Measurement Library

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (1981)

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course

Gas Measurement Training
Author(s): C. L. Rousseau
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper relates to the conception and operation of a combined classroom and hands-on type training center for personnel responsible for the operation, accuracy, and maintenance of equipment necessary in present day gas measurement operations. Subjects taught are listed and training procedure is set out. Instructors are a very important part of the training venture and must be given consideration. Perhaps the most gratifying part of this method of training is student acceptance and feedback from them.
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Document ID: AEE5286D

Wellhead Gas Conditioning Equipment And Its Application
Author(s): John G. Merritt
Abstract/Introduction:
Nearly all produced natural gas contains water vapor which creates a potential for serious problems of moving the gas from the wellhead to its final destination. The most common causes of lost production from this vapor are corrosion, freeze-up, and line plugging. By manipulating such variables as pressure, temperature, velocity, and liquid content, down time due to water vapor is kept at a minimum. A well planned, designed, and built piece of equipment can save many hours of down time. To accomplish these, the real operating characteristics must be known. Sometimes though, only experience can predict problems that designers are not taught about and then there are events that can never be predicted. Both of these will be discussed later.
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Document ID: AF912FAF

Application And Selection Of Monitor Regulators
Author(s): Don Day
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is a general discussion of the philosophy behind the use of monitors for overpressure protection as well as an analysis of the types of equipment that can be used. Whenever a device is used to feed gas from a high pressure system to a low pressure system, there Is alway the possibility that the device will fail in a manner which will allow the pressure to go to a dangerously high level. We must always assume that the pressure regulator could fail in the wide open position. There are two popular methods of providing protection against overpressuring the system downstream of a failed regulator. One method Is the simple installation of a properly sized relief valve however, this method is falling into disfavor because a quantity of gas is lost whenever the relief valve operates. The other method is the use of a monitor regulator and this method Is becoming more popular because no gas is lost.
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Document ID: B58E7729

Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission Gas Regulations
Author(s): Joseph H. Gingrich
Abstract/Introduction:
The Pennsylvania Public Utility Comnnission has been a state agency for at least fifty (50) years. Its function is the regulation of the ever-growing services offered to the public by various utility companies. These services are many: regulating trucking, busing, taxicabs, railroads, just to name a few and also, of course, the sale and regulation of electric, water, telephone, steam heat, and gas service. We here at the school are interested, of course, in the latter, gas service. The Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission has a list of regulations pertaining to the safe distribution, sale, and measurement of natural gas in the Commonwealth. My name is Joseph H. Gingrich, Supervisor of the Standardization Laboratory in Harrisburg. The Commission has a Laboratory in Harrisburg which is staffed by myself and two (2) other technicians. We test standards for gas, electric, water, and steam utility companies. These standards are then used by the various companies to test utility meters that measure energy to the consumer.
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Document ID: C0983923

Computer And The Meter Shop
Author(s): Kenneth C. Peacock
Abstract/Introduction:
The Meter Shop system can be broken down into three sub-groups or sub-systems: 1. A Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-11/03 minicomputer with 36 Panasonic badge readers, for data acquisition and process control. Referred to as the Data Gathering Mini. 2. A Digital Equipment Corporation PFP-11/03 minicomputer for management control, referred to as the Host Mini. 3. A 1200 Baud synchronous dial-up telephone link between the Meter Shops Host PDP-11/03 and the IBM 370/158 located at the main computer center. Used to provide historical data for meter testing, and to update the historical data on the Universal Data Base. The System Layout Diagram (Figure 1) shows how these sub-systems are arranged.
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Document ID: D0B39FBC

BTU/Water Vapor Content Adjustment
Author(s): C. W. Bartlett
Abstract/Introduction:
In the natural gas industry, the term Btu/cf has recently become a hot subject. Mostly because of federal rulings on price adjustment, but probably as much because of people tike you and me who have to try and solve the mechanics for obtaining our answer. A variety of definitions can be found to describe Btu, British thermal unit, but essentially, its basic meaning relates to heating value. The heating value of natural gas is usually determined by calorimetry or analysis. A calorimeter Is a mechanical device designed to measure and usually record the Btu value, whereas the analytical method requires calculating the Btu value based upon the mol fraction or precent of the hydrocarbon compounds contained in the gas. The calorimeter, using the wet gas meter principle, saturates the gas with water vapor and the Btu value is determined on a wet basis. The usual chromatographic process used for determining the gas constituents normally eliminates water vapor content from the sample and the calculation is made on a dry basis.
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Document ID: C60BDD5A

Design Of Distribution Regulator Stations
Author(s): Robert T. Burrows
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to point out some of the more important design factors that must be considered when designing distribution regulator settings. In discussing the many factors considered by the Columbia Gas Distribution Companies, a general overview will be given of distribution regulation design standards currently being used. These design examples and specifications are only intended as a guide. These specifications can be compared to your own distribution regulator designs, which out of necessity, must reflect the type of distribution system you have and yourown individual company policies.
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Document ID: 2588C54C

Operation And Understanding Of Pneumatic Controllers
Author(s): R. H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
It is important for gas men working with pneumatic controllers on a day to day basis to really understand them. Not to understand the controller can be a continual burden to the operator, in addition to presenting circumstances for an operation of lower quality than generally desired. Therefore, the objective of this paper Is to try to help develop an understanding and attitude toward the controller that is absolutely essential to high quality gas control. When we speak of controllers, we want to differentiate them from the pilot type of control. In general terms, a pressure controller Is a separate unit from the control valve and it will have some constant bleed to atmosphere. Again, in general terms, we think of pilot controls as being an integral part of the regulator and having a downstream bleed. What Is the difference In these two types of control? One important difference is the fact that the pilot system can never match the efficiency of a pneumatic controller because it is the controller which can utilize reset, the function that keeps our process on set point regardless of changes in upstream pressure or load conditions.
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Document ID: 14A869CD

Basic Gas Storage
Author(s): R. I. Cross, R. J. Virshup
Abstract/Introduction:
In this paper, the authors cover the basics of underground natural gas storage, chiefly in depleted dry gas reservoirs. Gas storage in defined and a brief history is presented followed by a discussion of the main geologic and economic factors involved in reservior selection. The last part of the paper contains an abbreviated look at pool development.
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Document ID: 6C77E265

Fundamentals Of Gas Analysis Gas Chromotography
Author(s): John W. Askins
Abstract/Introduction:
Today you and your children are influenced by processes that were unheard of forty years ago-color television, jet planes, freezers, space ventures, air conditioning, gas shortages, pollution, computers and chromotography. Did you know that forty years ago over 80% of todays jobs were nonexistent? Technology has advanced at such a rapid speed when compared to the Industrial Revolution that It would be like comparing the T Model Ford to the jet planes of today. Now you span the USA in a matter of hours. This is progress! Time is of great importance, man-hours saved may mean the difference between whether a company makes a profit or closes its doors because of loss. This has made chromotography important.
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Document ID: 14EBED10

Energy Measurement Using The Chromatograph In The Field
Author(s): Bernard Herskovitz
Abstract/Introduction:
The development and use of new gas sources, several years ago, combined with the increasing price of natural gas created a requirement for the highest possible precision in measuring energy content as well as flow for pipeline quality natural gas product. Electronic Associates recognized the need for a relatively sophisticated instrument that would be reliable, easy to install and simple to maintain in an unattended and remote field environment. Drawing on many years of field and laboratory experience with computers and gas chromatographs the ENCAL gas energy measurement systems were developed to meet the above criteria. Some of the unique considerations involved in the marriage of technologies is the basis for this paper.
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Document ID: E4E10881

Quality Assurance Sampling For Gas Meters In Service
Author(s): Barbara J. Bockert
Abstract/Introduction:
Every year, more and more gas distribution companies are considering the use of statistical quality control programs to assure both the customer and the company that individual measurement of gas consumed is accurate, fair and consistent. This paper attempts to briefly outline the major considerations in such a program using the specific case at Elizabethtown Gas Company for explicative purposes. It should be understood that there are many variations in statistical quality control programs from company to company as a result of the differences in the diversity and makeup of the meter populations as well as in State testing and reporting requirements, even though the fundamental objective at the root of the programs is the same. This objective is, of course, to minimize the cost of monitoring and controlling the performance of gas meters in service.
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Document ID: 90CFC235

Determination Of Heating Value By Titration
Author(s): Richard L. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
A viable alternative to calorimetery and/or chromotography is available. It is the Therm-Titrator, a new approach to the determination of calorific value of natural gasses.
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Document ID: C53B8054

Fundamentals Of Instrumentation
Author(s): August Oliveira
Abstract/Introduction:
Measuring and controlling instruments are now In such widespread use in todays life that we take them for granted. We use instruments to control the temperature of our homes, to preserve our food, to regulate our automobiles, to secure our homes, for entertainment purposes, and even to help with our finances. Industry has always depended on precise effective and diversified instruments. This paper will concentrate mainly on the instruments that serve the Natural Gas Industry, and will consist of Information on instruments used for the measurement and control of three basic physical and thermal quantities that are a concern to the Gas Industry. These quantities are pressure, temperature, and flow. The technology of using instruments to measure and control the physical and chemical properties of materials is called instrumentation.
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Document ID: A6C18CBC

Effect Of Chart Interpretation Of Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Vincent F. Francis
Abstract/Introduction:
In the natural gas industry, measurement charts are the Cash Register of each company. These charts determine the cash flow money received and money paid-out) of a natural gas transmission company. Their accuracy is of the utmost importance. This is becoming more important recently in regard to gas purchased due to the escalating cost per MCF caused by the Natural Gas Policy Act. As an example, a gas purchase contract that was formerly 37 cents per MCF may now be 2.50 per MCF. This increase in gas purchased costs has brought about the reevaluation of many measuring stations as to their accuracy. Depending on the flow characteristics, gauges that formerly had monthly chart drives are now being changed to 7-day or 8-day drives to improve accuracy. The chart censor, or chart analyst, must verify first that all backprint information is legible and correct. This includes the placed and removed time, if the gauge is clock driven.
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Document ID: 6D386425

Rotary Meters
Author(s): Vincent P. Oconnor
Abstract/Introduction:
The first positive displacement rotary gas meters were built around the year 1920 by the PH & FM Roots Company and the Connersville Blower Company, both located in Connersville, Indiana. In 1966 this gas meter operation was renamed Dresser Measurement Division. However, these rotary meters today are still known as ROOTS Meters. Rockwell International entered the market in the early 1960s with a rotating vane design known as the ROTO-Seal Meter , and in the late 1960s Singers American Meter Company introduced still another rotating design known as the CVM gas meter. The operating principles for each of these three meters are depicted and explained in Exhibit #1.
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Document ID: 9CE775BD

Fundamentals Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): Ray Forbes
Abstract/Introduction:
A somewhat simple, though very important type of measurement device, is the orifice meter. It consists primarily of a constriction placed within a flowing medium, and its basic function is to determine the total amount of fluid passing through a measurement system. The constricting device is a thin flat orifice plat with a concentrically precision bored hole. This hole, or orifice, changes the flow pattern of the medium, creating a measurable pressure loss. To assure accurate measurement, the orifice plate must be perfectly flat with a smooth surface and the orifice must have a sharp square edge. The orifice plate, as shown in Figure 1, should be machined in accordance with A.G.A. Report #3.
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Document ID: 0C3634E8

Field Testing Turbine Meters
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
The ever-increasing use of gas turbine and rotary meters has created many problems in establishing suitable methods for field testing. The requirement for field testing is predetermined by the need, through contract or otherwise, to maintain and demonstrate accuracy in measurement. In attempting to establish suitable testing methods, efforts are made to obtain laboratory results under field conditions. At best this is a frustrating experience, although necessary. Field test and the laboratory calibrations will only approach each others results. The degree of difference can be attributed to many factors such as environmental conditions, instrumentation, duration of run, variations of flow stream, and difference in standards. The degree to which laboratory calibration and field tests agree depends on the extent to which the difference can be resolved. To expect more from the results than is physically obtainable is a study in frustration. To put it another way, to obtain a laboratory calibration in the field, it is necessary to provide for a laboratory calibration facility in the field.
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Document ID: FC1A9C3E

New Concepts In Recorder Marking Systems For The Gas Industry
Author(s): Gerardo A. Samaniego
Abstract/Introduction:
Ink, as a fluid is virtually worthless . . . ink as a line could be priceless . . . if its in the right place at the right time. For example, a droplet of ink, as a signature on a check, could represent a virtually limitless value... even millions of dollars. Well, the Ink lines on your gas measurement charts are signatures showing the value of gas being measured. From the smallest amount . . . several hundred dollars . . . up to major systems transfer or sales points where the value could be millions of dollars. These transactions are measured and recorded daily and, like checks, thousands of charts are sent to the sales office for computation and transfer of funds. Both buyer and seller want to be confident of a fair transaction price and the chart is the check reflecting the volume of gas bought or sold, the line tells the tale. Its the final expression of value combining the measurement methods, instruments, system, procedures, fieldman, home office staff and chart processing all into 12 inches of ink on a piece of paper.
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Document ID: 0FF1A969

Transmission Odorization Equipment, Operations, And Practices
Author(s): David F. Henderson
Abstract/Introduction:
The Columbia Gas Transmission Corporation is a wholesale transmission company selling odorized gas to retail companies in the States of Ohio, Maryland, West Virginia, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, Virginia and New York. Although this may imply that we require only large volume odorizer applications, we are in fact operating odorizers on different lines having flow rates from less than 1 MMCFD to 900 MMCFD or more. Though we are rather fortunate, for the most part, in that we are able to effectively odorize our entire system with a relatively small number of total installations, we are using one or more of all the different types of odorizers to do so. This has given us some opportunity to evaluate different types of odorization equipment and control components.
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Document ID: 8D9C1616

Large Volume Applications For Diaphragm Meters
Author(s): William J. Teliska
Abstract/Introduction:
Diaphragm gas meters were first developed in 1843 by Mr. William Richards, improved upon and patented in 1844 by Messrs. Croll and Richards, and perfected seven years later by Mr. Thomas Glover. This two diaphragm, slide valve, dry meter is almost universally used for residential, small commercial, and industrial gas measurement applications. Today, as new technologies provide other types of gas meters, the choice between these new types of gas meters and the reliable diaphragm meter becomes more difficult, especially in large volume measurement applications.
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Document ID: 3A6A277C

Gas Sampling To Obtain Representative Results
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Defined by the Gas Processors Association Publication 2166-68, The object of any sampling procedure is to obtain a representative sample of hydrocarbons from the system under investigation. Any subsequent analysis of the sample regardless of the test, is inaccurate unless a representative sample is obtained. Due to the wide variation In flovi/Ing streams and the components in these streams, the proper sampling techniques must be employed in order for the sample to be taken, transported, stored, and finally analyzed by some type of test device. The first factor that must be covered is the person chosen to physically take the spot sample, or install and maintain the sampling device. This person is the beginning of a successful sampling program. The final outcome of the sample operation will be determined by the efforts of this first link in the unbreakable chain of operations that must be performed without variances which can and will affect the outcome of the results obtained.
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Document ID: 794664C7

Dynamics Of Human Behavior
Author(s): Richard D. Hannan
Abstract/Introduction:
Human behavior is not easily predicted but this discussion can assist a person in evaluating unique individual traits. Emphasis is on the favorable results of empathy for and proper appreciation of other peoples efforts. A bright executive who lost out, the telltale signs of a potential trouble maker in your organization and three ways to gain greater insight into your own personal goals are all discussed.
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Document ID: 1AFB406B

Ball Valve Regulators And Its Application
Author(s): Roy J. Becker
Abstract/Introduction:
Over twenty-five years ago, a plug valve was equipped with a pneumatic cylinder and a positioner and used as a monitor regulator. The concept was a new method of gas regulation and was the beginning of a new era. A midwestern utility used these plug valve regulators above grade with relatively good success. They believed, however, that a buried valve regulator would be more desirable than an above ground unit and would greatly reduce the cost of a station. Regulators of this nature were successful and proved to be the key to todays modern high capacity control stations. Many valve configurations can be used to make a regulator, including plug, sliding disc, butterfly and ball valves. Naturally some units will outperform others, prime factors being tight shut-off and low torque. Everyone is looking for the ideal unit-one that will give perfect control, be maintenance free, have good appearance, be noise free and function without problems at all times, including cold weather. Some of these requirements are difficult to accomplish, however, they should be the ultimate goal of all manufacturers of valve regulators.
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Document ID: 1920E8AF

Effect Of Production Measurement On System Balance
Author(s): John D. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
System balancing requires that all measurement be correct and a proper estimate be made of any gas or product entering or leaving the system. We will examine how various conditions effect this balance and what can be done to correct it.
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Document ID: 27DD7D6B

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Joseph L. Pond
Abstract/Introduction:
The 50 million gas meters currently in service with the difference phases of the gas industry in the U.S., plus the majority of a similar number of meters installed elsewhere in the World, use two different physical principles to measure gas volumes.
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Document ID: 6FDC6292

Btu Or Dekatherm Measurement Systems
Author(s): B. Kenneth Fouts
Abstract/Introduction:
Accuracy in gas measurement has always been of utmost importance In the gas industry. However, as gas supplies have decreased and the value of the product has gone up, the means for even more accurate methods of measurement have been sought. Traditionally, emphasis has been placed on the most accurate measurement of volume, but in the past decade our goal has been somewhat redirected to the most accurate measurement of thermal energy. Unfortunately, thermal energy, itself, cannot be measured directly. Several indirect measurements must be made and the flow of energy must be calculated. The scope of this paper is to generally explore thermal energy measurement systems via discussions of terminology, methods, some of the familiar instruments, and factors in the selection of instruments.
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Document ID: 8A8F0805

Control Valves For Large Volume Regulation
Author(s): Woody Dickinson
Abstract/Introduction:
Although gas pressure regulators dominate much of the control applications in the Gas Distribution and Transmission Industry, they are limited to applications with small flow requirements. These applications are numerous in any Gas Distribution System and include commercial, industrial, and domestic service, farm taps, and district pressure control. Large volume gas pressure control is less frequent but necessary in many gas industry applications including city gate stations, some district stations, and gas transmission. Control valves offer much more capacity, as well as other advantages, to meet these large volume gas pressure control requirements.
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Document ID: 1C913891

Effects Of Entrained Liquid On Orifice Measurement
Author(s): C. V. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
In the measurement of natural gas In field operations using the conventional orifice meter, all of the factors used in the calculation of flow are based on the assumption that the gas is dry. This condition is rarely the case in field measurements. The A.G.A. Committee Report No. 3, (1), does not give any information or data regarding the effect water and/or distillate may have upon gas measurement by the orifice meter. It was in this area of gas measurement that graduate-engineering students at Texas A&l University, Kingsville, Texas have conducted research operation in the laboratory and in the field. Schuster, (2) has conducted full range field tests of gas-liquid mixtures at 600 and 1,000 pounds per square inch pressure using the orifice meter. Inthese tests a 4-inch meter run was used to measure the dry gas. After this measurement, water and/or distillate in varying amounts was Introduced and the twophase stream was then measured first through a 4- inch meter run and then bya3-inch meter these tests covered liquid-gas ratios up to 600 barrels of liquid per million cubic feet of gas. A cubic foot of gas in this paper is measured at 14.65 pounds per square inch absolute and 60 Fahrenheit.
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Document ID: 6E9B2315

The Properties And Selection Of Natural Gas Odorants
Author(s): Frank H. Suchomel
Abstract/Introduction:
A prime safety feature of utility-distributed natural gas is its odor. Odorization has served as the first-line warning system for gas leaking into buildings. The presence of this odor ensures the utility that customers will promptly detect and report any significant gas escape. The industrys impressive safety record is due in no small part to the effectiveness of the odorization systems and practices currently in place. Without this olfactory warning system, natural gas, colorless, odorless, and tasteless, would be a potential hazard in the millions of homes and businesses served by gas.
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Document ID: 2C6F4819

Analysis Of Gas Measurement Recording Charts
Author(s): Iris Mackenzie
Abstract/Introduction:
Since Gas Measurement is the cash register of any gas company, the matter of chart analyzing is a very significant function in the industry. Charts must be analyzed to determine the completeness and accuracy of the recordings. In case of mechanical failure, estimates must be made as accurately as possible. The meter specialist or chart changer must be notified concerning any chart problems. Our company averages over 28,000 charts per month including orifice, direct, dekatherm cards, gravity, temperature, and audit charts.
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Document ID: 16E32201

AGA Requirements For Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Charles R. Reese
Abstract/Introduction:
The meter station as we know it is comprised of many different manufactured items. Certainly a major portion of the rtieter station is the primary element which consists of orifice plate, the orifice fitting, the meter tube, and the secondary element which is the indicating or recording Instrument. As our title indicates, this paper will describe the design of these primary elements. Each of the components that make up the primary element are of extreme importance as they are the producer of the signal that is to be received by the secondary element for recording or control.
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Document ID: 9379B1AD

Reverse Differential And Stop & Go Orifice Meter Systems
Author(s): Warren Weiant
Abstract/Introduction:
With the concurrent increased value of natural gas and operations cost, the importance of better and more efficient measurement practices has become stringently pronounced. The use of the reverse scale orifice meter accommodates solution for achievement of rigorous standards.
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Document ID: C5656B1F

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement
Author(s): Frank H. Suchomel
Abstract/Introduction:
As the price of all forms of energy increases, measurement, especially at those points where the energy is bought or sold, is becoming increasingly important. The measurement of natural gas has become considerably more involved than the relatively simple volumetric measurement of a few decades ago. The custody transfer of natural gas in the 1980s also includes a careful measurement of the heat content of the gas as well as an evaluation of the gas quality. This presentation is intended to introduce some of the basic principles these measurements are based on. All of you have probably heard of the ideal gas laws, such as Boyles Law and Charles Law. These socalled gas laws are empirical, that is to say, based on observations. The fact that we call them Ideal gas laws means that they dont work exactly for real gases all the time. These laws do generally state the relationship between the volume, pressure and temperature of a gas. Most modern approaches explain the gas laws in highly mathematical terms of the kinetic molecular theory of gases.
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Document ID: 18BF0629

Basic Construction And Recommended Maintenance For Rotary Meters
Author(s): Paul F. Giglio
Abstract/Introduction:
The construction of a rotary gas meter consist of an accurately machined rotor mechanism housed inside of an equally accurately constructed meter body. The ability, during the manufacturing process, to maintain the integrity of the meter geometry determines its accuracy, rangeability, capacity, pressure loss and slippage. There are basically two types of rotary meter construction. One type of design employes two opposite rotating impellers contoured in a figure 8 shape. During the rotational cycle of the impellers, a fixed or known volume of gas is trapped between the figure 8 Impellers and the meter housing. This trapped volume of gas is passed from the inlet to the outlet of the meter by the slight pressure differential produced to overcome the mechanical friction of the meter. The relationship between the rotational cycles of the measured volumes of gas and the meter output is transmitted by appropriate gearing to whatever values that are convenient for meter registration. Normally, these values are in increments of 10, 100, or 1000 cubic feet.
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Document ID: 5C71B0D1

Temperature Compensated Diaphragm Meters
Author(s): John L. Esota
Abstract/Introduction:
In recent years, there has been a growing trend in the gas industry to change the location of gas meters from the inside of residences to the outdoors. There are two definite advantages to this approach. First, there is less danger of explosions due to gas leakage, and secondly, the meter reader can read the meter without entering the customers premises. Gas is normally sold by volume at standard pressure and temperature conditions. These conditions are usually 14.73 psia and 60 F. At these basic conditions, natural gas has an average heating value of 1,000 BTU/cf. Since the heating value of a cubic foot of gas varies with temperature and pressure, gas meters are sometimes equipped with auxiliary devices which provide corrected volumetric readings.
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Document ID: FEB8C027

Analysis Of Meter Families
Author(s): G. W. Reich
Abstract/Introduction:
To have an accurate Measurement Program is no longer a luxury, but a necessity in this time of tight fiscal conditions. The continuing requirement of explaining to both the public and the state regulatory agencies the need for rate relief further accentuates this requirement. In search of more economical methods of removing and testing meters in service, both the utilities and state agencies have deviated away from the periodic interval removal plan, based on years in service, to a system based on performance using varied statistical analysis. In simplest terms, the poorer performing meters are removed from service and the best meters remain in service, thus, overall measurement error is reduced.
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Document ID: 44FC807A

Fundamentals Of Gas Flow Computers
Author(s): Joe Yakamavich
Abstract/Introduction:
Energy is no longer inexpensive. In the past, if gas were lost for one reason or another, the consequences were not significant because the value of this lost gas was not very great. Today, this same amount of gas costs many times more than it did in the past. Thus, when gas is lost and cannot be recovered, the value of this gas is lost also. Flow computers provide the user with a highly accurate gas volume measurement. Flow calculators also enable the user to have a better, costeffective way for measuring of the gas. Just like any other piece of equipment, the gas flow calculator has undergone an evolution. The state of the art has allowed the gas flow calculator to be a very dynamic piece of equipment. Gas flow calculators fall into one of two categories they are either analog devices or digital devices. This paper will describe a digital gas flow calculator, its mechanical make-up, and the actual process that the flow calculator goes through in order to calculate the volume flow rate and the volume accumulation of gas.
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Document ID: 4D45BDC9

Odorization - Think Or Stink
Author(s): Larry Sheffield
Abstract/Introduction:
Many people feel that gas odorization is one of those necessary evils forced upon gas utilities. However, gas companies recognize the advantages of the product they distribute and are cognizant of the objective of maximizing proper handling and safety to the public. In this paper we will cover the requirements of gas odorization. We will start with the federal law to see why odor is added, what is added, and how much is added. We will also investigate ways to make that job a little easier for all of us by taking into consideration proper planning for storage so that chances for mishandling are reduced.
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Document ID: 065F627C

Inspection, Maintenance And Testing Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): Kenneth E. Lamp
Abstract/Introduction:
The need of the gas industry to measure large volumes of gas at high pressure led to the development of the orifice meter. Nearly all of the early successful orifice meters were the mercury type. However, during the mid-forties, the first bellows meters were introduced to the gas industry as Dry Meters. It appears that the bellows or dry type of orifice meter is the most widely used today, but many measurement people feel that the mercury type of meter is the more accurate. Due to safety-problems inherent in the handling, cleaning and transporting of mercury, there has been a decline in the use of mercury gauges.
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Document ID: 3046FCF9

H2S In Hydrocarbon Streams
Author(s): Sammy Russo
Abstract/Introduction:
The analysis of sulfur compounds in gases presents the analytical chemist with perhaps one of the most challenging tasks in chemistry today. Elemental sulfur Is quite reactive, often acting as an oxidizing agent as with hydrogen forming hydrogen sulfide and as a reducing agent forming sulfur dioxide with oxygen. It can exist in its vapor state as S2, Se and Se molecules and Its compounds often exist In dynamic equilibriums. Although there are a large number of volatile sulfur compounds of interest, I will limit my discussion to hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, and the mercaptans. I should point out, that as sour gas production increases the importance of the other sulfur compounds such as disulfides, polysulfides and thiophenes will increase.
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Document ID: B4CA7895

Testing And Repair Of Large Capacity Diaphragm Type Displacement Meters In The Shop
Author(s): Frank m. Koch
Abstract/Introduction:
The year 1820 was probably the birth of large capacity displacement meters. It was the year that Samuel Crosby improved the revolving drum water sealed wet gas meter. This improvement in large sizes became known as the Hinman Drum. One of these meters was 16 feet in diameter and proportionately long. A size 16 station meter had 24 connections and a capacity of 173,000 C.F.H. at 1 in. differential and 215,000 C.F.H. at 1.5 in. differential. The weight of the meter was 95,000 pounds with an additional 136,000 pounds of water. Sprague Meter company is said to have made the worlds largest Ironcase diaphragm displacement meter. The no. 20 meter weighed approximately one ton and was equipped with 6 connections. It has a capacity of 15,000 C.F.H. at Vi in. differential and 32,000 C.F.H. at 2 in. differential.
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Document ID: 6F556555

Measurement Regulations In W. Va.
Author(s): David L. Akers
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry has experienced both shortages and increasing commodity costs over the past ten years. These events strongly suggest that the era of inexpensive energy supplies no longer exists. There are few leaders In the industry who doubt that increasing gas cost will trigger a demand for greater measurement accuracy. For those of us who are directly involved, recent developments have made the problem of accurate measurement even more complex. This problem was created when the National Energy Act of 1978 switched the primary basis for sales from a volumetric basis to an energy basis. As a consequence of these changes, the W.Va. Commission is currently re-evaluating its policies related to measurement practices and gas accounting procedures.
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Document ID: 253495B1

Future Development Of Orifice Standards
Author(s): Edgar E. Buxton
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice meter measurement of natural gas has been in accordance with general practices rather than standards until the last five years. Orifice coefficients published in the late 1920s as American Gas Association (A.G.A.) Committee Report No. 1 serve as the beginning of our present orifice meter standards. The Ohio State data, known as the Columbus tests conducted in 1932-1933, continue as the primary data base for orifice meter measurement. A recent evaluation indicates that 303 of these data points form the data base supporting the Buckingham coefficient equation in the present United States Standard ANSI/ API 2530. This equation was published in A.G.A. Committee Report No. 2 dated May 6,1935. This report was superseded by A.G.A. Report No. 3 in 1955 which was revised in 1969. This revised report became known as API 2530 for submittal to the American National Standards Institute for consideration as a standard. Approval was given on June 22, 1976 raising A.G.A Committee Report No. 3 to the status of an American National Standard identified by the number ANSI/API 2530.
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Document ID: ABC787D3

Computerized Gas Dispatch Systems
Author(s): Richard L. Rhodes
Abstract/Introduction:
Let us first discuss the types of computers available to perform control functions in a gas dispatching system. Our discussion will cover two of the many types used in dispatching systems - Analog and Digital Computers. I. Analog computers, first applied in the early 1950s were dedicated to one particular control function or measurement, but can perform multiple function tasks. There are two configurations of analog computers. Type 1 are: General purpose modules which may be connected together to solve various flow equations and to totalize the volume through a station. This type system offers great flexibility, acceptable rangeability and accuracy. The disadvantages are special engineering and custom wiring.
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Document ID: 6CF17239

Direct Interface Of Chart Processor With Computer
Author(s): Teresa Moore
Abstract/Introduction:
The computer age has changed our lives. Computers have shrunk in both size and price, and, as a result, they have invaded both homes and business. Although some companies have used computers for many years, Kentucky West Virginia Gas Company began using a computer for Gas Measurement just three years ago. Until the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 was enacted, computer costs were prohibitive for some companies. When gas prices increased, many companies began drilling programs the financial risk of a dry hole is offset by higher prices per MCF. This leaves more money to be reinvested In time and money saving devices like computers.
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Document ID: B2DABC3C

Regulator And Control Valve Section And Sizing
Author(s): J. m. Kruse
Abstract/Introduction:
Prior to discussing the application and selection of a regulation device, lets first define a Pressure Regulator. A Pressure Regulator is an automatic device which controls the media flow and maintains a desired media pressure while reducing the media supply pressure. The basic regulation device to perform its design function consists of three basic elements. First is the restrictive element which can be a single, double, or multi ported variable opening. Second is the responsive element by which a throttling device is activated. The responsive element usually takes the form of a flexible diaphragm however, it can be a piston or other device which can readily respond to pressure changes. The third element of the pressure Regulator is the standard. This is the element to which the controlled pressure is referred. It opposes the force exerted by the pressure being controlled. Any change in the balance of these forces results in a movement of the responsive element or diaphragm which in turn affects the movement of the throttling device. The standard also can be of several forms. The type standard utilized will depend on the application and the desired performance. These basically can be spring, pressure or weight type - either direct or by lever. The latter type is basically becoming obsolete.
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Document ID: 15AC32C5

Development Of The Auto-Adjust Turbo-Meter
Author(s): Peter J. Hanowich
Abstract/Introduction:
Rockwell Internationals technological contributions to gas meter advancement trace back 100 years. During that period of many and rapid changes, the company engineered, manufactured, and marketed diaphragm, rotary, orifice and, more recently, turbine meters, aiong with accessory instrumentation. Today, an estimated 20 miliion Rockwell gas meters are in service on all types of gas measurement applications, ranging from high presure offshore producing platforms to individual homes. Each development, each improvement, each introduction of metering devices has paralleled the growth and needs of the gas industry.
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Document ID: D76C1D76

Unaccounted For Gas
Author(s): C. E. Felker
Abstract/Introduction:
Unaccounted For Gas is a misnomer, a name stuck to the industry that conjures up a notion of mysteriously losing a commodity or leaking pipelines. This paper is presented to apply the technologies of gas measurement and recordkeeping to a new title, Delivery and Input Measurements differences (DIM). To develop this subject it is necessary to define a typical system for comparative results. For instance, a transmission operation would have an entirely different DIM profile from distribution, and a comparison is questionable. DOT, FERC, state regulators and the industry discuss functional breakdown in terms of field gathering, transmission, storage, and distribution systems so this presents a logical start. Most companies are staffed along these boundaries, so the psychology of accountability in a particular operating area can be helpful. Each of the noted operations should be analyzed and evaluated on its own DIMs.
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Document ID: 89C7F187

Troubleshooting Electronic Systems
Author(s): David A. Weryha
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the basic operation of a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System with a focus on designing the system for reliability and accuracy.
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Document ID: 21CBDA65

Selection Of Orifice Vs. Turbine
Author(s): James T. Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper will be to show the reasoning used for the selection of either orifice meter or turbine meter measurement for certain applications. There is no intent to imply that other types of measurement such as rotary or positive displacement meters should not also be given consideration for certain applications.
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Document ID: 25FD2C43

Application And Installation Of Turbine Meters
Author(s): August Buchhalter, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the introduction of the turbine meter to the U.S.A. Gas Industry in the early 60s, the turbine meter has found wide acceptance as a large volume measurement device. Turbine meters have been used successfully in applications involving production, transmission, distribution and industrial metering systems. Advantages obtained by the use of a turbine meter are high capacity, wide rangeability and sustained accuracy. The meters light weight, compact size and ease of maintenance also contribute to the desirability of the turbine meter.
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Document ID: BA291123

Solar Powered Flow Computer
Author(s): Michael J. Keady, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Traditionally in the flow measurement of natural gas, orifice meter signals have been recorded on-site by means of mechanical circular chart recorders. These charts have been collected weekly or monthly and integrated forvolume determination. This procedure has a lenthy lag time between time of actual gas flow and time of reporting. With the advent of spiraling gas prices and penalty clauses for excessive rate deliveries, both customers and suppliers are looking toward quicker and more accurate methods of obtaining flow and total quantity. By the use of field-mounted electronic flow computers, flow information is processed on an instantaneous and continuous basis.
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Document ID: 2544C367

Diaphragm Meter Capacity Ratings At Elevated Pressures
Author(s): Howard W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
Through the years, the gas industry has been steadily improving, especially from a technological and product improvements viewpoint. Today, the gas industry has standardized on most applications, methods and definitions as compared to the knowledge possessed just twenty short years ago. Within the measurement field, two important areas are stiil open for discussion and at the discretion of the individual persons or companies operating within these areas. One is the lack of an industry standard definition for a standard cubic foot of natural gas and a second is the lack of an industry standard for diaphragm meter capacity ratings at elevated pressures. There are presently in use a minimum of ten different base pressures, each of which defines a standard cubic foot of natural gas. There are many different methods of gas measurement in use today-the three most common are diaphragm displacement meters, rotary displacement meters, and inferential meters.
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Document ID: 82F233F4

Fundamentals Of Gas Pressure Regulation
Author(s): Cindy Scott
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, and by the roadside, and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a tendency to take them for granted. Even the gas man who handles regulators every day as part of his job frequently tends to view the regulator simply as a piece of hardware which fits in the line and regulates pressure. The fact that it will do precisely that, for months on end without human intervention, makes it easy to maintain such a view. Its only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application, that we need to look more deeply into the fundamentals of the regulators operation.
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Document ID: 0AA0C9B5

The Gas Gravitometer
Author(s): Dave Terbush
Abstract/Introduction:
This class offers a presentation into the operation of the gas gravitometer. The subject is a direct weighing type instrument and is constructed to measure the difference in the weight of a column of gas and an equal column of dry air. This is transmitted to the chart or indicating plate and recorded as the specific gravity of the gas passed thru the instrument.
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Document ID: D994BAC4

Field Testing With A Transfer Prover
Author(s): Ben Wagner
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for an accurate, reliable, and portable field transfer testing system has resulted from the growth of the gas industry. The growth has brought about the desire for better methods of field testing meters. There are presently four methods available for field testing meters: 1. Low Pressure Flow Prover 2. Critical Flow Prover 3. Sonic Nozzle Flow Prover 4. Transfer Prover The low pressure flow prover, the critical flow prover, and the sonic nozzle flow prover involve the measurement of several variables which in turn may cause the compounding of errors before the final accuracy can be calculated. The transfer prover requires only the sending of temperature and pressure differences between the prover and meter under test. Results obtained from a transfer prover should be more accurate and repeatable and compare more favorably to the accepted standards of the bell and piston provers.
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Document ID: 34B56115

Application Of Several Types Of Wellhead Measurement Equipment
Author(s): Monte K. Hyman
Abstract/Introduction:
I first came to the Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course in 1979. In attending the school, I discovered that most of the people attending were more familiar with Transmission and/or Distribution than they were with Production Measurement. It Is my objective in writing this paper to familiarize those Interested with the basics of Production Measurement. Production Measurement differs from Transmission and Distribution in that it records direct well head production. That being the case, the problems of Dirty Gas, Hi-Gravity Gas, Wet Gas, Hi-Paraffin Oil, etc., must be dealt with. Production Measurement is the process of separating, conditioning, and metering natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons, and water accurately accounting for all three, from each individual well.
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Document ID: F8169553


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