Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (1982)

Caterpillars Metrication Experience
Author(s): Louis R. Strang
Abstract/Introduction:
Caterpillar is a multinational company (with headquarters in Peoria, Illinois) that manufactures earthmoving equipmeni, diesel and gas turbine engines, and materialshandling equipment. These products are designed primarily in the U.S. and manufactured in 21 U.S. plants by wholly owned subsidiaries in Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, France, Mexico, and the United Kingdom and by affiliated companies in Japan, India, and Mexico.
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Document ID: D8E70AD4

Metrication In The Steel Industry
Author(s): Harold L Taylor
Abstract/Introduction:
History and status of metrication in the steel industry in United States are reviewed. Activities described include standardization of SI units for steel industry terminology computer order entry capability of steel companies use of SI for sleel industry process measurements establishment of metric standards for steel product tolerances and preferred sizes metric practices adopted for specification of steel pipe company programs for adopting SI steel specifications American National Metric Council (ANMC) activities in planning and implementing industrial change to SI and American Iron and Steel Institute statistics on SI usage for steel product ordering in United States.
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Document ID: D3CC1987

Disposal Of Laboratory Hazardous Wastes
Author(s): Michael J. Atherton
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1976, Congress passed the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This law sets forth a multifaceted approach for dealing with solid wastes but places particular emphasis on hazardous wastes. Like much environmental legislation, RCRA (Section 3008) has some striking penalties: Failure to take corrective action within time specified in compliance order. Fine of up to 25,000 for each day of continued noncomplicance. Knowingly transporting hazardous waste to unpermitted facility knowingly treating, storing or disposing hazardous waste without permit or violating a permit knowingly making a false material statement in application, label, manifest, record, report, permit, or other related document.
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Document ID: 768594BA

Vertical Welding Of 9% Nickel Steel With Higli Yield Strength Consumables Using The Automated Gtaw Process
Author(s): John A. Beyer, Jr., Larry Colarossi
Abstract/Introduction:
This project was initiated to improve vertical weld quality on 9% nickel steel LNG tankage and to upgrade the minimum yield strength level of these welds. The automated GTAW process was used because of its reputation for high quality and excellent mechanical properties. Seven consumables were evaluated for weldability by the use of preliminary test plates. Two of the consumables emerged as being suitable for full evaluation and testing. Both of these consumables exhibited excellent weldability, clear radiographs and yield strength levels greater than 60 ksi. Impact properties at -320F were very good with both alloys.
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Document ID: E8C7C1CB

An Update On Transient Flow- Can It Improve Compressor Fuel Usage?
Author(s): Orin Flanigan
Abstract/Introduction:
Transient flow computer models have been developed to the point where they are accurate, reliable, and generally satisfactory. The one inherent disadvantage of transient analysis is that it requires a large amount of input data, which results in an even larger amount of output data. There are many useful applications for transient models. Because of the input data requirement, however, there are some applications which are better served by other means. The Pipeline Simulation Interest Group (PSIG) was formed in 1969. Its purpose is to promote the exchange of information and to advance the state of the art in the areas of modeling, simulation, optimization, transient flow, two phase flow and related subjects as applied to gas, liquid and solids pipeline systems.
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Document ID: E7E9C67E

Gas Analysis Computer Model
Author(s): Sandra Finney, Ronald F. Lindsay
Abstract/Introduction:
Prior to the early 1970s almost all gas under contract to Lone Star Gas Company was purchased on a volume basis. Since that time almost all new and revised contracts require that the payment for gas be based on its energy content. In order to make proper payment to the producers, the heating value of the gas, along with the volume must be measured accurately.
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Document ID: 647B8DD3

Gas Conservation
Author(s): Michael J. Cummings
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is a brief overview of how energy conservation has manifested itself in the gas system and the changes it has caused. Information relating to consumer usage by rate classification, that covered a period from 1973 through 1980, was used as a basis to identify conservation in the form of reduced gas usage. The comparison of the increase in the number of Residential Heating Customers, while total sendout to these customers decreased is used to identify conservation and show its effect on gas system sendout.
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Document ID: 7CB3D9FD

Transportation Headquarters Facility- Baltimore Gas And Electric Company
Author(s): E. C. Suehle, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Baltimore Gas & Electric Company is providing better customer service because of a new automotive and equipment repair facility designed to leep its fleet on the road. Ttie Company serves nearly 850,000 electric customers and provides natural gas to over 500,000 customers in a total service area of approximately 2,300 square miles. While the City of Baltimore is the largest metropolitan area and the geographical center of the system, well over half the total revenues of the Company come from outside the City limits, encompassing nine counties with some 2.5 million residents. Steam is produced for sale to 652 customers located in downtown Baltimore.
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Document ID: 64661888

Damage Prevention Program Regulation Now In Federal Gas Pipeline Safety Standards
Author(s): Melvin A. Judah
Abstract/Introduction:
As you know, excavation damage is the leading cause of pipeline accidents. For this reason, the Department has long encouraged State and local governments to enact appropriate laws which would establish effective procedures for protection of underground pipelines and other utilities. A Model Statute was sent to the State Governors in January 1972, revised, and sent again to the States in 1974 and in June 1977. The latest version of the Model Statute was also published by the Council of State Governments in their 1978 publication of Suggested State Legislation.
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Document ID: 919F832F

Bioconversion Of Wastes-A Utility Perspective
Author(s): J. H. Singletary, P. D. Chase, J. Zemkoski, C. R. Guerra
Abstract/Introduction:
The national, regional and local concerns about the disposal of municipal wastes, sludge and process wastes has encouraged various types of industries, including utilities such as Public Service Electric and Gas Company, to investigate innovative means of recovering the usable energy contained in these wastes. The anaerobic digestion or bioconversion of wastes to produce methane gas is of particular interest for its potential in supplementing natural gas resources in certain areas of the U.S. An overview and state-of-the-art assessment of the bioconversion of waste is presented as well as an analysis of the opportunities for methane recovery from waste. Laboratory test results obtained through the anaerobic digestion of combined samples of municipal solid waste and sludge are presented. A utility perspective on bioconversion is outlined.
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Document ID: 59ECA12F

Consumerism And Customer Service
Author(s): Sally Mann
Abstract/Introduction:
In this paper I will present a consumer advocates view of the gas service industry. 1 like to think I bring a balanced perspective to this subject, having been in the gas industry for nearly 20 years and a practicing consumer a few years longer than Im wilHng to admit. You may not know that consumer affairs practitioners in business are somewhat suspect. Consumers feel we must be partial to the corporations which pay us, and our corporate colleagues often feel we are overly influenced by our consumer constituency. Its critical to maintain a balanced view and to be able to see and understand all the angles of any particular issue and to be responsive to bolh these groups.
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Document ID: C031BCBE

The Brooklyn Union Gas Company Experience With Excess Flow Valves
Author(s): Bernard L. Liebler
Abstract/Introduction:
Brooklyn Union has historically operated a low-pressure, cast iron distribution system. The company, originally known as the Brooklyn Gas Light Co., began operating in the mid-nineteenth century. After over 100 years, the entire operating philosophy had become tuned to low pressures. Then, in 1957, Brooklyn Union acquired the New York and Richmond Gas Co., which served Slaten Island with a primarily high pressure system. Since our operating experience made us comfortable principally with low pressure, we were more eager than most to test excess flow valves (EFVs) when they became available in (he mid-60s. A great deal of this eagerness stems from our philosophy regarding escaping gas.
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Document ID: BD9166F0

Fully Instrumented Domestic Regulator Performance Testing
Author(s): W. S. Fielder
Abstract/Introduction:
Early in 1980 it became known to us that ihe domestic service regulator in principal use by our corporation was soon lo be made obsolete by ihe manufacturer and no longer available for purchase. We had no designated back-up or second source for these regulators and we had to move promptly towards selcciion of suitable alternates. The experience of losing the single regulator thai had been used for 95% of our installalions convinced us thai we should qualify more than one to take its place. Service regulators perform an important and viial function. They are expected lo perform safely, accurately, and dependably for extended years. The process by which a new one is selected musi be comprehensive and objective.
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Document ID: F6A4A209

Supercompressibility As A Correction Factor Of The Customers Gas Bill
Author(s): Mark B. Nelson
Abstract/Introduction:
Gases at ordinary temperatures do not follow Boyles Law at high pressures. In the range of conditions experienced in the natural gas industry, the actual density of the gas volume we are measuring is greaier than Ihe Iheoretical density related to Boyles Law. This deviation from the ideal gas laws can be corrected by using the supercompressibility factor.
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Document ID: DF548C34

A Status Report On The Movement Toward Metrication
Author(s): Michael J. Belensky
Abstract/Introduction:
On December 23, 1975, President Ford signed PubHc Law 94-168, more commonly known as the Metric Conversion Act of 1975. This Act officially staled the U.S. policy regarding ihe adoption of the metric system, Metric Conversion refers to the voluntary change from the customary system of measurement (the use of inches, gallons and pounds) to the International System of Units (which utilizes centimeters, liters and kilograms). The Metric Conversion Act of 1975 established a national policy of coordinating the increasing use of the metric system and created the United States Metric Board to coordinate the voluntary conversion to the metric system, The U.S. Metric Board was created to devise and carry out a board program of planning, coordination and public education. . . necessary to accomplish the voluntary conversion to the metric system.
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Document ID: 7C119769

Defect Detection In Pipelines By Acoustic Emission
Author(s): J. F. Kiefner, F. B. Stulen
Abstract/Introduction:
Acoustic energy is released as a defect extends and as plastic strain occurs in the presence of a defect. These acoustic emissions AE) create high-frequency mechanical waves in the surrounding material. The phenomenon has been observed in pressurized pipelines and forms the basis of a potentially useful inspection technique. The AE waves in the pipeline steel attenuate quickly, but those in the pressurizing medium can be detected for hundreds, perhaps thousands of feet. The waves in the medium interact sufficiently with the pipe to permit them to be detected by transducers located on the outside of the pipe.
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Document ID: 0760A48D

The State Of The Art Of Drying Large Diameter Gas Pipelines After Hydrotest
Author(s): Marvin D. Powers
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses methods of drying large diameter natural gas pipelines to avoid operational problems created by water left in the line after hydrotest. This problem is compounded by the fact that high pressure, dry natural gas is no longer being used to dewater and dry these large diameter lines. The drying methods discussed include the dry air methods currently used to dry small diameter petro-chemical pipeHnes and how these methods could be adapted to natural gas lines. The art of using dry air to dewater and dry large diameter pipelines is in its infancy, but additional knowledge will soon be gained as some of these lines are scheduled to be dried in 1982. This paper also discusses potential dewatering problems as well as advantages of cleaning a pipeline.
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Document ID: 88101B9C

Exploration Activities Of A.G.A. Transmission And Distribution Companies-Why, Where, And How
Author(s): Edmund K. Mehring, Roy A. Siskin, John P. Erickson
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1981, the Exploration and Production Committee adopted a new additional goal- to assist distribution or transmission companies who were contemplating formaiion of exploraiion subsidiaries or who had recently formed such subsidiaries. While the committee members were in a position to know of the involvement of many other exploration companies from their own experiences, they were not necessarily aware of the exploraiion aclivitives of A.G.A. companies. The question before the committee was, consequently- Who are the interested companies that the committee could possibly help?
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Document ID: 66497125

Checks And Balances: Why Not For Energy
Author(s): Wendell Ford
Abstract/Introduction:
This nations Capital is a place of many moods. So are its collective policy makers, power brokers and would-be movers and shakers. One prevailing mood around this town these days is a desire to get this countrys government back to the fundamentals. This is well and good-and probably as it should be. For example, a proper, yet-to-be developed return to federalism indeed is in order. However, all of us must guard against being carried away to extremes as witnessed by Adam Smith ties, an enshrinement of the good old days of Calvin CooUdge and supplyside, nothing-else-will-work, economics, In the rush to return to the basics, however, there is one fundamental thai is in danger of being ignored. And, if it is, it could lead ihe country down a path that may well have a point of no return.
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Document ID: F4DEB431

A Corporate Facilities Information Management System With Computer Graphics
Author(s): John J. Gira
Abstract/Introduction:
Computer graphics is becoming a buzz-word denoting advanced technology in business and industry. A belter system to record and report upon pipeline and associated facilities information has been sought for many years. This paper reviews a project which has married a corporate facilities information management system with computer graphics. FIMS, Facilities Information Management System, is a project thai was developed and implemented by The Peoples Natural Gas Company. It is a computer system which has significant application to gas utilities and one which has various aspects. From the computer aspect, FIMS is complex-and technically so. From the viewpoint of an engineer or operations supervisor, it may prove indispensable, particularly in tomorrows more demanding operating and economic environment.
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Document ID: 63E216BE

A Product Theft Program Customers And Employees
Author(s): David E. Plimley
Abstract/Introduction:
In extending the invitation for me to participate on this panel, our President, Jim DeVore indicated thai your Committee had expressed considerable interest in the subject of Thefi of Service, particularly in those areas associated with both Customer and Employee Programs, the potential for considering or establishing an Amnesty Program and Lilcos experience in each of these areas. As my copanelisls will be addressing the subject of Field Surveillance and Shop Detection on Meters and Instruments, I will confine my remarks to the philosophy associated with thefl of service, program implementation and administration, controls, computer utilization, uniformity of approach, pitfalls to be encountered, etc., rather than touch upon any Field investigative techniques or diversion methodology.
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Document ID: 4D856B77

Fuel Gas Conservation Trends
Author(s): Philip W. Berkelman
Abstract/Introduction:
This information, taken from Atlanta Gas Light Company, is meant to supplement the graphic data to be presented here. Atlanta Gas Light is strictly a gas utility franchised to market gas in Atlanta and 200 other towns and communities in Georgia. We have almost 900,000 customers in our statewide system, and over half are in the Atlanta area. About 899?o are residential, 7% small commercial, 4% public authority or municipal, and others less than 0.2%. The heavy industries have been excluded from the data because they are of the interruptible type and their gas usage is directly related to their curtailments.
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Document ID: 672AD2A6

The Pglc Gas Modeling System- An Integrated Modeling Approach
Author(s): Raulando C. De Lara
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays utility business environment characterized by increasing costs of traditional sources of supply, high interest rales, and the need for more timely rate relief from public utility commissions, gas company management are faced with making important decisions both in the short term and the long term. Managers must make short term plans to respond to changes in customer demands, weather/load variables, uncertainly in gas supplies and their costs, and fluctuations in storage inventory. Over the long term, management is faced with the task of planning tomorrows long term pipeline supplies, synthetic natural gas, liquefied natural gas and underground gas storage in relation to customer growth, market directions and conservation.
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Document ID: 9E48FF94

Statusof GAIN-1982
Author(s): Larry T. Ingels
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Appliance Improvement Network (GAIN) program, as now constituted, began in January 1973. It replaced an older A.G.A. Laboratories sponsored program called NAFOP (National Appliance Field Organization Program). GAIN is a cooperative program involving the American Gas Association and the Gas Appliance Manufacturers Association (GAMA). Starting with 50 reporting utilities nine years ago, the network now has 66 members, with 20 serving as contacts with participating manufacturers. The program is coordinated by a representative at A.G.A. Headquarters, having the title GAIN Administrator.
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Document ID: C77414E7

Maps By Wire-Getting Maps Into The Field . . . Fast
Author(s): George m. Taylor
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1973, Alagasco implemented a new communications program. Prior to that time, requests for information such as line locations went by way of radio from the field to the dispatcher. The dispatcher called the Engineering Department and relayed the request, received instructions, contacted the field again by way of radio and relayed the message. The problem was the breakdown in communications that occurred in going from a technical person to a nontechnical, to a technical person and back again. It left a lot of room for error, Under the new plan, direct radio communications was installed between the field and Engineering, eliminating the middleman, The system was a vast improvement. However, certain communications problems still cropped up from time to time. Problems like numerous underground utility lines which made the pipe locating equipment ineffective and difficult to describe on the radio. And in many of these cases, the sites were far enough away to make it impractical to drive a map there.
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Document ID: FEC4D06B

The Design And Application Of Plastics In Regulators And Meters
Author(s): Donald C. Ruddy
Abstract/Introduction:
The evaluation and final application of plastics in meters and regulators require a series of integrated steps, each of which is to contribute and insure that a satisfactory material is selected. The process reviewed is one that is basically used for the selection of any material, with appropriate emphasis on those characteristics thai are present and associated with plastics. The rationale and evaluation used for screening candidates, as well as the other steps of the process, are described by an actual product example. The example demonstrated is the incorporation of several plastic components into a domestic size gas regulator.
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Document ID: 3BA4B5AE

LNG Spill Experiments: Dispersion, Rpt, And Vapor Burn Analysis
Author(s): Donald L. Ermak, Ronald P. Koopman
Abstract/Introduction:
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is conducting safety research under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the possible consequences of liquefied natural gas (LNG) spills. The LLNL program includes both the collection of data from various size experiments and development of an ensemble of computer models to make predictions for conditions under which tests cannot be performed. In spills of 40 cubic meters (m) of liquefied natural gas onto water done at the Naval Weapons Center (NWC), China Lake. California in 1980 and 1981, data was collected on gas cloud dispersion and combustion and rapid phase transition (RPT) explosions. Analysis of the data from these tests, including comparisons between the predictions of various models and the data, are presented. The results suggest that large-scale spills may be more hazardous than would have been predicted based on earlier smallscale tests.
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Document ID: 1FB6CEC3

Gas And Fire Detection For LNG Plants
Author(s): J. Reedwelker
Abstract/Introduction:
LNG plants have always used gas and fire detection systems as an aid in reducing the potential for damage and in increasing operational safety. Federal safety standards have codified the practice of using gas and fire sensors and require that gas and fire sensors be placed in a number of defined locations in LNG plants. Several methods are available for gas and fire detection. The design and operation of the detectors are based on a variety of physical and chemical properties of natural gas.
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Document ID: 76C6524E

LNG Tank Temperature Profiles And Rollover Prevention
Author(s): W. F. Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
A brief description of the development of and operating experience with a temperature/ level measuring instrument for detection of conditions having potential for rollover. Experience has demonstrated that this instrument together with proper process facilities will enable LNG plant operators to detect and prevent occurrence of rollover with complete assurance.
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Document ID: CE912AA1

People Arent Perfect
Author(s): Richard D. Hannan
Abstract/Introduction:
Each person is, as his or her fingerprint is, unique. In communications, each person hears in accordance with his individual background, desires, education, experience, and sincerity. The same words can be interpreted differently. Actual facts can be deluding. Silence can improve communications. Even where a person sits can determine what he sees. Examples of these are given along with ways to make criticisms more acceptable.
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Document ID: 3E69F0DD

Transportation Information Systems
Author(s): Bobby G. Cooper
Abstract/Introduction:
Public Utilities have come under strong demands by regulating agencies and customers to be accountable for quality of service, financial management and efficiency of operation. Department Managers at all levels are seeking means to cope with growing complexities of accountability. Accurate and timely data are fundamental to the management process of planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling and Transportation is among those departments that require vast amounts of information for efficient operation, As a result of the sheer magnitude of the data required for decision making, more advance electronic and mathematical means have had to be developed to process this information. Computer Systems are now available to provide the storage and retrieval of vast amounts of data and for the mathematical interpretation of such data.
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Document ID: 1BE035F1

Underground Coal Conversion: Use Of The Product
Author(s): Charles R. Greene
Abstract/Introduction:
Underground coal gasification (UCG) is perceived as an opportunity to use a larger fraction of the nations coal resources. The market for the gas produced is either as fuel or as a raw material for synthesis of chemicals. Low-Btu gas (I.BG) or medium-Btu gas (MBG) from UCG is unacceptable for direct injection into gas transmission systems because introduction of significant amounts would require the modification of burner systems. The use of MBG from UCG as a feedstock for the preparation of synthesis gas (H2/CO 2) as a feedstock for the chemical production is unattractive economically when compared to aboveground gasification of mined coal. The market opportunity for UCG is therefore limited to the production of fuel gas. The fuel gas could be employed at the well-head to generate electricity, produce hydrogen, or serve as the fuel for energyintensive industries such as petroleum refining. However, the geographic location of coal seams amenable to UCG restricts these market applications primarily to electricity generation. The primary market for this export electricity would be California. However, the present electrical transmission network may prove inadequate to meet Californias needs.
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Document ID: 598542E7

Will The Conserving Consumer Appear To Be An Energy Wastrel At Peak Hour?
Author(s): Jon R. Mostel
Abstract/Introduction:
The title for my presentation is Will the Conserving Consumer Appear lo be an Energy Wastrel ai the Pealc Hour?. It is a personal conclusion. It is well accepted thai the customer driven by severe ecoromic pressure, will conserve. His choice of methods, and our abilily lo measure and respond to the corresponding changes in his use patterns, can be detrimental to our ability to make a fair profit. At the outset f would like to give credit to those people who helped me in this presentation. The information I will present is the product of many companies experiences. The presentation itself is a product of the Economic Analysis and Customer Use Characteristic Task Groups of the Engineering and Operations Analysis Committee. Specific help was rendered by Bill Withers of Western Gas Interstate, Ivan Odum of Pacific Gas and Electric, Ted Holder of Consumers Gas of Ontario, Jim Wright and Joe Masino of Public Service Electric and Gas New Jersey) and by my friend and colleague, Sam Hyman at Brooklyn Union.
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Document ID: 6E53CE84

Quality Circles: Paths To Improved Productivity
Author(s): William W. Volkmor
Abstract/Introduction:
In September 1981, Southern California Gas Company implemented a six month piiot program to evaluate the much-publicized Quality Circle approach to productivity enhancement. The approach for the pilot was to apply the classical Quality Circle organization, operating guidelines, and techniques used successfully in Japanese and American manufacturing companies. The intent of this paper is not to sell Ihe Quality Circle concept, but rather to relate our experience in planning, implementing and evaluating the pilot program, and to discuss future expansion plans. The perspective is from operating organization management (meter repair facility) participating in the pilot program.
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Document ID: 752CBCC0

Scheduling Code Inspections
Author(s): Donald L. James
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this computerized system is to assure adherence to Consumers Power Company standards which meets or exceeds the Michigan Public Service Commission Gas Safety Code regarding the inspection and repair of distribution regulation facilities, sectionalizing valves and odorant test points.
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Document ID: 2437A681

Ferrographic Analysis
Author(s): Daniel P. Anderson, Robert H. Emmel
Abstract/Introduction:
Ferrography, a technique to separate particles from fluids for microscopic examination and subsequent analysis, was originally developed to magnetically precipitate ferrous wear particles from lubricating oils, thus the name ferrography. The first application was to condition-monitor military aircraft engines, but now other applications have emerged, including modification of the method to precipitate nonmagnetic particles from both oil and other fluids. Three instruments are available for ferrographic analysis. The direct-reading (DR) ferrograph provides information on the concentration and size distribution of fluidborne wear particles. The latest addition to ferrographic instrumentation is the on-line ferrograph, which is a compact, lightweight sensor unit plumbed into a machines oil system. An electronic control and display package is remote from the sensor. The on-line ferrograph provides the same type of information as the DR ferrograph, but does so on a continuous basis. The analytical ferrograph, which is the predecessor of both of the previously mentioned quantitative instruments, is used to prepare a ferrogram which is subsequently examined using a bichromatic microscope.
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Document ID: 065BAE2D

Plastic Pavement Covers
Author(s): Leonard R. Libenson
Abstract/Introduction:
Traffic plates are traditionally used to temporarily cover open excavations in roadways and walkways. Most often these plates are fabricated from 1-inch thick steel plate, weighing up to several thousand pounds. Because of the weight, heavy construction equipment, such as a backhoe or bulldozer, is required to maneuver the plates into position at night and remove them the following morning. This results in the additional expense of diverting the construction equipment (0 he job site along with the associated delay lime before the gas crew can begin work. A new lightweight plastic traffic plate has successfully completed two years of field trials at Consolidated Edison Co. of New York. These plates are both light enough to be manually maneuvered on the job site and strong enough to be positioned over street and sidewalk openings. The plates are available in various sizes ranging from 4-fool x 4-foot to 5-foot X 10-foot and weigh less than 15% of the steel plates.
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Document ID: 1FE4DDDD

Overview Of Gri LNG Research
Author(s): Steve J. Wiersma, Sami Atallah
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the GRI LNG safety research program, its basis and objectives. The status of active LNG research projects and results of projects completed within the past year are also described.
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Document ID: 8F33F1D2

Supervisory Control With Fuel Optimization And Engine Efficiency
Author(s): L A. Cooke
Abstract/Introduction:
TransCanada PipeLines operates a major natural gas transmission system from the Province of Alberta two thousand miles across Canada to Montreal. This system is shown in Figure 1 and consists of 6,000 miles of pipeline (including loop line) varying from 34 inches to 48 inches in diameter. The western portion of the pipeline has four completely looped lines plus a fifth partially looped line. At Winnipeg two lines continue to the east through Ontario and two lines are directed south to Minnesota, where gas is delivered to Great Lakes Gas Transmission Company which is 50% owned by TransCanada. Forty-nine compressor stations are located at regular intervals along the pipeline to keep the gas moving to the major markets in the east. Compression facilities at these stations total over 1,224,000 installed horsepower. The secure and efficient operation of these facilities, particularly in the light of increasing energy costs, produces a need for the most effective control possible at each compressor station and at the gas control dispatch centre.
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Document ID: B43B7252

Consolidated Gas Supply Corporations Approach To Educating The Public
Author(s): Gary L. Sypolt
Abstract/Introduction:
Each companys public awareness program must be designed to comply with Part 192.615 (d) of the Codes of Federal Regulation which slates: Each program shall establish a continuing educational program to enable customers, the public, appropriate government organizations, and persons engaged in excavation related activities to recognize a gas pipeline emergency for the purpose of reporting it to the operator or other appropriate public officials. The program and the media used must be as comprehensive as necessary to reach all areas in which the operator transports gas. The program must be conducted in English and in other languages commonly understood by a significant number and concentration of the non-English speaking population in the operators area.
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Document ID: 14569222

Deliverability Interference In Gas Storage Reservoirs
Author(s): Edward Dereniewski, Yusuf Hekim, Joseph L. Roberts
Abstract/Introduction:
Total field flows from Niagaran Reef fields have exhibited deliverability reductions when compared to the sum of all individual well deliverabilities. This reduction has been examined from (a) non-stabilized well flows, (b) gas property changes, (c) reservoir heterogeneities, (d) reservoir pressure changes, and (e) interactions of simultaneously flowing wells. Individual well deliverabilities versus total field deliverability, and a field test designed to confirm the mutual interactions, or interference of adjacent wells on the total field flow have been documented. Accounting for this effect can benefit the design of closely spaced wells in high permeability reservoirs.
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Document ID: B91C8BBA

Gas And Meter Metrics
Author(s): L. J. Kemp
Abstract/Introduction:
This year we will see the demise of the U.S. Metric Board and the Federal Metrication Educational Grants Program. Many people are hailing this as an indication that the current adminstration is anti-metric and the beginning of the end of the current U.S. metrication effort. This celebration is highly premature, for the current administration is not anti-metric. Even if it were, the tremendous scope and momentum of the movement could no more than be temporarily slowed. The U.S. is going to fully adopt the SI Metric System and it will be within many of your working lifetimes. The first significant U.S. gas industry metrication activity occurred in the early 1970s, and was triggered by the adoption of format metrication programs in Great Britain, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Realizing that this would leave the U.S. as virtually the sole non-metric survivor in a tnetric world, the American Gas Association commissioned a study by Battelle to provide for additional insight on the ramifications of metrication for the gas industry. This study was the major basis for early industry thought and planning.
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Document ID: 5F900918

Computer Assisted Radio Dispatch System
Author(s): A.C. Seale, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
A research and development project using ten mobile computer terminals in gas service vans has been under test in one of the four divisions of the Long Island Lighting Company since May of 1980. The purpose of our project is lo test and analyze a system of high-speed bursts of digital radio messages between mobile service trucks and a micro-compuler at the dispatchers location. The mobile terminals display computer-controlled job assignments on a cathode ray picture tube in the service trucks that are participating in the research and development project. We believe this to be the first utility system which provides for a simple, easy method of transmitting codes back o the computer from the mobile unit for: 1. Job verification, 2. Completion codes, 3. Truck availability, and 4. Other vital fleet information. The computer controls the dispatch of assignments to each mobile device either automatically or by manual dispatcher control.
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Document ID: B14B58D3

Electric Car Program Activity At Detroit Edison
Author(s): A. E. Pavlovics
Abstract/Introduction:
The Detroit Edison Electric Car Program has been in operation nearly one year. The most significant portion of this program is the employee lease segment. Sixteen electric cars are operating under lease lo Detroit Edison employees to demonstrate the vehicles adaptability to typical American transportation needs. This paper reviews the highlights of this Department of Energy sponsored program and Ihe systems (hat support its operation. Electric transportation was reborn as a result of the 1973 Arab Oil Embargo- This early 1900s technology was spurred by rapidly rising fuel prices and the spectre of long lines resulting from forced fuel shortages, The electric car offered the best propsect for converting one of the nations most abundant resources, coal, into a transportation fuel. With over 9090 of its power generated from coal and having Detroit, the center of automotive technology, in its service area. The Detroit Edison Company saw the opportunity for the electric powered vehicle. The benefits of the additional electrical load and the ability io replace imported oil wiih coalproduced electrical power resulted in a corporate decision lo take an aggressive role in the advancement of the electric car. This decision was the basis for initiating a program intended to increase the publics awareness of electric transportation. A discussion of some of the important aspects of this program follows.
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Document ID: 5FEA1935

Rock Mechanics Aspects Of The Design Of Salt Caverns For The Storage Of Natural Gas
Author(s): H. Reginald Hardy, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
There is little doubt that in the next 20 years, the utilization of caverns, from which salt has been extracted by conventional oi solution mining techniques, will play a vital role in supporting the worlds growing energy and environmental demands. Although the storage of liquids in salt caverns was initiated early in the 1920s, it was not until the mid 1960s that such facilities were utilized for storage of compressed natural gas. The first salt cavern in the United States developed specifically for natural gas storage was constructed in 1970 by the Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line corporation in the Eminence Salt Dome in Covington County Mississippi (Anon., 1971). Recent statistics indicate that as of 1980 there are eight salt cavern storage faciUties for natural gas in operation in the U.S.A. and Canada involving a total of 19 separate storage caverns. It is expected that the use of such storage wilt increase considerably in the future.
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Document ID: ADA81F42

Plastic Meter Parts-Boon Or Bane?
Author(s): Allen E. Sheffler
Abstract/Introduction:
The compilation of this paper, being a committee effort, resulted in many suggestions for inclusion in the coverage of the use of plastics in meters. To help limit the potential volume of topics, I called on the help of Merriam Webster. The 1956 edition of Websters New Collegiate Dictionary defines a plastic as . . . any of a large group of organic, synthetic or processed materials that are molded or cast and used for making many kinds of small articles . . . Rubber and similar materials (as neoprene) are sometimes included among plastics. Plastics are commonly known by their trademark names.
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Document ID: D00BFDFC

The Ultrasonic Flowmeter- A New Approach To Large Volume Gas Measurement
Author(s): W.D. Munk
Abstract/Introduction:
A wide variety of meters are available for measuring fluid flows in pipelines. Most of these, however, are limited to pipes smaller than 12-inches in diameter. To measure fluid flows in larger diameter pipes, a constriction type differential pressure flowmeter (concentric orifice, venturi, etc.), or some type of probe inserted flowmeter (pilot tube, turbine, etc.) is used. High accuracy and wide range are achieved with constriction type meters by using multiple meters in parallel. For example, in the natural gas industry, the multiple orifice meter station is generally considered the standard for large volume high pressure gas measurement. A major drawback to the multiple meter installation is that it is expensive. The cost of an orifice measurement station containing six 12-inch meters in parallel can easily exceed one million dollars. Another drawback is that these stations are, by their nature, permanent installations. As measurement requirements change it is often more practical to build another station where it is needed rather than to move an existing station. Obviously, multiple meter stations are not applicable to temporary or spot measurement requirements.
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Document ID: 2EE12E51

Indoor Air Quality And Gas Appliances
Author(s): Robert C. Grimm
Abstract/Introduction:
Indoor air quality is a complex issue relating building integrity, materials and human behavior to epidemiological effects. Some of the most commonly discussed sources, of indoor air pollution are building, the soil under the house, tobacco smoke and unvented gas appliances. Of specific interest to members of A.G.A. are issues related to gas appliance use. These issues are generally limited to the epidemiological effects of the emissions from unvented gas ranges. Although a variety of studies have already been performed on this subject, many are contradictory and subject to challenge. There is a need for credible research which studies gas appliance emissions and effects so that these issues can be resolved.
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Document ID: 7B77241B

Alternative To A One-Call System
Author(s): Marlin O. Gonzales
Abstract/Introduction:
In the early 1950s the City of New Orleans began experiencing a building boom which brought about many new streets and subdivisions along with necessary sewerage, water, drainage, and other utility systems. With this wide-spread construction came damages to the Gas Distribution System. In Order to prevent this increasing thirdparty damage, it was necessary for the approach to take two distinct thrusts -effective engineering and preplanning to eliminate conflicts in advance of construction and to establish sound communications for the effective exchange of information between the excavator and the proper utility. This paper outlines a comprehensive damage prevention program developed by the New Orleans Public Service Inc. Gas Distribution Division.
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Document ID: 0A56ABAB

An Updated View Of LNG Safety
Author(s): D. Blackmore, J. Eyre, J. Martin
Abstract/Introduction:
Investigations into dispersion of refrigerated gas spillages, and the effects of combustion of the vapours released, have been proceeding now steadily for a number of years -and in a major way since the AGA sponsored tests reported in 1973. Considerable progress has been made in limiting the range of uncertainty in predicting the consequences of such events and it is perhaps time to sit back a while and reconsider the motivation for continuing this very expensive research. The prime objective of our inquiries is surely to obtain a better assessment of the risks attendant upon using refrigerated gases and particularly in the transportation, storage and handling phases of the operations. Since risk is a product of frequency and consequence of an event, logically it might seem that there is little point in pursuing accuracy in one parameter if the other is only crudely assessed. Nevertheless, this is the position in which we find ourselves today: we are often unable to define the frequency of the primary causal event to an accuracy better than a second order of magnitude and yet we seek to know some of the effects -for instance, dispersion to LFL to some 50% accuracy.
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Document ID: 7EDF9789

Orifice Meter Research Projects
Author(s): Paul A. Hoglund
Abstract/Introduction:
Our topic, Orifice Meter Research Projects, must be placed in a far broader perspective. The work itself is imporiant only in the context of: the need the resources or past work upon which such research is based the problems as they are understood today and where this work leads us in the time to come. In this presentation we will touch on each of these - perhaps better categorizing them as The Past, The Present, and The Future. In applying that approach an important concept emerged that doesnt really relate to the text, but does relate very distinctly to the subject matter. This concept deals with the vast difference that exists between our daily activities in gas operations and the work of those involved in basic research.
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Document ID: D8F7ED04

The Energy Information Administrations Proved Reserves Estimation Program-An Overview
Author(s): Ellis R. Boyd, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-91) requires Ihat the Departments Energy Information Administration prepare an annual report on energy supply including estimates of U.S. proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. This paper provides an overview of the program instituted in response to that legislative requirement and describes the general methodology utilized and the results obtained.
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Document ID: 763102B9

Joint Trenching-Its Relationship To Damage Prevention
Author(s): Emanuel P. Alfiere
Abstract/Introduction:
The year may have been 1607, the settlement was at Jamestown, Virginia. The settlers name may have been John Smith. He hollowed out a couple of logs to run water from the spring on the back of his properly to his house and he buried them underground. Well, two days later Johns neighbor was out plowing his field, he ran the plow across Johns primitive pipeline and broke it. We have been breaking buried underground facilities ever since, except now we have got more to break up. Obviously, there are millions of miles of buried pipe, wire, cable, condtiits and gas lines in our country and every day we add thousands of miles more. It is bad enough now, but in ten years you wont be able to push a shovel into the ground anyplace. This is one of the few problems we have that has grown constantly. In fact, many communities require all facilities to be buried.
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Document ID: C7AA70AE

Public Awareness Through Continuing Education
Author(s): T. H. Hunter
Abstract/Introduction:
The initial attempt of Panhandle Eastern lo establish a continuing education program which would enable the public lo recognize a pipeline emergency was by means of a small booklet titled Investigate Before You Excavate. Over a period of several months in 1976 and 1977, these booklets were handed out on a door-LO-door basis along the entire pipeline system, with the exception of the gathering areas. The goal was to distribute a booklet to every residence within 600 feet of the pipelines -including individual apartments in heavily populated areas. The booklets were handed out by Right-of- Way and Area personnel who recorded the name and address of each recipient. In the rural areas, landowners and tenant farmers of property that the pipelines cross were contacted, regardless of how far they lived away from the pipelines.
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Document ID: 1E995B52

Potential Corrosion Of Storage Well Casings From A Carbon Dioxide-Water Environment
Author(s): William R. Lambert
Abstract/Introduction:
A carbon dioxide-water enhanced oil recovery project is planned within an existing gas storage field. Since the oil bearing formation is above the gas storage formation, an investigation of the potential external corrosive effect on existing storage well casings is being conducted. The investigation is to evaluate not only the effects on casing materials commonly used in this field, but also to evaluate various alloys and cements that might withstand the carbon dioxide-water environment. The storage horizon in the field involved is the Oriskany Formation at an average depth of 5,100 feet. Most of the wells were drilled or converted to storage operations in the early 1950s. Various methods of well completion were used however, in many of the wells the production string is predominantly J-55 and N-80 carbon steel, not cemented to the surface or through the area of the Weir Formation.
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Document ID: E918E815

Selection Criteria For Single Versus Multiple Run Regulator Designs For District Regulator Stations
Author(s): Robert T. Burrows
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to point out certain factors that must be considered by the Distribution Company engineer when deciding whether to install single versus dual run (manifolded) regulator settings. By individually reviewing these considerations and relating these consideralions to specific, examples, it is hoped that this paper will provide guidelines for the Distribution Company engineer to use when planning future district regulator or town border station installations or when rebuilding existing regulator settings.
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Document ID: B8F3F535

All You Wanted To Know About Forecasting Materials Requirements
Author(s): Alan A. Burgess
Abstract/Introduction:
A LABEL FOR THE PROCESS OF EVALUATING HOW A POSSIBLE PLANNING AND CONTROL SYSTEM INTERACTS WITH MATERIAL FLOWS THROUGH PROCUREMENT, CONVERSION AND DISTRIBUTION BASIC VARIABLES TO BE DEALT WITH INCLUDE: - What items to stock where - What service level to provide (or what safety stock investment to make) - When to order how much
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Document ID: 50BF6AF8

The Selection Of Plastic Parts For Gas Meters And Regulators
Author(s): John L. Esola
Abstract/Introduction:
Recent increases in the price of natural gas have caused gas consumers to place more emphasis on gas measurement accuracy. Gas meter and regulator manufacturers must therefore continually search for new ways lo improve ihe performance of their products. These improvements might be in the form of a new mechnical device to be installed in a meter or regulator or simply the making of an existing part from a more durable or better performing material, One of todays more common methods of improving performance of gas meters and regulators is through the use of plastic materials. Properly applied, plastic materials can be used for a wide variety of applications. Some of the important characteristics of these materials are: 1. Wide Variety of Materials and Properties 2. High Lubricity with Low Coefficients of Friction 3. Corrosion Resistant 4. Good Wear Characteristics 5. Lightweight 6. Can be Molded into Intricate Shapes to Perform More ihan One Function 7. No Machining Operations
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Document ID: 80727C41

Sonic Nozzles-A Viable Means Of Proof Testing Gas Meters In The Shop
Author(s): Paul F. Giglio
Abstract/Introduction:
There have been several people wilhin the Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation who were involved with the development of using sonic nozzles to productively shop test gas meters. However. Mr. Sam Fini, the former Manager of the Meier and Laboratory Facilities Department retired December, 1981), is unquestionably the reason for its implementation. His farsightedness in recognizing the potential of sonic nozzles wilh regard to testing gas meters, and his tenacity toward the design and construction of a workable model, is the primary reason for Niagara Mohawks development of a Gas Meter Shop Sonic Nozzle Test Facility. 1 am confident that without his direction and guidance a Sonic Nozzle shop testing facility would have been eventually constructed. However, his desire to improve the stale of the art, obviously made it happen faster.
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Document ID: 58C7E0E0

Inspection And Maintenance Of Plastic Fusion Equipment
Author(s): Alexander m. Zadrick
Abstract/Introduction:
Northeast Utilities is a combination gas and electric company serving most of Connecticut geographically, and serving electric customers in Western Massachusetts. We are the largest gas company in Connecticut and the fourth largest in New England. Our customers are served through two operating companies namely The Connecticut Light and The Hartford Electric Light Company. These two operating companies are in the process of merging in the near future. Between the two companies we serve approximately 160,000 customers in 56 cities and towns in Connecticut. We have used plastic pipe for approximately fifteen years. We have used mechanical fittings and socket fusion in the past. Our present methods employ butt fusion in sizes from 1-inch to 6-inch diameters. We will be fusing 8-inch in the near future.
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Document ID: CE4D7E0A

Ultrasonic Inspection Of Polyethylene Butt-Fusion Joints
Author(s): L. J. House, Raymond A. Day
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic methods for quality assurance of heat-fused polyethylene butt joints in 4.0-inch diameter pipe were investigated in this study. These methods included pulseecho, pitch-catch and spectroscopic ultrasonic techniques. Pipe joint defects investigated were voids, inclusions, lack of bond, and incomplete fusion. The pulse-echo method, using a 2.25 MHz, cylindrically focused transducer, provided the best sensitivity 10 the butt-fused joint defects detecting flaws as small as 0.014-inch in diameter. No correlation was established between the ultrasonic spectroscopy results and the cohesive strength of incompletely fused joints in the 1.2 to 3.2 MHz frequency range.
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Document ID: 6E05420D

The Future Of Federal Involvement In Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs
Author(s): Lawrence J. Ogden
Abstract/Introduction:
In considering The Future of Federal Involvement in Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs, I believe there are essentially two avenues of approach available if the Federal Government were to choose to become more involved, The first would be the possibility of Congress enacting new legislation mandating Federal involvement and the second would be for a present arm of the Federal Government, which has existing regulatory authority, promulgating additional rules. The latter would be such as the Department of Transportations (DOT) Materials Transportation Bureau (MTB) which has statutory authority under the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act for pipeline safety and who did so on April 21, 1982 with their final rule on Damage Prevention Program (CFR 192.614).
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Document ID: 2E83B6A5

Design Of Regulator Station Where There Is Ihigh Flow Requirement And Low Pressure Differential
Author(s): Charles J. Kulishek
Abstract/Introduction:
There is an inherent implication in the title of this presentation that the design of a regulator station is a rigorous procedure which if followed will yield adequate results. The parameters that will be examined here are in themselves importani to the design and selection of regulators however, there is no guarantee thai what works for one distribution system will perform for others. No two distribution systems are exactly alike, yet paradoxically we strive to achieve uniformity in design with the profound expectation that our dynamic distribution system will satisfactorily operate and respond to our standardized regulator station design. In terms of flexibility, perhaps this says more about the distribution system than the regulator design.
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Document ID: EC90601A

Do It Right!
Author(s): Thomas m. De Martino
Abstract/Introduction:
As marty of you are considering the initiation of similar programs, I will discuss Brooklyn Union Gas very successful DO IT RIGHT campaign for Service People and Dispatchers. I will be covering the following areas: what DO IT RIGHT is, why ii was created, how it works, and what its results are. First, why? How many of us in our career have fell somewhat inadequate in trying to provide something extra to those employees who always give something extra to their job. Often it is our corporate systems thai prevent other than verbal acknowledgement or a pat on the back. Particularly, when adequate job performance pays the same as superior job performance. We do not give bonuses and service employees do not accept tips.
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Document ID: D462BCE3

Accident Prevention Committee Minitalk: Are You Communicating?
Author(s): Ray E. Tropea
Abstract/Introduction:
The Accident Prevention Committee has been presenting safety minitalks -a brief communication on safety to operating managers -for some time now. We feel that the minitalk concept is a good way to communicate. So our topic today is communications. First, what is good communications? David McCord in The Language of Request cites a note written by a party attendee to his host: Dear Joe, Some parties deserve a letter, some dont. Yours does, heres mine. Thats a minitalk. If you want your drivers to wear seat belts, you communicate seat bells must be H-orn -not, since statistics show that vehicle occupants are less likely to be injured in an accident while wearing a restraining device, it is suggested that such devices be utilized by company employees.
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Document ID: B44ACAD2

Emergency Plans-What Every Company Should Have
Author(s): William C. Jennings
Abstract/Introduction:
am well aware thai I am an attorney among engineers, Bui that has been my principal professional role for the past 12 years, a nonengineer advisor to the engineers who operate gas pipelines. As many of you have heard me say in ihe past, I am sustained in this role by this thought: you dont have to be able to perform a function to quality as an advisor on how to perform the function. In support of this proposition, i like to point out that most obstetricians are men. This paper results from a series of events that began 18 months ago, when the Union Light, Heal and Power Company was involved in a natural gas explosion and fire in Independence, Kentucky. Union is a subsidiary of the Cincinnati Gas & Electric Company. Paul Herking, Vice President Gas Operations for Cincinnati Gas & Electric, retained me to review the companys gas operations and to review and update the companys emergency plan. When I finished that project, Paul asked whether Id be willing to present a paper on emergency plans to the conference. I agreed.
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Document ID: 294E7DC1

A Case Study Of Rcra Implementation In The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): John C. Bridges, Forrest R. Sprester, James F. George
Abstract/Introduction:
The history of RCRA from passage by Congress to development of final regulations is discussed in relation to potential for RCRA involvement in the natural gas industry. The resultant RCRA regulations and associated state programs address virtually every type of solid waste, as defined by RCRA, within the natural gas industry. Compliance with RCRA and related state programs involved a multidisciplinary approach to evaluate regulations, characterize the existing environment, sample and chemically analyze solid wastes for hazardous waste characteristics. Resultant discharge and closure plans detail steps to be taken to protect groundwater through the elimination of unlined wastewater evaporation ponds.
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Document ID: CF11DF9A

Fuel Gas Conservation Trends In The Philadelphia Area
Author(s): Frank C. Hunsberger
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation is part of a continuing study of the amount of gas used by customers across the United States in relation to our changing supply situation and the steadily rising cost of fuel gas in our country. A similar review was presented to this conference in 1979. With three more years of data we are looking again at this question to see if any clear trend is developing. The data presented in this paper is derived from the consumers in the City of Philadelphia, Pa. A bit of background information about the Philadelphia Gas Works will help to put this data in proper perspective and make its relationship to our metropolitan setting more apparent. The market area of the Philadelphia Gas Works is defined by the boundaries of the City and County of Philadelphia, a densely populated area of 135 square miles, housing approximately 1,688,000 people.
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Document ID: ECA2D9AB

The Future Direction Of Gas Transmission Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs
Author(s): Barry m. Sweedler
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents my perspective on Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs and what needs to be done in the future. In general, the Safety Board is very pleased with DOTs new rule on Damage Prevention Programs and wishes to express our appreciation to that Department for preserving, in this climate of deregulation, and promulgating, a rule aimed at controlling the number one pipeline safety problem. But as you might expect, we are not 100% satisfied with the rule. The main area thai concerns us is the exemption of damage prevention programs for pipelines in rural Class 1 and Class 2 iocaiions and especially for pipelines that are in Class 3 locations solely because they pass a few inhabited buildings or a recreation center in an otherwise rural area.
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Document ID: 43ADF145

Research On Supercompressibility Of Natural Gas
Author(s): K. E. Starling, K. H. Kumar, J. L Savidge, m. A. Ghannudi, T. H. Long
Abstract/Introduction:
A review of the objectives and progress of the GRI-sponsored program to improve the accuracy and range of supercompressibility factors is presented. The initial work on this project has involved an evaluation of the present method (AGANX-19) used by the domestic U.S. gas industry for supercompressibility factors. An evaluation of available compressibility factor data for methane and other key components of natural gas has been made to determine needs for new data. Development of a new correlation for the supercompressibility factor is planned.
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Document ID: 2857A5A9

Progress And Development Plans For LNG Projects In Canada
Author(s): R. Max Wideman, Robert E. Petsinger
Abstract/Introduction:
In May, 1978 at the A.G.A. Transmission Conference in Montreal, Bob Petsinger, President, LNG Services, Inc. arranged for several Canadian speakers to present several papers on Canadian LNG projects that were under consideration at that time. This paper is a current update on Progress and Development Plans for LNG Projects in Canada. Efforts to develop liquefied natural gas as a means for transporting natural gas over long distances or for peak shaving are forging ahead in Canada. This paper discusses the Arctic Pilot Project, proposals to export LNG from Western Canada, and a new peak shaving plant proposed for Vancouver. The development, environment, safety and public reaction, and regulatory procedures are also examined.
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Document ID: AC0A10AB

Application Of Engineering Plastics To Measuring Instruments
Author(s): Darrel D. Meyer
Abstract/Introduction:
If I were a member of A.G.A., in the business of gas distribution, I believe the first question I would ask is why should I consider engineering plastics at all in the measuring instrumenis that we use. Its a question that your engineering colleagues in other industries- such as automotive, appliance and industrial machinery-have asked, and the answer they have is the only one acceptable to you, too. Engineering plastics, properly selected among all the types available, and where they can be properly designed into the part, offer performance and economy-the same two reasons, Im sure, that you use plastic pipe for gas distribution.
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Document ID: 24D78E5F

Discussion Of New High Efficiency Appliances
Author(s): C.A. Pfahl
Abstract/Introduction:
Balancing cost and efficiency, B.D.P. Company has developed the 397H/Formula 1000 induced draft furnance. A radically changed interior -coupled with conventional cabinet and installation procedures - provides the homeowner 83% plus AFUE. This is accomplished with relatively low initial cost, convenient installation, and improved serviceability. Our approach to achieving this balanced design involved integrating existing B.D.P. engineering designs with other innovations- rather than creating a completely new furnace concept.
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Document ID: C7589330

Deere And Company Metric Transition
Author(s): G. T. Underwood
Abstract/Introduction:
Nearly eight years ago the board of directors of Deere & Company approved corporatewide adoption of the SI Metric System of Measurement. All units were asked to begin an orderly conversion to that system. This paper reviews activities and progress made in our U.S. and Canadian operations since that commitment. It identifies some of our metric products and a few challenges lo continued progress. It also describes our companys capability for designing, manufacturing, and marketing metric products. We believe the program is essentially on target. But first, Id like lo establish the broad perspective by describing generally the metric climate and trends in the United States and Canada.
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Document ID: B3CF9048

Metrication Update
Author(s): Thomas E. Donoho
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry as a whole, there are three widely-differing views of metrication represented. Two of those views are strongly, even emotionally, held-those of the proponents and foes of the metric system. The former want the new system with all its advantages now the latter want something so unjustifiable, so unnecessary and even so un-American postponed forever. But here, as in other cases, we have a silent majority, whose feelings could be summed in the phrase Do what you want. Just so long as you do it after I retire. This is known al the RBM (Retire Before Metric) syndrome.
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Document ID: EEAF74FF

Structure Of Temperature Equations For Buried Gas Pipelines
Author(s): Marcus A. Francis
Abstract/Introduction:
The structure and application of several commonly used pipeline temperature equations are discussed. Equations relative to pipeline temperature prediction using heat transfer and Joule-Thomson cooling are given. Two temperature equations derived by the author are presented and one of these is for temperatures equal to or less than ground temperature.
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Document ID: D0F2F5EC

SI-The New Metric System
Author(s): J. D. Graham
Abstract/Introduction:
The worlds dependence upon measurement is an old story in which a new chapter is being written by the introduction of SI, The International System of Units, The United States is now changing to this system. The system is given in detail and its unique characteristics described. The units outside the system that will continue to be used are discussed. Style and manner of applying the units are detailed. A brief discussion of the problem of converting from one system of units to another is included. Difficuhies of using Si and possible remedies are also covered.
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Document ID: E9D0B1EF

Energy Determination Practices In Europe
Author(s): Gerard J. Van Rossum
Abstract/Introduction:
The national transmission systems in the various West-European countries are interconnected by a huge European natural gas grid. One of the benefits of this international system is that it allows to counteract any cuts in exports to Western Europe by stepping up production of large domestic fields within the West-European countries. In that case they fall back on production from other gasfields with different physical properties. As a consequence the quality of the natural gas, either for domestic use or transmitted over a long distance is not constant. A major side-effect of the energy crisis of the seventies was rising fuel prices. To the gas industry it became increasingly important to determine the actual energy value, i.e., calorific value and precise volume of the gas.
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Document ID: AF0C0192

Pulsation Effects On Orifice Meters
Author(s): Cecil R. Sparks
Abstract/Introduction:
Once the existence of pulsation induced orifice errors are idenlified, acoustic filters can be readily designed to reduce pulsations to virtually any desired level. Unfortunately, however, techniques are not presently available which can be used to assess total meter error from orifice pressure information taken in the field i.e., to define when pulsation control equipment is necessary. To assist in this process, a new electronic Pulsometer was recently developed which directly reads square root error, and guidelines have been developed to more realistically assess total meter uncertainty from field measurements.
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Document ID: 7C14234A

Electronic Measurement Correction Devices
Author(s): Robert R. Mahns, Robert L. Withrow
Abstract/Introduction:
The electronics semi-conductor revolution has touched every industry and home in the nation. The gas industry is no exception. Sophisticated gas measurement instrumentation has been with us for several decades now, but only in the last 10 years or so has it really begun to boom. First marketed were the flow computers dedicated to orifice meter measurement but with steadily decreasing manufacturing costs, electronic instrumentation is now moving into the area of base volume, pressure and temperature correction previously handled solely by mechanical integrating instruments. This paper takes a brief took at some of the features of the newcomers on the market and how they stack up against the old standby mechanical base volume/pressure/lemperature correctors.
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Document ID: 21662C08

About Kilopascals, Degrees Celsius, And Other Things That Go Bump In The Night
Author(s): Rasa Kaye
Abstract/Introduction:
The U.S. Public Law 94-168 (the Metric Conversion Act of 1975) declares the adoption of the International System of Units (SI) for measurement to be the national policy of the United States. Many segments of the U.S. economy either have or are in the process of conversion. Making a change in something as fundamental as the measurement system requires a great deal of investigation by all who might be affected by the change. This is but a brief look at the current state of metrication in the U.S., including a discussion of the more important metric units that gas control people will be using in the daily operations of the not too distant future.
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Document ID: 46BE0E9F

Equipment Replacement Because Of Obsolescence And Fuel Efficiency
Author(s): Victor Harbor
Abstract/Introduction:
Southern Natural Gas Company began its operation on 1-1-30 with 1,250 miles of pipeline and a total of 15,000 HP located in 3 compressor stations (12 engines). System capacity was 100,000 MCFD and the entire project cost less than 39 million, some 10 million less than Southern spent on a single facility last year. The compressor units were Worthington horizontals-1300 BHP, 125 RPM. A single unit cost 55,000 and the cost of piping it up was about 30,000. In 1930, we put a 4 engine installation in for 575,000-foundations buildings, headers, piping, labor and all.
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Document ID: 72D1778D

Fleet Buying And Disposal From Cradle To Grave
Author(s): John F. Sullivan
Abstract/Introduction:
Boston Gas Company serves approximately 500,000 customers in the metropolitan Boston area and 73 surrounding communities. Its service area contains over 1,000 square miles and distributes gas through 5,800 miles of main. In order to meet the needs of its customers and the demands of Its business, the company has 1900 employees and a fleet of 740 vehicles. The mix of vehicles in our fleet range from ihe simple sedans, vans, and general purpose trucks to Ihe more complex Distribution Department special purpose trucks and backhoe units. The replacement value of the fleet today is in excess of 6 million.
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Document ID: 10E4BB8E

Modeling The Costs And Benefits Of Various Energy Conservation Stratagems
Author(s): John E. Buchanan
Abstract/Introduction:
In this paper I shall discuss some aspects of the benefits and costs of energy conservation, particularly in the residential sector. Included in my discussion will be: a conservation-oriented residential energy model an example of its use for a particular state conclusions on the costs and benefits of various conservation strategems, and some further observations on energy conservation as it affects gas distribution companies However, by way of introduction I would like to define the term conservation as I see it. I have often been asked what is meant by energy, or natural gas, conservation.
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Document ID: B4FFEEBA

Survey Results: Decision Factors Other Than Economic
Author(s): Ludwig W. Bros
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1979, the Distribution, Design and Development Committee formed the Repair vs. Replace Task Group. The Task Group currently consists of L.W. Bros as Chairman, R. Heller, A. Coates, J. LeGe, R. Gaulin, and D. James. This Task Group initially reviewed the report of the 1966 Task Group entitled Criteria For Replacement vs. Repair dated April 9, 1968, and the AGA publication, Economic Calculation and Decision Aids, prepared by the Distribution, Design and Development Committee and issued in October, 1973. It was determined that this latter report only needed an update for todays interest rales and, with that, it would be perfectly valid.
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Document ID: F9CD7D2D

Analysis Of Recent Exploration-Production Trends In The United States And The Outlook For The Future
Author(s): Tom Dougherty
Abstract/Introduction:
Few subjects are as fascinating as the response of this country, indeed of the world, to the problems of energy supply. I must also suggest that this subject is at times perplexing and exasperating. 1 suggest thai if this was January 17 rather than May 17, the conclusions we might draw from recent drilling statistics might be different than those indicated by developments thus far this year. One of the exasperating things about energy-related activities is thai forecast conclusions are subject to frequent overturns, One thing now is certain.
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Document ID: F355202A

Organization And Management Of A Computerized Mapping System
Author(s): Henry J. Kuehn
Abstract/Introduction:
Entex established a computer-aided mapping function (Autographic Mapping Corp.) within a subsidiary and has over five years of experience in the management and administration of this 24-hour operation. The function presently consists of a 3-shift operation utilizing Digital mini-computers and Synercom mapping software. The immediate objective is lo complete the digitization of all base maps and facilities within Entexs 2000 sq. mile Houston gas distribution area. The present aggressive and efficient organization is the result of many trials, successes and errors in the formation of a function aimed toward high productivity at the least cost. This paper outlines AMCs method of meeting that goal.
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Document ID: D3B0DDF9

It Couldnt Have Happened To A More Deserving Person
Author(s): David L. Mason
Abstract/Introduction:
Faced with growing concern about internal accountability to outside agencies, customers, and stockholders, a wave of companies now are turning to stronger internal controls, checks and balances to guard against fraud abuse waste and malfeasance. Internal auditing has become the cornerstone of this movement through improved auditing techniques and scope, often identified under Ihe title of Operational or Management Auditing. This form of auditing looks not only at statistical and accounting data but also at systems efficiency and effectiveness. Equally or more important than this change in scope, is a focus by auditors on training auditees to upgrade their own management controls through self audits within their own functions.
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Document ID: 925FC4C0

Vibration Of A Regenerative Gas Turbine Exhaust System
Author(s): G. J. Kosten
Abstract/Introduction:
This memorandum discusses low frequency vibration that was experienced with the exhaust system of a few gas turbines equipped with regenerators supplied by GEA and other companies. This problem, present only during start up, had not surfaced on earlier new retrofit or conversion projects with GEA regenerators on similar engines. However, vibration is known to have also occurred on simple cycle systems and regenerative cycles using either shell and tube type regenerators suspended from the top of a supporting structure, or side mounted plate fin type regenerators.
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Document ID: 2365377C

Desk Top Computers-Regulator Station Design
Author(s): T.E. Stevens
Abstract/Introduction:
Why should I use a computer in regulator station and meter set assembly design? This presentation is intended to enable you to answer this question and understand the process used in determining regulator system sizing and capacity.
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Document ID: 104E4A2A

Liquid Sampiing And Composition Measurement Of LNG
Author(s): Thomas F. Trotta
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss methods of samphng flowing LNG and subsequent composition analysis and their application to Custody Transfer of LNG for ships and trucks at the Distrigas LNG Receiving Terminal in Everett, Massachusetts. Numerous field tests and experiments in sampling and composition by Distrigas will be covered in this text.
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Document ID: 9AC20377

Fleet Replacement Analysis
Author(s): Frank A. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
It would be hard to firid a fleet manager who wasnt convinced that a workable fleet unit replacement policy is an economic necessity. Il would be equally difficult to reach agreement on a common approach to determine when to replace a fleet unit. I suspect that most fleet managers have wrestled with the question, consulted the texts, implemented their own solutions -and are not quite satisfied with Ihe results. Probably most of you would not be here today if you were certain that you had found the best answer-you are still searching for an acceptable approach.
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Document ID: A64A16E8

Thermal Endurance Of Construction Materials At LNG Facilities
Author(s): Jeffrey S. Newman
Abstract/Introduction:
Construction materials utilized at LNG facilities are required to meet certain standards set by regulatory authorities and/or company specifications. Thermal endurance requirements are included in these standards and specifications and do, for the most part, refer to endurance tests conducted by nationally recognized approval and testing agencies. However, the tests performed by these agencies do not truly simulate the potential exposure afforded by contact with either LNG or an LNG fire. The objective of this study (funded by the Gas Research Institute, Accession Code GRl-80/0099) was to develop, in conceptual form, a test method or methods which could be used to effectively evaluate the thermal endurance of various construction materials in use at LNG facilities.
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Document ID: 22D86E27

A Review Of Problems And Their Solutions In The Hillsboro Gas Storage Field
Author(s): C. V. Crow
Abstract/Introduction:
Comparatively low vertical permeablility prevented sufficient thickening of the gas saturation in our Hillsboro storage reservoir to prevent water invasion into the wellbores during the early part of winter withdrawals of gas. The problem was solved by perforating another interval in the well casing five feet below the original perforated interval and installing a production packer with a seating nipple in the five feet unperforated interval. The gas bubble was then thickened by injecting gas into the deeper zone through the packer. By installing a blanking plug in the seating nipple thus limiting winter-time gas withdrawals to the upper perforated zone the movement of water into the wellbores is prevented. The production of loose sand with the gas from one of the welts in the Hillsboro Field was successfully terminated by treating the formation around ihe wellbore with a readily available resinous plastic material called San fix.
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Document ID: BFFA77E3

An Airborne Cathodic Protection Monitoring System
Author(s): William A. Read, Michael E. Stamm
Abstract/Introduction:
The objective of the Airborne Cathodic Monitor System (ACMS) is to measure the current flowing in a pipeline, using and airborne remote sensing device. The data obtained is useful in assessing the status of cathodic protection of the pipeline.
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Document ID: 8F4E98F5

Analysis Of Unsteady Flow In Gas Pipelines Design To On-Line
Author(s): Michael A. Stoner, Thomas E. Richwine, Frank J. Hunt
Abstract/Introduction:
It is a well established fact that flow in gas pipelines is unsteady. Conditions are always changing with time, no matter how small some of the changes may be. When modeling systems, however, it is sometimes convenient to make the simplifying assumption that flow is steady. Under many conditions, this assumption produces adequate engineering results. On the other hand, there are many situations where an assumption of steady flow and its attendant ramifications produce unacceptable results. One of the objectives of this paper is to point out some situations where the authors believe this to be true.
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Document ID: 6D4F6EE1

A Brief Tutorial On Oil And Gas Well Casing Inspection Using Electromagnetic Techniques
Author(s): Stephen D. Bonner
Abstract/Introduction:
Electromagnetic methods are useful for the in-situ inspection of oil and gas well casing. They detect the amount of metal loss due to any cause, including corrosion. When combined with other methods of casing inspection and leak deteciion, a more complete understanding of the casing condition can be obtained. Five specific electromagnetic techniques are discussed: a high resolution, high frequency method for the detection of localized metal loss on the pipe ID an averaging high frequency method for the measurement of the casing ID a high resolution, low frequency method for the detection of localized metal loss on both the pipe ID and OD an averaging low frequency technique for the measurement of casing wall thickness a DC flux leakage method for the detection of metal loss on both the pipe ID and OD.
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Document ID: 8DC41055

Separator Performance Evaluation
Author(s): W. F. Barker
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrocarbon streams as produced al the wellhead are composed of a mixture of gas, liquid hydrocarbons and water. It is desirable to separate these phases as soon as possible after bringing them to the surface and handle or transport the two or three phases separately. Usually, it is more economically feasible for the producers to install, operate and maintain this separation equipment. However, the demand for, and the value of natural gas has increased making it profitable to produce and process low volume, low pressure gas wells which require compression lo enter a high pressure pipeline system. Also, facilities for the interchange of gas between transmission companies to utilize pipeline gas capacities is becoming more numerous every day. Thus, the accumulation of retrograde condensate and contaminates in the gas pipeline, and their removal and disposal has become a serious problem.
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Document ID: 791ACD97

Can The Volume Based Rate Be Saved?
Author(s): Dean Hale
Abstract/Introduction:
The pricing of gas service is a complicated process. This is probably true because accoumants, lawyers, economists, and statisticians have had such a great input to the ratemaking process. Not to mention politicians and social scientists. The volume-based rate for gas service is widely used. As far as we can determine, nearly every entity providing gas service uses the volume-based rate in some fashion. Events of the past eight years or so quite possibly can lead to a very simple question: Is the volume-based rate out of date? Is it, like the dodo, extinct -as a useful concept? This question is asked seriously, because the rate-making process does lag actual conditions, and gas distributing utilities are feeling the impact not only of thai lag, but also of changing market conditions.
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Document ID: 7CDEB4F4

Fuel Conservation
Author(s): Gregory J. Mccaffrey
Abstract/Introduction:
An article in ihe New York Times, October II, 1981 states that the United States appears to be on the brink of winning the war it began in the 1970s for control of its energy destiny. Additionally, Energy Secretary James B. Edwards observed that America has made progress toward ending the seige meniaiity that we have all lived with since the 1973 oil crises. During the 1970s and through 1981, higher prices spurred tremendous gains in fuel conservation, as the United Slates reduced its imported oil requirements from 8 million barrels per day in 1979 to 5.7 million barrels in 1981. Although the resultant oil glut has removed the spotlight from oil supply limits, its duration is questioned. Fuel conservation clearly remains a high priority for utility company fleets.
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Document ID: 3ADDB459

A Calibration Facility For Static Pressure Transducers And Differential Pressure Transducers At High Base Pressure
Author(s): C. F. Sindt, J. F. Labrecque
Abstract/Introduction:
A facility has been developed to calibrate pressure transducers that are used in the NBS Gas Mass Flow Facility. Both static and differential pressure transducers can be calibrated. An air dead weight tester is the standard for static transducers in the range from 3.8 to 4.5 MPA. An air dead weight tester is also the standard for the differential pressure transducers in the range of 2.5 kPa to 50 kPa a cistern manometer provides the transfer for the standard to a base operating pressure of 4.1 MPa. The calibration of the air dead weight gage by NBS-Washington contributes 65 ppm to the uncertainty of the caHbration of the static pressure transducers. The calibration of the air dead weight gage adds 69 ppm to the calibration of the cistern manometer. This, plus the uncertainties in the high pressure corrections to the cistern manometer and our measurement of the mercury temperature, contributes 189 ppm to the uncertainty of the differential pressure transducer calibrations at 50 kPa.
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Document ID: 594EBCA0

Medium- And High-Pressure Sonic Leak Pinpointer
Author(s): James E. Huebler, Jeffrey m. Craig
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses progress at the Institute of Gas Technology over the last 4 years on a sonic leak pinpointer for medium- and highpressure gas distribution systems (15 to 90 psi), including the current efforts to build and field-test a commercial prototype. Important advances were made in sensitivity to leak signals and elimination of background noises. These advances make the technique a practical tool for pinpointing leaks when the gas has migrated or has saturated a large area. Previous successes and failures of sonic leak detection are briefly discussed as background for understanding the sonic method in general.
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Document ID: 2FB1C95B

Computerized Training Module For Leak Pinpointing
Author(s): J. C. Ireland
Abstract/Introduction:
Illinois Power Company is a combination gas and electric utility serving approximately 380,000 gas customers in a 15,000 square mile service territory in central Illinois. The company has held various gas leakage training sessions for many years to develop employee skills in investigating and pinpointing underground gas leaks. Although this training had been effective, it was felt more comprehensive training would be beneficial. One proposal was to construct a training area with the installation of underground piping with designed leaks for training purposes. During the discussion of this proposal, it was suggested that it would be easier to build a portable training aid. This suggestion led to the idea of developing a computerized training module.
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Document ID: 391B4ECF

Conservation And Its Effect On Pipeline Operations
Author(s): Terry Walsh
Abstract/Introduction:
The following discussion is directed to the impacts of conservaiion, load shedding and fuel switching, and the resulting effects on facility utilization and operation. Conservation is the latest of several impacts affecting ihe operation of Northern Natural Gas Companys pipeline system. The load shedding first occurred in the late 1960s and early I970s when Northern began a program aimed ai reducing sales to fill storages and protect our high priority winter markets. Under Northerns then effective curtailmenl plan, this impacted the large boiler fuel electric generation segment. Fuel switching occurred during the late 1970s, commensurate wilh the NGPA and the resulting competitiveness of the alternate fuels.
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Document ID: 9A936713

The Exxon Process For Catalytic Coal Gasification
Author(s): George H. Anderson, Garrett P. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Exxon Research and Engineering Co- has been engaged over the last decade in the development of a unique process for the conversion of coal to methane. The development started with the discovery that coal catalyzed with potassium salts promotes methanation of the coal gasification products. From this discovery stemmed a one reactor process concept which offers a more efficient, lower cost route to produce methane from coal. In this paper, we will describe our process concept, recent development activities and plans to bring the process to commercial readiness. The process will be referred to by its initials-CCG-for Catalytic Coal Gasification.
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Document ID: 2A098E9D

Field Retrofits To Improve Efficiency And Lower Undesirable Emissions
Author(s): J. W. Hibbard
Abstract/Introduction:
Technical developments to improve efficiency and to lower NO2 emissions have been introduced over the years on new production engines. This paper discusses the application of these developments to existing equipment. Since improvement of efficiency and reducing undesirable emissions are not always compatible, each topic is handled separately. A particular family of two-cycle, spark-gas engines are reviewed and retrofits that can boost horsepower and improve fuel consumption are given. Approximate, but relative, prices for the conversions are provided so the improvements can be compared on an economic basis. Much work has been done on new engines to lower exhaust emissions. This paper reviews the formation of NOx and describes methods to lower the pollutant output in twocycle, spark-gas engines. The subject is approached from a retrofit basis as well as from an adjustment of the BACT parameters.
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Document ID: 590696F6

Digital Data Acquisition And Control System For Gas Dispatch
Author(s): Paul J. Ziegler
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1981 CG&E completed the final phase of a five year program to modernize its Gas Control system. New equipment, using current technology provides continuous gas flow and pressure information for operating an entire tri-state gas system. In addition, the equipment permits transfer of remote control functions from two satellite control centers to a central control center. Additional benefits include the furnishing of automatically calculated corrected flow data and logging information, both of which were formerly accomplished manually. The system presently monitors a total of 300 gas Hows and gas pressures at 90 different locations and 80 status points, such as valve position indication. System data can be continuously observed on the color screens of the computer terminal. Alarms are sounded and logged when gas flows or pressures exceed present high or low limits at any one of the 300 points.
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Document ID: 6700382B

On Beyond Sheip
Author(s): James E. Griffith
Abstract/Introduction:
The energy crisis of October 1973 through the early spring of 1974 created an awareness of the need to improve the performance of gas-fired space heaters and conserve energy. Since then new space heating equipment and retrofit items for installation on existing equipment have been offered along with claims of their energy saving potential. The American Gas Association (AGA) Space Heating Efficiency Improvement Program (SHEIP) was organized in the summer of 1976 to field test the energy .saving potential of new space heating units and retrofit items installed on existing equipment. This paper will show how the test method developed in the SHEIP was utilized to conduct additional field tests and performance evaluations of space heating equipment.
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Document ID: B1BA22DF

Control And Summarization Of Leak Repair Records
Author(s): George Hendrick
Abstract/Introduction:
Complete, accurate and meaningful record systems are increasingly important to gas distribution companies. This paper presents ihe Southern California Gas Companys control system for handling records of underground leakage. The system is designed to insure that all leak reports are investigated, appropriate action taken as scheduled, and resultant documentation can be tracked. Various system input documents, edits and reports are illustrated. The requirement for complete records and documentation in the gas industry becomes more and more a necessity as local, state and federal regulators show an increasing interest in the business and operators are required to defend and explain the most common and everyday work activity.
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Document ID: 1389B114

The Pulse Rectifier
Author(s): Ted m. Doniguian
Abstract/Introduction:
The Pulse Rectifier is a unique cathodic protection device designed to provide corrosion protection to buried metal structures such as well casing and pipelines. As is the case with conventional cathodic protection rectifiers, the Pulse Rectifier acheives corrosion protection by supplying a current to the outside surfaces of the structure to be protected. The Pulse Rectifier, in contrast, supplies a series of very short duration voltage pulses between the structure and the buried anode electrode, instead of a continuous voltage. The magnitude and duration of these pulses have been designed to achieve improved current flow by taking advantage of the naturally occuring inductive properties of buried metal structures. The results of test demonstrating the unique features of the Pulse Rectifier are highlighted in this paper.
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Document ID: 7DA3232A

Play It Safe . . . Call Us
Author(s): Eric E. Rogner
Abstract/Introduction:
The objective of this presentation is to educate and inform excavators and their employees in Utility damage prevention to achieve: 1. Protection of the lives and property of both the public and the contractor. 2. Continuance of service to customers, 3. Reduced costs and loss of productive time to both the excavators and UtiUties due to underground facility damage. 4. Reduced need for litigation and the costs involved. A positive step can be taken toward achieving these objectives through this presentation. While there are many underground Utilities, the emphasis for this presentation is on gas mains and services.
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Document ID: 3C6448D5

Safety Features Of The Trunkline LNG Terminal Storage Tanks
Author(s): Jeffrey G. Steimer
Abstract/Introduction:
Trunkline LNG Company, a subsidiary of Trunkline Gas Company, has substantially completed construction of an LNG import terminal at Lake Charles, Louisiana. The facility includes three LNG storage tanks, each with a capacity of 600.000 barrels, constructed by PDM Corporation. This paper discusses some of the safety features and accessories furnished with the tanks. Items discussed include foundations, piping, instrumentation, spill protection and fire protection.
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Document ID: 242BD7DD

Continuous Water Dewpoint Monitoring With Calibration
Author(s): Frank V. Wilby
Abstract/Introduction:
Continuous monitoring of the water content of gas downstream of dehydration plants or gas purchased from transmission lines is necessary for efficient cost-effective operation. Hygrometers require periodic calibration if useful data are to be produced. Hygrometer calibration procedures are reviewed. A hygrometer installation is proposed that incorporates calibration equipment.
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Document ID: BBBC8E54

Effect Of CO2 On Corrosion Of Line Pipe
Author(s): Warren E. Berry
Abstract/Introduction:
The corrosion behavior of hne pipe and carbon steels in CO2 is discussed. Dry CO2 does not attack steel appreciably at temperatures below 750 F. On the other hand, CO, dissolved in water produces measurable corrosion of steel even at the freezing point of water. The corrosion rate of steel in C02/H2O increases with increasing CO2 partial pressure and with increasing temperature although the solubility of CO2 in water decreases with temperature in the range of 32 to 212 F.
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Document ID: 71FD243D

Heat Fusion Saddle Tees: A Discussion Of The Variables That Affect Joint Quality
Author(s): T. W. Gorman
Abstract/Introduction:
Hot tap, heat fusion, saddle tee joints made in the field often do not match in quality the same joints made in a laboratory or at a demonstration. Based on our experience both with testing and installation, 1 will discuss these differences. Although our experience is with high density polyethylene pipe and tubing, the discussion is appropriate for all polyethylene pipe. Two-inch and smaller pipelines operating at high pressure demand the greatest skill when installing a heat fusion saddle tee hot tap joint. Many conditions other than diameter affect the plastic pipe joiners ability to make an acceptable heat fusion joint. They include the pipe joiners capability, the materials behavior, allowable manufacturing tolerances, and the operating procedures of the gas distribution company.
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Document ID: D665528F

British Gas On-Line Inspection Experience
Author(s): G. Clerehugh, R. W. E. Shannon, L. Jackson
Abstract/Introduction:
From studies of defect behavior and operational experience British Gas has concluded that on both technical and economic grounds periodic non-destructive evaluation of its gas transmission pipeline is to be preferred to overload (hydrostatic) testing as a means of assessing their structural integrity. Following a period of development, an inspection service to detect and size gross metal loss in 24 inch pipehnes was introduced in 1977 and to date some 1450 miles of this size of line have been surveyed. This paper reviews the inspection philosophy upon which vehicle design is based and the operational experience and performance achieved through its use. It is concluded that the inspection principles adopted by British Gas for both metal loss and cracking and the equipment engineered to allow their application to pipehnes meet the performance requirements of a revalidation system, Work to extend the technologies to a range of pipeline diameters and provide an inspection service to other operators are also described.
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Document ID: E7A60653

Natural Gas Legislation: After A False Start
Author(s): Tom Corcoran
Abstract/Introduction:
At the beginning of the 97th Congress, those of us involved in the natural gas issue thought we knew what the problems were. We also thought we had the answers. We all learned our lessons from Cathy Abbott and Bob Means and from the experts at A.G.A. and INGA and NCSA and CBO and GAO and on and on. And we debated what the price spike would be-whether the fly up would or would not be significant. We spent lots of time pondering each of a million market disordering problems, and digesting the latest econometric study. Each group had its champions in Congress backed by computer wizards and armed with lobbyists and lawyers galore. And we were ready to go, right? Wrong!
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Document ID: 0E5604E2

Internal Pressure Equalizing System For Liquefied Ihydrocarbon Storage Tanlcs
Author(s): Tadeusz J. Marchaj
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes a new internal pressure equalizing system (internal venting), which prevents the entrance of the hot gas from the space above the insulated ceihng into the inner space of the storage tank for liquefied hydrocarbons, during the pressure cycling. This reduces substantially the boil-off rate as compared to the conventional internal venting system in general use today.
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Document ID: 3433215B

Field Test Evaluation Of Auto-Adjust Turbo-Meters
Author(s): R. G. Oxley, W. F. Z. Lee
Abstract/Introduction:
Preproduction prototype Auto-Adjust Turbo-Meters were tested in field service in production, transmission, and transmission test station facilities. Field test objectives, data collection procedures, and test results of six 4-inch meters tested are presented and results evaluated. A 4-inch meter was subjected to pulsating flow produced by reciprocating compressors. The test set-up and instrumentation are described and test results are summarized.
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Document ID: EEF70A38

Passenger Car Survey Results Fleet Experience With Front Wheel Drive Vehicles
Author(s): Tom D. Grunig
Abstract/Introduction:
List the number of passenger cars in your fleet by class.
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Document ID: 46E4E01B

Confined Spaces-Are Your Compliance Problems Going Underground?
Author(s): William Kline, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this position paper is threefold: (I) to provide the reader with a historical view of OSHAs attempts to promulgate a confined space standard for General Industry and for Construction (2) to provide the reader with information relative to OSHAs attempted confined space enforcement efforts and the successful challenges to such efforts and (3) to provide the reader with an overview of what is likely to happen to confined space rulemaking efforts.
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Document ID: DD2ADD2C

A Sensible Energy Policy
Author(s): Eugene H. Luntey
Abstract/Introduction:
Did you ever wonder what you would do if you were given the job of creating the world? Sometimes in quiet moments when 1 have been exposed to those who are so certain that they know most everything -I think about that job -your next assignment is to create planet earth, balance its resources, provide life and design systems that will allow that life to continue and create. How would you even start? You would need the most sophisticated computer to even calculate the mass and the orbit which would put the planet in a climate related to the sun so that life could even exist. Then one would have to create water and oxygen and soil and rocks and somehow arrange them in logical usable order. The mere size of the job boggles the mind -How many billion tons of water?
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Document ID: 148D8631

Tampering Discovered In The Meter Shop On Meters And Instruments
Author(s): Paul m. Herman
Abstract/Introduction:
This brief paper is intended to share some examples of specific tampering to gas meters as discovered by meter shop personnel. It will also reinforce the need to look at meters with an eagles eye in order to become more aware of the possibilities that tampering does exist. Finally, it will attempt to instill some thought provoking ideas for developing a profile of customers who tamper with our cash box.
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Document ID: 35CA8154

Cathodic Protection Of Bare Transmission Systems
Author(s): Dewey E. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Corrosion in all its forms is one of the most destructive and expensive actions taking place in the world. The lives of every person are affected by the process of corrosion. As we look about, the corrosion of steel fences, tin cans, gutter pipes, automobiles, and giant industrial complexes Is much in evidence. Recent figures indicate that the total costs of corrosion in all forms in America is 70 billion or abour 4.2% of our Gross National Product. It has been estimated that 40 billion of this cost is to the pipeline industry alone. It may help to understand the magnitude of this cost, if we point out that the total cost of all foreign oil imports in 1977 (one of our largest import years) was 45 billion.
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Document ID: C1774BC6

Clock-Type Thermostats- An Overview Of Some Of The Factors Which Affect The Fuel
Author(s): Mike Hanzlick
Abstract/Introduction:
As early as 1942, the practice of temperature set back for short periods of time had been reported to reduce overall heating fuel consumption. Conclusions drawn from a study sponsored by the Deparlmenl of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards (circular letter LC-711) in 1942 indicate the following: It is possible to save fuel by setting the thermostat down at night. This saving, however, is not as great as some people appear to believe. The apparent economy of night set back is effected because the burner must run longer in the morning to replace heat which was withdrawn from the walls and heat-absorbing parts of the house during the period that the thermostat was set back.
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Document ID: 32770A5D

Ultra IMAGE-A New Technology
Author(s): Robert H. Grills
Abstract/Introduction:
In December of 1973 an IRAD (Independent Research and Development) program was initiated at Electric Boat Division to investigate the possibility of recording ultrasonic signals used to non-destructively test submarine hull welds. The navy had questioned ultrasonic testings ability to accurately and repeatedly inspect welded areas after the ship was placed in service. The total funding expended for a study task in 1973 was only 5,000, but the ideas generated by that initial study were the beginning of a new technology. This new process has the potential to change the entire concept of ultrasonic inspection and have a cost saving impact on submarine construction.
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Document ID: 82C77DC1

Calculation Of Gas System Long Run Incremental Costs
Author(s): Frank Cassidy
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the rote of long run incremental costs (LRIC) in retail gas rate design and presents a method of calculating LRIC which considers energy-, demand-, and customer-related components of cost responsibility.
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Document ID: 139E60E5

Washington Update 82
Author(s): George H. Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
I doubt if the future of the gas industry has looked more interesting, more exciting, or just plain better. This widespread optimism is based primarily on the gas supply outlook -which in the past was a reason for great concern. In fact, supply has been our nearly total preoccupation for the past decade. But, were entering a new period where our problem is not supply, it is the financial health of our companies, it is competitive pricing, it is pursuing new market opportunities, or as you might put it in Economics 101, our problem isnt supply, its demand. And 1 am confident that our demand problems - and opportunities -can be met through expanded and new gas markets, which 1 will discuss a little later.
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Document ID: BF43EA29

Advances In Heavier-Than-Air Vapor Cloud Dispersion Modeling
Author(s): Joseph Hertel
Abstract/Introduction:
A discussion is presented which describes advances in heavier-than-air vapor cloud dispersion modeling. Included in the discussion is a brief history of dispersion modeling and a theoretical description and validation of one particular model, ZEPHYR. Additionally, results are presented of specific ZEPHYR runs portraying vapor dispersion under the influence of various topographical and meteorological conditions,
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Document ID: 8B502387

Methods Used By Transmission Companies To Educate The Public
Author(s): Charles S. Farrell
Abstract/Introduction:
Southern Natural Gas Company, a Sonat Company, is an interstate transmission company transporting natural gas principally in the States of Louisiana. Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia. More than 8,000 miles of pipelines up to 30-inch O.D. with pressure up to 1200 psig are utilized to deliver predominately unodorized natural gas to 120 resale and 80 direct sale customers. Pipelines are located on easements subject to restricted uses by the property owner. Above ground markers and cleared rights-of-way identify the presence of underground pipelines.
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Document ID: 888225B2

Where Will The New Pipelines Be Built
Author(s): Robert E. Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
When I received ihe invitation to be a speaker at this fine conference from your Presiding Chairman, John Thomas, I accepted with pleasure because he asked me to speak on a subject with which I have been in love for some 27 years-the pipeline industry. The pipeline industry has revolutionized this nation. Without pipehnes our country would not have had the abundant energy we enjoy. Only pipelines can economically take crude oil from the oil fields in West Texas, New Mexico or Pennsylvania to centralized refineries and take the refined product from those refineries to consumers throughout our great nation.
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Document ID: C364504F

Rating Plastic Piping Systems
Author(s): Ivan L. Deblieu
Abstract/Introduction:
The success of ihe Plastics Pipe Institute Hydrostatic Stress Committee in administering the rating of plastic pipe compositions using ASTM Method D 2837, Obtaining Hydrostatic Design Basis for Thermoplastic Pipe Materials, has brought and maintained order to the apphcalion of plastic pipe in pressure uses. Based on twenty years of experience with this method, we found, however, that improvements are needed and, in this paper, describe a method which offers several of these needed refinements. This paper describes a method for rating polyethylene plastic piping systems which is being considered by Code and Specification bodies in North America and in Europe. The proposed method shows promise for supplementing ASTM Method D 2837.
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Document ID: 0EB02EF8

Economics Of Plastic Insertion
Author(s): Gregory J. Nevinski
Abstract/Introduction:
Wisconsin Gas Company possesses almost thirty years experience in the installation of plastic pipe. Usage ranges from experimental applications to operational installations for both main renewal by insertion and for general purpose installation throughout the distribution system. This paper will review growth of the use of plastic by ihe company and will compare cost trends associated with extensive use of plastic pipe for renewal by insertion. The costs have been consistently lower than with steel installed using conventional trenching techniques. Plastic performance in the Companys recently completed Main Rehabilitation Program gives a dramatic example of the savings.
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Document ID: 3AD7BB25

In House Misappropriation Of Materials And Warehouse Pilferage
Author(s): Mario L. Gabos
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper explores the problems associated with the theft vulnerability of materials and supplies maintained in storerooms. Its focus is on developing an effective loss control program for storerooms based on such variable factors as the type and amount of materials stored, the physical layout of the storeroom, the frequency and quality of inventory taking, the adequacy of procedure controls, the sufficiency of existing physical security measures and management responsibilities.
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Document ID: FB4781F4

The Techniques Developed To Malce Substandard Joints With Known Defects
Author(s): A. Lustiger
Abstract/Introduction:
Butt fusion joining is widely used by the gas industry for the asseinbly of PE gas piping systems. In this work, defective bmt joints with well-characterized defects were to be fabricated so as to support the development and testing of an ultrasonic method to nondestructively evaluate these joints. However, because this work of itself can lend some insight into the macroscopic and microscopic effects of changing some joining variables in the butt fusion process, these results are herein presented.
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Document ID: 402BB98D

Field Use Of Mobile Laboratories One Companys Experience Using Mobile Laboratories For Chromatographic Analysis And Quality Control
Author(s): Randle W. Belyeu
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation is one which follows one companys experience in the development of a mobile laboratory for use in conducting the full spectrum of analytical tests in the field as required by their measurement department. It starts with the recognition of a need for such flexibility in procuring immediate analytical data in emergencies, and is structured around the superior quality of on-location testing, as compared to other methods available. It traces the metamorphasis. so to speak, of the beginning automobile to the air conditioned mobile labs of today, complete with 15,000 watt generators, fully computerized chromatograph, sulfur litrator, water vapor analyzer, and gravitometer.
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Document ID: 4BD26A28


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