Measurement Library

Measurement Science Conference Publications (1981)

Integrity--The Basis Of Measurement Science
Author(s): Samuel White, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The keynote address traces the significance of the various interpretations of the term integrity from the point of view of an aeronautical technologist consumer of the products of the measurement scientist. The role of honesty (personal integrity) among measurement professionals is reviewed, as are the significance of unimpaired soundness (structural integrity) of measurement systems and the completeness (integration) of measurement systems applications.
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Document ID: E75430A7

Equipment And Procedures For Calibrating Thermoanemometers And Photometers
Author(s): Robert I. Gross
Abstract/Introduction:
Thermoanenoneters and photometers are Used to measure air flow velocities and WP penetration when certifying Laminar F13W Benches. These units ,lose calibration easily and require frequent on-site calibration to be sue they give propel readings. A wind tunnel useful for calibrating Thermoanemometes and prccedure for calibrating photometers are described.
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Document ID: 76FEEA4B

Design Of A New Error-Corrected Coordinate-Measuring Machine*
Author(s): J. B. Bryan, I. L. Carter
Abstract/Introduction:
Lzirrence Livernow National Laboratory is always ir the process of upgvadinp its machining and inspection capabilities. TC meet the demands of new scientjfic programs and to improve the relationships between these capabilities, we must design and build cur own precision tools, :,:B,:cP:sIT.
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Document ID: D4949821

Automated Phase Noise Measurements Of Millimeter Wave Sources
Author(s): W. Il. Seal, A. L. Lance
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes an automated phase noise measurement system used to measure phase noise of millimeter wave sources. The delay line used as an FM discriminator is used to measure a single oscillator. Also, two millimeter vave sources can be measured by heterodyning to obtain a low frequency difference in the frequency range where a coaxial delay line can be used.
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Document ID: 0F7AAFC9

Millimeter-Wave Frequency Measurement System
Author(s): J. Gerdes, m. Crandell
Abstract/Introduction:
AS THE MEMBER OF MILLIMETER-WAVE SYSTEMS BEING DEVELOPED INCREASES, AS DOES THE NEED FOR SEPARATE FREQUENCY MEASUREMENT.
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Document ID: 205FA7C6

Phase Noise Measurements On 94 Ghz Coherent Pulsed Transmitters
Author(s): M.D. Simonutti , D.L. English
Abstract/Introduction:
THE GROWING AND WIDESPREAD INTEREST IN THE USE OF MILLIMETER WAVES FOR SPECIAL PURPOSE RADAR SYSTEMS HAS LED TO THE RECENT DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH PERFORMANCE, SOLID-STATE, 94 GHZ, COHERENT PULSED TRANSMITTERS WITH A PEAK POWER OUTPUT OF OVER 10 WATTS. THESE TRANSMITTERS EMPLOY DOUBLE-DRIFT SILICON IMPATT DIODES OPERATED IN THE INJECTION-LOCKED OSCILLATOR MODE. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PHASE NOISE AND OF THE INTRA-PULSE PHASE RIPPLE OF THE PULSED TRANSMITTER OVER THE FREQUENCY BAND OF INTEREST IS A BASIC REQUIREMENT IN DETERMINING THE SUITABILITY OF THE DEVICE TO A SPECIFIC COHERENT RADAR SYSTEM APPLICATION.
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Document ID: 00DFB70A

Hand Held Radiation Survey Meters
Author(s): John Handloser
Abstract/Introduction:
METROLOGISTS MAY BE SURPRISED AND PERHAPS APPALLED AT THE LACK OF HIGHLY ACCURATE MEASUREMENTS MADE IN THE FIELD OF RADIATION PROTECTION. THIS POINT SHOULD BE EMPHASIZED BECAUSE IT IS NOT ALWAYS UNDERSTOOD BY QUALITY ASSURANCE PERSONNEL. A CALIBRATED DETECTOR FROM NBS IS ACCURATE ONLY TO + 2%. TO THE METROLOGIST USED TO PRIMARY CALIBRATIONS IN THE .1 AND .01% RANGE THIS ACCURACY MAY COME AS A SURPRISE, BUT IN RADIATION MEASUREMENTS THERE ARE VARIABLES THAT ARE NOT EASILY CONTROLLED. ALSO, AS THE RADIATION INTENSITIES DECREASE, THE ACCURACY DECREASES, AND IN THE PRESENT SITUATION CONCERNING RADIATION EXPOSURES OF PEOPLE, THE MEASUREMENT OF LOW INTENSITY RADIATION IS BECOMING INCREASINGLY IMPORTANT.
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Document ID: E0DC913E

Equipment And Procedures For Calibrating Thermoanemometers And Photometers
Author(s): Robert I. Gross
Abstract/Introduction:
THERMOANEMOMETERS AND PHOTOMETERS ARE USED TO MEASURE AIR FLOW VELOCITIES AND DOP PENETRATION WHEN CERTIFYING LAMINAR FLOW BENCHES. THESE UNITS LOWE CALIBRATION EASILY AND REQUIRE FREQUENT ON-SITE CALIBRATION TO BE SURE THEY GIVE PROPER READINGS. A WIND TUNNEL USEFUL FOR CALIBRATING THERMOANEMONETERS AND PROCEDURE FOR CALIBRATING PHOTOMETERS ARE DESCRIBED.
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Document ID: 0AB8CFD2

Thermoluminescence Dosimetry Of Gamma Rays
Author(s): Arthur C. Lucas
Abstract/Introduction:
MIXED FIELD DOSIMETRY OF GAMMA RAYS PERFORMED WITH PASSIVE DOSIMETERS CONTAINED IN A PERSONNEL DOSIMETER BAGE IS PLACED UNDER INCREASING TECHNICAL CONSTRAINT AS QUANTITIES, UNITS AND METHODS OF MEASUREMENT ARE ALTERED IN RECOMMENDATIONS AND LEGISLATION. THERMOLUMINESCENCE DOSIMETRY HAS ADVANCED TO A RELATIVELY SOPHISTICATED STATE AND OFFERS A VARIETY OF METHODS WHICH MAY BE EMPLOYED IN ARRIVING AT A SUITABLY UNAMBIGUOUS MEASUREMENT OF ABSORBED DOSE, DOSE EQUIVALENT, OR DOSE EQUIVALENT INDEX. THE ACCURACY OF SYSTEM PERFORMANCE IS SOMEWHAT DEPENDENT UPON BADGE CONFIGURATION CHOICE AND IS RAPIDLY APPROACHING CONTROL BY NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL STANDARDIZATIONS ORGANIZATIONS.
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Document ID: C281EAA9

The Precision Automated Scalar Network Analyzer. The Integration Of Digital Signal Processing And Precision Airline Techniques.
Author(s): Peter Lacy
Abstract/Introduction:
MICROWAVE NETWORK ANALYZERS HAVE ERRORS INTRODUCED BY THE COMPLEX NETWORK PARAMETERS OF BOTH THE MEASUREMENT DEVICES AND THE DEVICE-UNDER-TEST. FOR OVER A DECADE, THE PHASOR ANALYZERS HAVE ATTEMPTED TO CHARACTERIZE THE MEASUREMENT DEVICES AND THE DEVICE-UNDER-TEST. FOR OVER A DECADE, THE PHASOR ANALYZERS HAVE ATTEMPTED TO CHARACTERIZE THE MEASURMENT DEVICES AND TO CORRECT THE MEASUREMENT ERRORS. BOTH CALIBRATION PROCEDURES AND SOFTWARE CONTINUE TO BE DEVELOPED FOR THIS ERROR CORRECTION.
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Document ID: 01236F13

The Precision Automated Scalar Network Analyzer. The Integration Of Digital Signal Processing And Prcision Airline Techniques.
Author(s): Peter Lacy
Abstract/Introduction:
MICROWAVE NETWORK ANALYZERS HAVE ERRORS INTRODUCED BY THE COMPLEX NETWORK PARAMETERS OF BOTH THE MEASUREMENT DEVICES AND THE DEVICE-UNDER-TEST. FOR OVER A DECADE, THE PHASOR ANALYZERS HAVE ATTEMPTED TO CHARACTERIZE THE MEASUREMENT DEVICES AND TO CORRECT THE MEASUREMENT ERRORS. BOTH CALIBRATION PROCEDURES AND SOFTWARE CONTINUE TO BE DEVELOPED FOR THIS ERROR CORRECTION.
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Document ID: E7D7D9BC

How To Prepare Engineers To Improve U,S, Competitiveness In The 1980S
Author(s): Bruno O. Weinschel
Abstract/Introduction:
AFTER A SHORT REVIEW OF THE POOR STATUS OF U.S. SOMPETITIVENESS IN WORLD TRADE, SUGGESTIONS ARE MADE AS TO HOW THIS MAY BE IMPROVED. THESE INCLUDE THE NEED FOR A BROADER BASED ENGINEERING EDUCATION, AN ORIENTATION TOWARDS INDUSTRY, CIVILIAN AND GLOBAL MARKETS, THE NEED FOR MORE ENGINEERS IN POLICY-MAKING POSITIONS AND A GREATER PARTICIPATION OF ENGINEERS IN THE SHAPING OF PUBLIC POLICY HAVING A TECHNOLOGY CONTENT.
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Document ID: 57B4B767

A Review Of The Six-Port Automatic Network Analyzer Development At Nbs
Author(s): Glenn F. Engen
Abstract/Introduction:
THE IMPACT OF DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY IN THE FIELD OF MICROWAVE METROLOGY IS PERHAPS BEST ILLUSTRATED BY THE EMERGENCE OF THE AUTOMATIC NETWORK ANALYZER (ANA). TO A VERY LARGE DEGREE THIS HAS MADE IT POSSIBLE TO ELIMINATE THE EFFECTS OF HARDWARE IMPERFECTIONS FROM THE MEASUREMENT RESULTS.
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Document ID: 808C0E18

Active Neutron Instrumentation
Author(s): G.W.R. Endres, L.W. Brackenbush, L.G. Faust
Abstract/Introduction:
AN INTRODUCTION TO NEUTRON INTERACTIONS IN TISSUE AND A DISCUSSION OF PERTINENT NEUTRON CROSS-SECTIONS WILL BE GIVEN. A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE STATISTICS OF ENERGY DEPOSITION DUE TO INTERACTIONS OF NEUTRON SECONDARIES IN TISSUE EQUIVALENT MEDIA IS PRESENTED. PRESENT AND PAST TECHNIQUES FOR MEASUREMENT OF NEUTRON RADIATION FIELDS ARE GIVEN WITH ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES IN THE LIGHT OF LEGAL LIMITS AND PROPOSED CHANGES IN THOSE REQUIREMENTS. NEW AND MORE SOPHISTICATED INSTRUMENTS WILL BE REQUIRED TO MEET THE ACCURACY AND PRECISION NEEDED IN THE FUTURE.
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Document ID: C2FDF430

An Approach To In-House Measurement Assurance Programs For Calibration Laboratories
Author(s): David R. Workman
Abstract/Introduction:
A METHOD IS PRESENTED FOR INTER-COMPARISON OF STANDARDS TO PROVIDE A COST EFFECTIVE COMPANY MEASUREMENT ASSURANCE PROGRAM. THE ORGANIZATION AND MANIPULATIONS ARE DESCRIBED ALONG WITH THE RESULTS AND BENEFITS ACHIEVED BY THE PROGRAM.
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Document ID: 2C8411EB

Calibration Measurement Assurance, A Case For Automation
Author(s): Roger Alcantara
Abstract/Introduction:
ACCURACY ASSURANCE OF CALIBRATION MAY BE ACCOMPLISHED WHEN A MEASUREMENT MANAGEMENT PROCESS IS DEVELOPED THAT DEFINES MEASUREMENT PROCEDURES FOR THE TRACEABILITY CHAIN, AND ANALYZES DATA GATHERED IN ORDER TO DEFINE ERRORS AND THEIR TRENDS.
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Document ID: 71209609

Neutron Measurements
Author(s): Richard C. Mccall
Abstract/Introduction:
MANY PEOPLE ARE EXPERIENCED IN MEASURING RADIATION DOSE FROM PHOTONS AND ELECTRONS. THESE TWO FORMS OF RADIATION INVOLVE SIMILAR MEASUREMENTS SINCE IT IS SECONDARY ELECTRONS PRODUCED BY THE PHOTONS WHICH ACRUALLY DELIVER THE DOSE. THE NEUTRON IS A HEAVY UNCHARGED PARTICLE. IT HAS NEARLY THE SAME MASS AS A PROTON, i.e. THE NUCLEUS OF A HYDROGEN ATOM. MOST OF THE NEUTRON DOSE IS ACTUALLY DEPOSITED BY SECONDARY KNOCK-AN PROTONS, BUT SIGNIFICANT FRACTIONS COME FROM OTHER HEAVY PARTICLES, SECONDARY ELECTRONS AND Y-RAYS.
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Document ID: FA5FF200

The Slewed Edge - A Revolutionary New Method For Calibrating Oscilloscope Fast Sweep Speeds
Author(s): Stanley A. Griffiths
Abstract/Introduction:
DEVELOPMENTS IN THE LAST DECADE HAVE INCREASED OSCILLOSCOPE SWEEP SPEEDS WITHOUT CORRESPONDING INCREASES IN VERTICAL-AMPLIFIER BAND WIDTH. THESE DEVELOPMENTS CREATED THE NEED FOR A NEW TYPE OF OSCILLOSCOPE TIMEBASE TIMING SIGNAL - THE SLEWED EDGE, WHICH IS NOW AVAILABLE. SLEWED EDGES ARE A SERIES OF FAST-RISE PULSES THAT ARE PRECISELY AND PROGRESSIBELY DELAYED FROM A TRIGGER SIGNAL. SLEWED EDGES HAVE MANY ADBANTAGES OVER THE OLD SINEWAVE METHOD OF CALIBRATING TIMEBASES:
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Document ID: 1CB6444B

Pulse Parameter Calibrations
Author(s): Albert J. Caravone, Robert S. Cram
Abstract/Introduction:
A METHOD IS DESCRIBED THATENABLES ONE SAMPLING OSCILLOSCOPE TO EMULATE THE TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF ANOTHER SAMPLING OSCILLOSCOPE BY USING HOMOMORPHIC DECONVOLUTION. TO ACCOMPLISH THIS TRANSFER, A SUITABLE TRANSFER STANDARD AND A DIGITAL-PROCESSING OSCILLOSCOPE ARE NEEDED.
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Document ID: DC088F22

Dosimetric Units, Standards And Techniques
Author(s): Eugene Tochilin
Abstract/Introduction:
THE METROLOGY OF IONIZING RADIATION AS APPLIED TO MEDICINE HAS REQUIRED THE DEVELOPMENT OF BOTH INSTRUMENTAL METHODS AND A WELL-DEFINED SYSTEM OF UNITS FOR THE QUANTITIES OF INTEREST. CLOSELY RELATED TO BOTH MEASUREMENT METHOLOGY AND THE DEFINITION OF UNITS IS THE PROVISION OF ACCURATE REFERENCE STANDARDS. SOME HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE SPECIFICATION AND MEASUREMENT OF EXPOSURE, INTENSITY AND QUANTITY OF RADIATION IN A BEAM, AND THE ABSORBED DOSE IT PRODUCES IN TISSUE WILL BE SURVEYED. THE UNITS IN WHICH EACH OF THESE QUANTITIES IS MEASURED WILL BE DEFINED.
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Document ID: A7B75E1F

Door Prize Program Results - 1981
Author(s): Frank Koide
Abstract/Introduction:
THIS YEARS DOOR PRIZE........
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Document ID: 3896A4DE

Metrology Education In The Eighties
Author(s): Stanley A. Griffiths
Abstract/Introduction:
DURING THIS DECADE THE METROLOGY COMMUNITY WILL EXPERIENCE SIGNIGICANT CHANGES. ACCOMPANYING THE DEPARTURE OF MANY SEASONED METROLOGISTS FROM THE FIELD OF ACTIVITY, WILL BE THE INFLUX OF NEWCOMERS. THE LATTER WILL FACE THE ADDED CONPLEXITY OF CONTINUED EXPLOSION OF TECHNOLOGY WITHOUT THE BENEFIT OF THE COUNSEL OF THE SAGES.
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Document ID: C69160C7

Pulse Parameter Calibrations
Author(s): Albert J. Caravone, Robert S. Cram
Abstract/Introduction:
A method is described which enables one sampling oscilloscope to emulate the transient response of another sampling oscilloscope using the Homomophic Deconvolution. To accomplish this transfer, one needs a suitable transfer standard and digital processing oscilloscope.
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Document ID: D901EE20

The Sma Coaxial Connector, Its Interfaces And Precision Microwave Measurement Aspects.
Author(s): m. A. Maury, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
SMA Connectors are the most widely used coaxial connectors in the Microwave Industry. This paper deals with the various interface configurations of SMA Connectors for use up to 40 GHzi and important considerations that apply to making accurate microwave measurements. A new concept is discussed for improving the accuracy of SMA connector measurements utilizing an Automatic Network Analyzer and APC3.5 precision connectors.
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Document ID: 1877D89A

Hand Held Meters
Author(s): John Handloser
Abstract/Introduction:
Portable radiation monitoring instruments are widely used to evslwte the hazards involved when working with ionizinq radiation. The instruments must be sensitive, ruqqed, readily portable, and convenient to use. Two qeneral types of instrtmJents exist: those to measure fields of radiation and those that detect radioactive contamination. The instruments must meet various requirements including temprature independence, the proper response to various energies of radiation, the proper directional respnse, and battery voltage indepndence.
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Document ID: B4AF75E2

Thermoluminescence Dosimetry Of Gamma Rays
Author(s): Arthur C. Lucas
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement of exposure of personnel to x-and gamma radiations in the course of their working is widespread in the developed nations. Gamma ray dosimeters are required, in practice, to measure exposures as low as those normally accumulated as a result of living in the natural environment to those so large that a person might die in a short period.
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Document ID: 392911B7

New Developments In Radiation Protection Instrumentation Via Active Electronic Methods
Author(s): C. John Umbarger
Abstract/Introduction:
New developments in electronics and radiation detectors are improving on real-time data acquisition of radiation exposure conditions. Recent developments in low power circuit designs, hybrid and integrated circuits, and microcomputers have all contributed to smaller and lighter radiation detection instruments that are, at the same time, more sensitive and provide more information (e.g. radioisotope identification) than existing instrumentation.
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Document ID: 6C9C71CC

Two Color Terrameter
Author(s): G.R. Huggett
Abstract/Introduction:
THE TERRAMETER IS A TWO-WAVELENGTH EDM INSTRUMENT THAT HAS BEEN TESTED UNDER CHANGING METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS. THIS SYSTEM, BASED ON THE DISPERSIVE CHARACTER OF THE AIR, CAN DETERMINE THE MEASURED DISTANCE TO BETTER THAN 1 PART IN 10, WITHOUT THE USUAL METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS AND CORRECTIONS.
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Document ID: DF93CFBA


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