Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (1983)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Flow Computers For Custody Transfer
Author(s): James E. Moore
Abstract/Introduction:
Higher costs for natural gas as well as the increasing costs of labor are motivating suppliers, large consumers and the government alike to look for more accurate means to improve accuracy and reduce measurement costs. The following report illustrates how a new electronic technology incorporating the microprocessor gas flow computer can be put to use to meet these challenges.
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Document ID: CEB5B53C

Calorimetry
Author(s): Glynn R. Hoffpauir
Abstract/Introduction:
In the early years of our industry, gas was bought, sold or exchanged on an MCF basis for generally a few cents an MCF. With the cheap cost it made little difference in the heating value or BTU. As time progressed and our rules changed, BTUs became very important to all of us. In 1978 the Federal Energy and Regulating Committee (FERC) issued regulations that set up rules regarding first sales of natural gas. Order 93, issued in 1980, set up the final rules. One was to define a method of expressing the BTU content per unit volume. The units for custody transfer are generally the therm (100,000 BTUs) or decatherm (1,000,000 BTUs) is usually referred to as a million BTU or.MMBTU.
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Document ID: D9C06500

Conditioning Natural Gas For Measurement And Transportation
Author(s): James Bradley
Abstract/Introduction:
Solid and liquid contamination of natural gas streams can be very costly both in terms of maintenance costs and loss of measurement accuracy. Various designs of filtration and separation equipment have proven successful In minimizing these problems at reasonable cost and low maintenance requirements. A basic understanding of these contaminants and the equipment used to remove them should be very beneficial to personnel involved with the design and/or operation of gas measurement equipment and compression Stat ions.
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Document ID: D17DABD9

Inverted Orifice Meters
Author(s): A. B. Pender
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increased value of natural gas an operations costs, the importance of Better and aiore efficient measurement practices has Become stringently pronounced. The use of the reverse scale meter offers solution for certain measurement problems.
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Document ID: A1243187

Application Of The Annubar Measurement In Gas Production And Processing
Author(s): Norman A. Alston
Abstract/Introduction:
Just because a flow measurement device is complex and/or expensive does not automatically mean that it is the best or most accurate. Oftentimes the most simple device is just as good and accurate and frequently even better. Economic pressure encourages the emergence of better all-around devices with greater reliability and accuracy. These and other factors have brought to the fluid flow measurement industry the Multiport Averaging Pitot Primary Flow Measurement Device. This refined version of the basic pitot tube, the same as the orifice and other head-type primaries, is based on the same standard hydraulic equation, continuity equation and Bernoullis Theorem. Thus, an extension and improvement of proven concepts and device makes available to the industry a primary flow measurement device which offers many benefits, including a simple design, with equal or better performance for fluid flow measurement and process control applications.
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Document ID: 04CBEB95

Fundamentals Of Diaphragm Type Displacement Meters
Author(s): L. Alan Hess
Abstract/Introduction:
The Positive Displacement Meter principle is applied on both diaphragm type and rotary type meters. Although the operational principle is different, the fact remains that both types measure by means of sealing off a known quantity of gas, and subsequently releasing ,it. The bulk of the meters in use today are of the positive displacement type. Over 40 million gas meters are employed in measuring gas volumes by positive displacement In the U.S. Of this total, the large majority are used to measure gas volumes consumed by domestic residential customers. Other measurement principles are applied in the case of the Turbo-Meter, Orifice Meter or Swirl Meter.
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Document ID: A22D8D34

Fundamentals Of Rotary Metering
Author(s): T. L. Vance
Abstract/Introduction:
The first positive displacement rotary gas meters were built around the year 1920 by the PH & FM Roots Company and the Connersville Blower Company, both located in Connersville, Indiana. In 1966 this gas meter operation was renamed Dresser Measurement Division. However, these rotary meters today are still known as ROOTS Meters. Rockwell International entered the market in the early 1960s with a rotating vane design known as the ROTO-Seal Meter, and in the late 1960s Singers American Meter Company introduced still another rotating design known as the CVM gas meter. The operating principles for each of these three meters are depicted and explained in Exhibit #1.
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Document ID: A33A280C

From Pen Tip To Volume Statement
Author(s): John D. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
As gas measurement people we oust realize that the fruit of our labor is the volume statement and the seed is planted by the pen tip, we will consider the problems encountered and the effect on the volume statement.
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Document ID: 7130CE7B

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Howard W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject title is only one of many which could be applicable, such as: DoYour Measurement Books Balance? Does Your Sales Volume Your Purchase Volume? Are You Selling All The Volume Youre Entitled to? Do You Really Have Good Measurement? If you honestly answer No to any of the above, then it will be beneficial to explore a few basic reasons for measurement problems. When the word measurement is mentioned, the majority of the gas industry measurement personnel automatically convert their thoughts to a meter.
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Document ID: 563C1B58

Fixed Factor Measurement A New Concept In Measurement?
Author(s): Howard W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
The term Fixed Factor Measurement was first introduced to the Gas Industry during the 1966 Distribution Conference in St. Louis. This concept is directly related to the performance accuracy of a gas pressure regulator providing constant pressure to a meter. Prior to this time, when gas was measured at pounds pressure, the meter was either equipped with an integrating, correcting type instrument or a chart record of flowing pressure and indicated metered volume. The instruments were expensive and required a constant maintenance program for what was thought to be accurate measurement. Chart records required a very high degree of skill to analyze and divide the recorded volume with applicable pressure increments to calculate standard cubic feet units.
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Document ID: F95B22B6

Methods Of Field Testing Large Diaphragm, Rotary And Turbine Meters
Author(s): Henry A. Hubbard
Abstract/Introduction:
For years the accuracy of gas meter measurement has been recognized as being important, but in recent years the shortage of gas and higher prices have renewed interest in field testing of meters. On-location testing of large meters offers a convenient and economical method of assuring measurement accuracy. This method eliminates the extra time required to replace the meter, equipment for hauling to a repair shop and stocking replacement meters. Another factor becoming increas ingly important is field testing allows for customer witnessing of the meter being tested.
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Document ID: D0406B1C

An Analysis Of Unaccounted-For Gas
Author(s): Winston C. Meyer
Abstract/Introduction:
Unaccounted-for gas, by definition, is the difference between the amount of gas purchased and the amount of gas sold through a system. Most accounting statements reflect this difference in percentages and large dollar figures to report the economic significances whereas, our public utility commissions have historically viewed the safety aspects. Both viewpoints are extremely Important. Customer safety, without question, along with service, are of the foremost concern to a gas utility. However, when one refers to unaccountedfor gas he must realize that not all contributing causes are hazardous. Many are of primary economic concern. As an illustration, the major contributing factors to unaccounted-for gas and the primary concern of each can be listed as follows:
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Document ID: C171744B

Meter Selection For Various Load Requibemeots
Author(s): Lou Lehr
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas meter has the extremely important function of registering the volume of gas passing through it. Meters may be classed as: 1. Positive Displacement Meters 2. Inferred Volume Meters In selecting a specific meter which is to be used for measuring a customer load, the Measurement Man should not forget any types of meters. The basic types of meters available to us and a brief description of each will be helpful at this time:
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Document ID: 29921523

Design And Operation Of Offshore Facilities
Author(s): William H. Hall
Abstract/Introduction:
When problems in measurement are discussed, in particular offshore measuraiient, most people immediately think of the severe anvirorinent, harsh gas quality and its inpact cxi the orifice plate, bellows or turbine meter blades. Little consideration is given to the overall design, location, and auxiliary equipment. The following will be a broad discussicn of problems encountered with offshore measurement facilities, in particularly the selection of equipment, meters, and steps that have been taken in recent years to provide a more accurate and timely measurement of natural gas offshore.
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Document ID: 846CB09C

Fundamentals Of Chromatography
Author(s): Randy Juneau
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas chromatograph is a tool that separates natural gas into basic components, determines the mole percents of the components, and mathmatically determines the heating value and specific gravity of the sample. Until recently, the gas chromatograph has been used only in laboratories. With the advent of microprocessor technology, chromatography has become more useful to us in the field. State-of-the-art electronics is used to control the chromatographic process and perform otherwise very tedious calculations to yield a total gas quality report on a sample, The Information obtained from a chromatograph analysis is used for various purposes. Heating value and specific gravity are used in determining the price we pay for natural gas. Nitrogen and carbon dioxide percents are used to calculate supercompressibllity when determining flow rates. Some examples of variations in flow rates for different values of nitrogen and carbon dioxide are shown in Table 1.
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Document ID: 74A7FDB4

Meter Selection For Various Load Requirements
Author(s): Lou Lehr
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas meter has the extremely ijiportant function of registering the volume of gas passing through it. Meters may be classed as: 1. Positive Displacement Meters 2. Inferred Volume Meters In selecting a specific meter which is to be used for measuring a customer load, the Measurement Man should not forget any types of meters. The basic types of meters available to us and a brief description of each will be helpful at this time:
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Document ID: EA07DF67

Basic Principles Of Proving Devices
Author(s): Forest Kenworthy
Abstract/Introduction:
This discussion will be about some of the basic types of proving devices that have been, or are being used to test positive displacement vapor meters in the gas industry.
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Document ID: CEB2B935

Insertion Turbine Flowmeters
Author(s): Don A. Pfautsch
Abstract/Introduction:
The Insertion Turbine Meter has been used in industry for many years. Its primary use is on large pipelines for liquid or gas measurement applications. This paper describes the Insertion Turbine meter, its principles of operation and how it is currently being applied in industry.
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Document ID: 22C6188D

Fundamentals Of Gas Regulators
Author(s): Terry Buznee
Abstract/Introduction:
For all practical purposes, regulators used by the gas Industry can be placed in either of two categories: I. Self Operated, or II. Pilot Operated. This categorizing of all regulators (plus all construction modifications) tends to be an over-simplification, but exceptions are rare. Lets examine each of them closely.
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Document ID: 0A13BCF6

Pulsation Effects On Gas Measurement
Author(s): Galen m. Cotton
Abstract/Introduction:
The existence of pulsation has long been recognized as a source of measurement error however, the mechanics and degree of error are not well understood. Errors resulting from pulsation have been witnessed in a variety of instances both in the laboratory and in the field. These occurances have ranged from inferred flow through capped lines, to large differences in measured thruput between series meters, to common moderate examples exposed as square root error. Pulsation effects in orifice meters are not simply the result of the readout system (lead lines, mercury meters, etc.). Though the components of the readout system can contribute error components, the basic error is directly across the orifice plate and is independent of the readout system.
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Document ID: EE5402F1

Regulatory Commission Safety Evaluation
Author(s): m. L. Fegenbush, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
By act of the Texas Legislature, the Gas Utilities Division of the Railroad Commission of Texas has authority to enforce compliance with safety standards and practices applicable to the transportation of gas and all gas pipeline facilities.
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Document ID: 0C41BDF0

Light Hydrocarbon Measurement
Author(s): E. L. Upp
Abstract/Introduction:
Light hydrocarbons roughly, pentanes and lighter in the hydrocarbon chain, have become a more popular feedstock for the Chemical Industries. Sufficient demand has generated International trading ir these fluids. This has created a need to reexamine our measurement practices, since at the same time the value of the product and the need for accurate measurement at much wider transfer conditions has increased. A discussion of the latest practices in the measurement of these products considering these requirements, is the subject of this paper.
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Document ID: 5783CB06

Fundamentals Of Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Louis N. Cox
Abstract/Introduction:
Chromatography is a physical method of separation in which the components to be separated are distributed between two phases, a stationary bed of large surface area and a fluid that moves through the stationary bed. All chromatographic separations involve the transport of a mixture, which may be either a liquid or a vapor, through a column. The column contains a stationary phase which may consist of a solid absorbing agent or a liquid partitioning agent supported by a solid. Due to the selective retardation exerted by the stationary phase, the components move through the column at different rates, thus allowing separation of different components.
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Document ID: C8E2AAEB

Electronic Instrumentation For Orifice & Turbine Meters
Author(s): W. C. Eckenrode
Abstract/Introduction:
Computation of volume and flow rate information from orifice and turbine meters has been accomplished by the use of mechanical devices for many years. This equipment has provided valuable information, but due to its mechanical nature, has been subject to frequent need of re-calibration and maintenance. With the onset of microprocessors in the mid 1970s, a perfect niche for their application in gas measurement was seen by several manufacturers of gas measurement equipment. Improvements in technology and reliability are providing gas correcting devices with unsurpassed capability.
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Document ID: 6DEDDD41

Gas Sampling To Obtain Repeesentative Results
Author(s): T. F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Defined by the Gas Processors Association Publication 2166-68, The object of any sampling procedure is to obtain a representative sample of hydrocarbons from the system under investigation. Any subsequent analysis of the sample, regardless of the test, is Inaccurate unless a representative sample is obtained. Due to the wide variation in flowing streams and the components in these streams, the proper sampling techniques must be employed in order for the sample to be taken, transported, stored, and finally analyzed by some type of test device. The first factor that must be covered is the person chosen to physically take the spot sample, or install and maintain the sampling device. This person is the beginning of a successful sampling program. The final outcome of the sample operation will be determined by the efforts of this first link in an unbreakable chain of operations that must be performed without variances which can, and will, affect the outcome of the results obtained.
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Document ID: B6A7805A

Basic Instrumentation Of Distribution Meters
Author(s): D. R. Fulton
Abstract/Introduction:
Distribution measurement commonly involves reading the meter index, usually once a month. This is normal practice whenever it is understood that the metering pressure or temperature does not vary to any degree between meter readings. But if line pressure fluctuates, or if regulators dont hold close to set pressure, then instrumentation should be used on the meter. This is also true when wide variations in gas temperature are experienced. For example, at 10 psig metering pressure, if the line pressure varies by only one psi, the measurement accuracy could be affected by as much as 4 percent. At 30 psig metering pressure, a one psi variation could affect metering accuracy by over 2 percent. Temperature variation has a similar effect on volume measurement. Each 5F change in the flowing temperature above or below the 60F base temperature will affect metering accuracy by approximately 1 percent. So it is important to use instrumentation on some distribution meters in order to account for variations in meter pressure and/or temperature. Usually these meters would be in service on industrial or commercial accounts.
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Document ID: 75C21569

Effects On Entrained Liquid On Orifice Measurement
Author(s): C. V. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
In the measurement of natural gas in field operations using the conventional orifice meter, all of the factors used in the calculation of flow are based on the assumption that the gas is dry. This condition is rarely the case in field measurements. The A.G.A. Committee Report No. 3j (1), does not give any information or data regarding the effect water and/or distillate may have upon gas measurement by the orifice meter. It vas in this area of gas measurement that graduate-engineering students at Texas A&I University, Kingsville, Texas have conducted reseEirch operation in the laboratory and in the field. Schuster, (2) has conducted full range field tests of gas-liquid mixtures at 60O and 1,000 pounds per square inch pressure using the orifice meter.
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Document ID: 8C745B95

Fundamental Gas Laws
Author(s): Rogers G. Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
We as gas measurement people are concerned with gas laws. To become proficient in all phases of gas measurement, one must fully understand what natural gas is and the theory of its properties. The theories about natural gas properties are the gas laws, and their application is essential to gas measurement. Quantities of natural gas for custody transfer are stated in terms of standard cubic feet. To arrive at standard cubic feet from actual flowing conditions requires application of correction factors that are defined by the gas laws.
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Document ID: 38B3F36B

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Robert H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
For several years gas men have been giving more thought to aerodynamic turbulence within their pipeline systems and, in particular, the turbulence that is a result of pressure regulation. Considering the noise from a measurement or regulating station, it is generally conceded that measurement facilities alone will rarely be a major source of noise, since we can design the pipe to give a desired and normally tranquil velocity. On the other hand, we must expect that in a regulator station control of the gas velocity is possible only up to the inlet side of an active regulator. At the point of regulation within the regulator body, the velocity of the gas may be expected to increase greatly, perhaps up to sonic velocity. Now the question becomes, What is the best way to handle gas when it is traveling at high velocities?
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Document ID: A770D414

Operation Of The Electroscanner And Related Equipment
Author(s): Tommy Y. Trainel
Abstract/Introduction:
With the ever increasing cost of natural gas, more emphasis is being placed upon the speed and accuracy of ail gas measurement systems. My objective is to present you with an overview of the operations of the UGC Micro Scan. I will illustrate two major points of Interest which Include: a general definition of the equipment, and operational procedures.
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Document ID: FC163563

Fundamentals Of Pressure Relief Valve Design
Author(s): Ronald G. Friend
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure vessels and pressurized systems are found in most modern industrial facilities. Pressurized fluids do work, provide heat, remove heat, and satisfy a multitude of needs in todays wide range of industrial process systems. Pressurized sysitems and vessels are safe and highly useful when properly designed, operated, and maintained. Should a failure occur, however, these vessels and systems have the potential to cause severe damage to property and equipment and loss of life.
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Document ID: 5597A7B8

Chart Integrator
Author(s): E. S. Messer
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas companies have become more cognizant not only to the importance of accuracy in the determination of gas volumes, but also the speed with which these calculated volumes can be obtained from the computer. The introduction of the microprocessor has made many recent inovatlons possible to increase not only accuracy but to achieve more rapid determination of the gas volumes. It is now possible through computer interfacing with the processor in the 2000K to input the integrated value directly to the computer such that volume determinations are printed within a short time interval after the integrator has completed its calculations.
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Document ID: 4BEE41DD

Computer Applications To Chart Processing
Author(s): Ted J. Glazebrook
Abstract/Introduction:
Most of us are familiar with the orifice meter and the orifice chart. We recognize that- the chart is the key to determining the amount of gas used or produced. However, somewhere between the meter and the volume statement the information on the chart must be interpreted and calculated. It is important to bear in mind that the orifice chart does not contain all the information necessary for that final volume. Gas measurement would be quite simple if all we tiad to do was go into the field, read a little black box, assign a monetary value to the amount and then send a check or a bill. Unfortunately, there is no single instrument which can measure all of the different types of information needed to calculate a volume or an MMBTU value. Some of the information which is required and the associated instruments used to capture that data are:
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Document ID: 21DAF984

Training Field Measurement Personnel
Author(s): James W. Sutton
Abstract/Introduction:
Reasons for providing adequate measurement training have been presented in numerous articals and publications. Most companies involve upper management in meetings designed to resolve the problems associated with this technical training. Unfornately the conclusions reached in most of these meetings result in one of two things happening (1) the good intentions, like a politicians promise, seem to evaporate with time or (2) a program is initiated using non-technical instructors who can only convey information read from a book. Good training, like good whiskey, takes a lot of time and is expensive. Many managers thrash this problem around in an effort to justify the expense of providing training when, in reality, it is more difficult to justify the expense of not providing the training.
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Document ID: 38A85CE7

Trouble Shooting Glycol Dehydrators
Author(s): Don Ballard
Abstract/Introduction:
Millions of dollars per year are lost unncecessarily in high glycol losses, excessive plant shutdowns and equipment replacement. However, a glycol plant, when properly designed, operated and maintained, will provide a low-cost operation, with little difficulty and attendance.
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Document ID: 5059FD2C

Contract Interpretations
Author(s): Joe Hawkins
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will deal with some of the elements of gas contracts from the perspective of a measurement technician. Papers have been written by lawyers and by contract representatives who work with contracts on a full time basis. My conments are based on 25 years experience in measurement. The purpose of a gas contract should be to present and define the rights and obligations of all the parties to it.
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Document ID: 2714D43F

Fundamentals Of Orifice Recorders
Author(s): David E. Pulley
Abstract/Introduction:
What is an orifice meter? What is being referred to when the expression orifice meter is used? The answer usually depends upon who you are talking to. The term orifice meter is used to mean everything from the orifice meter gauge recorder to the entire meter station. The American Gas Association defines the orifice meter as the complete measuring unit comprised of primary and secondary elements. The secondary elements consist of the differential pressure recorder, static pressure recorder, flowing temperature recorder, and any other required recordings such as specific gravity and heating value.
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Document ID: 392D0240

Basic Electronics
Author(s): Gerald R. Henderson
Abstract/Introduction:
All persons who deal with gas measurement have a basic understanding of the flow of gas in a simple system, but many of us are baffled by the flow of electricity in a simple electric circuit. I will attempt here to provide a comparison between the variables, the measurements, and the components of simple gas and electrical circuits. I believe that this will help you to have a better understanding of electricity, but you will still have to do much studying and practice before you can become a qualified electronics technician. Electricity must be treated with respect, and knowledge before it can be worked on safely, so you must develop a good working knowledge before attempting electrical servicing.
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Document ID: FC4C0AA6

District Regulators And Relief Valves Selectlon-Maintenance-Featuees
Author(s): Alford Boydston
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years the gas regulator facility was taken for granted. It was such a familiar sight, we didnt stop to realize the importance of its function. But, with the complex pipeline systems of today, every cubic foot of gas passes through many regulator facilities before it is consumed in some process or customers appliance. One of the most important regulator facilities is the District Regulator Station. It is the source of gas supply to Industrial, commercial and domestic customers from transmission and distribution pipeline systems. Therefore dependable and safe gas supply is a must. However each company must make its own interpretation of what is necessary for regulatory and contractual compliance, The purpose of this paper is to present some guidelines, methods, procedures and expected results of selection - maintenance - features of district regulators and relief valves. Now lets look at some of the factors involved and hopefully we can get some ideas that will be beneficial.
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Document ID: 7CE3FD08

Chart Auditing: A Serious Look At Todays Requirements
Author(s): Wayne C. Mellor
Abstract/Introduction:
A few years ago, with natural gas ranging in price from 10 to 25 cents per tCF, few, if any, locsd at auditing as a viable econcmic function of gas measurement and accounting groups in charge of producing and verifying gas volumes. It is my firm belief that everything is relative, therefore, if the cost of drilling and production was 10-20% of present day costs, the relativity existed between cost to put gas in the pipeline and revenues received. But, as we sanetimes need to look back, lets come up to date and look at the present and into the verification of gas volumes today.
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Document ID: 9DCDC05D

Gas Odorization: An Introduction With Hints For Safe Handling
Author(s): John D. Taylor
Abstract/Introduction:
The odorization of natural gas is becoming an increasingly established practice throughout the United States. Today, both distribution and transmission companies are required to odorize by government mandate a larger percentage or all of their gas lines. As more laws are legislated and rigid guidelines enforced by state and federal agencies, it becomes exceedingly important for us to stay abreast of regulations and guidelines to insure both safety and economy.
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Document ID: 4033492E

Orifice Recorder Testing
Author(s): Fred 0. Pitts
Abstract/Introduction:
The exchange of billions of dollars is based on the results of the orifice meter recorder test. The accuracy of these tests is based on three things the quality of the recorder, accuracy of the test equipment, and the ability of the technician. Most companies purchase good quality recorders that have been proven in the field over the years. Some of the things to look for in a recorder sire the type of material used in the recorder housing, the quality in the assembly of the linkage, access to the adjustments, the amount of difficulty required to make adjustments, and the ability to maintain accuracy. One other factor that might be considered is the geographic location in which the recorder will be used. For example, because of the expansion and contraction of mercury, a mercury type recorder may not be as well suited for locations where there are drastic temperature chajiges as would a bellows type recorder. On the other hand, in locations where the temperature does not change drastically, the mercury type recorder, which normally has very little linkage, may be more suitable because of its ability to maintain its accuracy over longer periods of time.
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Document ID: B9F005FC

Instrument Calibration Using The Pneumatic Deadweight Tester
Author(s): Eugene R. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most difficult problems facing the instrument engineer is the accurate calibration of orifice meters, particularly at remote or inaccessible locations, The object of this paper is to describe a unique solution to this problem, an automatic pneumatic deadweight test utilizing the floating ball principle.
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Document ID: B2C645BF

Operational Procedures Of Electronic Chart Processor
Author(s): E. J. Dupuis
Abstract/Introduction:
The UGC Chart Processor is a microprocessorbased system designed to translate orifice meter chart records into accurate billing-compatible data of integrated flow (chart extension), flow time and average pressure. It will handle American (Westcott) and Foxboro charts as the pens can be mounted so as to pivot in the same geometric paths as the recording pens of these types of meters. As an option, the Chart Processor can be fitted with pen mounts for Taylor and/or Rockwell charts. The operator directs the pens to follow the records by moving the trace handles as the chart rotates. The rotational speed of the chart table is governed by a variable foot control. The chart is secured to the chart table so its rotation and the motion of the pens by the operator simulate the actions in the recording meter. The Chart Processor computes and prints (for each chart) the chart extension C /H-P), average pressure and flow time. It also stores and prints batch totals on command.
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Document ID: BF750F1D

Field Inspections And Calibrating Measurement Instruments
Author(s): Mike Eads
Abstract/Introduction:
The rising cost of gas has placed accurate measurement the number one prioirity on most companies list. Most companies management are willing to spend much more money to accomplish good measurement than in past years. In the past, the phrase unaccounted for gas related mostly to leaks. Management is now looking to measurement supervisors for assistance in reducing unaccounted for gas.
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Document ID: AC04A265

Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): m. J. Sergesketter
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will provide information for use in selecting, applying, and checking the orifice metering system, with emphasis on gas measurement. The primary reference for mechanical tolerances of the orifice meter tube, plate holder and plate is American Gas Association Report No. 3, Orifice Metering of Matural Gas, now published as ANSI/API Standard 2530. Much of this information is also published in a simpler, condensed format by orifice meter manufacturers. An excellent reference is Singer American Meter Division Handbook E-2.
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Document ID: B0067B04

Chart Editing And Integration
Author(s): W. W. Horner
Abstract/Introduction:
As has been expressed many times, Gas Measurement is the cash register of any gas company. Charts must be analyzed to determine completeness and accuracy of the recordings. I am going to explain the basic factors in editing and integrating these charts. Our company processes over 51,000 charts per month. This includes orifice meter, temperature, gravity and calorimeter strip charts which belong to Transco and audit charts which belong to others.
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Document ID: 9D9EF75B

A Chart Is A Chart Is A Chart. Right?
Author(s): Mary Lee Daniel
Abstract/Introduction:
WRONG!! Why isnt a chart a chart? Its a piece of paper with a hole in the center, and it has concentric circles and arc lines, right? Right! But therein lies the difference. Compare, if you wil1, a Ford, Chevrolet and Plymouth. They are all automobi les, they all have a motor, they all have four wheels and they all run on gasoline. So what is so different about them? The parts are not interchangeable. Try to put a Ford transmission in a Chevrolet make car and you are in deep trouble!
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Document ID: F12A8ED7

Microprocessors In Flow Measurement
Author(s): m. A. Jiskoot
Abstract/Introduction:
Rapid and accurate measurement is offered by the electronic computer however, high installation costs and questionable reliability have limited their usage. With the advent of the low cost microprocessor, many of the objections have been overcome and the potential gains now outweigh the problems. The microprocessor is particularly suited to improving the operation and accuracy of the gas measurement station. Since field measurement represents a considerable area of cost, this will be used as a basis to explain the microprocessors ability, usage and configuration.
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Document ID: 049D7A8F

Various Applicatiohs Of Telemetering In Gas Distribution
Author(s): Robert F. Schwartz
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the problems faced by gas distribution companies is to maintain low point system pressures in the gas distribution system. The distribution system itself is a complex network of piping with a given area fed by one or more district regulators. The far ends or low points of the system must maintain a minimum pressure in order to furnish an adequate service of gas to the customers in that particular area. Since the system low point is fed by one or more regulators, the regulator setting must be changed periodically to maintain the desired pressure at this system low point. Increase in the system load between the regulator and the low point will cause the low point pressure to drop, requiring that the regulator setting be Increased in order to maintain adequate pressure. The pressure in the system must also be kept as low as possible and still maintain adequate service to prevent excess leakage loss in the distribution system between the regulator and the low point.
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Document ID: 6FED0B15

Problems In Two-Phase Pipeline Operations
Author(s): Robert J. Rau
Abstract/Introduction:
Two-phase pipelines are becoming a common means of transportation of oil and gas from offshore both in the Continental Shelf of the United States and the North Sea, and other places all over the world. As we all know, offshore gas pipeline systems are a necessity to actively meet the energy necessitites of our Nation and the energy crisis facing us today. Today, I wish to discuss with you some of the problems sncountered in offshore two-phase pipeline operations.
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Document ID: EDAA723C

Training Chart Processing Office Personnel
Author(s): A. m. Leisz
Abstract/Introduction:
Whether your department currently has a training program or youre just thinking about starting one, you may need to re-examine certain questions about training. What is training? Why should we train employees? Who should conduct this training? What should be taught and by what method? The purpose of this paper is to suggest some answers to these questions and to stimulate your own ideas with perhaps some novel approaches to training.
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Document ID: 536FCC83

Design Considerations For Orifice Measurement Installaticns
Author(s): Harry Harrison
Abstract/Introduction:
The design of a metering station should be of the utmost importance to anyone involved in the transmission, production, purchase, or sale of fluids. A sound design based on known criteria, past history, industry standards and corniron sense will yield not only an accurate station but also one that is reliable. The standards most U.S. companies adhere to for their orifice measurement is the American National Standards Institute, Orifice Metering of Natural Gas. This one publication encompasses three previously independent publications, namely the American Gas Association Report No. 3 CAGA#3), the American Petroleum Institute No. 2530 (API 2530 and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI/API 2530).
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Document ID: 389E19C4

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Marsha Yon
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow measurement is a significant concern in all phases of fluid handling, including production, processing and distribution. It is an indication of process performance, provides production records, and is used for cost accounting. It is one of the most frequently measured process variables. TTiere is a wide spectrim of meters on the market for measuring flow, each type with its own individual characteristics, advantages and disadvantages. The task of selecting the most suitable measurement device, being able to install and maintain it, and interpreting and applying the results, can appear td be monunental. This task can best be acccnplished by understanding the operating principles and performance characteristics of the different meter types. The aim of this paper is to instill this understanding of the gas turbine meter by the presentation of the basic fundanentals of its operation.
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Document ID: 8CE4B9E0

Problems In Offshore Gas Measurement
Author(s): Leland L. Autry
Abstract/Introduction:
The first offshore oil well was completed in 1937 through a joint venture of two oil companies, Superior and Pure. The site was 1.25 miles off Caneron Parish, Louisiana in the Creole field. The vast offshore oil and gas Industry, as we know it today, grew from this adventurous beginning. Located off the shores of Texas and Louisiana are 3,121 platforms that provide physical support for oil and gas wells, production equipment and lodging for personnel. They are spread over 9.8 million acres that are leased from the Federal Government. These platforms provide work places and homes for an estimated 8,000 people who are employed by some 270 companies that make up the Industry. Approximately 12,000 miles of pipelines serve these platforms and transport their products to shore.
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Document ID: 2F44D158

Water Vapor Determination And Effects On Gas Measurement
Author(s): Douglas E. Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
The determination and the effect of water vapor on gas measurejnent Is of importance to the gas pipeline industry because of the necessity for accurate gas measurement and for the maintenance of quality control. The following discussion covers typical methods which are used by the gas industry for water vapor determination. Each of the dew point instrmaents discussed use a specific method for water vapor measurement, and all are designed for use as either portable or fixed location instrumentation. In addition to a discussion of the typical methods for water vapor determination, the effects of water vapor on gas volume and heating value measurement is reviewed.
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Document ID: 600ED4C6


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