Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (1982)

Download collection of documents about ISHM 1982 including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, etc.


International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Rotary Meters
Author(s): John H. Heath
Abstract/Introduction:
HISTORY The first positive displacement rotary gas meters were built around the year 1920 by the PH & FM Roots Company and the Connersville Blower Company, both located in Connersville, Indiana. In 1966 this gas meter operation was renamed Dresser Measurement Division. However, these rotary meters today are still known as ROOTS Meters.
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Document ID: D4FE1070

Domestic Meters
Author(s): Robert L. Mcalister
Abstract/Introduction:
According to the historian, the process of turning coal into natural gas was originated in England and, thus, it la only normal the first gas meter was introduced In England in early 1800. The domestic type gas meter was first introduced in the United States In the city of Baltimore in 1820, In the early days, the gas was mainly sold on an hourly basis. These early meters did not have the features that the present meters have, but a rather complicated device called the wet test meter (see figure #1).
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Document ID: 0798B2EB

Fundamentals Of Bellows-Type Orfice Meters
Author(s): E. A. Lommatsch
Abstract/Introduction:
IHTRODUCTION The need to control and direct the flow of water was recognized at a very eeirly stage in the development of civilization. In Europe and Asia can be seen the relics of hydraulic works, some of great antiquity, which display a high degree of engineering accomplishment, the best known of which are the aqueducts, which the Romans built to bring water to their cities. In the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneim can be still seen lead piping, which conveyed water to houses and gardens, and which included orifice plates to act as flow limiting devices, providing a basis on which the service was charged to the consumer. These were installed almost 2,000 years ago. Some of these techniques were introduced to North America by engineers, who accompanied the Spanish nissionaries and whose work can still be seen at some of the missions in California
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Document ID: 7866B8E1

Techniques Of Gas Sampling
Author(s): Charles F. Draie
Abstract/Introduction:
Equiprrent and techniques are at hand to assist in the nfiasureiiBnt of the Btu of gasses containing unstable hydrocarbons. This paper is a review of results found in an eighteen month study of the sanpling of an aerosol type natural gas stream that required extraordinary procedures to correctly determine the heating value.
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Document ID: 762C9781

High Capacity Liquid Measurement Systems
Author(s): Clifton P. Rennie
Abstract/Introduction:
The tremendous price increase and resulting apparent fossil-fuel shortage over the past five years has brought about a new recognition of the term measurement for three reasons: (A) The higher price requires a more precise accounting of sales and purchases of these fuels. (B) The present world supply of fossil fuel is concentrated in non-industrial countries located in remote areas of the world.
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Document ID: F68EAE4D

Installation And Operation Of Recording GLORIMETERS
Author(s): A. F. Kersey
Abstract/Introduction:
The Cutler-Hammer recording Calorimeter measures the total calorific value of combustible gas. It continuously samples, indicates, and records BTU per cubic foot.
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Document ID: A2D40FD9

Instruments For Leakage Detection
Author(s): David E. Bull
Abstract/Introduction:
Leaks and leakage detection have been with the pipeline industry since the first joint of pipe was installed. Undoubtedly leaks will continue to happen and be a problem as long as these systems exist. Over the years, many instruments and techiques for leak detection have been developed, from soap suds to infa-red detectors. The gas industry has standardized on several basic instruments that best suit their requirements for safty and reliability.
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Document ID: 483AA2D6

Maintaining An Electroscanner And An Analyzer
Author(s): E. J. Dupuis
Abstract/Introduction:
To this day, the Electroscanner represents the easiest, fastest and most accurate means of reading orifice meter charts. Though its design is complex, maintenance of the Scanner need not be. A strict operational and preventive maintenance schedule should be adhered to In order to insure continued accuracy and reliability of calculations.
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Document ID: A0B2D276

Application And Operation Of Ball Valve Regulators
Author(s): Roy J . Becker
Abstract/Introduction:
OVER TWENTY YEARS AGO A PLUG VALVE WAS EQUIPPED WITH A PNEUMATIC CYLINDER AND A POSITIONER AND USED AS A MONITOR REGULATOR. THE CONCEPT WAS A NEW METHOD OF GAS REGULATION AND WAS THE BEGINNING OF A NEW ERA.
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Document ID: 9AA7BDE5

Pneumatic Controllers And TRJISMITTERS
Author(s): G. L. Blamires
Abstract/Introduction:
To most of the present generation in process control, it seems that pneumatic instruments have been around forever. The truth is that pneumatic control has been around for just about fifty years.
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Document ID: 3BE921F9

Fundamental Principles Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): Donald C. Peters
Abstract/Introduction:
An Orifice Meter is a velocity method of gas metering involving the measurement of a differential pressure from which the rate of gas flow is calculated utilizing certain other data and based upon well-established physical principles. The differential pressure that is measured is usually created, in a pipe, by an orifice. The orifice being a Chin flat metal disc having an accurately machined circular hole at its center. The orifice plate is centered perpendicular in a smooth straight section of pipe utilising a pair of flanges or other orifice plate holding device. It is customery to consider a complete orifice meter measuring system as being composed of three major elements: The Primary Element, The Secondary Element and The Calculation of the Rate of Flow.
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Document ID: 13DD6261

Fundamental Principles Of Displacement Meters
Author(s): Donald C. Peters
Abstract/Introduction:
The first practical gas meter was made in England in 1815 fay Samual Clegg. The meter was a revolving drum, water sealed Wet gas meter. Various improvements were made to this basic mechanism and one of the last improvements being the Hinman Drum patented by Charles Hinman of Boston in 1896. The Hinman Drum offers less resistance to rotation in water and an increase in capacity. The Hinman Drum principle is still used today in laboratory wet test meters.
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Document ID: D3F52E4D

Large Natural Gas Measurement By Turbine And Rotary Meters
Author(s): R.L. Overbey
Abstract/Introduction:
AS THE COST OF NATURAL GAS INCREASES, SO DOES THE REQUIREMENT FOR MORE ACCURATE MEASUREMENT. BEFORE THE 1970S THE MEASUREMENT OF LARGE VOLUMES OF NATURAL GAS WAS PERFORMED BY ORIFICE METERS OR LARGE CAPACITY POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT METERS. WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TURBINE METER IN THE 1950S AND ITS SUBSEQUENT ACCEPTANCE INTO THE GAS INDUSTRY IN THE 1970S, ANOTHER GOD MEASUREMENT TOOL WAS ACQUIRED.
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Document ID: D9A5DB58

Selection, Operation And Maintenance Of Regulators
Author(s): J. E. Roberts
Abstract/Introduction:
Selection of a regulator, in one sense, is becoming easier as more accurate and detailed information is being supplied by the manufacturer. Such items as maximum working pressures, maximum overpressuring, minimum differential conditions, changes in inlet affecting outlet pressures, etc., are all helpful in making a decision. With all this added information and the mass variations in regulators, it does take a great deal more research to pick a regulator that will do the best job on a particular application.
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Document ID: 009AA42D

Instrument Calibration Using The Pneumatic Deadweight Tester
Author(s): Eugene R. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most difficult problems facing the instrument engineer is the accurate calibration of orifice meters, particularly at remote or inaccessible locations. The object of this paper is to describe a unique solution to this problem, an automatic pneumatic deadweight test utilizing the floating ball principle.
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Document ID: 1FF0D9AD

ISO Developments For Orifice Meter Standards
Author(s): R. G. Teyssandier
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1980 the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) published a standard on the use of orifices, nozzles and Venturis for the measurement of fluid flow in full flowing conduits. This document, denoted as ISO-5167, received a negative vote from the U.S. Delegation due in part to the differences between it and current U.S. Standards and practices. (ANSI/API 2530) Since these differences can be significant they should be understood by those who deal in the international area. Current ISO direction and potential future developments will also be examined.
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Document ID: 2720C5AD

Manual Chart Calculation
Author(s): James C. Searcy
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays automated society where machines do what people once did by hand, most people have forgotten how to hand calculate an orifice meter chart. Companies now have chart averagers, analyzers and electro scanners to provide the flow extension, pressure index and time Index. We also have data bases coded with constants into which we key variables to produce machine calculated volumes and reports. I will discuss the procedure used by El Paso Natural Gas Company to hand calculate an orifice meter chart from scratch. References are Gas Measurement Committee Report #3 as revised (AGA 3) and Manual for the Determination of Supercompressibillty Factors of Natural Gas (NX-19).
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Document ID: 55B9A075

Meter Shop Equipment, Techniques And Operation
Author(s): William Przybylski
Abstract/Introduction:
Michigan Consolidated Gas Companys Metering Department, in its present location, has been operational since May, 1964. In its eighteen years of operations it has provided numerous areas of actual efficiencies, many of which will be indicated in this paper.
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Document ID: 00FA5B7D

Technical Session, Specific Gravity Instruments, Installation And Operations
Author(s): E. Blanchard
Abstract/Introduction:
THE WHAT AND WHY OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY FUNDAMENTAL TO UNDERSTANDING SPECIFIC GRAVITY INSTRUMENTS AND THEIR USE IS THE DEFINITION OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY. SPECIFIC GRAVITY IS FORMALLY DEFINED AS THE RATIO OF WEIGHT OF A BODY TO THE WEIGHT OF ANOTHER BODY OF EQUAL VOLUME TAKEN AS A STANDARD UNIT. FOR GASES, THE STANDARD IS GENERALLY DRY AIR.
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Document ID: DE21A8AC

Methods Of Field Testing Large Capacity Meters Critical Flow Proven Method
Author(s): Albert C. Selman
Abstract/Introduction:
Field testing of large capacity meters offers a convenient and economical method of assuring correct measurement. There are several methods of field testing large capacity meters this paper will cover the critical flow proving method. There are differences of opinion as to which is the most accurate method to use. Each method will have its own advantages and disadvantages. One of the advantages of the critical flow proving is that the test is made at the actual operating conditions. This writer has experienced shift of proof of the meter at elevated pressures.
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Document ID: A600EE9D

Operation And Maintenance Of Catalytic Heaters
Author(s): Kenneth L. Decker
Abstract/Introduction:
Catalytic Heaters convert natural gas or LPG into a safe, flameless, radiant heat. This conversion is accomplished through a catalytic reaction in which natural gas (or LPG) and oxygen are brought into contact with a catalyst at minimum temperature of 225F. Merriam-Webster defines a catalyst as a substance or agent inducing catalysis a substance that initiates a chemical reaction and enables it to proceed under milder conditions than otherwise possible. Extensive research on the effectiveness of catalysts in promoting the reaction of combustible gases with oxygen or air has established platinum as a desirable catalyst for use in flameless catalytic gas heaters.
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Document ID: 357E64D9

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement
Author(s): D. A. Tefankjian
Abstract/Introduction:
In any field of endeavor for a person to completely understand the endeavor, he must have a knowledge and an understanding of the fundamentals involved. People can do well in the performance of their work without knowing the basic principles, but to excel and progress knowledge of the fundamentals is necessaryl This is particularly true if ones work is technical in nature.
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Document ID: 81508C82

Positive Displacement Liquid Meters
Author(s): Gary Barnes
Abstract/Introduction:
Positive displacement(PD) liquid meters have long been the standard of measurement for the liquid petroleum industry. Over the years, numerous design improvements have resulted in an expanded product line that now serves industrial as well as petroleum applications. While PD meters are ideally suited for many applications, they are not recommended for others. This paper will examine their strengths and weaknesses as well as design principles that are fundamental to capillary seal PD meters. It will also highlight the system and meter parameters that must be considered before an accurate meter selection can be made.
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Document ID: 78967D3B

Fundamental Gas Laws
Author(s): F. Mark Townsnsend
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement is the determination of the volume of a gas at a particular temperature and pressure. The measurement should be as accurate as possible, making use of the best data and techniques available. The gas quantity is usually expressed in cubic feet or cubic meters at some specific temperature and pressure.
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Document ID: 29044053

Hass Measurememt Of Natupal Gas Liquids
Author(s): Ronald E. Beaty
Abstract/Introduction:
The mass in pounds is calculated by multiplying the measured volume by the density in pounds mass per unit volume using consistent units with both measured at pressures and temperatures within the defined limits. This can be accomplished by offline chart integration or on-line electronic integration. Off-line integration of charts on which the measured volume and density were continuously recorded must be synchronized so that at all times, the density corresponds to the volume measured.
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Document ID: 8BFCFA91

Development Program For Training A Measurement Technician
Author(s): L.S. Price
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years there have been numerous training methods and techniques used to train and develop measurement technicians. The most common method has been the on-the-job approach, with the trainee working with another more experienced employee to gain knowledge and experience. This training method is needed to some degree but does not always produce the desired results because bad work habits are passed on to the new employee along with the good habits.
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Document ID: 64E2F261

High Pressure Meter And Regulator Station Design
Author(s): N. B. Lansverk
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary function of any Gas Measurement Department is accurate measurement and dependable pressure regulation. These words are found on the job description of every measurement man and usually are the primary objectives of written departmental goals. In order to achieve these goals, the first step is of necessity, the station design. This is the cash register of the company and is worthy of the time required to help insure that the primary goals are attainable. With this in mind, lets look at what is needed to develop a sound design framework.
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Document ID: 57E8F6BF

Witnessing Orifice Meter Calibration And Field Tests
Author(s): Bill Carnahan
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary functions of a witness, as related to the gas business, is to insure the accuracy and validity of measurement and physical tests which are essential for proper payment for the products delivered. The role is very important and the person should be one of high integrity with experience in the science of measurement. The witness should not be presumptuous regarding the skills or technical knowledge of the technician or representative who is to conduct the tests. With the advent of the pneumatic tester, many of the new faces in measurement have never seen a water column manometer. On a recent test a new technician (also a part-time wheat farmer) was asked what an inch of water meant to him. His reply was classic: It would probably mean about three more bushels to the acre.
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Document ID: 1D16191B

Prevention Of Freezing In Measuring And Regulating Equipment
Author(s): B. G. Spradlin
Abstract/Introduction:
There are some differences in gas produced in conjunction with crude oil and gas produced from a gas well but both are defined as natural gas. Gas well gas is usually produced from a reservoir at high pressure and in most instances is delivered to the buyer at the natural wellhead flowing pressure. Oil well gas, on the other hand, is more frequently produced at lower pressures and is compressed for delivery to the pipeline. In both cases, we are dealing with relatively high pressure gases and both must be regulated, controlled and measured. Hydrates can and will form in both types of gases.
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Document ID: 28C193A0

Battery Operated Or Solar Totalizers For Measurement Stations
Author(s): Karl m. Wahaia
Abstract/Introduction:
The economics of production and pipeline operation today demands substantial improvements in gas measurement techniques. Significant increases in the cost of natural gas because of energy shortages in the last few years have created a need for substantially improved measurement accuracy. Techniques acceptable when gas costs were approximately 0.16/MCF may now result in inaccuracies which are unacceptable to both buyer and seller, fn the face of rising gas costs, interest rates and labor costs are escalating as well. Accuracy alone will no longer suffice in this climate. Simplicity of installation and operation, and efficient interface with accounting departments are areas for potential savings. Indeed, a reduction in billing lag, through more efficient measurement methods, can yield the benefit of cash flow improvement.
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Document ID: 61401626

Maintaining And Trouble Shooting Lact Units
Author(s): H. B. Southwell
Abstract/Introduction:
Lease Automatic Custody Transfer (LACT) is a system engineered and designed for the continuous and unattended transfer of different gravities of crude oil from the Producers lease to the purchasing carrier. Lact units come in many different sizes and shapes but they all accomplish the same purpose. The Automatic Custody Transfer of liquid hydrocarbons by metering and sampling produces the accurate net oil volume injected into the purchaser pipeline.
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Document ID: 6D9F3A1F

Design Of Metering Systems For Tanker Offloading
Author(s): Jack R. Chester
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most critical problems affecting any tanker offloading metering facility is the removal of free air on start-up and tank stripping.
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Document ID: BFE5B61C

Liquid Flow Provers
Author(s): Thomas R. Henderson
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement accuracies for custody transfer purposes of +.02% net volume of hydrocarbon liquids are currently accomplished using turbine flowmeters, dedicated automatic in-line provers, and microprocessor based flow computers. Precision of measurement is relative to profit in todays petroleum and petrochemical industries.
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Document ID: 7EB7336F

Application Of The Microcomputbr To Liquid Hydrocarbon Flow Measurement
Author(s): James E. Moore
Abstract/Introduction:
The development of the microprocessor has produced a revolution in the state of the art of process instrumentation. Enhanced instrumentation capabilities coupled with expanded application requirements have produced a new generation of instrumentation based on the use of dedicated, fixed program microcomputers. The users imagination has been most fertile in the world of flow measurement. The flow computer today is playing an active role in the flow measurement process where formerly it was content to faithfully process and display data sent to it by primary devices.
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Document ID: 341F810D

Multiple Stream Measurement And Blending Control
Author(s): Mel Bermas
Abstract/Introduction:
In ancient times, man mixed together various i n gredients in large pots or vats, sometimes while chanting incantations over the bubbling brew. During the i n d u s t r i a l age, various means of combining l i q u i d or powder components in pre-programned sequences and amounts were devised. These systems i n i t i a l l y u t i l i z e d bucket t r a i n s , sprocket gears, water wheels, and variable speed gearing techniques. Later came pneumatic c o n t r o l l e rs which could readily control the flow rate of a p a r t i c u l a r component. Proportioning techniques were also developed u t i l i z i n g mechanical and pneumatic devices.
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Document ID: 66A307E7

Conversion From Volume To Energy Measurement
Author(s): Bill Lawler
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper deals with accepted practices and procedures for determining the heating value of natural gas under actual conditions on delivery. Pressure, temperature, and water content are considered in determining heating values in Btus. The content of this discussion is closely related to a recently published Gas Processors Association Reference Bulletin 181-81 Heating Value as a Basis for Custody Transfer of Natural Gas. This GPA publication was prepared for use by those who are involved in the negotiation of gas purchases or sales, legal, contract administration, accounting, Settlement and payment, or other functions related to the custody transfer of natural gas
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Document ID: 60555C53

Calibration Of Liquid Provers Using Master Meter And Water Draw
Author(s): Charles H. Drane
Abstract/Introduction:
A mechanical displacement meter prover is a c r i t i cal element in many l i q u i d metering i n s t a l l a t i o ns because the prover is the volumetric standard against which the flow meters are c a l i b r a t e d . It is for t h i s reason that the Base Volume of the prover must be accurately determined. A prover is calibrated in order to determine i t s base v o l ume by either the water withdrawal method or the master meter method of c a l i b r a t i o n . These methods are presented separately and the unique features of each discussed. The i l l u s t r a t i o n s , Figures 1 t h ru 3, located following the conclusion of the text w i l l be referred to in the discussions of the c a l i b r a t i o n procedures and of the equipment required.
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Document ID: 6455B957

Continuous H2OS And Total Sulfur Monitoring Lpg
Author(s): Phillip S. Wengrovitz
Abstract/Introduction:
THE DETECTION AND ANALYSIS OF GASES AND VAPORS ON A CONTINUOUS BASIS HAS BECOME ESSENTIAL IN MANY AREAS OF MODERN LIFE, NOTICEABLY IN CONNECTION WITH INDUSTRIAL SFETY, CONTROL OF ENVIRONMENT AND CONTROL OF CHEMICAL PROCESS AND RESEARCH. A WHOLE CLASS OF ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENTS USING PHYSICAL OR PHYSIOCHEMICAL METHODS HAVE COME INTO EXISTANCE. SOME OF THE BASIC METHODS HAVE BEEN WELL KNOWN FOR MANY YEARS, OTHERS ARE NEW, BUT THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUSLY MONITORING INSTRUMENTS, AND THE GROWTH IN THEIR USE OVER THE LAST TWENTY YEARS, HAS BEEN RAPID.
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Document ID: 135A1FFC

Transfer Proving
Author(s): Clyde C. Bradford
Abstract/Introduction:
Transfer proving is simply passing a volume of air or gas through a meter under test and then through the master meter. Transfer testing eliminates many of the man-made errors found in critical and low flow proving.
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Document ID: E2EB6A8A

Custody Transfer Measurements For LNG/LPG
Author(s): R. A. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
The buying, selling, and transportation of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Liquefied Petroleum Gas CLPG) requires the use of sophisticated measurement systems for accurate determination of the total quantity and energy content for custody transfer reporting and safe cargo handling of these cryogenic products. These systems must meet strict safety standards for operation in a hazardous environment and, at the same time, provide accurate, reliable information for the storage, transfer, and data reporting required for both operational and financial accounting purposes.
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Document ID: D7591DB6

Diaphragm Meter Capacity Ratings At Elevated Pressures
Author(s): Howard W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
T h r o u g h the years, the gas i n d u s t ry h a s been steadily improving, especially from a t e c h n o l o g i c a l and product improvements v i e w p o i n t . Today, the gas industry has s t a n d a r d i z e d on most a p p l i c a t i o n s , methods and definitions. Within the measurement f i e l d , two important areas are s t i l l open for discussion and at the discretion of t h e i n d i v i d u a l persons or companies o p e r a t i ng w i t h i n these areas. One is the lack of an i n d u s t r y s t a n d a r d definition for a s t a n d a r d cubic foot of n a t u r a l gas and second I s the lack of an i n d u s t r y s t a n d a r d for d i a p h r a gm meter c a p a c i t y r a t i n g s at e l e v a t e d p r e s s u r e s . There are presently in use a minimum of ten different base p r e s s u r e s, e a c h of which defines a s t a n d a r d cubic foot of n a t u r a l g a s . There are many different methods of gas metering in use today t h e three most common are diaphragm displacement meters, r o t a r y displacement meters, a n d i n f e r e n t i a l m e t e r s.
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Document ID: CBED60EF

Calibration Of Liquid Density Meters
Author(s): Bill R. Caffey
Abstract/Introduction:
With the advent of deep ethane extraction of natural gas, the term meter no longer applied to just orifice, positive displacement, or turbine. A new kid appeared on the block, the density meter. Often previously neglected, misunderstood, and misused, the higher prices of products eventually forced the density meter to the forefront of the natural gas liquids industry, culminating with an adequate standard in 1979. This paper will deal with the accepted industry method for proving a liquid density meter. For our purposes, it will be assumed that the densitometer and related equipment are installed according to industry standards. Any questions regarding this area may be answered by consulting the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards, Chapter 14, Section 6.
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Document ID: 6632AF1C

Moisture Titrators
Author(s): James C. Bozeinan
Abstract/Introduction:
The prediction or actual determination of the amount of entrained moisture in natural gas systems is recognized to be an essential part of pipeline operations. Water in the vaporous or fluid state poses not only operation problems but also greatly aids in internal corrosion/ errosion of the pipeline, the single largest investment most pipeline companies have, and it must be protected. By knowing the amount of moisture present, and where it is entering the system, various protective/preventive measures may be undertaken to negate the negative effects. In order to do this, the amount of moisture present as well as its source must be identified. This necessitates accurate means to measure the percentage of water to natural gas.
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Document ID: 8994C819

Selection, Application & Maintenance Of Chart Drives
Author(s): Jurg R. Brugger
Abstract/Introduction:
The chart drive, or the instrument clock, has been a component in measurement stations since the record ing instrument came into use in the natural gas industry. Clocks are being used by gas product ion and gas transmis sion companies and in storage facilities in orifice meters and in flow, temperature, and pressure recorders. All ins trument t echnicians know them. They come in various shapes and colors. Some are flat, others are high. We see them in silver, red, cream, gray, and green covers. They all tick - sometimes we are surprised when they stop tick ing. In this paper, we would like to talk about what makes them t ick. We would also like to talk about why one chart drive is selected over another.
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Document ID: A660B824

Royalty Verification Of Oil And Gas Accounting
Author(s): Edwin H. Sellers
Abstract/Introduction:
The title might suggest that this subject would be pertinent to specialized accounting groups employed by production companies. However, that is not the case, it affects all types of companies such as chemical, oil transporters, both pipeline and truck, gas transmission 1ines, exploration and production companies regardless of the size.
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Document ID: 3E642D53

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
During the last decade the gas turbine meter has become established as a very useful instrument for the measurement and control of gas flow. This paper will present a summary of the principles of operation, the basic construction and the performance characteristics of the gas turbine meter.
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Document ID: 4238963B

Inverted Orifice Meters
Author(s): A. B. Pender
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increased value of natural gas and operations cost, the importance of better and more efficient measurement practices has become stringently pronounced. The use of the reverse scale meter offers solution for certain measurement problems.
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Document ID: EE5A79EA

Effects Of Rounded Orifice Edges, Dirt And Other Foreign Materials On Orifice Meter Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Kenneth A. Hoch
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this demonstration is to show the effect on orifice meter measurement created by undesireable conditions that may exist in a meter tube. For the purpose of illustration, these undesireable conditions may be somewhat exaggerated. By means of this demonstration, I hope to show that small deviations from perfect metering conditions can result in inaccurate measurement. Also keep in mind that more than one of these undesireable conditions can exist simultaneously in a meter tube, thus possibly creating an additive or compensating error.
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Document ID: 3F0BC0B1

Fundamental Principles Of Pilot Control Of Flow Rate And Pressure
Author(s): A. Rea Cameron
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure regulators used in the fuel gas industry are commonly classified as self-operated or p i l o t - operated. Each type has advantages for certain applications. Pilot regulators have distinguishing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , such as construction, funct i o n , or operation. Generally they offer superior performance in applications involving highly varying flow conditions requiring close control, and widely varying inlet pressures and high rates of load change. Other advantages are: easy and accurate adjustment to changing conditions, sens i t i v e , fast response, minimal spring effect, reduction or elimination of diaphragm effect, and easy adaptation to remote control. Some models require only a low differential pressure across the main diaphragrn, allowing a large diaphragm size for better s e n s i t i v i t y.
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Document ID: 239A0AB7

Leak Detection On Petroleum Pipelines
Author(s): Henry A. Brainerd
Abstract/Introduction:
The minimum detectable leak on a pipeline varies considerably for different pipeline systems and can vary appreciably within a given pipeline system depending on operating conditions. Factors which affect leak detection capability include (1) accuracy of metering systems, temperature and pressure measurements, and PVT data for the fluid pumped, (2) size, wall thickness, and length of the line, (3) compressibility of the fluid, and (4) dynamic operating conditions. The dramatic increase in the transportation of light hydrocarbons and other highly compressible fluids has put a severe strain on leak detection capability.
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Document ID: 733A5724

Industrial And District Regulators And Applications
Author(s): A. Rea Cameron
Abstract/Introduction:
I n the n a t u r a l gas i n d u s t r y , the terms I n d u s t r i a l and D i s t r i c t when applied to p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o rs u s u a l l y r e f e r to those i n s t a l l a t i o n s which supply g r e a t e r c a p a c i t i e s or o p e r a t e at higher p r e s s u r es than the Domestic or S e r v i c e type r e g u l a t o rs normally used for the supply of gas to r e s i d e n t i al d w e l l i n g s .
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Document ID: 5F17AD6A

Determination Of Btu And Volume Reduction In Plants
Author(s): H. C. Tilley
Abstract/Introduction:
Plant volume and BTU reduction is the reduction in gas volume and BTU between the volumes of gas delivered from all sources for processing in the plant and the volume and BTU of residue gas resulting from the removal of liquid and liquefiable hydrocarbons, shrinkage, plant fuel usage, flaring, compressor fuel and other uses or losses of gas in the plant incident to or occasioned by processing gas.
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Document ID: C7D49852

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Abstract/Introduction:
When the word measurement is mentioned, the majority of the gas industry measurement personnel automatically convert their thoughts to a meter. The meter contributes only 1/2 to 1/4 toward the total science of measurement depending on the application,
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Document ID: 84AFDF03

Orifice Meter Calibration
Author(s): J. E. Lawley
Abstract/Introduction:
In any discussion on orifice meters, one word will surface time and time again - accuracy. The orifice meter is the most accurate means of measurement of large volumes of gas, but its accuracy is dependent upon a proper installation and a strict and periodic maintenance program.
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Document ID: 47D10754

On-Site Flow Calculators And Transducers For Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Fred N. Debusk
Abstract/Introduction:
As we enter another year of energy conservation we see and hear more about solar energy. Now the same is true with on-site flow computers. Solarpowered flow computers means greater accuracy at remote sites where no purchase power is available. Continuing refinements in electronic instrumentation are continually providing more reliable and better measurement and control devices. Improved methods of calibrating, programming and operating of these instruments have broadened their applications.
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Document ID: AB97D388

Mass Measurement Of Liquid Ethane Rich Streams
Author(s): David A. Mcane
Abstract/Introduction:
WHEN MEASURING HYDROCARBON MIXTURES CONTAINING SUBSTANTIAL AMOUNTS OF EHANE, CUSTOMARY VOLUME MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES ARE USUALLY INADEQUATE. IN REVIEW, IF EHANE AND OTHER PROCUCTS WERE MIXED TOGETHER, THE MIXTURE WOULD BE DENSER AND OF SMALLER VOLUME THAN EXPECTED
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Document ID: FDA8E78E

On-Site Flow Calculators And Transducers For Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Fred N. Debusk
Abstract/Introduction:
As we enter another year of energy conservation we see and hear more about solar energy. Now the same is true with on-site flow computers. Solarpowered flow computers means greater accuracy at remote sites where no purchase power is available. Continuing refinements in electronic instrumentation are continually providing more reliable and better measurement and control devices. Improved methods of calibrating, programming and operating of these instruments have broadened their applications.
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Document ID: 129A6C3D

Thermal Energy Measurements
Author(s): William A, Fox
Abstract/Introduction:
Thermal energy, as g e n e r a l l y used in the gas i n d u s t r y , r e f e r s to the amount of heat which may be produced through the combustion of a q u a n t i t y of gas. Heat is energy in the process of being t r a n s f e r r e d and to most of us, is quant i f i e d in u n i t s of BTUs.
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Document ID: 7C5BD1EA

Multiport Averaging Pitot Tube In Gas Measurement & Control
Author(s): Norman A. Alston
Abstract/Introduction:
The basic acciiracy of fluid flow measurement has always been a concern in the development of primary flow measurement devices in the past. Today that basic accuracy is still just as Important and is becoming even more important due to escalating economic value of various fluids to be measured.
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Document ID: E5076352

Fundamentals Of Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Damien E. Durbin
Abstract/Introduction:
The term chromatography (color writing) is attributed to Tswett who first used the technique in 1906 for the separation of components of plant pigments. Keulemans gave the following definition for the chromatographic technique: Chromatography is a physical method of separation, in which the components to be separated are distributed between two phases, one of the phases constituting a stationary bed of large surface area, the other being a fluid that percolates through or along the stationary bed. Chromatography is divided into two major classes: liquidchromatography(LC) and gas chromatography (GC). In liquid chromatography the mobile phase that percolates through the stationary bed is a liquid. In gas chromatography a carrier gas percolates through the stationary bed. This paper will deal solely with gas chromatography.
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Document ID: BE0DD4EC

Unloading High Pressure Natural Gas Frofl Transport Trucks
Author(s): James E. Morphis
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper would be incomplete if it covered only material indicated by its title. The need for unloading should be preceded by an insight into the complete operation of trucking natural gas, since this method has not been utilized very much in tite past. The higher price that gas is now demanding, enhances this type operation as an acceptable option for the producer.
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Document ID: 0636C5D7

Recording Calorimeters - Installation & Testinc
Author(s): L.G. Son Lowery
Abstract/Introduction:
The Cutler-Hammer Calorimeter has been designed to make it the most accurate and reliable instrument available to continuously indicate and record the heating value of gas. In order to insure precise results certain limitation must be placed on the operating conditions. In general, the greater the accuracy desired the more limitation must be placed on the conditions under which the measurement is made. The following tabulation of desirable installation requirement has been prepared for securing the optimum accuracy available from the recording calorimeter.
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Document ID: 93645D83

Installation And Operation Of A Densitometer
Author(s): Mike Butcher
Abstract/Introduction:
A Densitometer is a device that converts the weight property of a material to (1) a mechanical movement (2) or an electrical signal that can be used to document and/or control that material. The factor of weight, in mass measurement, is entered by the Densitometer. The intent of this paper is not to identify the necessity nor the accuracy of Densitometers but to give a field approach to the installation and operation of Densitometers.
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Document ID: 46E6AC9C

Methods Of Field Testing Large Displacement Meters The Low Pressure Flow Prover Method
Author(s): V. D. Crowe
Abstract/Introduction:
Arkla Gas Transmission Measurement Department has found that field testing of large displacement meters with the low pressure flow prover is an effective means of testing and calibration of these meters. The low pressure prover is very accurate and is virtually maintenance free, but as with any field testing the technician conducting the test should be well trained in the use of the equipment.
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Document ID: 890F1BFA

Basic Applications Of Telemetering Systems & Flow Computers
Author(s): Robert F. Schwartz
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will be a basic paper illustrating the various types of telemetering and flow computing systems as utilized in the Gas Industry. The paper will be general in nature, as the subject matter represents an entire field of endeavor. Therefore, only basic fundamentals of the various types of flow computing and telemetering systems will be covered in this paper.
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Document ID: E66672C6

Volume Recorders For Rotary, Turbine And Displacement Meters
Author(s): Daniel R. Fulton
Abstract/Introduction:
OPTIMUM MEASUREMENT ACCURACY SHOULD BE THE ULTIMATE OBJECTIVE OF ANY MEASUREMENT FUNCTION, WHETHER IN THE PRODUCTION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF NATURAL GAS. VOLUME RECORDERS ARE BASIC INSTRUMENTS WHICH UTILIZE SIMPLE SENSING DEVICES SUCH AS PRESSURE ELEMENTS AND TEMPERATURE SYSTEMS ALONG WITH THE METER INDEX AND A CIRCULAR CHART TO GRAPHICALLY DISPLAY THE CONDITIONS OF PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE UNDER WHICH THE METERING TAKES PLACE.
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Document ID: 9DADEEAD

Specific Gravity Instruments And Gas Sampling Devices Installation & Operation
Author(s): Philip m. Vickery
Abstract/Introduction:
FOR ALL PRACTICAL PURPOSES, THE VOLUME OF NATURAL GAS PURCHASED, OR SOLD, IN THE UNITED STATES, IS BASED ON THE GENERAL EQUATION :
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Document ID: A5C17269

Relief Valves - Design And Calculations
Author(s): Cindy Scott
Abstract/Introduction:
Relief valves have long been used as a reliable form of over pressure protection. They are generally simple, easy to test, and reasonable in cost. Even so, many factors should be considered to properly compare and select a relief valve.
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Document ID: A08D57A1

High & Low Pressure Gas Regulators
Author(s): Cindy Scott
Abstract/Introduction:
All regulators used in the gas industry can be classified as either high or low pressure regulators. In fact, many regulators could be considered both, depending on the definition of high and low pressure. Figure 1 gives a brief overview of typical regulator locations required in the production, transmission, measurement and distribution of natural gas. Pressures can range from several thousand psig at the gas well, to under 1 psig at the end user. Lets examine Figure 1 to help define the requirements involved for the many different regulator applications.
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Document ID: DF9450BA

High Pressure Farm Taps And Service Regulators
Author(s): Terry Ruzbee
Abstract/Introduction:
High Pressure Farm Tap Regulators and the low pressiire Fervce regulator are the most hasic and numerically the most common, regulrtors utilized in tho gas industry. They are simple, reliable, low in cost, easy to install and requirepractically ro naintenancc. Both the Iigh pressure farm tap and the low pressure service regulators share many similar construction features spring and diaphragm, boost effect, single soft seat, mechanical advantage (lever arm) between valve and diaphragm. Despite the relative simplicity of this class of regulator, countless engineering hours have bpcn spent on its develcpnent and refine irrnt, Host of this work has been spent in the low pressure version-the service regulator,
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Document ID: 3B1498B5

Training Field Measuremtint Personnel
Author(s): William Sutcon
Abstract/Introduction:
Most companies expect their Measurement Technicians to be proficient at installing and maintaining regulators, controllers, dehydrators, samplers, telemetering equipment, etc. Providing the technician with just the fundamental information required to perform these tasks is a never ending problem for those responsible for training. Remember training alone can never be substituted entirely for experience.
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Document ID: 1A8D0528

Elements Of Gas Contracts
Author(s): m. L. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
The purchase and sale of gas, due to its physical nature, is not simply an exchange of natural gas for money. The gas industry began over a hundred years ago when gas was first transported successfully and used effectively for domestic purposes. During the next several decades, no one deliberately searched for gas and even as late as 30 or 40 years ago, contracting for the sale of gas was often a matter of someone hav i ng gas to sel 1 finding someone who would simply agree that the gas would be taken at some price, often less than two or three cents per MCF.
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Document ID: E69FC1FC

Large Capacity Gas Regulators
Author(s): L. Alan Hess
Abstract/Introduction:
The definition of a large capacity regulator is often difficult to formalize. There are many types of regulators which could be classified as large capacity. This discussion will be concerned with the conventional double ported regulator. The double ported balanced valve regulator is probably the most commonly used style of regulator labeled as large capacity. The large capacity is also often classified as high pressure due to the function of the restriction. The restricting element is positioned by an operator to permit equal flow into and out of the downstream system.
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Document ID: F550723D

Domestic Meters
Author(s): B.R. Elkins
Abstract/Introduction:
IHTRODUCTIOH The positive displacement meter principle is applied to both diaphragm and rotary type meters. although the operational principle is different, the fact remains that both types measure by means fo sealing off a known quantity of gas, and subsequently releasing it. Over 40 million gas meters are employed in measuring gas volumes in the U.S. today. Of this total, the large majority are used to measure gas volumes consumed by domestic residential customers.
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Document ID: 507BFF07

Elements Of Sound And Sound Measurement
Author(s): Paul Dars
Abstract/Introduction:
FOR MANY YEARS, NOISE WAS CONSIDERED A NECESSARY EVIL IN HEAVY INDUSTRY, IN THE OIL PATCH, AND ON HIGH PRESSURE GAS TRANSMISSION LINES. THIS CERTAINLY IS NOT THE CASE TODAY. INDUSTRY IS FINDING MORE AND MORE SOLUTIONS TO THESE NOISE PROBLEMS. THE PUBLIC AND THE WORK FORCE ARE AWARE THAT THEY DO NOT HAVE TO PUT UP WITH UNSAFE OR UNDESIRABLE CONDITIONS. GOVERNMENT BODIES PASS NEW REGULATIONS EVERY DAY WHICH PROTECT THE RIGHTS AND HEALTH OF THE PUBLIC.
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Document ID: 3751CCA2

Automatic Tank Gauges
Author(s): Louis Brankel
Abstract/Introduction:
There are two very great expenses to be considered by anyone who keeps petroleum products in storage tanks. The first is the cost of the product itself. It Is expensive to lose it through theft or bad Inventory practice. The second is the cost of cleaning up a leak. If a tank is leaking, Its important to know it before that leak becomes unmanageable. Monitoring the product in storage tanks is becoming more and more important.
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Document ID: 783327C9

What The Office Group Expects From The Field Group
Author(s): Wilda Mitchell Ryvers
Abstract/Introduction:
The company where I work has a small but unique group of people that we call field Measurement Engineers. My office and these field Measurement Engineers are uniquely joined together in a common effort to do a tremendous task for our company. Most major gas transmission companies in the United States are organized along a similar line under possibly slightly different titles. Probably in the entire United States there is not more than a few thousand field Measurement Engineers or persons of equivalent responsibility. I work for a gas transmission company with about 1,500 gas measurement devices and in an office handling about 53,000 charts per month. The department that I work in is responsible for measuring in and out of our transmission system about 1100 billion cubic feet of gas per year, plus multiple measurement of 116 billion cubic feet of storage gas.
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Document ID: 0F9DC57D

Electronic Chart Scanning And Related Equipment
Author(s): Thomas Y. Tramel
Abstract/Introduction:
With the ever increasing cost of natural gas more emphasis is being placed upon the speed and accuracy of all gas measurement systems. Our objective is to present to you an overview of the state-of-the-art equipment and procedures currently used in gas measurement offices. We will illustrate three major points of interest which include equipment, field preparation and measurement office procedures. MICRO SCAN
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Document ID: 04700F3B

Skid Mounted Liquid Measurement Stations
Author(s): Don L. Menard
Abstract/Introduction:
The accelerated need for liquid petroleum products has resulted in increased application of skid mounted liquid measurement stations. We will discuss the typical requirements and design of such systems.
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Document ID: 6FB0B8BA

Controlling Surge In Liquid Pipelines
Author(s): Ed Cykowpki, Mike Spratt
Abstract/Introduction:
LIQUID PIPELINES CANNOT BE DESIGNED WITH CONSIDERATION TO STEADY FLOW ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES ALONE. IN YEARS PAST, PRESSURE SURG ANALYSIS WAS A MINOR CONCERN AND SYSTEMS WERE OFTEN OVERDESIGNED TO PREVENT FAILURE. PIPELINE SYSTEMS TODAY ARE LARGER, MORE CONPLEX, AND COSTLY AND AS A RESULT, A PIPELINE FAILURE COULD RESULT IN SUBSTANTIAL LIABILITY. THE DESIGN ENGINEER OR OPERATIOR NOW REQUIRES PRECISE INFORMATION ON THE MAGNITUDE, TIMING, AND ECONOMICAL CONTROL METHODS FOR THE HYDRAULIC TRANSIENTS THAT OCCUR ROUTINELY DURING LIQUID PIPELINE SYSTEM START-UP, NORMAL OPERATION, AND ROUTINE AND EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN.
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Document ID: D23DCF1E

Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
ALTHOUGH THE LIQUID TURBINE METER PRINCIPLE DATES BACK MANY DECADES, THE AXIAL FLOW TURBINE METER WAS FIRST USED FOR DRIVING THE ROTOR AND NORMALLY WHERE ACCURACY OF MEASUREMENT WAS NOT OF PRIME IMPORTANCE. RELIABILITY WAS OF GREATER IMPORTANCE, SO PARTS WERE MADE RUGGED AND THE ROTOR WAS DESIGNED MORE TO BE NON-CLOGGING THAN TO BE ACCURATE. HOWEVER, THROUGH THE EVOLUTION OF TECHNOLOGY, THE TURBINE METER HAS MAINTAINED RELIABILITY AND RUGGEDNESS WHILD ATTAINING A HIGH DEGREE OF ACCURACY.
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Document ID: C5C343B1

Application Of Flow Computers For Gas Measurement And Control
Author(s): Michael J. Keady
Abstract/Introduction:
TRADITIONALLY, ORIFICE METER SIGNALS HAVE BEEN RECORDED ON-SITE BY MEANS OF MECHANICAL CIRCULAR CHART RECORDERS, THESE CHARTS HAVE BEEN COLLECTED WEEKLY OR MONTHLY AND INTEGRATED FOR VOLUME DETERMINATION. THIS PROCEDURE HAS A LENGTH LAG BETWEEN TIME OF ACTUAL GAS FLOW AND TIME OF REPORTING. WITH THE ADVENT OF SPIRALING GAS PRICES AND PENALTY CLAUSES FOR EXCESSIVE RATE DELIVERIES, BOTH CUSTOMER AND SUPPLIER ARE LOOKING TOWARDS QUICKER AND MORE ACCURATE METHODS OF OBTAINING FLOW AND TOTAL QUANTITY. BY USE OF FIELD MOUNTED ELECTRONIC FLOW COMPUTERS , FLOW COMPUTERS, FLOW INFORMATION IS PROCESSED ON AN INSTANTANEOUS AND CONTINUOUS BASIS.
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Document ID: FF1DC073

Application Of Electronic Computers For Calculation Of Gas Volumes A( Direct Data Entry System
Author(s): J. R. Cadrin
Abstract/Introduction:
Many companies have long recognized that as the value of natural gas increases and high-cost alternate fuels are introduced into the pipeline, measurement accuracy becomes of paramount importance. A new erA has dawned in the gas industry requiring the need for automation, smaller tolerances of error and the necessitating of more accurate methods and procedures for defining gas quantities. Automation and computers now offer such unlimited capabilities for this demanding of maximum efforts toward the reduction of human errors and the reduction of gas losses whether unaccounted for or operational.
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Document ID: 15AA2977

The Use Of Manometers In The Gas Industry
Author(s): James V. Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
The Manometer is considered a primary standard and can be constructed simply with a suitable liquid of known sp.gr., a bent glass tube and a reference scale. The gas industry depends OP accurate measurement, because of the simplicity of the components of a manometer a primary standard, thus becomes a working standard.
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Document ID: 811443D4

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted For Gas - Transmission
Author(s): Gregory L. Lang
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is one of the most valuable resources today supplying approximately 17% of the worlds total energy. As a major contributor to our energy needs, natural gas must be completely utilized. Until we can successfully exploit the endless supplies of solar, nuclear, and renewable energy, we must all become more energy conscious and conserve this diminishing resource. It is evident that the price for unregulated natural gas will continue to escalate, as more and more homeowners and businesses demand the commodity. (See Table 1). Prices have already reached 8.36/Mcf for wells drilled In excess of 15,000 feet, a depth which is not subject to price control.
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Document ID: 51763E4D

Field Testing And Maintenance Of Ofifice Meters
Author(s): W.M. Donachy
Abstract/Introduction:
THIS PAPER WILL ENCOMPASS THE TESTING OF ORIFICE METERS ON SITE, USING ACCEPTED STANDARD TEST EQUIPMENT.
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Document ID: 575E3DB4

Correcting Instruments Applied To Displacemant And Turbine Gas Meters
Author(s): Thomas R. Comerford, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
DISPLACEMENT AND TURBINE GAS METERS PROVIDE AN EXTREMELY ACCURATE MEASURE OF THE ACTUAL VOLUME OF GAS CONSUMED AT THE METER.
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Document ID: 50CC918B

Operation Of Orifice Meter Chart Integrators
Author(s): John D. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
As operators of the 2000K chart integrator, we will discuss this equipment from that view point so that we may utilize all the capabilities of this equiptnent.
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Document ID: 2AE5AF4B

Selection, Testing, Maintenance And Operation Of Electronic Flow Computers
Author(s): A.S. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
Selection of an electronic flow computer is determined by two things. The station si7.e should be the first item to be considered for selection of a particular type of flow computer. The types are Analog, Digital and Microprocessor based. By knowing the capabilities ou each of these it can be determined which one will be the most suitable at a particular location. One of the main things to consider Is the number ou meter tubes. The number of tubes will be a factor in selection of the proper flow computer. The second item will be what type of data is required from this station. These two factors are usually the first to be looked at during the first stages of selection.
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Document ID: B6A8722E

Field Testing Large Displacement METERS/SONIC Nozzle Testing
Author(s): Edward J. Bergin
Abstract/Introduction:
SONIC NOZZLES OF ONE FORM OR ANOTHER HAVE BEEN IN USE IN THE GAS INDUSTRY AS A FIELD TEST PROVER SINCE THE EARLY 1930S. WE HAVE PROGRESSED THROUGH THE CRITICAL FLOW ORIFICE, AND MANY VARIATIONS OF THE FLOW NOZZLE TO THE DESIGN WHICH HAS BEEN DEVELOPED AND IS IN USE TODAY. THE NOZZLE SHICH IS GENERALLY IN USE TODAY IS BASICALLY THE SAME AS PROPOSED BY SMITH AND MATZ IN 1962, EXCEPT THE EXIT CONE ANGLE HAS BEEN REDUCED FROM 12 TO 7, AND THE LENGTH OF THE DIFFUSER IS DEPENDENT ON THE THROAT DIAMETER.
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Document ID: 6D9C940B

LNG Densities For Custody Transfer
Author(s): Robert D. Mccarty
Abstract/Introduction:
Work has been carried out over the past nine years at the National Bureau of Standards to provide alternate methods for the accurate determination of the density of liquefied natural gas (LNG) that would serve as a basis for equitable custody transfer. A magnetic suspension densimeter was used to obtain density data for LNG components and their mixtures with a total uncertainty in density of less than 0.1%. These data were used to optimize and test mathematical models for LNG density calculations.
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Document ID: C8DD63EC

Custody Transfer Measuring Without Charts
Author(s): Rogers G. Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
A thought always in the back of the mind of many people in the natural gas industry is the elimination of the problems associated with use of orifice meter charts. These problems are due primarily to the delay involved in chart mailing, processing, and volume calculations. A comprehensive and sophisticated computer program is required to acco,,,- plish these calculations. It usually requires from five to eight days to arrive at a chart volume due to mailing, processing, and computing time requirements. In addition, some companies onl calculate volumes periodically during the mont:.. This results in no actual volumes until l?.:? in the month.
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Document ID: 28F4C688

Gas Chromatography - Equipment, Techniques And Operation
Author(s): John W. Toole
Abstract/Introduction:
Samples for chromatographic analysis at Internorths Liberal Laboratory are taken by qualified field technicians who have been certified by the Laboratory as having satisfactorily completed a training course in proper sampling techniques. The course is based upon standardized procedures as set forth in GPA Publication 2136-68,Methods for Obtaining Natural Gas Samples for Analysis by Gas Chromatography, and GPA Standard 2174-79, Method for Obtaining Hydrocarbon Fluid Samples using a Floating Piston Cylinder. These procedures have been adapted to fit the particular needs of Internorths operations. For instance the floating piston cylinders are also used to take samples of natural gas streams carrying appreciable concentrations of pentanes and heavier hydrocarbon which can be easeily liquified. Dry gas samples are taken in the standard double valved steel cylinders familiar to us all
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Document ID: F7A2006F

Conditioning Natural Gas For Measurement And Transportation
Author(s): Laurance S. Reid
Abstract/Introduction:
When the term natural gas is mentioned, there comes to mind an image of sweet, dry combustible gas that is sixty percent as heavy as air and which has a gross heating value of 1000 Btu per standard cubic foot. While this defines merchantable gas according to most pipeline purchase contracts, unfortunately much of the gas that must be measured and transported is not yet of that quality. It may be mixed with water, crude oils, condensate, inhibitors, brines, gas treating solutions, pipeline dirt, dispersed corrosion products,
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Document ID: 4714BFD7

Energy Measurement Utilizing On Line Chromatocraph
Author(s): Arthur F. Haas
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of gas chromatographs for determination of the energy in natural gas is certainly not new. The laboratory chromatograph has been utilized for this purpose for many years quite successfully. The important difference in the system described in this paper is that the chromatograph is truly on line that is, it is located in the field at the sample tap and repeatedly samples directly from the line automatically. Previously, samples were taken in bombs and transported to the laboratory where a compositional analysis was run. It is now possible to take a sample from a flowing line, determine the composition and flow rate, compute the total energy and transmit the finished data to a remote location. This paper will concern itself with the system ENCAL II which is specifically designed as a total energy measurement system.
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Document ID: A7F2C53F

Odorizer Installations And Operations
Author(s): David F. Henderson
Abstract/Introduction:
The odorization of natural gas is rapidly becoming one of the most important functions of a gas utility. This fact has surfaced within the past ten years as evidenced by the increasing number of litigation proceedings where a utilitys odorization practices are questioned. If an explosion or fire occurs in an area served by your company, make certain your odorization records are adequate and accurate because the odds are your company will have to defend them in court.
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Document ID: BFE16D49

Accurate Field Pressure Measurement Cost Savings Through New Technology
Author(s): Julian S. Taylor
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure measurement is used throughout the hydrocarbon, chemical and transmission industries. The results of those measurements fill in such unknowns as the calibration of monitoring instruments the dollar volume of natural gas the production of a well the safety tolerance of a vessel or the flow rate past an orifice. These data are used for customer billing and underground storage inventory. Gas companies double check suppliers figures using these means and the error of the measurement is reflected in errors on the suppliers invoice or incorrect payment of a leaseholder and related time-consuming accusations and litigations. It is essential that as the price of gas, oil
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Document ID: 2C9FFF34

Trouble Shooting In METM1ETER Telemetering Systems
Author(s): Robert W. Lowell
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is concerned with troubleshooting Pulse duration telemetering equipment. Initially a definition of telemetering is in order. Simple definitions simply state Telemetering is remote measurement or telemetering is measurement at a distance .
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Document ID: 8199D430

Basic Devices And Techniques For Supervisory Control And Telemetering Systems
Author(s): Robert F. Schwartz
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the problems faced by gas distribution companies is to maintain low point system pressures in the gas distribution system. The distribution system itself is a complex network of piping with a given area fed by one or more district regulators. The far ends or low points of the system must maintain a minimum pressure in order to furnish an adequate service of gas to the customers in that particular area. Since the system low point is fed by one or more regulators, the regulator setting must be changed periodically to maintain the desired pressure at this system low point. Increase in the system load between the regulator and the low point will cause the low point pressure to drop, requiring that the regulator setting be increased in order to maintain adequate pressure. The pressure in the system must also be kept as low as possible and still maintain adequate service to prevent excess leakage loss in the distribution system between the regulator and the low point.
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Document ID: 80355F6C

System Of Transfer Proving
Author(s): By W. A. Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
TRANSFER PROVERS ARE A FAMILIAR PIECE OF TEST EQUIPMENT THROUGHOUT THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY. PORTABLE TRANSFER PROVERS, IN PARTICULAR, HAVE BECOME NEARLY INDISPENSABLE IN FACILITATING ECONOMICAL PERIOD: TESTEING OF INDUSTRIAL SIZE METERS.
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Document ID: B5ED606D

Sonic Nozzles For Gas Meter Calibration
Author(s): W. A. Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of critical flow elements was first introduced into the gas industry about 1930 as field proving apparatus for high pressure displacement gas meters. These primary devices have basic and fundamental advantages, along with a few disadvantages. The critical flow prover is protable and offers simplicity in the field computations required to obtain the proof of a meter under operating conditions.
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Document ID: 6968E268

Dot Inspection Requirements
Author(s): Don Moore
Abstract/Introduction:
The Department of Transportation is responsible for all modes of transportation regulations, inspection, and enforcement. This paper will deal briefly with the basic organization of this giant governmental department, tracing the line of authority down to the people who deal directly with you gas measurement professionals. We will then look at the departments jurisdiction and walk through a typical inspection, Including records inspection and physical inspection. Also, we will discuss the postinspection period and what to expect under given circumstances. Finally, we will look at information sources and schools available to you.
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Document ID: FBE245D0

Application Of Microprocessors
Author(s): Charles W, Gibson
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the introduction of the first commercially available Computer on a chip in 1971. microprocessors have had an increasingly significant impact on industry. They have been used in minicomputers, instrumentation, automobiles, point of sale terminals, and most recently, in electrcnic games and personal computers. The end is by no means in sight, The trend in the industry has been toward the development of units which are more compact, faster, require less power and have greater processing capability. Most significantly, along with these improvements. has come a steady decrease in cost.
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Document ID: F552CC49

Field Experience With Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): R. A. Price
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: E83AD558

Theory And Application Of Double Chronometry In Ballistic Flow Proverb
Author(s): Walter G. Wunsch
Abstract/Introduction:
The sharp increase in the value of hydrocarbons over the last seven years has been the prime impetus for improvements, particularly in the field of custody transfer measurement. As we have witnessed higher performance demands from metering devices, pushing them to the practical limits of their capabilities in terms of repeatability and linearity, we have also seen great breakthroughs in measurement
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Document ID: B08D006A

Fundamental Principles Of Regulators
Author(s): Wayland Sligh
Abstract/Introduction:
A gas pressure regulator is a device for reducing pressure to a certain value. Figure 1 is a diagrammatic of a typical regulator installation with the main external elements labeled, nvtru L Figure 1 could represent anything from a tiny 1/8 pipe size gaslight regulator to one for a transmission line in 30 or even larger pipe size. It could be a service regulator, an industrial regulator, a district or system regulator, a city gate or town border station regulator, etc... In all cases it takes gas from the supply and reduces the pressure to the value required for the load.
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Document ID: 39D76BA9

Meter Station Noise Forecasting
Author(s): Paul Adams
Abstract/Introduction:
The scope of this presentation is limited to noise which originates in control valves. The generation, transmission, prevention, absorption, Isolation, and prediction of control valve noise will be studied.
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Document ID: 15467FC3

Determination Of Cadoripic Value Of Natural Gasses
Author(s): Richard L., Dick Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
A viable alternative to calorimetry and/or chranotography is available. It is the Therm-Titrator, a new approach to the determination of calorific value of natural gasses.
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Document ID: 669D2608

Basic Fundamentals Of Orifice Measurement
Author(s): George F. White, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
To know the basic fundaitienta surement one must recognize there ments involved. There are the sc that make up the fluid boing meas elements representing the measuri the human element. What we will cover the primary elements in sue those involved in gas measurement the basic fundamentals of orifice Is of orifice meaare several eleientific elements ured, the primary ng equipment and try to do is h a manner that can understand measurement.
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Document ID: D7EFAD1A

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): R. H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbulence anywhere in a pipeline system is no asset. However, immediately downstream of pressure regulation, its effect can be especially harmful due to the high velocities that are set up within the regulator body. Design engineers and field men alike will be equally interested in keeping turbulence to a minimum. Both are thinking of maximum throughput with the least amount of noise, plus the best site for analytical instruments such as calorimeters, chromatographs or dew point instruments and a steady sense point for control.
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Document ID: 4CB94ED9

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Ray Forbes
Abstract/Introduction:
Throughout the measurement industry, the term primary element generally refers to the orifice plate, the orifice plate holding device, and the adjacent piping or meter tube. The single most important item of the primary device is the orifice plate, since it is the orifice plate which creates the differential pressure within a flowing medium. The measurement of a pressure differential, along with certain other data, permits one to compute the rate of flow on the basis of well established physical principles. Frequent inspection of the orifice plate is necessary in some types of service to insure that it is in proper condition to meter accurately, i.e., it is flat and clean and the inlet edge of the orifice bore is still sharp, square and free from nicks or other damage.
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Document ID: B3D1ED47

Ultrasonic Flowmeters For Liquid Petroleum. Measurement
Author(s): Glenn P. Erickson, John C. Graber, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increasing acceptance of ultrasonic techniques as a viable means of measuring flow, comes the need for a discussion of the factors that influence the performance of such systems. Like most instrviments, these systems perform well only if properly selected and applied. Certain aspects of ultrasonic systems enable them to fill some requirements better than other, more commonly known systems. However, a lack of understanding of these aspects can result in the misapplication of the system.
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Document ID: BB1984DF

The Roles Of Epa And Industry In Protecting The Environment An Overview Of Regulatory Changes In 1981
Author(s): Wayne C. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
The year of 1981 has been a changing year for regulations concerning air, water and solid waste pollution and the EPA itself. The EPA has undergone large budget reductions and many changes in personnel,
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Document ID: C57D1331

Design Of Distribution Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Michael P. Hogan
Abstract/Introduction:
The design and installation of regulating facilities requires long and detailed thought and study by the engineer in charge of the project. I will attempt to describe for you such a project from start to finish.
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Document ID: FFAB1111

Selection, Operation 6. Maintenance Of Pressure Regulators
Author(s): Herbert L. Dehart
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas pressure regulator, as used in our gas systems, is much more than just a mechanical device used to reduce a high pressure to a more useable low pressure. This device is an integral part of measurement and must also have the ability to satisfy the stringent modern safety codes of D.O.
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Document ID: 28416F28

Large Capacity Displacement Gas M.TERS
Author(s): John L. Esola
Abstract/Introduction:
The term Large Capacity Displacement Meters, as used by the gas distribution industry, refers to those diaphragm type meters with a capacity of 500 to 10 or 11,000 cfh of 0.64 specific gravity natural gas at a maximum of 4 ounces inlet pressure with no more than two inches water column differential pressure between the meter inlet and outlet at capacity flow. It also refers to rotary meters which also operate on the positive displacement principle
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Document ID: 2ED5E049

Flow Measurement By Vortex Shedding Meters
Author(s): Walter E. Wlktorowicz
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past few years, the vortex flowmeter has come into prominence because of design improvements enhancing its ability to provide reliable, highly accurate measurement of a wide variety of gases and liquids. Orifice and turbine flowmeters are normally used in many of these applications. However, the vortex flowmeter is gaining acceptance for routine measurements, and is under serious consideration for custody transfer applications in the oil and gas industry.
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Document ID: 17661F6E

Temperature Measurement For Orifice Flow Measurement
Author(s): William E. James
Abstract/Introduction:
Temperature is the measure of the degree of heat of 3 substance. Units are usually degrees Fahrenheit or Celsius. The relationship between these two units is straight forward. The tenq)erature of boiling water at standard atmospheric pressure is lOQOC or 212?. At this same pressure, water will freeze at CC or 32F. Thus, there are 180OF for every lOOoC and the conversion is evident:
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Document ID: 4F495B89

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Ed Pringle
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to the continually increasing cost of hydrocarbon products, both liquid and gas, there is a growing concern for accurate measurement. In many applications this begins with a signal from the primary element, consisting of the Orifice Fitting, Orifice Plate and Meter Tube
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Document ID: ED452DAE

Principles, Application And Sizing Of Monitor Regulators
Author(s): Donald A. Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
Monitor regulation as an overpressure safety device has been around for many y e a r s . However, since the Department of Transportation, Office of Pipeline Safety was given the authority to prescribe and enforce safety standards back in 1968, the use of monitor regulators has increased dramatically throughout the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: C5883952

Expansible Element Valves For Pressure Regulation
Author(s): Donald A. Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
Flexible element valves have been in use by the gas industry since the early forties. These early valves resembled a slightly swollen pipe nipple with flanges on either end. Mounted on the body was a smaller pilot regulator, a restrlctor and piping connecting the pilot to the body. They were suitable for pressure reduction, as well as overpressure protection.
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Document ID: 5737A917

Problems In Offshore Gas Measurement
Author(s): Robert J. Rau
Abstract/Introduction:
Toda , the operation of offshore gas pipe line systems is a necessity to actively compete in the constajitly expanding market areas of our country and to also meet the energy crisis our country faces today. Offshore reserves drilling and discovery have been retarded by cancellation of offshore lease sales, legal battles and political battles based on the modern day ecology revolution. Today, I wish to discuss some of the problems encountered in offshore gas measurement now and also some of the future problems we must face ajid solve.
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Document ID: FF59F4CE

Liquid Measurement With Tlie Orifice Meter
Author(s): Robert E. Vickrey
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement of fluids, both liquids and gaseous, by head type meters has been a common and acceptable method for centuries. The flow rate through head type meters such as the venturi, the flow nozzle and the orifice, is a function of the square root of the differential head of fluid created by flow through the meter. Quite often the recorder is called the meter, but the meter consists of an upstream section of pipe attached to an orifice flange or fitting with an orifice plate and a shorter downstream section of pi
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Document ID: E015ECE7

Operational Experience With Ballistic Liquid Flow Provers
Author(s): Wayne A. Latimer
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents recent improvements and refinements of the ballistic prover design as adapted to pipeline applications, laboratory tests pursuant to compliance with the American Petroleum Institutes performance standards, field tests conducted versus an API designed ball prover and practical operational experience.
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Document ID: 2463A64E

Gas Measurement And Control For Pipeline Systems
Author(s): W. Fehervari
Abstract/Introduction:
The mass quantity of a fluid (liquid or gas) flowing through a pipe or a duct may be derived from the head differential created by an orifice in the pipe. If the density of the fluid is not a constant, the head differential pressure signal must be adjusted for the varying density. Orifice and other head-type flowmeters have been the dominating means of gas flow metering for decades.
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Document ID: 949FBD90

Charts, Pens & Inks
Author(s): R.W. Benner
Abstract/Introduction:
Ink, as a f l u i d , is v i r t u a l l y w o r t h l e s s . . . i n k as a l i n e could be p r i c e l e s s . . . i f i t s in the right place at the right time. For example, a droplet of i n k, as a signature on a check, could represent a v i r t u a l l y l i m i t l e s s value...even m i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s. Well, the ink lines on your gas measurement charts are signatures showing the value of gas being measured. From the smallest amount...several hundred d o l l a r s . . . u p to major systems transfer or sales points where the value could be m i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s.
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Document ID: 2D3D594A

Liquefied Natural Gas Operations And Mkasurement
Author(s): Sanford B. Novick
Abstract/Introduction:
The operating and measurement requirements of a Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) plant are not totally unfamiliar to gas industry personnel. Gas men deal dally with such variables as pressure, temperature, flowrate, specific gravity, and perhaps composition. In addition to the above, personnel in compressor stations may encounter RPM and perhaps even electrical measurements,
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Document ID: 57247082

Measurement Of Cargo On Tankers
Author(s): R. T. Effenberger
Abstract/Introduction:
Ten years ago the average cost of crude oil was approximately 3.00 per barrel. Today, we are witnessing that same barrel of oil approaching the 40.00 per barrel mark and one would have to assume that this trend will not stop there. Coupled with this almost unbelievable rise in cost, the consumption of petroleum products has risen from about 15 million barrels per day to approximately 20 million barrels per day. This radical turnaround has made the measurement of cargo on tankers a vital part of the overall operations. This paper discusses the measurement of cargo, the procedures and equipment available to accomplish this critical task.
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Document ID: 0F075151

Calculation Of Liquid Petroleum Quantities
Author(s): Lawrence H. Shelton
Abstract/Introduction:
The rising cost of energy has caused a ripple of concern to spread throughout the petroleum industry and within those elements of the business sector which purchase from the petroleum industry, Foremost in our minds is the question Did I get what I paid for? if you are the buyer, or, if the seller, Did I get paid for everything I delivered?. This paper will discuss the means by which the errors in measurement can effectively be controlled.
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Document ID: 3BF337E3

Energy Conservation Program By Industry
Author(s): Harley N. Mcdonald
Abstract/Introduction:
When a transmission pipeline system is in the design stages. It is common to derive and utilize formulas which consider the economics of both the cost of construction and operation.
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Document ID: 88404C3B

The Calculation Of Gas Properties-Past, Present And Future: 1982 Status
Author(s): Kenneth E. Starling
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas properties calculation methods used in the past and at the present time are discussed and a projection of future gas properties calculation methods is presented. Note is made of the fact that gas properties calculation methods prior to about 1960 generally were made using tables and/or charts, while since the early 1960s the computer has been utilized extensively. Some of the inadequacies of present-day gas properties calculation methods are noted and improvements which can be expected in the near future are discussed. The compressibility factor of natural gases is given particular attention
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Document ID: A4A71A40

Operation And Maintenance Of Single Bellows Meters
Author(s): Michael D. Beall
Abstract/Introduction:
The bellows orifice meter was developed to replace the Mercury meter which has heen the industry standard for measuring differential pressure generated across an orifice restriction, Bellows orifice meters produced today are of two types: a liquid filled dual bellows system and the single (no fill) bellows system. Each of the two available types, although similar in theory, are different slightly in design, construction, and operation. We will deal in this paper with the single (no fill) bellows type meter.
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Document ID: BE63DDAF

Installation, Operation And Maintenance Of Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): Michael D. Beall
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic Chart Changers were developed for the specific purpose of saving time and money by changing charts when there was no one present but by no means should they eliminate company meter technicians or their chart grabber personnel. These people will always be needed to check the calibration and performance of the meter as well as collect the charts, monitor them for any unusual record and forward them to the chart processing/accounting office at the end of the month.
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Document ID: D5949FAD

Liquid Meter Proving Techniques
Author(s): Daniel m. Comstoclt
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid Meter Proving is .the physical testing of the performance of a meter in a liquid service that is measuring the flow or volume throughput. The meter proof, or test, is performed by placing a meter in series with a meter prover, which has a known base volurrie at standard conditions, in such a way that during any given test run, all the product measured by the meter is also measured by the prover, and equally important, only the product measured by the meter is measured by the prover. Then the meter registration is compared to the known prover volume.
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Document ID: 6CE473DC

Sampling Light Liquid Hydrocarbon Product
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Driven by the price and demand for natural gas liquids, the measurement and sampling of the natural gas liquid product has had to become a precise operation.
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Document ID: 24938EA8

Operation And Maintenance Of A Rubber Plug Type Regulator
Author(s): Mike Mckay
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1958, a rubber plug control valve was created which, unlike the control-valves of the day, used a solid rubber plug for the inner valve and a hydraulic source to actuate the annular expansion of the expandable plug. It is interesting to note that this rubber plug type control valve is the only control valve used in the gas industry that was designed within the industry specifically for gas service. The rubber plug control valve has demonstrated a unique capability for precise controllability.
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Document ID: 87CC188B

Gauging, Testing And Running Of Lease Tanks
Author(s): E. W.
Abstract/Introduction:
When writing a run ticket a gauger is writing a weigh bill, bill of sale and a check combined in one document. It is written to allow a change of ownership or custody of the content of a tank. A gauger, acting as agent, has the responsibility to see that accurate information is ascertained and recorded. Each true datum can only be obtained by careful observation and correct use of proper tools.
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Document ID: 1BB79B11

Bellows-Type Orifice Meters
Author(s): August Buchhalter, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The bellows-type differential gauge has found widespread application and increasing populalarity in orifice metering. Its operation does not require mercury nor critical leveling for operation. The rapid response and high output torque make the bellows meter particularly adaptable to integrating and controlling devices. The meter is generally not affected by condensed liquid in the measuring system. The self-draining feature along with proper installation makes it very adaptable to wet gas measurement.
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Document ID: 5F45517E

Sediment And Water Test
Author(s): Bob Dix
Abstract/Introduction:
The energy environment of the last few years has placed a greater economic importance to the measuring of water content of crude oils precisely and accurately. In view of this, a working group of the American Petroleum Institue/Araerican Society for Testing and Materials Joint Committee on Static Petroleum Measurement (COSM) undertook the evaluation of two methods for determining water in crude oils. These two (2) methods were: 1. A.S.T.H. D-95-70/A.P.I. 2560 2. A.S.T.M. D-1796/A.F.I. 2548
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Document ID: 312F5925

Gas Turbine Meters And Continuous Integrators
Author(s): August Buchhalter, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the introduction of the turbine meter to the U.S. gas industry in the early 60s the turbine meter has found wide acceptance as a large volume measurement device.
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Document ID: DB476E97

Test Instruments For Pressure And Water Vapor
Author(s): A. W. Chandler
Abstract/Introduction:
Volume measurement of natural gas at high pressure is principally accomplished by means of orifice type flow meters. Converting orifice meter readings to low pressure volumes requires exact knowledge of pressure and supercompressibility.
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Document ID: 7079A38C

Test Instruments And Recorders For Specific Gravity
Author(s): A. R. Kahmann
Abstract/Introduction:
Computation of natural gas flow volume, when measured by orifice meter, is made by using the formula Qb C X HwPf where Qb is the quantity, Hw is the differential, and Pf the absolute static pressure, with C being a constant. The constant C is only constant for a certain specified set of conditions, and in practice is made up of numerous factors including the basic orifice factor, the Reynolds number factor, the expansion factor, the pressure base factor, temperature base factor, flowing temperature factor, specific gravity factor, supercompressibility factor and manometer factor. In order to determine these factors the values of the quantities from which they are derived must either be assumed or measured. This paper will deal with those instruments measuring specific gravity. (For further details of the flow computation refer to A.G.A. Gag Measurement Report No. 3).
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Document ID: C120CD0D

Rotating Vane Type Gas Meters
Author(s): Henry Hubbard
Abstract/Introduction:
Rotary meters, in general, are being used with increasing frequency in production, distribution and industrial gas measurement. Depending upon the needs of the application, rotary meters may offer advantages over other types of meters. They are lightweight and compact compared to diaphragm meters of comparable capacity. Accuracy is machined in and flow capacities are independent of the specific gravity of the gas being measured.
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Document ID: 2F10C143

Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): Robert L. Mcalister
Abstract/Introduction:
Although the design of bellows type Positive Displacement meters dates back well into the last century, it has now and will continue to have wide acceptance in our industry. Other types of measurement may appear at f i r s t glance to be more advanced, but this type is the only one that has virtually 1007. rangeabllity, that i s , the a b i l i ty to measure gas from full rated capacity of the meter down to the smallest p i l o t load.
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Document ID: 195F39E1

Pressure Regulation And Flow Control With Expansible Tube Type Valves
Author(s): Henry A. Hubbard
Abstract/Introduction:
Expansible element valves are not new to the industry but with new designs a more perfect valve has been developed. Fast response, infinite rangeabi1ity, small size, low noise levels and minimum number of parts make the Axial Flow Valve an excellent choice for pressure regulation or pressure relief. Refer to Figure 1.
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Document ID: BACE4BD6

Determination Of Hydrogen Sulfide And Total Sulfur By Titration Methods
Author(s): Art Moen
Abstract/Introduction:
Electrolytic generation of bromine as a titrating reagent for measurement of sulfur compounds in the gaseous phase was introduced to industry nearly 20 years ago. with the development of transistor electronics and the discovery of a practical coulometric bromine sensing electrode system, a new, wide range electrolytic titrator was developed and designed to meet the specific requirements for continuous sulfur monitoring.
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Document ID: AC681A68

Chromatography Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): J. C. Winfrey
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the analysis of natural gas liquids by gas chromatography. Techniques of sample injection and columns for the separation are discussed. Calculation of properties such as specific gravity (relative density), vapor pressure, density, molecular weight, cubic feet/gal. from the gas chromatography data are discussed.
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Document ID: 499F47CE

What The Field Expects From The Office Group
Author(s): Donald R. Hurd
Abstract/Introduction:
My experience with this subject has to do with a Gas Measurement Department which is headquartered in a central office. The field technicians work directly for a field supervisor and he reports to the office management. I realize that there are some companies which are not organized in this manner hut we feel this type of organization provides us an excellent operation. Close team-work and cooperation between the field personnel and office personnel are a must if an efficient operation and good results are to be obtained. I will present several ways in which the relationship between the field and office might be improved.
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Document ID: 1B86B305

Kinetic Type Indicating And Recording Instruments For Determining Specific Gravity
Author(s): K. E. Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
This class offers a comprehensive presentation of the kinetic type gas gravltometer, Including: Simple explanation of operating principle Equipment set-up and operation 1n field Trouble-shooting, repair and adjustment
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Document ID: 84DF65FC

Auditing Gas Measurement And Accounting Systems
Author(s): Robert A. Faught
Abstract/Introduction:
With the dramat ic price increases of natural gas within the last five years it has become obvious to even the old time field hand that gas Is no longer an undesirable byproduct of crude oil production. producers and consumers alike are becoming increasingly concerned about an environment of decreasing reserves and increasing prices. Faced with this situation, management is actively searching for ways and mean s of protecting this valuable resource. One tool available to management is an active internal audit program for rev iewing procedures and controls relative to both company operated facilities and those operated by others (OBO).
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Document ID: 10946976

About Ishm 1982
Abstract/Introduction:
Collection of documents about ISHM including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, exhibitor and sponsor information, etc.
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Document ID: 0FD8A4F5


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