Measurement Library

Measurement Science Conference Publications (1982)

A Viable Alternative To Caloriraetry Amvor Chramotography Is Available. It Is The Therm-Titrator, A New Approach To The Determination Of Calorific Vall Of Natural Gasses.
Author(s): W. Michael Zander
Abstract/Introduction:
A copper-constantan circular foil heat flux gage (foil gage) is a sensor which develops an EMF proportional to the heat flux absorbed at its sensing surface. It is used in many applications such as testing plasma jets, monitoring dryer conveyors and evaluating CW laser beam characteristics. A group of such devices was submitted to this laboratory for calibration. The measurement used to determine the constant of proportionality between incident radiant power density and the signal EMF is described. The considerations involved in characterizing these detectors with a carbon dioxide CW laser versus those involved using a high temperature blackbody are discussed. The mounts used to heatsink these foil gages are goldplated and have receiving cones with several types of surface textures and tapers. Some of these mounts give rise to a spectrally dependent sensitivity. This dependence resulted in some significant differences between the blackhody and CD2 results. These differences and their origin are discussed. An estimate of the error in the measurement results is presented.
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Document ID: 26FE4DD9

A 160 Ppm Rms Digital Voltmeter For Use In Ac Calibration
Author(s): Ben Brodie
Abstract/Introduction:
Until recently it has been possible to measure true rms ac to an accuracy of approximately 1000ppm with a direct reading digital voltmeter. Even accepting the use of an average responding converter can only increase the accuracy to 600ppm with the inherent restriction that the reading is true for just pure sine waves. To make more accurate rms measurements, it has been necessary to use a transfer standard such as the Fluke 540B, but single measurements take up to 5 minutes for full accuracy. A new true rms voltmeter has been developed which enables fast readings to be made to an accuracy of 16Oppm for 90 days over a frequency band of 4OHz to EOkHz. This converter is used in a new instrument based on the Fluke 8502A digital multimeter
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Document ID: F0DACD7B

Imagineering An Unusual Approach To Solving Measuring Problems
Author(s): Eugene A. Gleason
Abstract/Introduction:
I feel that if we are going to use a new approach to solving measuring problems we need a new word for it. For this reason, Imagineering will not be found in the dictionary. Imagineering is the art of letting your imagination float free to explore all possible approaches to solving a problem. It is using the basic principles of science without shackling our minds with the limitations of what we already know. Lay it down, stand it up, rotate it, turn it over, it may look entirely different when its upside down.
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Document ID: BBB13DCD

Semiconductor Junction Temperature Measurement Techniques
Author(s): Bernard S. Siegal
Abstract/Introduction:
Semiconductor junction temperature directly impacts all areas of device performance. An understanding of the various measurement technique alternatives enables the selection of the one most appropriate for obtaining the data required. This paper provides a basic survey of the technique alternatives, pointing out the advantages and disadvantages of each. Recommendations are made as to which techniques are most suitable for specific applications.
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Document ID: 3E61B2FB

An Application Of Micrcwave Circuit Theory To Broadband Rf MEASURlW2NTS
Author(s): Les Huntley
Abstract/Introduction:
Dr. R. W. Beatty. of the National Bureau of Standards, has defined generalized voltages and currents, for waveguides, which behave in a similar nay to the voltages and currents used in conventional lumped-circuit analysis. This significant advance makes it possible to apply conventional circuit theory to mathematically rigorous analyses of waveguide circuits.
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Document ID: 297D3C05

2.2. V, I, A And B For Waveguide
Abstract/Introduction:
It is convenient to define quantities denoted as v and i for waveguide that behave in a similar way to voltage and current in lumped circuit element networks. Then it becomes possible to apply conventional circuit theory to the analysis of waveguide junctions and circuits.
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Document ID: A5FFEEDE

Calibration Of Coaxial 40 Db Coupler-Bolometer Combination To Within A Few Percent
Author(s): Michael A. V. Cruz
Abstract/Introduction:
A solution to the Navys requirement to calibrate high power RF wattmeters included selection of a standard consisting of a 40 dB coupler-bolometer combination. This standard was expected to measure RF power up to 200 watts over the frequency range 10 to 400 MHz. Implementation of this standard involved development of a calibration procedure. An approach developed by Kenneth E. Bramall (1) of the National Bureau of Standards was adopted to permit calibration of these units to within a few percent. This paper details the method used to provide NBS traceability through the use of standard, low power thermistor mounts.
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Document ID: 8262C7AF

Utilization Criteria For Closed-Loop STIMULUS/RESPONSE Measurement Techniques
Author(s): Bruce W. Ortgiesen
Abstract/Introduction:
Bruce W. Ortgiesen Weapons Quality Engineering Center Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach (Fallbrook Annex) Fallbrook, CA This paper presents, in the form of a case study, the difficulty of isolating and correcting problems within a closed-loop stimulus/response measurement system.
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Document ID: 9B0CDF1A

In-Situ Calibration In Electro-Optics
Author(s): m. L. Fecteau
Abstract/Introduction:
The Army Test, Measurement and Diagnostic Equipment Support Groups (ATSGS) new Electro- Optics Test Set (EOTS) represents a second ireneration of in-situ calibration support for the Land Combat Support Set (LCSS). In addition, since the new EOTS consists of both a source and radiometer, it has the capability of providing calibration support to all present and several imminent E-O and Infrared Systems including TOW, DRAGON, SHILLELAGH, KEDEYE, STINGER and TADS/PNVS. Forty-five (45) EOTSs are scheduled to be field deployed in the 2nd quarter of FY 82. In this paper we describe the new EOTS and its multiple system applications with emphasis on its in-situ use in LCSS.
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Document ID: 83609BC9

In-Situ Calibration Standards And Techniques Case History - Trident Submarine
Author(s): Peter Strucker, John Nelson
Abstract/Introduction:
The length of the TRIDENT patrol cycles and the limited availability during upkeep periods precludes the off loading of all operational, life support, navigation and weapon support systems and installed test instruments for periodic calibration, therefore certain systems/subsystems and instruments have been identified for onsite calibration support by ships personnel during patrol or by shore based support teams during upkeep. This paper describes both techniques and portable calibration systems developed for the measurement of mechanical, physical and electronic parameters of specific shipboard systems and instruments.
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Document ID: 8B680E66

U.S. Navy Electro-Optical Calibration And Metrology Challenge In The 1980s
Author(s): Richard G. Miller,
Abstract/Introduction:
A crucial challenge faces the U.S. Navy in the timely development of calibration and metrology support for a burgeoning arsenal of electrooptical weapon systems. This situation represents a unique opportunity for application of innovative approaches in measurement science to produce the requisite calibration support technology. A brief historical perspective is given to describe both the electro-optical systems deployed and those in development. , Current calibration support requirements are discussed and efforts to meet them are described. Our concepts for providing timely and cost effective calibration support are presented
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Document ID: F5297AD4

In Situ- Calibration Of Capacitance Manometers
Author(s): Johnny L. Hartley, Ernest C. Fuentes
Abstract/Introduction:
Repeated expansion of a known Pv quantity of gas has been used to provide in situ calibration of a capacitance manometer. This method has demonstrated two major advantages over the existing calibration method using an air piston gauge, (1) Corrections for thermal transpiration errors are determined which includes the influence of connecting tubing and the sensors elevated temperature. (2) A n increased calibration accuracy has been obtained. At a test pressure of 2 millitorr an uncertainty of less than 5% is estimated using the in situ calibration. At 2 millitorr the air piston gauge error is estimated to be approaching 100%. For test . pressures near 100 millitorr, in situ calibration parallels the accuracy of the piston gauge and is estimated to be 2.5%.
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Document ID: DFBEECD4

On-Site Calibration
Author(s): Dennis V. Pinnecker
Abstract/Introduction:
On-Site Calibration can improve costs and utilization of instruments to both the user and calibration agency. Better communications with the user helps to establish understanding of each others measurement problems. On-line measurement of quality can be achieved by calibrating on-site in the instruments use environment.
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Document ID: 37F765B6

High Precision Load Cell Comparator For Large Mass
Author(s): Dennis W. Page
Abstract/Introduction:
The requirement has long existed in the field of The observed difference between standard and unmetrology for a mass comparator with a range from known is then calculated as follows: a few hundred to several thousand pounds and a standard deviation of one part per million (ppm) or better. The comparator would ideally be easy Observed Difference (a-b) + (d-c), AS 2 (c-b) to use and maintain, perform mass comparisons rapidly, be relatively inexpensive, and mobile.
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Document ID: 0E41D30F

An Experimental Investigation Of The Absolute Viscosity Of Argon And Dry Air Relative To The Absolute Viscosity Of Nitrogen Using Laminar Flowmeters
Author(s): David A. Todd, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The performance characteristics of such gas flowmetering devices as orifice plates, sonic and subsonic nozzles and venturi tubes are usually conveyed in terms of a discharge coefficient vs. Reynolds number. In contrast to liquid flowmetering applications, where the necessary fluid properties may be measured directly, values of the absolute viscosity of a gas used in the computation of Reynolds number must be taken from the literature. Owing to the complexity of the experimental apparatus required for the determination of gas viscosities, seldom are the uncertainties of the reported viscosity values better than one percent. In connection with the above-mentioned flowmeters, a one percent uncertainty in viscosity is certainly tolerable, since even a three percent error in viscosity (Reynolds number) will not significantly affect the value of the discharge coefficient. Another type of flowmeter which is now widely used for high-accuracy gas flow measurement is the laminar flowmeter. The operation of this device is such that any error in the derived viscosity of the flowing gas will produce an error of equal magnitude in the reported flowrate. A precise knowledge of gas viscosities is therefore prerequisite to the use of laminar flowmeters, particularly when attempting to transfer calibration data from one gas to another. Results of an extensive experimental program in which a number of laminar flowmeters were calibrated with nitrogen, argon and dry air have led to the development of equations for the viscosity of argon and dry air relative to that of nitrogen. The equations presented allow for the complete transferability of laminar flowmeter calibration data for one gas to either of the other two with errors not greater than + 0.16 percent at the 95 % Confidence Level for operating line pressures near one atmosphere absolute and temperatures in the range of 50 to YOF (283 to 305 K)
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Document ID: EBEFD284

Asqc Participation In Innovative Measurements
Author(s): Ted L. Lamoureux
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Society for Quality Control (ASQC), as a technical society, has a great deal of interest in the subject of this years conference, Innovative Measurement - Todays Requirement. I We each have our own ideas as to what constitutes an innovative measurement and we are all probably correct. It could be a new technique to make an old measurement or the application of an old measurement technique to a physical parameter never before measured. Due to the wide interpretation of the meaning of this term, it would be to a degree like arguing about politics to attempt to establish any firm rules on the subject. Rather it would be of more value to discuss how to get where we want to go. I think we can all agree that a major ingredient in an Innovative Measurement is curiosity. That single factor is what keeps us digging until the measurement is made, verified, and the resulting data is evaluated. The people in the ASQC are also involved with measurements since we feel that we cant inspect quality into our product and that our measurements are how we verify our product quality. In many companies, the Quality Assurance Department could include such diverse functions as:
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Document ID: 393E6099

Panel Contribution: Reuvenk Itai, President (1982) Ieee Instrumentatioann D Measuremensto Ciety
Author(s): Reuven Kitai
Abstract/Introduction:
The theme of the 1982 Measurement Science Conference is Innovative Measurement - Todays Requirement!. In order to present the IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Societys (S-IM) viewpoint, one needs first to go back in history to the formation of the Society and to the evolution of its range of activities.
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Document ID: 284DA416

Diagnostic Development--A New Perspective
Author(s): Lt Clarence R. Waldo
Abstract/Introduction:
Heavy investment in sophisticated automatic diagnostic systems has typified the acquisition of major weapons systems during the past decade. The focus of diagnostic development changed in the 1970s as military planners saw in the burgeoning of microprocessor technology a possible solution to the problems of personnel instability and increasing life cycle costs.
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Document ID: E61504B8

Design For Testability - A Year Of Progress
Author(s): William L. Keiner
Abstract/Introduction:
Design for testability (DFT) continued to attract much attention in 1981. More than in any previous year, DFT researchers and practitioners made significant progress toward making testability a viable design discipline. Advances were made in testability design approaches, measures, training, and in gaining management recognition.
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Document ID: B2ED985F

Hierarchicals Trategyf Or Machinerym Aintenance
Author(s): Bernard P. Gollomp
Abstract/Introduction:
An integrated predictive maintenance and status reporting system can provide a means for reducing operating costs and for increasing operating efficiencies. The emergence of new processing and control system architectures, along with new technology hardware and software, suggests that future monitoring and prediction systems may be a federation of hierarchically organized functions and dedicated system elements. Systems based on a hierarchical federation of functions generally derive more information from primary sensors, reduce system hardware, and are more flexible and adaptable.
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Document ID: EE35141D

Calibration Support Of The AN/&Q+60 Common Flir Test Bench
Author(s): Felix Schweizer
Abstract/Introduction:
The ANfAAM-60 Common FLIR Test Bench includes an infrared target source to provide a test pattern for forward looking infrared (FLIR) systems used on Navy aircraft. To ensure that the Common FLIR Test Bench properly tests the FLIR system, it was necessary to establish radiometric calibration support for the infrared target source. Accordingly, a calibration hierarchy has been established that links the contrast of th? infrared target source test patterns to radiometric standards at the National Bureau of Standards. A transportable calibration system has been developed for use by on-site teams in mapping the test pattern with a radiometer. Horizontal lines are scanned by means of a special purpose test fixture utilizing a motor drive on the radiometer mount at selected elevations. The radiometer output is displayed as a function of position on a strip chart recorder corresponding to the scan across the target. The radiometer is calibrated in terms of the temperature of special purpose ambient range blackbody standards at Navy calibration laboratories. The blackbodies are calibrated by the Navy Primary Standards Department against a master blackbody directly traceable to the National Bureau of Standards.
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Document ID: 8FD56A58

Bit, Bite And Testability
Author(s): Mark Kaufman
Abstract/Introduction:
The increased use of microprocessors, LSI and VLSI allows test systems, regardless of size, to do more and do it faster than ever before. The cutting edge of this technological sword has made many new systems and techniques possible. Complex waveforms are generated and analyzed by portable instruments that were impossible a few years ago. Unfortunately, this wonderful sword is double edged the costs of these rapid advances are mounting. For example, fifteen years ago, hardware/ software integration problems were only encountered in mainframe computers. Today, nearly every new instrument has had to go through a series of software/hardware integration problems. Even the rather mundane musical doorbells have had these problems. In addition to many new problems, one other cost has been a large change in the value of electronic systems. Since each new system can do more, it has more value. This does not necessarily mean that each new system is more expensive although this is often the case, just that more areas are impacted when something goes wrong. Another problem rapid technological advances have generated is a drastic change in the resources required. Vacuum tube experts are no longer in demand, but engineers who can resolve hardware/software problems are. Even if man-hour costs remain steady, downtime costs are increasing because of the increases in the value of a system. One of the responses to the new generation of problems is to.design testability into a system to minimize downtime. Two of the methods often chosen are to use built-in-test, BIT, and builtin- test-equipment, BITE. Real world solutions also generate real world problems, and the use of BIT/BITE is no exception
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Document ID: EC943E25

NBS/DOD--ADVANCING Measurement Science Together*
Author(s): Brian C. Belanger
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years the Calibration Coordination Group (CCG) of the Department of Defense (DOD) has provided funding to the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) for basic and applied standards research. In 1981 over 20 individual projects were underway. While the emphasis of these cooperative projects has been on improving basic standards and measurement techniques relevant to DOD applications, the results of this research effort have benefited the entire measurement community to an extent that is not generally recognized. In this session panelists from NBS and DOD will relate the history and current status of the DOD/NBS cooperation and highlight research currently underway.
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Document ID: BD5956B3

Teaching Experimentation To Mechanical Engineers At The U. S. Naval Academy
Author(s): John . Geremia
Abstract/Introduction:
Laboratory courses are an important part of the engineering curriculum at the U. S. Naval Academy. Only one course in the Mechanical Engineering matrix deals with the design of experiments and the acquisition of valid data. This paper outlines the content of that course and indicates plans for its development in the future.
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Document ID: 74799F0E

Continuing Education In Measurements At Union College
Author(s): Peter B. Juhl
Abstract/Introduction:
Union College, located in Schenectady, N.Y., is an independent college for men and women of high academic promise and strong personal motivation. It has an enrollment of about 2000 full-time undergraduate, 880 graduate, and 500 part-time undergraduate students.
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Document ID: B5271BD5

Our Engineering Education: The Not-So-Scientific Method
Author(s): Peter K. Stein
Abstract/Introduction:
Almost without exception, there exists among the teaching professors of engineering in the United States, a deadly bias against the consideration of the engineering of measuring systems OS a separate, respectable and teachable discipline. The result has been an inordinate waste of resources, monpower, time, and productivity in the US economy
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Document ID: AEE99313

A New Approach To The Teaching Of Measurements To Technicians
Author(s): John P. Brady, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Numerous courses have been developed in recent years to familiarize electronic technician students with the principles of precision measurement and control, while others have concentrated on computer and microprocessor architecture, hardware and software. The author has found, however, that little emphasis, if any, is being placed on the merging of analog and digital expertise required in the use of automatic test systems. Orange Coast College will soon introduce a new course designed to fill that gap, called Electronic Systems for Measurement and Control. The course will stress the technical details of various measurement devices and instruments along with the interfacing needs of system controllers and peripherals.
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Document ID: 7AE55603

Thermal Analysis: New Techniques To Meet Modern. Quality Control Requirements
Author(s): Lloyd S. Noel
Abstract/Introduction:
The field of Thermal Analysis (TA) in chemistry covers the measurement of material properties as a function of temperature and includes such state-of-the-art techniques as Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and Accelerating Rate Calorimetry (ARC). In addition to chemical kinetics information, these advanced techniques yield material properties data such as glass transition point, coefficient of expansion, heat of fusion, degree of crystallinity, freezing, melting and boiling point, thermal reactivity, stability, and specific heat. Over the past decade, there have been many improvements in the field of Thermal Analysis due to advances in computer technologies and the design of new test equipment. These improvements have brought Thermal Analysis to a new level of importance for quality control and product development. It is currently being used in all areas of manufacturing control and is useful in determining physical equipment and requirements for safety in the transportation and storage of chemical materials. Significant contributions have been made in such areas as polymers, metals, pharmaceuticals, and explosives.
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Document ID: 2C12512E

Simplified Procedure For ERA/PgRA
Author(s): Patrick Pinto
Abstract/Introduction:
Since 1979, Estradiol and Progesterone receptor assays have been available at our hospital.We are employing the dextran coated charcoal methodology. This paper presents the procedure we follow in our laboratory. It is simple, easy to perform and if adhered to, will yield consistently good and reproducible results.
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Document ID: D3F12311

Corrosion Rate Monitoring
Author(s): Earl L. Pye
Abstract/Introduction:
The operational mode and electronic circuitry of a corrosion rate monitoring instrument is presented. A version of the log-polarization method is used in order to take advantage of the high sensitivity of this method.
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Document ID: 0183C5DF

Color Grading Of Fresh Apricots
Author(s): Kenneth K. Park
Abstract/Introduction:
A wide variation among evaluators in visual color grading of fresh apricots was demonstrated. The color standard of visual grading was converted to a machine reading. The machine rotates fruit and measures the average reflectance ratio of red to green. The reflectance ratio for the color standard was confirmed with the visual color grading of processed apricots.
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Document ID: 3BA2B0B9

An Automatic Temperature Calibration System
Author(s): Robert L. Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
A relatively inexpensive standards laboratory, computer-controlled temperature calibration system is described. The system will provide working standard level calibration between -175C and +l,lOOC for multiple resistance thermometers or thermocouples. It is designed to collect the data in a cooldown or ballistic state using either a platinum resistance thermometer or a precision thermocouple as a standard. The use of this calibration system increases measurement repeatability, while greatly reducing the manhours required for a calibration. Construction and basic software details of the temperature calibration system are provided.
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Document ID: 751FC9E2

Utilization Of An Automated Multimeter Calibration System By The Rocky Flats Standards Laboratory
Author(s): Barbara Wickoff
Abstract/Introduction:
certified by the PML Reference Standards Laboratory. The development by the Rocky Flats Standards Laboratory of a procedure for the calibration and certification of a Fluke Model 51018 calibration system is discussed. A Hewlett-Packard (HP) Model 9845B desktop computer was used to generate programs producing calibration cassette tapes for the 5101B system for 14 types of digital and analog multimeters. The system not only reduced the calibration and certification time by 75 percent but also eliminated manual calibrations and calculations. A printed copy from the system yields the calibration results for each test point, indicating, as a percentage of reading, both the acceptable tolerance limits and actual error with an indicated FAIL for any test point exceeding the predetermined acceptable limits. All multimeters of the same type are calibrated at identical test points. No major difficulties have been encountered during the year the system has been in use.
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Document ID: C7E354F8

Pilot Implementation Of New Environmental Limits For Standards Laboratories
Author(s): J. R. Miller, III
Abstract/Introduction:
We have been conducting a study since mid 1978 to determine environmental control requirements for calibration facilities within the US Army. The first phase parameters that completed.(l)
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Document ID: 642C6FE5

The Impact Of A New Noise Figure Meter On Microwave Metrology
Author(s): John Minck
Abstract/Introduction:
MICROPROCESSOR TO THE RESCUE John Minck Applications Engineer Stanford Park Division Hewlett-Packard Company P&1( Alt.0, California In December 1981, the world of noise figure measurements changed, we think, for the better. A new noise figure meter was introduced then offering higher accuracy and measurement flexibility. This meter will make measurements easier but it will also require increased accuracies in the ENR (Excess Noise Ratio) traceabilities of the microwave metrology lab. Luckily, the new meter can also be used to transfer ENR easily in the cal lab.
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Document ID: 7F29EEB0

The Role Of Software In Todays Measurement Environment A Mathematical Model For Evaluating Software Options
Author(s): Michael A. Thiem
Abstract/Introduction:
Recent technical seminars have produced a plethora of technical how-ton artioles concerned with software and the measurement pr0cess.l These papers often provide recommendations on specific development projects while ignoring the numerous roles which software can assume within the context of the measurement process.
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Document ID: 97BB22EE

Redar: The Radiation And Environmental Data Acquisition And Recorder System
Author(s): Joel E. Jobst
Abstract/Introduction:
REDAR (Radiation and Environmental Data Acquisition and Recorder), Model IV, is a multi-microprocessor, portable data acquisition and real time analysis system. It was recently designed for use in severe environments aboard helicopters, fixed-wing aircraft, and various land vehicles. Fluclear radiation measurement, geographic position, and environmental data are simultaneously acquired, displayed on a CRT and multiple LED readouts, and recorded on cartridge tapes for post mission analysis on minicomputer systems.
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Document ID: 76AC2B26


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