakota, and Nebraska.
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Document ID: 5001C97C

Modernizing An LNG Peakshaving Plant
Author(s): J. Thomas Raines
Abstract/Introduction:
In early 1964, Alabama Gas Corporation began construction of an LNG peakshaving plant in conjunction with Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. The facihty sits on a 315-acre plot of land near Pinson, Alabama, a small community on the outskirts of Birmingham. The net liquefaction rate is J.9 MMCFD (109,200 M gas/d), using the Cascade liquefaction cycle the storage capacity was 175,000 bbl (27,825 M liq) in an aboveground double-wall tank. Three vaporizers provide send-out capacity of 127.5 MMCFD (3.57 X 10 M gas/d).
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Document ID: 614C0DC9

Four-Day Work Week
Author(s): Joseph J. Dreschsler
Abstract/Introduction:
There are advantages to a four-day fortyhour work week for both management and the employee. For the employee three offdays per week with the possibility of five-day weekends occasionally is attractive. Fewer people are required per shift as a result of each person working ten hours instead of eight. From a management viewpoint, nonproductive start and stop time is reduced by 20% because of working four days instead of five per week. Overtime is reduced because there is a tendency not to drag out the day beyond ten hours.
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Document ID: A6DD0EDE

Environmental Analysis: A Critical Aspect Of The Project Planning Process
Author(s): Jay A. Greenwalt
Abstract/Introduction:
There is a need to better incorporate early environmental analysis into the project planning process. Early environmental analysis can prevent major project delays and pitfalls. However, for it to work efficiently, project planners must have some familiarity with major environmental concerns and they must communicate their plans early to their associates responsible for environmental matters. A current evaluation of how most industries incorporate environmental analysis into the project planning process can best be described by a good news -bad news illustration.
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Document ID: D30BF5DE

Effectiveness Of Water Spray Curtains In Dispersing LNG Vapor Clouds
Author(s): G. Heskestad, R. N. Meroney, K. m. Kothari, D. E. Neff
Abstract/Introduction:
Results from initial experiments to study the effectiveness of water spray curtains in dispersing LNG vapors are presented. The program consisted of outdoor tests with spills of LNG into a 3 m X 3 m diked area surrounded by water spray nozzles, as well as reduced-scale, model experiments in a wind tunnel simulating massive spills of LNG into a 60 m X 60 m diked area with spray-curtain protection. The outdoor tests indicated good dispersion performance of both vertical downward and vertical upward sprays. The model experiments of the large, 60 m X 60 m spills indicated good dilution performance for certain spray conditions using vertical upward sprays downward sprays had to be inclined toward the dike wall to be effective.
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Document ID: 4660F9E7

Gas Custody Transfer Measurement In Western Europe
Author(s): Sip R. Reintsema
Abstract/Introduction:
Custody transfer measurement of natural gas in Western Europe differs in several aspects from the basic measurement methodology in the U.S. The methods that are preeminent in Western Europe will be presented. This includes a brief description of turbine meters and densitometers, their calibration and installation, and the experience that has been obtained with these instruments in the field. Particular attention is given to a field operated compressibility factor meter. The microprocessor based flow computer, replacing the chart recorder, will be discussed. Further, some thoughts will be given on the continuous measurement of the heating value. Finally, some developments that may have a large impact on custody transfer measurement in the near future are briefly discussed
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Document ID: 2A863D44

Hydrostatic Testing Of Transmission Lines Using Freeze Plugs
Author(s): G. J. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
The intent of this paper is to explain the use of freeze plugs during the hydrostatic testing of pipelines. It also estabUshes a comparison of equipment, labor and time factors between conventional hydrostatic testing procedures and hydrostatic testing utilizing the freeze plug. The effect of liquid nitrogen as the freezing medium on carbon steel pipe is reviewed.
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Document ID: E2358D6C

The Role Of Operating Personnel In Negligence Litigation
Author(s): Francis m. Walsh
Abstract/Introduction:
Operating personnel at the site of a gas incident are the utilities first line of defense to a future claim. The negligence scene in the country today is explored. Some basics of negligence law are given. The importance of facts, as compared to law or trial tactics, is stressed. Operating people are reminded that they could be vital witnesses for their companies in negligence suits. Depositions are explained, and some basic rules for being a good witness are stated. I am sure many of you have seen the movie, The Verdict. Whether you liked it or not, 1 am sure your wives enjoyed looking at Paul Newman. Most trial lawyers would find fault with the picture on technical grounds. For example, nothing was proven by the plaintiff, and the case should have been dismissed instead of being sent to the jury. In his summation, the plaintiffs attorney said absolutely nothing. However, I enjoyed it myself for several reasons the most important one being it accurately portrayed the utter frustration of a trial attorney who at the last minute cannot produce the necessary witness.
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Document ID: 901B6B7D

Mechanized Purchase Order Controls
Author(s): William J. Kinneary
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, and most important, is to review mechanized purchase order controls at Brooklyn Union Gas Co. Second, and equally interesting, is to review the sequence of events that led to mechanization. The control of purchase orders in Brooklyn Union is the joint responsibility of the Materials Management Department (the purchasing function) and the Accounting Department (the payment function). Approximately 10,000 purchase orders are issued aimually at a total value of 73,000,000 and resulting in the processing of 120,000 vendor invoices. The decision to mechanize purchase order controls was based on our particular needs. These needs may be very similar to or very different from the needs of your organization.
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Document ID: 4C95BCD0

Odor Strength Of Odorous Sulfur Compounds And Their Mixtures
Author(s): Frank V. Wilby
Abstract/Introduction:
To correlate the odor strength of natural gas with its sulfur analysis, the recognition odor thresholds were determined for 18 sulfur compounds and 14 mixtures, using 35 untrained people. For each test of each odor a hundred-fold range of concentration was presented in increments of the fifth root of ten (100.2). A concentration of zero was also included. The order of presentation was random. Each odor was tested on at least three different days. Testing was done out of doors during clement weather. Desired odor concentrations were produced by dynamic blending of gaseous mixtures of the odorous compounds with air. The range of concentration required to obtain the recognition threshold was found to be much greater for certain compounds than for others. Branching of the hydrocarbon chain increased odor strength. Certain compounds appeared to evoke anomalous responses. Additivity of odors of mixtures was investigated and an attempt was made to identify anomalous olfactory responses of specific individuals to specific compounds.
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Document ID: 61AA21A1

Are You Prepared?
Author(s): Joe R. Bowden
Abstract/Introduction:
When you have a well fire or blowout, your only concern should be to bring it under control-fast ARE YOU PREPARED?
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Document ID: 57AA25CF

Transportation Audits In( God We Trust, All Others We Audit)
Author(s): Donald R. Ashton
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper reviews third party audits of the transportation function at thirty-five different utilities. The complete paper is divided into three sections. The first provides a general overview of the audits, highlighting those areas most frequently identified in several companies. Examples include organization, policies, procedures, systems and practices. The second section is a copy of the American Gas Association Transportation Department Guidelines, reproduced with permission of the Association. The third section reproduces the actual transportation audits, excerpted directly from the corporate audits. Since the audits were performed several years ago and the findings were generally no longer applicable to the subject utility, neither the utility nor the audit firm were identified.
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Document ID: 369EEF3C

Repair Of High Pressure Leal(S On Natural Gas Pipelines Using Lealc Clamps As The Method Of Repair
Author(s): Dale H. Goddard
Abstract/Introduction:
There are numerous causes and kinds of leaks on gas lines. They range from the very small, such as split seams, pin holes in welds, cold laps in welds, small corrosion pits, etc., to very large leaks that are usually caused by some kind of plowing or excavating equipment. This paper will not discuss the repair of small leaks, but only the repair of large high pressure leaks using leak clamps as the method of repair. Realizing that the purpose for using leak clamps is to make repairs while maintaining service and that there is always an element of danger in this operation, the predominant feature of this paper will be focused on safety. I have used the job classifications, department locations, and equipment locations as they are structured in the company by which I am employed. It may be necessary to change the notification procedure and the equipment type and locations to fit the structure of your company.
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Document ID: B5F6D0DF

Present And Future Risks In A Gas Distribution Utility
Author(s): Sam Sokolow
Abstract/Introduction:
There is an advertisement in a recent Wall Street Journal that shows a young boy camped out overnight in his backyard, a look of fear frozen on his face. The huge shadow of an unknown beast luking in the night is reflected against the side of his makeshift tent. In fact, the shadow belongs to the boys dog. It is distorted to a large size by the angle of the light creating the shadow. The caption on the advertisement teaAs-Risk. Its real size depends on your perspective. Risk remains among the more complex phenomena that we deal with as human beings, and that complexity carries over into the gas distribution industry. Under normal circumstances at a gas distribution conference, we would discuss physical risk and the ways to use economic principles to manage that risk. But that subject has been thoroughly covered in the past, and these are rather unusual times in the gas industry.
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Document ID: AF6A8948

Sampling For Pipeline Liquids Problems
Author(s): Dean P. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
Panhandle Eastern has been getting good results from its improved methods of handling hydrocarbon liquid problems. We have found that one half of our calculated results fall within a range of +5% to +20%. In other words, our improved technique tends to o er predict results. If the actual value is 1000 Ulons a day of liquids, this procedure might pically predict a value of 1125 gallons a day. Our improved technique depends on the accuracy of all 3 phases leading to the calculation of quantity of hydrocarbon liquids condensed. These 3 phases are: 1. Sampling 2. Chemical analysis 3. Computer prediction Each phase must be executed properly to achieve good results.
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Document ID: C0B4AB4F

Field Experience Witii Solar/Battery Powered Flow Computers
Author(s): William G. Birkhead
Abstract/Introduction:
This will be a non-technical paper relating the field experiences of the Daniel Industries Solar/Battery Flow Computer. It will describe the reasons why we decided to use such a device, the results of such experiences, and present and future plans of this instrument. For many years there had been a big problem trying to interpret orifice meter charts with large flow rate changes in a short time period. This is normally called differential chart painting. Especially on multiple day chart rotation, this recording is a solid wide line. Unless otherwise instructed, the chart integrator operator will attempt to trace the average differential as the median of the wide differential recording. In an attempt to improve upon the accuracy of chart interpretation, a fast clock or short time rotation chart is run in the field on the recorder in question, to attempt to get the flow pattern recorded and try to obtain the average differential so that more accurate instructions can be given to the integrator operator. This technique is fairly accurate until the flow pattern changes. Then a large error can occur. The fast clock method is time consuming since it requires a measurement technician to go to the field location and perform this fast clock operation.
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Document ID: D3BA8340

Industrial Natural Gas Fuel Switching Model
Author(s): William R. Russ
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to the deregulation of natural gas wellheld prices and the development of expensive new sources of gas, the price of natural gas has increased sharply relative to the price of alternate fuels. As this trend continues, industrial gas customers will be more and more likely to switch to year-round combustion of alternate fuels. Such a shift would clearly have an economic impact on gas distribution companies and may well result in increased air pollution. In the face of these potential fuel use changes and the resulting economic and environmental impacts. Southern California Gas (SoCal Gas) contracted with Battelle Columbus Laboratories to develop a computer model to forecast three-year impacts on industrial natural gas consumption in its service territory.
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Document ID: F84F5D06

Interactive Graphics Whats In It For The Corrosion Engineer?
Author(s): Joseph C. Barnett, Jr., Frank A. Perry
Abstract/Introduction:
Computers have found their way into every corner of our lives. UtiUty records are no exception. For years computers have been used for customer information, billing functions, and operational duties. Now they are drawing maps, preparing plant-in-place inventory reports and, hold your hat, keeping corrosion control data. Now, just keeping the corrosion control survey data on a computer is nothing new. But, tieing that data to a specific point on the network map through the computer is new. It is called Interactive Graphics. This meahs that the data interacts with the map (graphics) to produce a new, powerful tool for keeping records and analyzing data and generating reports. This paper describes the Interactive Graphics System, what is involved with using one, and how it can help the corrosion engineer. This is a basic paper that is designed for someone who does not know what Interactive Graphics is, or someone whose company is about to enter the Interactive Graphics world.
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Document ID: F923A980

Vacuum Excavation Techniques At Consolidated Edison
Author(s): Richard J. Morgan
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation is designed to provide information on the status of Con Edisons attempts at improving productivity of its gas and steam distribution crews through use of nontraditional or alternative excavating techniques. The discussion focuses on the two types of vehicles engaged in vacuum excavation, as well as on some of the equipment involved in the program. The purpose of this presentation is to acquaint you with some recent developments and changes in excavating methods and techniques now in use at Con Edison by some of our Gas and Steam Operation crews. Con Edison Gas Distribution and Steam Operation crews usually consist of two men and a truck. In the past, the vehicle genersilly was an 18,000 lb. (Gross Vehicle Weight) step van equipped with a 150 cfm compressor. While there are backhoes assigned to both Gas and Steam Operations, they are relatively few in number in addition, subsurface conditions in a number of areas of our service territory do not permit us to take full advantage of the backhoes excavating capabilities. Normal gas distribution repair work requires a 3 x 5 surface opening, while a typical steam excavation requires a 6 x 6 opening. Obviously, a signiflcant percentage of the manhours expended in both gas and steam distribution repair work involves excavating. Our objective is to develop techniques and methods that will enable us to carry out the excavating functioning more quickly and efficiently.
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Document ID: FFB48615

Recent Experiences With Vacuum Digging
Author(s): Steven A. Vitale
Abstract/Introduction:
In recent years the higher cost of natural gas has increased the need for Gas Utihties to reduce their operating expenses. One way, which has been successful at Brooklyn Union, is the use of vacuum excavation. Although vacuum excavation equipment and techniques are in their infancy, this developing technology offers substantial savings today and tremendous promise for the future. In this paper I will present Brooklyn Unions experience in the area of vacuum digging.
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Document ID: 231AC969

Living With Plastic A Condensed Summary Of A Questionnaire By The D.C.&IVI. Committee Task Group
Author(s): W. C. Kallberg, J. L. Gombotz, B. D. Roberts, R. C. Roth, E. D. Brooks
Abstract/Introduction:
This condensation was prepared for unrestricted distribution to all who wish to avail themselves. Specific references to brand neunes or manufacturers have been deleted so that this report can be widely distributed with no implication of endorsement nor criticism of a particular product or manufacturer. For further details, contact the Distribution Construction and Maintenance Committee.
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Document ID: 689D3814

Testing Fiberglass Buclcet Trucks By Acoustic Emission
Author(s): Edward L. Dold
Abstract/Introduction:
Acoustic emission testing is a non-destructive technique consisting of stressing material and observing the minute, inaudible sounds given off by the material as it undergoes stress. Energy pulses measured are transient elastic waves in the material, which may be picked up by means of a piezoelectric transducer (Figure 1) in intimate contact with the surface of the material and converted to electric impulses. These electric impulses can then be amplified, filtered, and fed into logic units with output displayed on meters, charts, and Cathode ray tubes to give the tester a variety of information, some of which is available from no other source. This paper will deal with the application of this technique to fiberglass-reinforced plastic structural members, specifically the dielectric booms on derricks and manlift aerial devices, and with the reaction of those members to stress and overstress.
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Document ID: ED77D663

Backhoe Mounted Tapping Equipment Development And Use
Author(s): Herbert F. Rothfuss
Abstract/Introduction:
Years of observing main tapping operations relative to bag off holes, or transfer of services, fostered an intense desire to find a simpler method of tapping holes. The effort and cost required to excavate around and below a gas main, and install sheeting, particularly on large diameter mains at excessive depths, seemed to be wasteful. During the winter of 80-81, BUG was installing a new 12 (300 mm) steel gas main crossing an intersection with various utility interference, in particular, a 48 (1200 mm) gas main at 3 -6 (1.1 m) depth which had been retired since 1974. Rather than excavate and install the new 12 (300 mm) main at 8-6 (2.6 m) cover it was decided to remove a section of the 48 (1200 mm) pipe and maintain the normal cover on the new main. The most effective method available to cut the 48 (1200 mm) cast iron pipe was to use our plasma arc burning equipment. A test hole was made over the 48 (1200 mm) retired main and combustible gas indicator readings of 20% gas in air were found.
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Document ID: 8BB7B20D

Foam-Protected Natural-Gas Storage Reservoirs
Author(s): C. J. Radke, m. S. King, P. A. Witherspoon
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of foam as a mobility control agent shows considerable promise in the development and operation of natural gas storage in aquifers. During gas bubble development, foam is generated in those regions in the reservoir where the gas has the most tendency to flow away from the main bubble through permeable streaks and by gravity override, significantly reducing further gas flow. Thus, remaining gas injection more uniformly displaces the water, and a more confined storage reservoir results. During withdrawal cycles, the entire gas zone can be produced at lower pressures because the reservoir has higher connectivity. There is less base gas trapped, both in the isolated and residual modes. Preliminary studies have established the foam barrier concept to be both economically sound and technically feasible. The current promise shown by foams in enhanced oil recovery will permit considerable technology transfer to their proposed use in gas storage.
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Document ID: 806F5D98

Design And Construction Of The H. G. Laub LNG Peak Shaving Facility
Author(s): Dudley J. Sondeno
Abstract/Introduction:
On March 7, 1978, Southwest Gas Corporation filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and on March 8, 1978, with the Public Service Commission of Nevada (PSCN) its intent to construct a onebillion cubit foot (1 BcO LNG storage tank and associated equipment to liquefy 5.0 MMSCF/Day of pipeline gas and vaporize 70.0 MMSCF/Day of LNG for peak shaving service. This facility was to be constructed on 67.4 acres of land in Lyon County, Nevada, approximately 12 miles east of Dayton. The total cost for this facility was estimated at 19.2 million. On February 8, 1979, the Materials Transportation Bureau (MTB) of the Department of Transportation issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) for Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations, part 193, Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities, Federal Safety Standards. This NPRM contained a seismic constraint (para. 193.111) that prohibited this facility at the Dayton site because of its location within one mile of a fault.
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Document ID: AC4B8E82

The Promotion Of Damage Prevention
Author(s): Charles J. Rees
Abstract/Introduction:
On April 1,1982, the Department of Transportation published the final rule requiring gas pipeline operators to have or participate in a damage prevention program. Among the requirements included in the rule, the program must provide for notification of the public in the vicinity of the pipeline, and for notification of the persons who normally engage in excavation activities in the area in which the pipeline is located. This paper examines the effectiveness, as perceived by the gas pipeline operators, of various means of providing the required notifications and promotion of a damage prevention program.
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Document ID: 897F03D1

Simulated Tests Of Potential Sources Of Ignition For LNG Vapor Clouds
Author(s): N. A. Moussa, R. N. Caron
Abstract/Introduction:
Experimental results on potential sources of ignition for LNG vapor clouds are presented. The potential ignition sources tested included automotive electrical systems, smoking materials, and traffic light relays. The conditions leading to ignition were determined in a quasi-stagnant mixture of 7% methane in air. The traffic light relay is used as an example to illustrate how the test results can be translated into a quantitative estimate of ignition potential.
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Document ID: CCF9CC80

Polyethylene Piping Technology And The Plastics Pipe Institute
Author(s): P. Paul Petro
Abstract/Introduction:
Polyethylene piping technology is rapidly developing due to the improving quality of raw materials, improved manufacturing and quality control techniques, and the development of stringent product and installation standards. Because the American gas industry has accepted polyethylene piping, countries around the world have begun using polyethylene pipe for gas distribution. This rapid acceptance of a relatively new piping material has led to a proliferation of standards and some confusion about what is being done by various gas companies and pipe producers.
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Document ID: D7C8E703

A Corrosion Control Performance Measurement System
Author(s): Walter F. Wilm
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper covers elements of the performance measurement system in use at Long Island Lighting Company for personnel engaged in corrosion control work. Also covered is audit activity and system improvements in progress.
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Document ID: 8F8F58B0

Odorization Of Natural Gas: Detection, Recognition And Fatigue
Author(s): D. J. Moschandreas, D. R. Jones, E. H. Luebcke, L. L. Altpeter
Abstract/Introduction:
The objective of a three-phase research program by the IIT Research Institute is to determine an adequate level of odorant concentration whicjt can warn of natural gas leaks to persons with a normal sense of smell. The paper reports on laboratory experiments to measure detection and recognition threshold values of nine odorants and on experiments to measure the effects of olfactory fatigue and distraction on the warning capability of these odorants.
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Document ID: 6B352008

Mariah: A Dispersion Model For Evaluating Realistic Heavy Gas Spill Scenarios
Author(s): J. R. Taft, m. S. Ryne, D. A. Weston
Abstract/Introduction:
A set of primitive equations describing turbulent transport of chemically inert pollutants within an arbitrarily stratified atmosphere is presented. The equations express conservation of mass, energy, and momentum. The dynamic and energetic effects arising from significant concentrations of contaminant are included. The equations have been encoded into computer-based finite difference models, MARIAH/FLASH. The model represents state-of-the-art with typical run costs of 50 to 150. The model is briefly described, followed by a comparison with a 40 m experimental Freon spill from a series conducted by the British Health and Safety Executive. Finally, a sample calculation for a hypothetical spill of LNG is presented.
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Document ID: 0FEDAA96

New Development In Ultrasonic Joint Inspection For Polyethylene Systems
Author(s): Donald L. Badgerow
Abstract/Introduction:
Our Company has been using ultrasonic inspection of polyethylene pipe since the method was developed by Ervin Dziengielewski of Wisconsin Gas Company in 1969. This type of ultrasonic inspection has served us well with the exception of identifying what the industry refers to as a cold joint in butt fusion. A new method has been developed called the ultrasonic shadow technique which can detect a cold joint as well as other discontinuities by a simple go or no go test.
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Document ID: BD9FC4F7

What In The World Is Happening With Gas Appliances
Author(s): Gene Nessely
Abstract/Introduction:
It is my pleasure to report on a different and exciting program sponsored by the Managing Committe of the Operating Section. My remarks are in the nature of a progress report since the project is still underway. However, I believe you will be interested in the progress we have made. I shall be reporting on new and advanced appliances and equipment currently in use in other countries of the world. The advent of sharply increasing gas prices and changing supply and demand are bringing more and more attention to the need for our having the most efficient, the most convenient, the most reliable and the safest gas appliances and equipment possible so that our gas industry can compete in the marketplace.
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Document ID: FD14D0C3

The Application Of Emissions Reduction Procedure To Existing Engine Installation
Author(s): Harold Ballard
Abstract/Introduction:
Development activities directed toward reducing NO2 emissions from stationary engines have resulted in a variety of emission control techniques available to engine users and manufacturers. This paper outlines results obtained from several years of R&D testing conducted at the Superior Division of Cooper Energy Services and relates these results to currently operating new installations and to potential retrofit of existing engines.
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Document ID: 1E60DD58

Development Of Low Cost Odorant Test Instruments
Author(s): L. L. Altpeter Jr., John D. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Results are reported from two GRI sponsored research projects for the development of odorant-measuring instruments to be used in the field. One project analytically explored the potential of piezoelectric crystals with a sorbent coating to selectively remove odorants from a stream of natural gas. In another proof-of-concept project, solid-state semiconductors, such as perovskites and metal oxides, were evaluated as potential selective sensors for odorants. Parameters such as sensitivity, precision, selectivity, and interferences were examined.
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Document ID: 80B7C43B

Improved Backfill Stabilization Materials
Author(s): Stephen R. Kramer, E. Jack Baker
Abstract/Introduction:
Backfilling and repaying over trenches and excavations for gas distribution piping leak repairs is a costly operation for gas utilities. The use of poor techniques or unsuitable material in the backfill operation may cause pavements to subside, resulting in hazardous potholes. In addition, some backfill materials may be corrosive to metal piping or hazardous for work crews to handle. There is a need to develop an improved material which can prevent excessive subsidence and reduce construction and maintenance costs.
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Document ID: C0EFF2BA

Forecasting And Ensuring Tlie Durability Of Pe Piping Systems
Author(s): Stanley A. Mruk
Abstract/Introduction:
It is recognized through extensive experience and laboratory testing that a determinant of the in-service performance reliability of PE piping is its resistance under long-term sustained loading to failure by non-ductile, slit-like cracks. Forecasting long-term durability is predicated on assessing the degree of resistance to such failures under service conditions. Such assessment, it appears, may be made by evaluating the correspondence in pressure test data between temperature and time to rupture by the slit-like failure mechanism.
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Document ID: 9D884D46

A Short And Sweet Preamble To Operating Personnels Responsibilities Re Claims And Litigation
Author(s): Sheldon B. Sepstead
Abstract/Introduction:
An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. A wise statement, but somewhat misleading in the natural gas business, as will be illustrated. Seemingly innocuous events, e.g., an excavator scraping a wrapped steel gas main with his backhoe bucket, can produce catastrophic results, e.g., an explosion leveling a dwelling and injuring the occupants. The ounce of prevention warning certainly applies in this type of scenario, but such examples should not detract from the vast amounts of time and money expended by gas utilities for public safety. Few industries can boast of the magnitude of effort exhibited by gas utilities to prevent accidents and related claims. Nevertheless, claims do occur and we are here today to discuss the role operating personnel can play in the aftermath of serious occurrences. But first lets summarize the routine but vitally important activities of engineering and operating personnel which are taken for granted. Stated another way, lets toot our horn a bit before we proceed to discuss what should be done after a serious occurrence involving actual or alleged culpability on the part of the gas company.
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Document ID: 5E66A70A

Environmental Aspects Of Hydrostatic Testing
Author(s): Lori Komatar
Abstract/Introduction:
The Clean Water Act established as its primary goal the elimination of all discharges of pollutants into our Nations navigable waterways by 1985. The national Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) was designed to be the regulatory tool for achieving that goal. Congress intended that the NPDES program be administered by the states and not the federal government therefore, criteria were established through which the states could gain primacy over the program. To date, 34 states (and the Virgin Islands) have received primacy.
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Document ID: C9E03903

Ongs Decentralized Media Relations Program
Author(s): Ed Wheeler
Abstract/Introduction:
We Americans live in an unrelenting and demanding communications-oriented environment today. It is a society that because of the demands of the electronic media requires simplistic answers to complex problems that must be articulated clearly within 20 second bites for the evening news. It is an atmosphere that will-through the eye of the camera-focus on every blemish, attitude, and flaw that exists in the character of individuals or institutions. It also has the capacity to just as easily identify strengths, progress, and compassion within that same instant character analysis procedure.
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Document ID: 7CD47428

Repair Procedures For Dented Or Corroded Pipe
Author(s): John F. Kiefner
Abstract/Introduction:
Presented herein is a review of common full encirclement sleeve repair techniques as applied to dented or corroded pipe. The information presented is not new it is a compilation of various well-known techniques which have shown by experience and by research studies to be highly effective. The purpose of this discussion is to increase the awareness of pipeline industry personnel regarding the effectiveness of these repair procedures.
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Document ID: E5B0E996

Overview Of Acoustic Emission Technology For Distribution Systems
Author(s): Renny S. Norman
Abstract/Introduction:
The U.S. natural gas distribution system consists of more than 840,000 miles of distribution mains and about 540,000 miles of services. Care of this piping system is a major maintenance task for the gas industry. The system consists of pipe and fittings of various materials, ages, and sizes. It operates at pressures ranging from less than one pounds per square inch to hundreds of pounds per square inch. The mains and services are buried at different depths in varying types of soils and is exposed to a wide range of environmental conchtions. Construction and maintenance operations of gas distribution companies include installation of new mains and services as well as maintenance and repair of existing systems. Maintenance expenses alone for distribution systems were on the order of 850 million in 1982.
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Document ID: 8BC6B20A

How To Protect The Company At The Scene Of An Incident
Author(s): Robert E. Kennedy
Abstract/Introduction:
The fire dispatcher reported an explosion and fire, which destroyed four homes on Main Street. The Chief at the scene reported a heavy odor of natural gas and requested assistance. There were several serious injuries and the area was evacuated. A call of this native at any gas utility would immediately start a chain reaction. The dispatcher would dispatch the nearest emergency vehicles to the scene and then begin the endless process of notification of various depsutments and outside agencies as per his Emergency Procedures Manual.
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Document ID: C1A194CA

Computer Measurement For Custody Transfer On The Trailblazer System
Author(s): Gary m. Buchler
Abstract/Introduction:
In this day of fast living, small computers, and microprocessors, people are no longer satisfied with old methods of gathering measurement information. Today time is money and the faster and more accurately we can gather information, the better it is for all parties involved. The Trailblazer System has opted to abandon standard chart measurement and go with a faster system of computer measurement. The object of this is to not only strive for more accurate measurement but to have real time volumes available to all partners as they are calculated on site. Also, this system will eventually eliminate the necessity of storing large amounts of paper. In the paper I will look at the types of equipment used at the different locations and how this equipment is being used.
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Document ID: CFDE5849

Training And Development Of A Distribution Design Engineer
Author(s): William H. Barker
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper recommends a formal training program within each company for distribution design engineers. Responses to a questionnaire from gas companies indicates the great majority of companies do not provide a formalized program. General work requirements for the design engineer are discussed and logical training is recommended with suggested time tables. Additional educational training programs available outside the gas distribution companies are reviewed as supplemental training for the design engineer.
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Document ID: E05C5EAA

Converting Customer Billing To Electronic Measurement: A Test Program
Author(s): Robert D. Maclean
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1982, Michigan Wisconsin Pipe Line Company, a natural gas transmission company, began a program to convert the billing of our distribution customers to electronic measurement. As a first phase, a test program to convert one customer to electronic measurement was conducted. The design of the test program, the lessons we learned from the program, and the application of those lessons to future phases of the electronic custody transfer measurement program will be presented here.
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Document ID: D94B421E

The Decommissioning Inspection And Modification Of LNG Storage Facilities
Author(s): E. Duus, G. E. Riley, I. V. Lafave
Abstract/Introduction:
To date, on a world-wide basis, approximately 250 LNG tanks have been constructed and successfully put into service. Through the years, a limited number of LNG tanks have been taken out of service so that repairs or modifications could be carried out. The purpose of this paper is to share with the industry some of the experience gained when taking LNG tanks out of service. This paper is presented in two parts. The first part discusses the considerations and techniques involved in taking an LNG tank out of service in preparation for tank entry. The second part of the paper discusses inspections carried out both before and after entry to the tank together with examples and methods of modifications which have been made.
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Document ID: F4D4F966

Electronic Custody Transfer And Gas Control Do Not Make Strange Bedfellows
Author(s): Richard A. Perkins
Abstract/Introduction:
On July 1, 1982, Algonquin Gas Transmission Company began billing its customers based on electronically generated custody transfer volumes. What I want to accomplish here today is to describe to you the impact this had on the gas dispatcher. In order to meet my objective, I am going to give you a brief description of Algonquin, what led to the decision, where we were coming from, what we did to prepare, and how we are living with what we did.
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Document ID: D9E91E62

Optimization Of Compressor Stations Using Computers
Author(s): William D. Ergenbright
Abstract/Introduction:
The technological advancements, which have been made in the electronic fields, have been tremendous in recent years. One major development has been the microprocessor. This device, which is basically a computer, has given industry a very powerful tool to use in a variety of applications. Tennessee Gas Pipeline recognizes this and has developed a microprocessor based distributed control system for reciprocating engine control. As a result of its initial use for engine control, Tennessee Gas Pipeline now has a system which can serve various other monitoring and control requirements of our compressor station facilities.
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Document ID: B2C62150

Evaluation Of Cathodic Protection Criteria
Author(s): Bernard Husock
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents an in-depth evaluation of four principal cathodic protection criteria used for underground and underwater iron and steel structures. All of the criteria considered make use of structure-to-soil potential measurements. The intent is to provide the background necessary for selecting the proper criteria for a given situation and to remove the misconceptions which often arise. Explanations are given concerning the various voltage (IR) drops which are encountered and instruction is given on how those IR drops are to be considered. It must be understood that there are too many variables to allow for general, all-inclusive statements regarding criteria for cathodic protection.
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Document ID: C46ACB43

Status Of Flow Test At Boulder
Author(s): Raymond G. Teyssandier
Abstract/Introduction:
For measurement of high pressure, high volume natural gas, the orifice meter remains the predominant choice for flow measurement. A.G.A. Report No. 3 (ANSI-API 2530), which is the standard upon which the orifice measurement is based, makes this statement in its foreword: This is not a final report, but is made with the understanding that the Committee will continue its analytical studies of data already developed. The Committee also fully expects that it will be necessary for it to conduct further experimental work of its own. This will make necessary one or more supplemental reports, in which data will be summarized and the mathematical principles aimounced, which are the basis for the report, and such modifications and extensions will be made as additional data and further study may require.
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Document ID: F882F115

Effects Of Adjacent Excavations On Gas Pipelines
Author(s): T. D. Orourke, C. W. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper revievs the various types of excavation that are commonly situated near gas distribution pipelines. The principal soiu-ces of large ground movement are evaluated so that gas utility engineers can correct or minimize the consequences of large displacements and prevent related difficulties. Patterns of ground movement caused by excavations are summarized on the basis of field measurements. Ground movement effects on pipelines both parallel and perpendicular to excavations are described, and areas of potentially large pipeline deformation are identified. Recommendations are proposed for evaluating ground movement effects on buried mains and developing protective measures to insure safe pipeline operation.
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Document ID: 7C0E1C00

Theres More To Erosion Control Than Protecting The Pipe
Author(s): Ralph P. Carter, Cindy A. Cahill, Donald O. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
Planners for the gas transmission industry must clearly understand the principles and techniques of controlling soil erosion and sedimentation during and after installation of pipelines. The two main forms of erosion upland, and stream bank and channel are each influenced by a different set of variables and thus must be resolved by different techniques. Estimates of potential soil loss by upland erosion may be made by using the Universal Soil Loss Equation erosion-prone areas are quickly identified in this way. Various combinations of vegetative, mulching, chemical, and physical approaches can then be selected to prevent or minimize erosion. In controlling erosion along stream banks and channels (essential at pipeline crossings), revetments, dikes, and pilings are used. Whatever the problem, it is essential that potential erosion-prone areas be identified in the early planning stages. Both time and money will be saved by anticipating the problem and being prepared to counter it with the proper techniques during and after construction.
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Document ID: A218A385

Experience With Underground Pipe Locating Instruments
Author(s): Emanual P. Alfiere
Abstract/Introduction:
The increasing costs of excavating and reinstatement are of concern to every utility that operates buried plant. Excavation is a way of life for gas utilities. We are continually faced with the need to know what is in the ground before we dig. There are ample historical examples of accidental damages occurring during excavation with subsequent loss of life and property damage. This damage may be caused by the utility or by third-party excavators using backhoes, trenchers, bulldozers, and rippers, but some is caused by home builders Eind owners while digging postholes or planting trees. Knowledge of the precise location of all buried facilities would aid substantially in preventing damage during excavations.
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Document ID: A3681773

Induction Bent Pipe For The Energy Industry
Author(s): Robert L. Hipley, David B. Murphy
Abstract/Introduction:
The U.S. capability and capacity to form bends from high strength pipeline steels (X-grades) has been greatly expanded in the last few years. The induction bending process offers many advantages over conventional bending processes (hot slab and cold bending). Numerous API-5LX pipeline steels, including grades X42 through X70, have been successfully bent. Complete mechanical testing, including notch toughness at temperatures from + 32F, 0F, -20F and -50F have been obtained. Through extensive developmental work on the various X-grades, it has been shown that the original mechanical properties of the pipe can be maintained, and, in some cases, enhanced.
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Document ID: F9CFCA9E

Industrial Ignition-The State Of The Art At Bendix
Author(s): Howard J. Dingman
Abstract/Introduction:
The many, many years of operations and experience with large spark-fired engines have seen a continuous succession of modifications and refinements in both the design and use of ignition systems. An afternoon spent at an antique engine collectors fair will serve to show the wide variety of design and the many different approaches to ignition used in the very early days. Eventually, the high-tension breaker timed unit magneto evolved as more or less the standard ignition concept for most industrial engines. The Scintilla Magneto Division, now the Engine Products Division of the Bendix Corporation, built its first Model PA industrial magnetos in the early 1930s. In the 50 years since then, we have progressed through the WN timer to the LA, LC, LAR, BLAR, S-1700 to the S-1850 and SS models.
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Document ID: 62D50A0E

Testing And Construction Experience With Mechanical Joints
Author(s): W. L. Galey
Abstract/Introduction:
Use of the swadged tubing mechanical joint for pipeline construction, which was an experimental innovation some 12 years ago, is becoming more common place. This is primarily due to an increased acceptance of the integrity of the joint, adaptability of the joint to internally coated lines and the potential for substantial cost reduction for pipeUne facilities. Panhandle Eastern has been an extensive user of the mechanical joint on gathering systems for the past 10 years. This paper is intended to share some of the experiences encountered during this period which included joint descriptions, in-house testing, field construction, advantages, problems and economics associated with the mechanical joint.
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Document ID: 8A23F825

A.G.A.-EEI Transportation Committee- Mid-Range Diesel Engines
Author(s): Howard J. Berg
Abstract/Introduction:
The response to my survey on diesel engines was very gratifying. There was a total of 59 companies responding. At the planning meeting last fall the question was asked, what kind of experience are we having with the new Detroit Diesel 8.2 Utre Engine? I expanded on the survey and included all mid-range diesel engines. Whenever you open an automotive magazine there usually is an article on diesel engine vehicles. The Electric and Gas Industry is unique, we use vehicles of all sizes from the very smallest to the largest. With the automotive industry looking at downsizing everything including gasoline engines, we have to be on the lookout for a better way to power our vehicles. Many of our vehicles, especially our large construction units with Digger Derricks and Aerial Device, cannot be downsized. The mid size diesel engine with its fuel economy and low maintenance cost is a viable engine to consider.
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Document ID: 1434DE0D

Expanding Your Warehouse Space
Author(s): Oscar F. Baldwin
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the comparative advantages and disadvantages of two different storage concepts-that of a random storage procedure as compared to a dedicated storage arrangement. This comparison is based upon the experience of Con Edisons central storage facility located in Astoria, New York. Con Edisons Astoria Warehouse is centrally located within its service territory. It provides our system with the bulk of its every day material needs. It also replenishes many small outlying storerooms which directly support the emergency needs of the various operating divisions and power generating plants. The Astoria facility consists of 400,000 square feet of indoor storage space and over 25 acres of outdoor storage. We store nearly 37,000 different items valued at over 79 million. We process between 1300 and 2000 separate requests for material each day (nearly 400,000 requests annually). The value of these issues exceed 60 million.
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Document ID: 3B533B95


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