Measurement Library

Western Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (1981)

Western Gas Measurement Short Courses

You Can Justify Meters For Your Energy Conservation Program
Abstract/Introduction:
Meters dont save energy! This statement has often concluded a meeting or terminated a budget request leaving the metering proponent feeling frustrated. Such a statement is technically correct when meters are evaluated in the same way as equipment that provides direct and measureable savings. It does little, however, for the engineer or manager who feels shackled by the lack of data to control his energy conservation program.
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Document ID: 6E67191C

Basic Fundamentals Of Orifice Meter Measurement
Author(s): Ken Kendall
Abstract/Introduction:
Fluid meters are divided into two functional groups. One measures primarily quantity (Positive Displacement the other measures primarily rate of flow (Inferential). All fluid meters, however, consist of two distinct parts, each of which has different functions to perform the primary element, tact with the fluid, form of interaction. may be that of imparting motion to the primary element the fluid may be accelerated, etc.
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Document ID: 5132A0F3

Basic Fundamentals Of Orifice Meter Measurement
Author(s): Ken Kendall
Abstract/Introduction:
One measures primarily quantity (Positive Displacement the other measures primarily rate of flow (Inferential). All fluid meters, however, consist of two distinct parts, each of which has different functions to perform the primary element, tact with the fluid, form of interaction. may be that of imparting motion to the primary element the fluid may be accelerated, etc
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Document ID: AA972D7B

Regulator Sizing And Selection
Author(s): Woody Dickinson
Abstract/Introduction:
Instrument engineers agree that the simpler a control system is, the better it is - as long as it provides adequate control. And in general, regulators are simpler than the alternative of a control valve with its external power sources and transmitting and controlling instruments. A regulator is a simple control device in which a?7of the energy to operate it is derived from the controlled system. Consider using a regulator first whenever you have a requirement for pressure control, level control, or flow control
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Document ID: 9D4D4E08

Over-Pressure Protection
Author(s): Steven Ward
Abstract/Introduction:
Overpressure protective devices are a major concern to the Gas Industry. Safety Codes and current laws require their installation each time a pressure reducing station is installed that supplies gas from any system to another with a lower maximum allowable operating pressure. Quoting from the old 831.8 ANSI code
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Document ID: 540A61AE

Data Acquisition Systems
Abstract/Introduction:
What a fantastic, exciting technological age we are living in! pace of technological change is continuously accelerating, and it is virtually impossible to stay abreast of developments even in one or two specialized fields, such as electronics and medicine. It requires the cormiitment of more and more time, both at the office and at home, to read technical, trade and quasi-popular science magazines such as Scientific American, to try to keep ones knowledge to some extent current with developments throughout the World, and to be aware of those techniques
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Document ID: B9812DA2

Volume Correcting Devices
Author(s): Bob Stapleton
Abstract/Introduction:
The title, Volume Correcting Devices should tell us that we are to cover the process of correcting gas volume by employing the use of a mechanical device designed to sense changes in pressure and temperature and consequently to multiple volume by a factor automatically.
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Document ID: BF9B5919

Fundamentals Df Controllers
Author(s): B. C.BHySroecIfGroup
Abstract/Introduction:
A common control problem associated with gas distribution and transmission systems is that of system prssure control. Defining the problem further, the requirement is generally to control the system pressure between predefined limits regardless of the load demands on the system. The method of control chosen, commonly referred to as the control strategy to be used, is generally dependent on the amount of fluctuation in pressure that can be tolerated by the system in question.
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Document ID: 1F37D814

Natural Gas Wellhead Equipment And Controls
Abstract/Introduction:
April 1979 history was made. Northwest Natural Gas Company, alon9 with its partners, Reichhold Chemical Corporation and Diamond Shamrock, discovered the first commercially producible natural gas field in the State of Oregon. This discovery was made approximately ten miles south of Clatskanie, near the community of Mist. Subsequent drilling in the surrounding area has resulted in the discovery of six additional wells of commercial quantity and quality. These wells have an average depth of 2500 feet and a natural reservoir pressure of about 950-1000 pounds per square inch. The estimated gas reserves of the two main reservoirs, are in excess of 20 billions cubic feet
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Document ID: 45C2B65D

High Pressure Regulation
Author(s): Thomas J. Cusworth
Abstract/Introduction:
A gas pressure regulator is an in-line device for reducing the pressure of Although gas meters are said to be the cash register of the industry, gas regulators play an equally important role. A regulator that is not performing properly can have a drastic effect on the accuracy of gas measurement. Because of the importance of regulators, not only for accurate measurement but also for the safe control of natural gas, everyone in the natural gas industry should have some knowledge of these devices
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Document ID: F883E6EC

Fundamental Principles Of Regulators
Author(s): George C. Hughes
Abstract/Introduction:
The fundamental function tor is that of a variabl where a predetermined pressure can be automatically controlled with complete safety to the system and consumer. An example of the above statement was the result of an Indiana farm boys experience with gas pressure and a small valve. He was incubating eggs 24 hours a day using gas heat. In the day-time he would watch the gas flame and pinch or open the valve accordingly
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Document ID: 385BF23A

Development Of The Auto-Adjust Turbo-Meter
Author(s): Pete Hanowich
Abstract/Introduction:
Rockwell Internationals technological contributions to gas meter advancement traces back 100 years. During that period of many and rapid changes, the company enginered, manufactured, and marketed diaphragm, rotary, orifice and, more recently, turbine meters, along with accessory instrumentation
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Document ID: DEE5AD4F

Determination Water Vapor Content And Hydrocarbon Dew Point In Natural Gas
Author(s): O Calkins
Abstract/Introduction:
Since natural gases have been formed in sediments which were originally saturated with salt water, it is understandable that about 20% of the pore space in a reservoir is filled with water vapor. This, of course, is an approximate figure which depends upon a number of factors, the prin cipal one of which is the the gas in the reservoir. this pressure may be, the saturated with water vapor. other words, there is as much vapor entrained in the gas as capable of holding at the and pressure prevailing
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Document ID: 037FEEE3

Pipeline Leak Detection
Author(s): Mark Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to increased costs of gas, oil and other products and the fact that companies have an increased concern for both safety and product savings, leak detection systems are being purchased. Because of this new awareness, there is an increased need for rapid detection, location and isolation of pipeline leaks or ruptures. Today we will discuss some of the functions, justifications and applications relating to such needs and explore various technologies currently in use to meet these requirements. The applications, advantages and limitations of each technology will briefly be discussed
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Document ID: B111CE63

Trouble Shooting Regulators
Author(s): Edward E. Hanson
Abstract/Introduction:
Listed below are some coimion regulator problems followed by some causes and some cures for these problems: 1. Failure of the regulator 2. Surging. to lock up. 3. :k of rated regulator capacity or :let p Lack outlet pressure varying with changes in load
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Document ID: 8AAB9CE5

A.G.A. Commihee Report
Author(s): Frederick W. Sullivan
Abstract/Introduction:
general and as vague as AGA Committee Reports. It gives me 1icense to wander afield, and wander I shall. Id like to discuss the following three topics with you: 1. 2. The AGA Measurement Manual and status of the revision thereof. The Orifice Measurement research project at National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado. 3. The Supercompressibllity research project.
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Document ID: BBD4A8BC

Hydrogen Sulfide Monitoring
Abstract/Introduction:
Monitoring of hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur compounds is important for several reasons. The first is bdfet-y. iiaturally-occurring and synthethic sulfur compounds in gas are all toxic extent.
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Document ID: FAC4ADAB

Odorization - Think Or Stink
Author(s): Richard E. Coulson
Abstract/Introduction:
Many people feel that gas odorization is one of those necessary evils forced upon gas utilities. However, gas companies recognize the advantages of the product they distribute and are cognizant of the objective of maximizing proper handling and safety to the public. In this paper we will cover the requirements of gas odorization. We will start with the federal law and see why it is added, what is added, and how much is added. We will also investigate ways to make that job a little easier for all of us.
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Document ID: 9A809D77

TRANSDUCERS/TRANSMIHER
Author(s): Paul E. Willis
Abstract/Introduction:
First, what are transducers and transmitters? A transducer is a device that is actuated by power from one system and supplies power in another form to another system. A transmitter is a transducer which converts a measured variable to a transmission signal which is directly proportional to the measured variable. In this discussion the transmission signals will be electrical. So, for another definition of transducers and transmitters as we use them in the natural gas industry, we could say the following
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Document ID: B134E573

Heating Value Measurement
Abstract/Introduction:
Although natural gas has been used predominately for its heating value or energy contect, it has been and, in many instances, still is purchased and sold primarily on the basis of volumetric measurement. Limited recognition of energy value has been given through contractural or tariff provisions specifying minimum acceptable heating values per unit volume. The rising price of natural gas over the past few years and the expected future increases in cost for this energy resource are giving a significant impetus to the development and refinement of heating value measurement and the incorporation of such measurement in provisions for its purchase naanndd sale
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Document ID: 7E56879E

Fundamental Principles Of Displacement Meters
Author(s): James A. Simpkins
Abstract/Introduction:
Most volume measuring devices in current use utilize the positive displacement principle of measurement. In positive displacement measurement, an accurately known volume is alternately trapped and released and the number of trapping cycles is recorded on a register calibrated in the desired measuring units. According to this definition, a grocer measuring a pound of jelly beans is utilizing positive displacement measurement.
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Document ID: AEDC75CB

Operation And Maintenance Of Turbine Meters
Author(s): Don Chamberlain
Abstract/Introduction:
Wide rangeability and relatively accurate measureniett has made the turbine meter popular over the past couple of decades. As costs of natural gas continue to rise, errors in measurement become more expensive and we, as technicians, play a more important role in assuring the accuracy and dependabiltty of our measuring devices. I would like to share some of my experiences with the operation and maintenance of turbine meters.
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Document ID: EA38B9E1

Field Transfer Proving
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for an accurate, reliable and portable field transfer testing system has resulted from the growth the gas industry. The growth has brought about the desire for better methods of field testing meters. There are presently available three methods for field testing meters: 1. Low-Pressure Flow Prover 2. Critical Flow Prover 3. Transfer Prover
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Document ID: A49811CE

Fundamental Of Gas Laws As They Apply To Gas Measurement
Author(s): Giles Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. It may exist in three (3) different physical forms or states: solid, liquid, gaseous. Experienee has shown that while it is possible to change a substanee to enter into chemical reactioss (combustion is an exothermcc chemical reaction) matter cannot be created or destroyed.*
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Document ID: 05D3EDD1

Pulsation Effect On Orifice Meters A Field Method Of Oetermining Pulsation In Orifice Meters
Author(s): Timothy C. Vahlstrom
Abstract/Introduction:
Many people in the gas industry are becoming increasingly aware of the vital and seemingly irreplaceable role that natural gas plays in our society today. For the gas industry to survive, like any other business in todays marketplace, it must have good control of expenses and receipts. All of us know gas utilities are in the business of buying, transporting and selling the commodity of natural gas. The final analysis reveals the cash register and heartbeat of any gas utility is accurate custody transfer measurement
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Document ID: 9D61D6DC

Bell Proving Equipment
Author(s): Wilbur W. Lints
Abstract/Introduction:
The bell prover was developed during the early years of the gas industry primarily for determining the accuracy and capacity of positive displacement gas meters. Its function is to deliver a known volume of air at a constant pressure to the meter or other device being tested. It has since become the volume measurement standard of the gas industry. The accuracy of various types of positive displacement and flow meters developed through the years, is traceable to the bell prover
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Document ID: 12872CFD


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