Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (1981)

Download collection of documents about ISHM 1981 including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, etc.


International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Diaphragm Meter Capacity Ratings At Elevated Pressures
Author(s): Howard W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
Through the years, the gas industry has been steadily improving, especially from a technological and product improvements viewpoint. Today, the gas industry has s t a n d a r d i z e d on most applications, methods and definitions. Within the measurement field, two important areas are still open for discussion and at the discretion of the i n d i v i d u a l persons or companies operating within these areas. One is the lack of an i n d u s t r y s t a n d a r d definition for a s t a n d a r d cubic foot of natural gas and second i s the lack of an industry standard for d i a p h r a gm meter capacity r a t i n g s at elevated p r e s s u r e s . There are presently in use a minimum of ten different base pressures, each of which defines a standard cubic foot of n a t u r a l gas. There are many different methods of gas metering in use today - the three most common are diaphragm displacement meters, rotary displacement meters, and i n f e r e n t i a l meters.
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Document ID: D5666464

Automatic Bell Proving Of Domestic Meters
Author(s): Eugene R. Devine
Abstract/Introduction:
In automatic proving of Positive Displacement gas meters, the test system consists of a test stand, controls for performing the test sequence. an inlet and outlet manifold to effect control and a Bell Prover (See Fig.
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Document ID: 7EDBC771

Expansible Element Valves Tor Pressure Regulation And Relief
Author(s): Donald C. Peters
Abstract/Introduction:
EXPANSIBLE ELEMENT VALVES TOR PRESSURE REGULATION AND RELIEF Donald C. Peters American Meter Division - Singer Company Atlanta, Georgia CONSTRUCTION Expansible element valves, commonly referred to as sleeve type valves, boot type valves, or tube type valves, have been used in the natural gas industry for many years. The valves can be used for pressure regulation, overpressure protection and flow control. Current designs have greatly reduced the size and weight of the valve and have improved the ease of maintenance. In this paper we shall examine the construction, operation and application of the expansible element valve.
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Document ID: B17DA90A

Relief Valves - Design And Calculations
Author(s): Cindy Scott
Abstract/Introduction:
Relief valves have long been used as a reliable form of over pressure protection. They are generally simple, easy to test, and reasonable in cost. Even so, many factors should be considered to properly compare and select a relief valve.
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Document ID: 55C4B00C

High Pressure Farm Taps And Service Regulators
Author(s): Don Irwin
Abstract/Introduction:
High Pressure Farm Tap Regulators and the low pressure service regulator are the most basic and numerically the most common regulators utilized in the gas Industry. They are simple, reliable, low in cost, easy to install and require practically no maintenance. Both the high pressure farm tap and the low pressure service regulators share many similar construction features spring and diaphragm, boost effect, single soft seat, mechanical advantage (lever arm) between valve and diaphragm. Despite the relative simplicity of this class of regulator, countless engineering hours have been spent on its development and refinement. Most of this work has been spent in the low pressure version-the service regulator.
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Document ID: 481950F8

Prevention Of Freezing In Measuring & Regulating Equipment
Author(s): Michael L. Flanary
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the major problems confronting Measurement and Regulation people, is the formation of hydrate build-up in metering and regulating equipment during the winter months. The word hydrate means a mixture of hydrocarbons and water which can form a solid similar to ice. When this situation occurs Incorrect measurement and the loss of pressure control in regulation equipment happens , which in turn can cause the loss of gas flow.
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Document ID: 7F1C1A41

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): R. H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbulence anywhere in a pipeline system is no asset. However, immediately downstream of pressure regulation, its effect can be especially harmful due to the high velocities that are set up within the regulator body. Design engineers and field men alike will be equally interested in keeping turbulence to a minimum. Both are thinking of maximum throughput with the least amount of noise, plus the best site for analytical instruments such as calorimeters, chromatographs or dew point instruments and a steady sense point for control. In addition, we should be fully aware of the effect of harsh noise on the working efficiency of operating personnel. A person with normal hearing will have a tendency to rush his work in a noisy environment and the result of this is a lowering of the quality of the work.
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Document ID: 2AE7FC0B

Meter Station Noise Forecasting
Author(s): Paul Adams
Abstract/Introduction:
The scope of this presentation is limited to noise which originates in control valves. The generation, transmission, prevention, absorption, isolation, and prediction of control valve noise will be studied.
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Document ID: AC7F5609

Elements Of Sound And Sound Measurement
Author(s): W. G. Birkhead
Abstract/Introduction:
Sound is what we hear. Sound is produced by the transfer of mechanical vibration or disturbance to air. When an object moves or vibrates, it disturbs the air particles near the object and produces a variation in the normal atmospheric pressure. As this pressure variation reaches our eardrums, they too are set to vibrating and this is translated by our hearing mechanism into the sensation called sound. Sound is a passing transient disturbance of particles, either in a gas, liquid, or solid. Noise is disagreeable or undesired sound as compared to speech or music, which are usually desired sounds. In addition to being annoying or irritating, long exposure to excessive noise can cause permanent loss of hearing.
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Document ID: 25E1D044

Design Of Distribution Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Jim Wallace
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 2C4E5F40

Skid Mounted Measuring Stations
Author(s): James A. Shannon, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
As the price of natural gas continues to increase, the need for accurate measuring facilities is of the utmost importance. Since gathering locations are sometimes not readily accessible, and space at these locations is sometimes at a premium, the need for a small, yet accurate and flexible meter station design is imperative. These factors have led to the design of the skid mounted measuring station. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the advantages of this type of meter station, as well as the design criteria used to arrive at the pre-packaged orifice meter station as it applies to offshore locations.
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Document ID: 4D34D6EC

Pressure Regulation And Flow Control With Expansible Tube Type Valves
Author(s): Milton Craven
Abstract/Introduction:
The expansible tube type regulator is an unique design in which the only moving part is the expansible tube. The expansible tube accomplishes the same function as both the diaphragm and inner valve of a diaphragm motor valve. The regulator is normally controlled by a small pilot regulator.
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Document ID: CD974801

Meter Proof Specifications Related To Sample Testing
Author(s): J. H. Oling
Abstract/Introduction:
The title of this paper suggests a discussion of the use of sample testing to verify compliance to meter proof specifications. Sample testing can indeed be utilized with high degrees of confidence to determine uniq.ue meter lot or batch acceptability and can reduce valued man hours in the proving room while in the proving process.
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Document ID: D0F416D1

Overall Measurement Accura
Author(s): Howard W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
When the word measurement is mentioned, the majority of the gas Industry measurement personnel automatically convert their thoughts to a meter. The meter contributes only 1/2 to 1/4 toward the total science of measurement depending on the application.
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Document ID: 82161E89

Ibouble Shooting In Meiameter Telemetering Systems
Author(s): Wm. T. A. Caraway
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is concerned with trouble-shooting Pulse duration telemetering equipment. Initially a definition of telemetering is in order. Simple definitions simply state telemetering is remote measurement or telemetering is measurement at a distance.
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Document ID: 901B4D8B

Some Fundamental Principles Of Orifice Flowmetering
Author(s): Walter E. Wiktorowicz
Abstract/Introduction:
The basic concentric, square-edged orifice plate continues to be the most widely used primary element for both liquid and gas flow measurements. Other types of flowmeters, such as displacement, turbine, target, and vortex, continue to Increase in popularity, but for the measurement of large volumes of gas at high pressure, the simple orifice flowmeter is preeminent.
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Document ID: 79D2F815

Test Instruments And Recorders For Specific Gravity
Author(s): A. R. Kahmann
Abstract/Introduction:
Computation of natural gas flow volTjme, when measured by orifice meter, is made by using the formula Qb C X VwPf V where Qb is the quantity, Hw is the differential, and Pf the absolute static pressure, with C being a constant. The constant C is only constant for a certain specified set of conditions, and in practice is made up of numerous factors including the basic orifice factor, the Reynolds number factor, the expansion factor, the pressure base factor, temperature base factor, flowing temperature factor, specific gravity factor, supercompressibility factor and manometer factor. In order to determine these factors the values of the quantities from which they are derived must either be assumed or measured. This paper will deal with those instruments measuring specific gravity. (For further details of the flow computation refer to A.G.A. Gas Measurement Report No. 3).
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Document ID: 0592EA50

Design Of Metering Systems , ., For Tanker Offloading
Author(s): William R. Taylor
Abstract/Introduction:
The evolution of supertankers and the high price of crude oil and refined petroleum products has created a need and concern for sustained accuracy and total accountability in the measurement for offloading tankers. Metering the offloading of 100,000 BPH of crude oil at 65,000 USD a minute is not uncommon today. Many tankers offloading stations have the capability of metering multipletankers at one time through the same unloading platform. In addition to stringent custody transfer requirements, there is an increasing concern for constant line surveillance.
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Document ID: D3A26EB6

Determination Of Plant Volume Reduction
Author(s): H. C. Tilley
Abstract/Introduction:
Plant Volume Reduction is the reduction in gas volume between the volumes of gas delivered from all sources for processing in the plant and the volume of residue gas resulting from the removal of liquid and liquefiable hydrocarbons, shrinkage, plant fuel usage, flaring, compressor fuel and other uses or losses of gas in the plant incident to or occasioned by processing gas.
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Document ID: A15D601B

Operation Amd Maintenance Of Catalytic Heaters
Author(s): Jim Reel
Abstract/Introduction:
Slrfce early in the 1960s catalytic heaters have been available to the gas industry. In the beginning only a few companies would try to apply a gas heater that operated without a flame to overcome some of the many problems encountered in the production, transmission and distribution of natural gas. After being used for twenty years, the flameless catalytic heater has become recognized as a standard with measurement personnel, along with the other conventional methods of freeze-up protecti
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Document ID: B0DFFB27

LNG Densities For Custody Transfer
Author(s): Robert D. Mccarty
Abstract/Introduction:
Work has been carried out over the past eight years at the National Bureau of standards to provide alternate methods for the accurate determination of the density of liquefied gas (LNG) that would serve as a base for equitable custody transfer.
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Document ID: 6C3D70A6

Custody Transfer Measurements For LNG/LPG
Author(s): R. A. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
The buying, selling, and transportation of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) requires the use of sophisticated measurement systems for accurate determination of the total quantity and energy content for Custody Transfer reporting and safe cargo handling of these cryogenic products. These systems must meet strict safety standards for operation in a hazardous environment and, at the same time, provide accurate, reliable Information for the storage, transfer, and data reporting required for both operational and financial accounting purposes.
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Document ID: B9F1F069

Lhg Blending
Author(s): Rogers G. Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
New sources of n a t u r a l gas such as Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) & S u b s t i t u t e Natural Gas (SNG) have created design and operational problems not normally encountered in the natural gas i n d u s t r y. Normal p i p e l i n e gas has a dry-heating value of approximately 1000 Btus per standard cubic foot. These new sources of n a t u r a l gas can have a d r y - h e a t i n g value ranging from more than 1100 Btug to 600 Btus per standard cubic foot or even lower. To u t i l i z e these types of gases and s t i l l maintain an e q u i t a b l e gas stream requires new c o n t r o l techniques and new equipment. One such a p p l i c a t i o n Is discussed in t h i s paper.
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Document ID: 6273B9CA

Meter Shop Design - Equipment S Tec
Author(s): Robert E, Ferguson
Abstract/Introduction:
My assignment is METER SHOP DESIGN - EQUIPMENT S TECHNIQUE. Our qualifications are projected by our successful repair facility. Meter repair is our only business, not a support function of an end product. We recognize quality and delivery are our only products. Of course, cost is also a major consideration.
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Document ID: EAA943B7

Autoivlatic Level Gauges And Crude Oil Lpg And Products Storage Tanks
Author(s): C. Eilers
Abstract/Introduction:
Efficient inventory control of liquids in bulk s t o r a g e tanks r e q u i r e s a c c u r a t e , r e l i a b l e and safe s y s t e m s for a continuous m e a s u r e m e n t of t h e product l e v e l s and t e m p e r a t u r e s
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Document ID: DD7DFE86

Sampling Light Liquid Hydrocarbon Product
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Driven by the price and demand for natural gas liquids, the measurement and sampling of the natural gas liquid product has had to become a precise operation.
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Document ID: C9FF8BFB

Modification Atc Liquid Meter To API Tables
Author(s): Philip D. Baker
Abstract/Introduction:
NEW API TABLES To improve petroleum measurement accuracy a new edition (September 1980) of the Petroleum Measurement Tables, Volume Correction Factors, has been prepared. There are now the following separate tables for Crude Oils and Refined Products:
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Document ID: 258DD477

J-Intrusive Mass Flow Measurement Of Hydrocarbons
Author(s): Kurt . Plache
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for the measurement of mass flow as an element of process control or revenue metering is not new. But u n t i l recently, these measurements could not be made d i r e c t l y they were made by batch weighing or, in the case of continuous processes, by inference from volumetric flow measurements. To derive mass flow from measured volumetric flow is a complex procedure, requiring corrections of f l u i d density variations with pressure, temperature and specific gravi
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Document ID: 29D33F9C

Test Instruments For Pressure And Water Vapor
Author(s): A. W. Chandler
Abstract/Introduction:
Volume measurement of natural gas at high pressure is principally accomplished by means of orifice type flow meters. Converting orifice meter readings to low pressure volumes requires exact knowledge of pressure and supercompressibility,
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Document ID: F87E4347

Transfer Testing Systems
Author(s): Ben R. Wagner
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for an accurate, reliable, and portable field transfer testing system has resulted from the growth of the gas industry. The growth has brought about the desire for better methods of field testing meters. There are presently available three methods for field testing meters: 1. Low-Pressure Flow Prover 2. Critical Flow Prover 3. Transfer Prover
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Document ID: 64E7645D

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted-For Gas-Distribution
Author(s): R. F. Clark
Abstract/Introduction:
Unaccounted-for gas in a natural gas distribution system is the difference between the amount of gas purchased and the amount of gas sold or accounted for otherwise.
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Document ID: CA3DD5DF

Instruments For Leakage Detection
Author(s): David E. Bull
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many factors involved in selecting the proper instrument for leakage detection. Of critical importance is a knowledge of the combustible gas we want to detect, along with information concerning the problem areas, economic considerations and specific applications of instruments available. Ease of operation and training of personnel to interpret the findings of the instrument are areas that should also be given consideration.
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Document ID: 55BE80C7

Operating Experience For A Gas Pipeline Leak Detection System
Author(s): V. R. Paschall
Abstract/Introduction:
A leakage detection system is becoming more imp or tant each day with the rising cost of natural gas. A 1/8 diameter hole In a pipeline with a pressure of 500 psi w6uld leak approximately 86,854.87 worth of natural gas each year at todays prices. This cost multiplied times each leak on a pipeline system could be an astronomical amount. These are dollars gone up into the atmosphere, never to be recovered.
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Document ID: 10A54B53

Stealing Gas: A Growing Problem
Author(s): Raymond G. Kremer
Abstract/Introduction:
Is stealing gas or in fact all forms of energy an increasing or perhaps even more accurately, a national problem? You can quickly draw your own conclusions by simply reading the newspapers. Cleveland Ohio newspapers reported a loss of 3.2 million dollars by the Cleveland Electric Illuininating Co. and put the East Ohio Gas Companys loss at 10% of its net profit. Similarly Chicago Illinois papers noted a 7 million dollar loss for Commonwealth Edison, with the Peoples Gas Light and Coke Co. and Northern Illinois Gas Co. indicated as jointly having a loss of similar magnitude. The Miami Herald has reported on similar problems experienced by Florida Power and Light. New Orleans Public Service, Public Service Electric and Gas (New Jersey), Long Island Lighting, Con Ed, and my own company Brooklyn Union Gas are among the names on a long list of companies that have experienced significant meter tampering problems,
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Document ID: 6C6CF539

Gas Measurement By Rotary Meters
Author(s): Vincent P. Connor
Abstract/Introduction:
The first positive displacement rotary gas meters were built around the year 1920 by the PH & FM ROOTS Company and the Connersville Blower Company, both located in Connersville, Indiana. In 1966 this gas meter operation was renamed Dresser Measurement Division. However, these rotary meters today are still known as ROOTS. Meters.
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Document ID: 5286CFA4

Energy Conservation In A Natural Gas Liquids Processing Pla
Author(s): D. W. Kemp
Abstract/Introduction:
The Natural Gas Processing Industry has been gaining in growth since the first discovery that some of the components in a natural gas could be separated, liquified, and stored under pressure, to offer a very convenient, clean burning, self propelled fuel. For the past several years, liquified petroleum components have included ethane, the lightest component of natural gas except methane itself. The increase in recovered products resulted in substantial increase in energy consummed for processing. I would like to discuss briefly some of the things Cities Service Company thinks are important in aiding energy conservation in a gas processing plant.
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Document ID: AF9EBDA9

Field Experience With Turbine Meters
Author(s): Einar A. Poyhonen
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of natural gas with a turbine meter is a very recent development in the United States. Although the turbine meter has been a proven measurement tool since 1920 and used to some degree outside the United States, it was not until the early 1960s that the meter began to gain acceptance and its use as a measurement instrument begun. Since then it has made great strides as a measurement instrument and today it is being used in all phases of the gas industry. Transmission companies are using the meter In their operations and distribution companies use the turbine meter to fill in a measurement gap that has existed between the positive displacement diaphragm and rotary meters and the orifice meter. A quality instrument, it plays a vital role as an accepted custody transfer and accounting instrument when properly installed and -. maintained,
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Document ID: EB4C1112

Thermal Energy Measurement
Author(s): Daniel G. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
Traditionally the form of energy called natural gas has been purchased and sold on a quantitive or volumetric basis. The volume of gas delivered to a customer in total cubic feet at some reference condition was determined and a bill issued at a cost per cubic foot. This concept is acceptable providing all natural gas is of the same quality. Since gas is a form of energy, each unit of volume has a certain amount of available heat. Therefore, since energy is what we are purchasing or selling, the energy content or heating value per cubic foot should be considered
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Document ID: 97598522

Proving Domestic Meters
Author(s): R. m. Nicholson
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas meter has often been called the cash register of the gas Industry. It is, and as such needs to be as accurate as possible. The testing of the meters and adjusting them to be as accurate as possible is what this paper is about. We are going to talk about proving domestic meters.
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Document ID: 56DEA6A8

What The Office Group Expects From The Field Group
Author(s): Jack G. Moore
Abstract/Introduction:
In these days of ever-increasing gas costs, complsK exchanges and constant audits of other companies volumes, communication between field and office group was never more important.
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Document ID: 1048E6E2

Measured Steps For Training The Measurement Man
Author(s): Randle W. Belyeu
Abstract/Introduction:
The increased value of natural gas today demands the greatest attainable measurement accuracy. In order to ensure this goal, measurement personnel must understand the theory of the behavior of natural gas. They must also be thoroughly knowledgeable of all the equipment utilized In todays complex measuring stations.
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Document ID: 0D10B9B4

Fundamental Gas Laws
Author(s): F. Mark Townsend
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement Is the determination of the volume of a gas at a particular temperature and pressure. The measurement should be as accurate as possible, making use of the best data and techniques available. The gas quantity is usually expressed in cubic feet or cubic meters at some specific temperature and pressure.
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Document ID: C3D25AA1

The Calculation Of Gas Properties-Past, Present And Future: 1981 Status
Author(s): Kenneth E. Starling
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas properties calculation methods used in the past and at the present time are discussed and a projection of future gas properties calculation methods is presented. Note is made of the fact that gas properties calculation methods prior to about 1960 generally were made using tables and/or charts, while since the early 1960s the computer has been utilized extensively. Some of the inadequacies of present-day gas properties calculation methods are noted and improvements which can be expected in the near future are discussed. The compressibility factor of natural gases is given particular attention.
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Document ID: 06ACC55E

The Roles Of Epa And Industry In Protecting Our Environment Rcra And Its Effects On Waste Disposal
Author(s): Wayne C. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
The year of 1980 has seen come rather major changes in regulations governing the disposal of what were once considered solid waste. Wastes that once were considered easy to dispose are now creating major disposal problems
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Document ID: B1D72389

Keeping Osha In Perspective
Author(s): Gomer J. Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
The Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, commonly referred to as OSHA has been with us for almost ten years. This act, legislated by Congress, established Federal Safety and Health Standards that were adopted from National consensus standards at the time of the Acts Introduction to the American Industrial Scene.
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Document ID: 34658C5F

Rotating Vane Gas Meters
Author(s): Wilbur W. Lints
Abstract/Introduction:
Two types of rotating vane meters were initially introduced to the gas industry during the 1950s. The first was introduced in the early 1960s and was designed with two vanes on the rotor assembly. The second was introduced in 1969 and was designed with four vanes on the rotor assembly. In 1978 a third model was designed and marketed utilizing a rotor assembly with three vanes. The following pertains to the four-vane and three-vane meters, designated CVM.
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Document ID: 0F411D42

A Look At Dot Inspection Requirements
Author(s): J. Clifton Williams, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
It is indeed a pleasure to be here today to take A Look at DOT Inspection Requirements with you. When first contacted about making this presentation, I thought, what will I talk about, DOT is not involved in measurement. Well, this is true, insofar as the gas or commodity accounting aspects of measurement is concerned. DOT has no jurisdiction over thru-put volumes and gas accounting and generally is not interested in this aspect of operations, except where leaks are involved. Other agencies, such as the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, are concerned with these matters. I realized, however, that I did have more than enough to discuss with you. DOT does have jurisdiction over pipeline safety. Therefore, while DOT may not have a jurisdictional interest in the volumes of gas or commodity being measured, they have a very definite Interest in the facilities and procedures being used. DOT is interested in all safety aspects of gas measurement facilities, including the design, materials, installation, testing, overpressure protection, operation and maintenance of the facilities. DOT is also interested in the procedures established for use by personnel in the handling of the gas or commodity and in operating and maintaining the facilities, including time intervals of inspections, tests, etc., including odorization, where required. Therefore, my message to you today, is that measurement personnel have a very definite involvement with DOT and should certainly have an interest in taking A Look at DOT Inspection Requirements.
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Document ID: B4DE02A5

Sonic Nozzle Method Of Gas Meter Proving
Author(s): Joseph Wager
Abstract/Introduction:
AGA REPORT NO. 6, PART IV, DESCRIBES THE USE OF CRITICAL FLOW (SONIC VELOCITY) ORIFICE PLATES TO TEST LARGE CAPACITY, DISPLACEMENT GAS METERS OVER A LIMITED RANGE OF PRESSURES, TEMPERATURES AND GAS SPECIFIC GRAVITIES (I). IMPROVEMENTS USING CRITICAL FLOW NOZZLE-VENTURIS HAVE BEEN DESCRIBED (2,3) AND AN INTERNATIONAL STANDARD METHOD, PROPOSED BY IS0/TC30 W.G.5 DESCRIBES TWO NOZZLE -VENTURI DESIGNS (it
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Document ID: 4DA6E37B

Calibratioh Of Liquid Provers
Author(s): Daniel m. Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
IMTRODUCTIOH Liquid provers are those provers used to prove meters in liquid service. The basic types of provers used are volumetric tank provers and pipe provers. The purpose of the calibration of a liquid prover is to determine its certified base volume, with traceability to recognized standards and accepted practices. The base volume is the gross operating volume of the prover corrected to standard conditions (such as 6o F and 0 PSIG in U. S. Customary units).
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Document ID: 56043040

Calibration Of Liquid Provers
Author(s): Daniel m, Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid provers are those provers used to prove meters in liquid service. The basic types of provers used are volumetric tank provers and pipe provers. The purpose of the calibration of a liquid prover is to determine its certified base volume, with traceability to recognized standards and accepted practices. The base volume is the gross operating volume of the prover corrected to standard conditions (such as 6o F and 0 PSIG in U. S. Customary units).
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Document ID: 3102C262

On-Line Computers For Custody Transfer
Author(s): Chalmus E. Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic on-site flow computers have been in use in the gas transmission Industry for over twenty years. During this time they have developed from crude flow Indicators into precise energy measuring systems. Their use for custody transfer has, in general, been limited to special circumstances which make their use mutually desirable to buyer and seller. Their acceptance in the Industries varies from optimistic faith to tolerance to complete mistrust.
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Document ID: 2C6DB84F

Application Of Microprocessors
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
Refinements in electronic instrumentation are continually providing more reliable and better quality measurement and control devices. Improved methods of calibrating, programming and operating of these instruments have broadened their application. The great variety of measurement and control applications require many different combinations of these instruments to achieve reliability, repeatability and accuracy with the lowest capital investment.
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Document ID: CBEFAEF6

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Joseph L, Pond
Abstract/Introduction:
The 50 million gas meters currently in service with the different phases of the gas industry in the U.S., plus the majority of a similar number of meters Installed elsewhere in the World, use two different physical principles to measure gas volumes
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Document ID: 5A7DD6AC

Large Volume Measurement By Turbine And Rotary Meters
Author(s): Daniel R. Fulton
Abstract/Introduction:
Volume measurement of gas by tiorbine and rotary type gas meters is becoming increasingly important. Each type meter has its own characteristics and each offers distinct advantages in the production! transmission and distribution segments of the natural gas industry. With the value of gas increasing significantly each year, more attention is being given to accurate measurement at the point of sale and quite often, depending on the flow rates, either turbine or rotary meters best fit the need, For instance, in production measurement the turbine and rotary meter are used in custody transfer, well testing, compressor fuel and in other field accounting applications. In the transmission segment these same meters are used for custody transfer of gas volumes as well as for internal accounting of gas usage such as compressor fuel consumption. In distribution measurement turbine and rotary meters are used for large volume sales to industrial and commercial type accounts.
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Document ID: BBF20960

Turbine Meter And Continuous Integrator
Author(s): Richard J. Golfer
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of gas turbine meters in the fuel gas industry for production, transmission and distribution is rapidly increasing. Turbine meters also have wide acceptance in many industrial gas applications. They offer high capacity and wide rangeability, combined with compact size and light weight. Also, they have quick response and are easily maintained.
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Document ID: D683A940

Gas Turbine Meter Report - AGA//7
Author(s): G. G. Less
Abstract/Introduction:
As a result of turbine meters becoming more and more in demand, purchase contracts and tariffs are now including turbine meter clauses permitting their use. Numerous requests have been received, from producers and transmission companies involved In gas contract negotiations, regarding the availability of a turbine meter document which would serve much the same purpose as A.G.A. Committee Report No.3 on orifice meter measurement. There is a very apparent reluctance on the part of some non-turbine-meter users to accept turbine meter measurement until a document is published regarding recommended and accepted practices on installation and calibration of turbine meters. Until such a document is available, questions will continue to be asked on installation, calibration, durability, and accuracy compared to orifice meter measurement.
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Document ID: 7ABD8260

Flow Measurement By Insertion Turbine Meters
Author(s): Walt W. Tippery
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow measurement is one of todays fastest growing f i e l d s of instrumentation. Much of the flow measurement equipment which is now on the market did not exist 20 years ago, and a s i g n i f i c a n t amount has been available for less than 5 years.
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Document ID: FC5E396D

Correcting Instruments Applied To Displacement And Turbine Meter
Author(s): Meters Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
Displacement and turbine meters provide an extremely accurate measure of the actual volume of gas consumed at the meter. If the density of the gas is also known at the meter, then the volume measured can be corrected to useful mass terms or to equivalent volume or standard volume for equitable contract billing. Correcting instruments calculate the density of the gas at the meter and directly modify the output frequency of the meter to provide a totalized reading in corrected contract volume. This effectively converts a volume meter into a mass meter. In order to understand how to best apply and use correcting instruments, we will discuss the details of how pressure and temperature measurements are used to provide correction of volume to mass. Dont let the details obscure the simplicity of what is being accomplished: The Corrector takes the rotation output from the Meter and factors it for changes in gas pressure and temperature.
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Document ID: D9551B08

Installation, Operation And Maintenance Installation Of Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): Michael D. Beall
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic Chart Changers were developed for the specific purpose of saving time and money by changing charts when there was no one present but by no means should they eliminate company meter technicians or their chart grabber personnel. These people will always be needed to check the calibration and performance of the meter as well as collect the charts, monitor them for any unusual record and forward them to the chart processing/accounting office at the end of the month.
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Document ID: 2A92F740

Installaticn, Opehation And Maintenance Of Autcmvtic Chart Changer
Author(s): John H. Lindsey
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic chart changers have proven time and time again that they will save money for cperating ccsnpanies vAien used judiciously.
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Document ID: 843BCD1E

Field Experience With Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): F. L. Carroll
Abstract/Introduction:
The automatic chart changer was developed primarily to satisfy the chart changing problems of gas transmission and gas production companies that had remotely installed flow, pressure and temperature recorders. In recent years, there has been a growing problem of finding people near measurement facilities who are willing or able to change charts at a specified time of day, 365 days a year. So, the automatic chart changer has become a common component of many measurement stations. The old people problem of chart changing was thus eliminated, but some new and different problems came with the new equipment.
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Document ID: 3269C148

From Mcf To Mmbtu
Author(s): Thomas F. Mcentire
Abstract/Introduction:
When natural gas was cheap, there was no good reason to make any appreciable differentiation between total volume and total energy, after all natural gas as such could only fall within a limited range of heating values. Now it is a different story. The price of natural gas at all phases of its life continues to rise. With its increased value, it is important that the basis on which this Important commodity is exchanged relates to the amount of energy changing hands. It is for this reason that MMBtu is more and more becoming a household word. Like many things In life when changes are made, so many confusion factors are thrown in that a simple procedure is made complicated.
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Document ID: 2994C05D

Deterhnaticn Op Calokefic Value Op Natural Gasses
Author(s): Richard L. Dick Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
A viable alternative to caloriraetry amVor chramotography is available. It is the Therm-Titrator, a new approach to the determination of calorific valL of natural gasses.
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Document ID: D4C0D279

Techniques Of Gas Sampling
Author(s): John B. Phillips
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses some of the equipment and procedures that are presently being used to obtain a representative sample from a flowing natural gas stream.
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Document ID: 82B8CE41

Energy Measurement Utilizing On Line Chromatograph
Author(s): Arthur F. Haas
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of gas chromatographs for determination of the energy in natural gas is certainly not new. The laboratory chromatograph has been utilized for this purpose for many years quite successfully. The important difference in the system described in this paper is that the chromatograph is truly on line that Is, it is located in the field at the sample tap and repeatedly samples directly from the line automatically. Previously, samples were taken in bombs and transported to the laboratory where a compositional analysis was run. It is now possible to take a sample from a flowing line, determine the composition and flow rate, compute the total energy and transmit the finished data to a remote location. This paper will concern Itself with the system ENCAL II which is specifically designed as a total energy measurement system.
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Document ID: D1F83793

Recording Calorimeters - Installation And Testing
Author(s): J. W. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
The Importance of Btu measurement has Increased over the past years to the point that now we are faced with the prospect of buying all gas on a Btu adjusted price. The Btu at large purchase points can best be determined by installation, at the site, of a recording calorimeter.
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Document ID: 1FF5A1AD

Installation And Operation Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): M.W. Nielsen
Abstract/Introduction:
The Cutler-Hammer recording Calorimeter measures the total calorific value of ccatibustible gas. It continuously samples, indicates, and records BTU per cubic foot.
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Document ID: 21828ED5

Liquefied Natural Gas - Operations And Measurement
Author(s): Sharad K. Desai
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1969, anticipating the gap between supply and demand of natural gas, particularly along the Eastern Seaboard, to grow wider, Cabot Corporation foriped its wholly owned subsidiary, Distrigas Corporation. Distrigas anticipated it could fill this gap by importing Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) from Algeria.
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Document ID: 5FAD5381

Measurement Station Inspection Program And Guide
Author(s): Glynn R. Hoffpauir
Abstract/Introduction:
Every company in the natural gas industry has had to take a hard long look at their measurement programs due to the increase in price of natural gas. We will present some suggestions for you in order to have a successful measuring station inspection program.
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Document ID: BD985F2D

High Capacity Liquid Measurement Systems
Author(s): Drew S. Weaver, P.E.
Abstract/Introduction:
The large scale demand and increased costs for crude oil and refined products has continued to increase the need for high capacity liquid measurement systems. The- accuracy of the measurement system is of prime importance due to the large volumes being transported. For instance, a 48 pipeline such as the Alaska Pipeline has a capacity of approximately 1.7 million barrels per day. At todays crude oil price of approximately 30.00 per barrel, this flow represents over 50 million/day. On the other hand, a supertanker of crude at a capacity of approximately 3.5 million barrels represents a cargo value of over 100 million.
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Document ID: 22C040ED

Mass Measurement Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): Bill R. Caffey
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement of natural gas liquids has been in a continual state of change since the conception of NGL recovery. Each particular product called for the physical properties to be studied, correlated, and various tables made to accommodate the measurement. However, normal methods to correct volumes to standard conditions by use of known temperature, pressure, and gravity data became inaccurate with the advent of various mixed hydrocarbon streams, especially those containing ethane,
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Document ID: 6313D308

Positive Displacement Liquid Meters
Author(s): Patrick H. Fraizer
Abstract/Introduction:
We are approaching the 1980s and positive displacement metering is still the industry standard for measurement of liquids. Over the years, we have had many design improvements and will be approaching the electronic era with vigor.
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Document ID: 1A1F2756

Liquid Meter Proving Techniques
Author(s): John B. Miller III
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid meter proving is a physical test conducted on a liquid meter to determine its performance. Meter performance is the relationship of the volume of liquid registered on the meters counter to the actual quantity of liquid which passed through the meter. The only way to determine this relationship is to prove the meter against a known volume.
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Document ID: 02A7E685

Tufbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
Although the liquid turbine meter principle dates back many decades, the axial flow turbine meters presently employed for liquid measurement are quite new. The axial flow turbine meter was first used for driving the rotor and normally where accuracy of measurement was not of prime importance. Reliability was of greater importance, so parts were made rugged and the rotor was designed more to be non-clogging than to be accurate. However, through the evolution of technology, the turbine meter has maintained reliability and ruggedness while attaining a high degree of accuracy. Today, the meters used for water flow have accuracies of to.25% over ranges of 10 to 1 or more while maintaining the same high degree of reliability and ruggedness as did their predecessors.
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Document ID: AEB0AB42

Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Archie R. Hendrix
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine type flowmetering devices are applied worldwide to the measurement and control of liquid product, in both the industrial and petroleum marketplace. Significant advantages associated with the use of turbine flowmeters in lieu of other metering principles make increased future usage inevitable. Newcomers to the field of flow measurement should become familiar with the fundamental characteristics and conditions surrounding the turbine meter, in order to better understand its usage. Consequently, this paper is provided as a brief guide to the operation and application of turbine flowmeters for liquid product measurement,
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Document ID: A5C3EFA0

Calibration Of Liquid Density Meters
Author(s): Mr. Eldon Peninger
Abstract/Introduction:
Historically liquid density meters have been a much ignored and misused piece of measurement equipment. With the increased need for mass measurement, accurate densities are required. Calibration procedures have generally inferred density of the measured product. With the use of A.P.I, approved procedures, using a pyknometer, the density readings can be proved, thereby greatly improving overall measurement accuracy.
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Document ID: 7B77E085

Liquid Measurement By Segmental Wedge
Author(s): Raymond E. Owen
Abstract/Introduction:
It has been well established that differential producing primary flow elements such as orifice plates, venturl tubes, and flow nozzles are highly limited when applied to flow measurement at low Reynolds numbers. These elements are restricted to turbulent flow where the Reynolds number is above 4000. If extended below 4000, these elements inherently will deviate from the basic square root relationship between flow and differential pressure. This deviation can be of considerable magnitude and, therefore, will have a significant effect on flow measurement accuracy.
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Document ID: 267B075C

Clamp-On Ultrasqhic Flowmeter Application Considerations And Field Test Results
Author(s): T. R. Schmidt
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary attraction of the clamp-on ultrasonic flowmeters (Doppler and through transmission*) is their relatively low installed cost when added to existing operating systems. This factor has prompted a limited evaluation and test program to determine these meters suitability and characteristics when measuring typical liquids encountered In the petroleum industry. This paper will outline some of the observations and results of this effort.
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Document ID: D0D05BCF

Controlling Surge In Liquid Pipeline
Author(s): Rich Kelley
Abstract/Introduction:
What is Surge? Surges or hydraulic transients, commonly known as water hammer are sudden Increases or decreases of the total pressures in a piping system due to changes in velocity of the fluid in a pipeline. Change in velocity, such as would result from the sudden closure of a valve in a flowing pipeline, causes the fluid to suddenly come to rest, resulting in a pressure increase in the system above the operating pressure. The energy associated with the moving fluid is converted into energy of pressure when it is suddenly stopped. In steady state pipeline flow, there is no change in the flow conditions at a point with passing time.
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Document ID: A1893140

Maintaining And Trouble Shooting Lact Units
Author(s): Arnold Tims
Abstract/Introduction:
Lease Automatic Custody Transfer (LACT) Unit used for sale of liquid hydrocarbons from a production tank battery to a pipe line.
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Document ID: 839787F0

Automated Measurement Of Loading Racks
Author(s): Richard E. Ullery
Abstract/Introduction:
For a period of years bulk terminals have been adding automated measurement of their loading racks. In the early years, automation was added solely for security.
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Document ID: 121DEA45

Automated Measurement Of Loading Racks
Author(s): Richard E. Ullery
Abstract/Introduction:
For a period of years bulk terminals have been adding automated measurement of their loading racks. In the early years, automation was added solely for security.
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Document ID: FE9027B3

Crude Oil Sampling For Custody Transfer
Author(s): E. L. Graves
Abstract/Introduction:
Since crude oil is sold on a dry basis, it is necessary to accurately determine the amount of sediment and water in the stream at all transfer points
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Document ID: D77F753D

Crude Oil Sampling For Custody Transfer
Author(s): E. L. Graves
Abstract/Introduction:
Since crude oil is sold on a dry basis, it is necessary to accurately determine the amount of sediment and water in the stream at all transfer points.
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Document ID: 2B4CAC9B

GUAGING,TESTING And Running Of Lease Tanks
Author(s): D.L. Arrick, S.K. Tate
Abstract/Introduction:
A person would never write a personal check without first ascertaining the value of the item he is purchasing. When writing a run ticket a guager Is writing a weigh bill, bill of sale and a check combined in one document. It is written to allow a change of ownership or custody of the content of the tank. A guager has the responsibility to see that accurate information is obtained and recorded. Each true datum can only be obtained by careful observation and correct use of proper tools.
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Document ID: 4BDACC9D

Application Of The Mini-Computer To Crude Oil Measurement And Line Balance
Author(s): John m. Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
The number of facilities in the U.S. and worldwide utilizing mini-computer based systems for the measurement of crude oil flow has increased significantly in recent years. Primarily this is a result of rapid advances and innovations in electronic technology and improved manufacturing/testing techniques by Minx-Computer vendors. Many Mini-Computers on the market today are powerful and reliable computational and automatic process control machines with the capability to access and store large volumes of data in milliseconds. These features make todays mini-computers particularly applicable to the measurement and control of crude oil flow in pipelines, offshore production platforms, and terminal facilities, all of which require an extremely high degree of accuracy reliability complex and critical valve interlocking and fast, reliable scanning of a large number of data and control points.
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Document ID: D1D2922E

Application Of The Mini-Computer To Crude Oil Measurement And Line Balance
Author(s): John m. Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
The number of facilities in the U.S. and worldwide utilizing mini-computer based systems for the measurement of crude oil flow has Increased significantly in recent years. Primarily this is a result of rapid advances and innovations in electronic technology and improved manufacturing/testing techniques by Mini-Computer vendors. Many Mini-Computers on the market today are powerful and reliable computational and automatic process control machines with the capability to access and store large volumes of data in milliseconds. These features make todays mini-computers particularly applicable to the measurement and control of crude oil flow in pipelines, offshore production platforms, and terminal facilities, all of which require an extremely high degree of accuracy reliability complex and critical valve interlocking and fast, reliable scanning of a large ntimber of data and control points.
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Document ID: C8EF9038

Calibration Of Storage Tanks
Author(s): Peter Quinn
Abstract/Introduction:
All transfers of petroleum products, petrochemicals and liquified gases imply that the product is passing one step further along the chain between initial supply point and final user. At each step ofthe chain custody or responsibility changes hands be it from one part of an organization to another or from one owner to another. Also at each stage oil accountants and financial accountants are trying to balance their books and both rely on the measurement system for their basic input. Data derived from either a static or dynamic measurement is the base for their calculations oil accountants calculate the quantities of oil which have been received, transferred, or dispatched the financial accountants receive, transfer and dispatch money in accordance with the advice of the oil stock position.
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Document ID: F1D4056B

Loss Surveillance In Tanker Operations
Author(s): Andy H. Millspaugh
Abstract/Introduction:
Loading: Net ship versus gross shore 0 to +0.5% Intransit: Ullages at loading and 0.3% discharge Discharge: Net ship versus gross 0.5% shore Since the Inception of tanker operations for transporting crude oils the petroleum industry has tended to accept substantial losses as merely a cost of doing business. A loss of 0.5% was long referred to as an industry standard. It has even been stated that this loss level implies efficiency in tanker operations. This efficiency on a typical Persian Gulf loading will cost the importing company 400,000 in unexplained oil loss on just one voyage. In todays business environment obviously this performance level is no longer efficient and it has never been an industry standard. With imported crude oils costing 40 per barrel or more, the reduction of oil losses has become a high priority item in all aspects of our business, but especially so in bulk shipments, particularly tanker operations.
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Document ID: 996BDE18

Domestic Meters
Author(s): J. Kamalieh
Abstract/Introduction:
History: According to the historian, the process of turning coal into natural gas was originated in England and, thus, it is only normal the first gas meter was introduced in England in early 1800. The domestic type gas meter was first introduced in the United States in the city of Baltimore in 1820. In the early days, the gas was mainly sold on an hourly basis. These early meters did not have the features that the present meters have, but a rather complicated device called the wet meter (see Figure #1).
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Document ID: 8C7D7136

Gas Chromatography
Author(s): m. P. Campo
Abstract/Introduction:
The 70s saw energy shortages, and even with less annual increase in consumption, there were supply problems at times. An ease of government control brought about the opening of new energy fields which previously were considered to be economically unfeasible. Less government control, coupled with inflation, increased the price tag on energy to higher and higher levels. Looking to the 80s, many of these problems will remain with us.
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Document ID: CE3F17F6

Moisture Titrators
Author(s): James C. Bozeraan
Abstract/Introduction:
The prediction or actual determination of the amount of entrained moisture in natural gas systems is recognized to be an essential part of pipeline operations. Water in the vaporous or fluid state poses not only operation problems but also greatly aids in internal corrosion/ errosion of the pipeline, the single largest Investment most pipeline companies have, and it must be protected. By knowing the amount of moisture present, and where it is entering the system, various protective/preventive measures may be undertaken to negate the negative effects. In order to do this, the amount of moisture present as well as its source must be identified. This necessitates accurate means to measure the percentage of water to natural gas.
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Document ID: 17C249BB

Specific Gravity Ikstrumehts And Gas Sampling Devices Installation And Operation
Author(s): D . J . Terbush
Abstract/Introduction:
The Arcco-Anubi s Gas Gravitometer is a direct weighing type instrument and is constructed to measure the difference in the weight of a column of gas and an equal column of dry air. This is transmitted to the chart and recorded as the specific gravity of the gas passed thru the instrument.
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Document ID: A5486016

Kinetic Type Indicating And Recording Instruments For Determining Specific Gravity
Author(s): K. E. Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
This class offers a comprehensive presentation of the kinetic type gas gravltometer. Including: Simple explanation of operating principle Equipment set-up and operation In field Trouble-shooting, repair and adjustment
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Document ID: AD383792

Installation And Operation Of Densitometers
Author(s): m. H. November
Abstract/Introduction:
The Densitometer is viewed as a sensing component in a system of measurement. The influence of Installation design and its relationship to systematic errors is explored relative to impact on accuracy. On-line systems for field calibration are reviewed.
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Document ID: B3824CBC

Determination Of Water Vapor Content And Hydrocarbon Dew Point In Natural Gas
Author(s): Douglas E, Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
The determination of water vapor content and hydrocarbon dew point in natural gas is of major importance for the maintenance of quality control between gas supply points and ultimate end use. The following discussion will cover those methods used by the natural gas transmission industry for the determination of water vapor and liydrocarbon dew point.
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Document ID: 579A4DDD

Use Of Density Meters And Microprocessors For Energy Measurement & Control
Author(s): M.H. November
Abstract/Introduction:
Energy measurement for hydrocarbon fuels is a primary parameter related to the economic value of the product. The physical properties of these fluids shows an important relationship of product density to therms value, and hence, its economic worth. Additionally, product density has an important influence on volumetric metering practices. When coupled with a velocity/ volume flowmeter, metered density provides a convenient means to measure mass flow, and to automatically compensate flow systems for density effects. These combined factors paved the basis for high performance mass flow/energy metering systems. Coincidental with these developments, the evolution of the microprocessor computer-on-a-chip embodied within advanced type flow computers, provided cost-effective electronics for sophisticated high performance energy metering system
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Document ID: 2A567EAB

New API Table 6 Microprocessors
Author(s): John R. Naber Daniel Industries, Inc. Post Office Box Houston, Texas
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the l a t t e r part of the 1970s, microprocessors have been applied in custody transfer measurement applications. The 1980 Revision to API Standard 2540 and i t s implementation in a microprocessor-based measurement instrument is discussed.
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Document ID: 6FD563A6

Determination Of Hydrogen Sulfide And Total Sulfur By Titration Methods
Author(s): Art Moen
Abstract/Introduction:
ELECTROLYTE GENERATION OF BROMINE AS A TITRATING REAGENT FOR MEASUREMENT OF SULFUR COMPOUNDS IN THE GASEOUS PHASE WAS INTRODUCED TO INDUSTRY NEARLY 20 YEARS AGO
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Document ID: B6B375ED

Orifice Meter Operation
Author(s): H. H. Schepers
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter is the cash register of the gas industry. If you have not already heard that statement, you probably havent been in gas measurement very long. And when you do hear it, it is a statement with which you should take exception. A cash register is a device used to store money and comes in an infinite number of forms from microprocessor-oriented to a cigar box, and is important to any business. However, whan a dealer in precious metals purchases a few ounces of gold, you can be certain it will not be weighed on a cash register. Neither will the kilowatt hours used in your home be metered through a cash register. The orifice meter, the gold dealers balance, and the electric meter are all accurate measurement devices, and are of much greater importance than a cash register, for the accuracy of the measurement device determines whether the amount of money deposited in or taken from the cash register for a certain amount of a commodity will be translated into a profit or a loss.
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Document ID: 1301BF8B

Fundamentals Of Diaphragm Type Positive Displacement Meters
Author(s): Mark Hichens
Abstract/Introduction:
The Positive Displacement Meter principle is applied on both diaphragm type and rotary type meters. Although the operational principle is different, the fact remains that both types measure by means of sealing off a known quantity of gas, and subsequently releasing it. The bulk of the meters in use today are of the positive displacement type. Over 40 million gas meters are employed in measuring gas volumes by positive displacement in the U.S. Of this total, the large majority are used to measure gas volumes consumed by domestic residential customers. Other measurement principles are applied in the case of the Turbo-Meter, Orifice Meter or Swirl Meter.
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Document ID: 97BA696B

Bellows-Type Orifice Meters
Author(s): Giles m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
THE BELLOWS-TYPE DIFFERENTIAL GAUGE HAS FOUND WIDESPREAD APPLICATION AND INCREASING POPULARITY IN ORIFICE METERING. ITS OPERATION DOES NOT REQUIRE MERCURY NOR CRITICAL LEVELING FOR OPERATION. THE RAPID RESPONSE AND HIGH OUTPUT TORQUE MAKE THE BELLOWS METER PARTICULARLY ADAPTABLE TO INTEGRATING AND CONTROLLING DEVICES. THE METER IS GENERALLY NOT AFFECTED BY CONDENSED LIQUID IN THE MEASURING SYSTEM. THE SELF-DRAINING FEATURE ALONG WITH PROPER INSTALLATION MAKES IT VERY ADAPTABLE TO WET GAS MEASUREMENT.
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Document ID: 6E6789EB

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Ed Pringle
Abstract/Introduction:
DUE TO THE CONTINUALLY INCREASING COST OF HYDROCARBON PRODUCTS, BOTH LIQUID AND GAS, THERE IS A GROWING CONCERN FOR ACCURATE MEASUREMENT. IN MANY APPLICATIONS THIS BEGINS WITH A SIGNAL FROM THE PRIMARY ELEMENT, CONSISTING OF THE ORIFICE FITTING, ORIFICE PLATE AND METER TUBE.
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Document ID: D9A7C8B1

Bellows Orifice Metering
Author(s): Lester F. Lind
Abstract/Introduction:
BELLOWS METERING IS HERE TO STAY. TURBINE, VORTEX, ELBOW, SONIC AND POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT ALL HAVE DEFINITE APPLICATION IN THE GAS INDUSTRY BUT THE BOTTOM LINE IN THE GATHERING FIELD IS AND WILL BE FOR SOME TIME TO COME THE DRY FLOW BELLOWS ORIFICE METER.
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Document ID: AF759078

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Ray Forbes
Abstract/Introduction:
THROUGHOUT THE MEASUREMENT INDUSTRY, THE TERM PRIMARY ELEMENT GENERALLY REFERS TO THE ORIFICE PLATE, THE ORIFICE PLATE HOLDING DEVICE, AND THE ADJACENT PIPING OR METER TUBE. THE SINGLE MOST IMPORTANT ITEM OF THE PRIMARY DEVICE IS THE ORIFICE PLATE, SINCE IT IS THE ORIFICE PLATE WHICH CREATESS THE DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE WITHIN A FLOWING MEDIUM. THE MEASUREMENT OF A PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL, ALONG WITH CERTAIN OTHER DATA, PERMITS ONE TO COMPUTE THE RATE OF FLOW ON THE BASIS OF WELL ESTABLISHED PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES. FREQUENT INSPECTION OF THE ORIFICE PLATE IS NECESSARY IN SOME TYPES OF SERVICE TO INSURE THAT IT IS IN PROPER CONDITION TO METER ACCURATELY, I.E., IT IS FLAT AND CLEAN AND THE INLET EDGE OF THE ORIFICE BORE IS STILL SHARP, SQUARE AND FREE FROM NICKS OR OTHER DAMAGE.
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Document ID: E21D9A36

Bellows-Type Orfice Meters
Author(s): m. J. Sergesketter
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to control and direct the flow of water was recognized at a very early stage in the development of civilization. In Europe and Asia can be seen the relics of hydraulic works, some of great antiquity, which display a high degree of engineering accomplishment, the best known of which are the aqueducts, which the Romans built to bring water to their cities. In the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum can be still seen lead piping, which conveyed water to houses and gardens, and which included orifice plates to act as flow limiting devices, providing a basis on which the service was charged to the consumer. These were installed almost 2,000 years ago. Some of these techniques were introduced to North America by engineers, who accompanied the Spanish missionaries and whose work can still be seen at some of the missions in California.
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Document ID: 75667BC8

Inverted Orifice Meters
Author(s): J. L. Green
Abstract/Introduction:
With the concurrent increased value of natural gas and operations cost, the importance of better and more efficient measurement practices has become stringently pronounced. The use of the reverse scale orifice meter accommodates solution for achievement of rigorous standards.
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Document ID: 7CF28617

Elements Of Gas Contracts
Author(s): Albert B. Reese
Abstract/Introduction:
This discussion will relate to the selling of natural gas by a producer. As used in this paper, the term natural gas may mean gas well gas produced from a gas well, casinghead gas produced from an oil well, or plant residue gas remaining at the tailgate of a natural gag processing plant after removal of liquid hydrocarbons. In most instances this natural gas is sold to a natural gas pipeline company for transmission to the market area for ultimate consumption. Unlike oil, natural gas has historically been sold and purchased under relatively long term contracts.
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Document ID: 54FF152A

What The Field Group Expects From The Office Group
Author(s): J. V. Bryan
Abstract/Introduction:
In the presentation of a paper on this subject I will assume that most of those persons in attendance are members of companies whose field people work directly under the supervision of a Gas Measurement Department headquartered in a central office. It is recognized that some companies are not organized in this manner, and the field people actually work under field operations supervision instead of gas measurement department supervision. Most of this paper will deal with the field peoples relationship to those in the office who handle charts and reports which are furnished from the field.
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Document ID: 5D41061D

Manual Procedures For Chart Calculation
Author(s): Charles I. Hall
Abstract/Introduction:
The Interpretation of the recording and the calculation of the volumes represented by the chart, relies on automated and computerized equipment. However, regardless of the equipment used, an accurate output would not be possible without correct manual input. The human factor plays a very important part in chart calculation. The manual input begins in other departments before the measurement department. These departments are responsible for the initiation of agreements and for getting the information to the measurement department for setting up its procedures. To calculate a true volume, contract and field information must be used. Team work is a must between the field and the office group in order to achieve a long term record of satisfactory performance on chart calculations. It is necessary that every effort be made to achieve this performance, because of the dollar value of the products measured.
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Document ID: DAC26DD9

The Use Of Video In A Measurement Department
Author(s): David Bayliss
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement department is the cash register of the company. With the rising cost of gas, errors in measurement are expensive. Management has increasing interest in training to minimize errors made by measurement personnel and save money. Video is an efficient tool for trainers to reach this goal. A study was conducted to determine the problems related to errors in measurement. This study revealed a number of contributing factors including personnel turnover, differences in hardware, and the use of part time or substitute personnel.
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Document ID: 30B6A196

Methods Of Field Testing Large Capacity Displacemewt Meters A Panel
Author(s): R. L. Overbey, W. L. Claxton, Don Hensel, J. H. Wilczek
Abstract/Introduction:
As the price of natural gas increases, so does the incentive to have more accurate measurement. In many instances, gas consunpticm of a few large industrial custoners by far outweighs the total residential consunpticm. Therefore It becones advantageous to eliminate any possible measijremait errors in these large capacity meters.
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Document ID: EBF7F1B0

New Ideas In Gas Measurement And Pressure Regulation
Author(s): Robert D. Goodenaugh
Abstract/Introduction:
So much of the equipment and instruments used in gas measurement have been around for so many years that we sometime wonder how we can have many new ideas. But, each year we see a few truly new products or major improvements of existing products and new ideas for the application of existing products in the gas measurement industry.
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Document ID: 398A4549

Charts, Pens And Inks
Author(s): William L. Tatarski
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of people involved in Gas Measurement are very familiar with instrumentation and how it is used to transmit and collect data. Unfortunately, the minority really appreciate the importance and interrelationship of charts, pens and inks to the entire system. This paper will try to give an added insight into each of these materials.
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Document ID: EAF706CA

Operation Of Orifice Meter Chart Integrator
Author(s): Bill Murray
Abstract/Introduction:
The Orifice Meter records the differential and static pressure on the chart as it rotates past the pens at a speed established by the chart drive. The integrator provides an Index reading or chart value equivalent to the square root of the differential pressure times the square root of the absolute static pressure times 24 hours. These are the three variables in the orifice flow equation.
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Document ID: B751738C

Maintaining Am Electroscanner And An Analyzer
Author(s): E. J. Dupuis
Abstract/Introduction:
To this day, the Electroscanner represents the easiest, fastest and most accurate means of reading orifice meter charts. Though its design Is complex, maintenance of the Scanner need not be. A strict operational and preventive maintenance schedule should be adhered to in order to insure continued accuracy and reliability of calculations.
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Document ID: 5CDEB2F8

Application Of Electronic Computers For Calculation Of Gas Measurement Factors
Author(s): Earline Williamson
Abstract/Introduction:
Certainly, there is no question that we live and work in an advanced age of tecdnologv and automation in which just about everything we do is affected by seme phase of the computer. The past twenty years have seen first generation computers revised many times. Tremendous changes have occurred in the development of computers in a short lapse of time, and at least some part of this revolution is felt daily in our society. Computers are difficult to keep pace with even for those in the industry. People who are involved with computers find this challenging and in some cases, almost impossible.
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Document ID: 68819357

Basic Applications Of Telemetering Systems & Flow Computers
Author(s): Robert F. Schwartz
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will be a basic paper illustrating the various types of telemetering and flow computing systems as utilized in the Gas Industry. The paper will be general in nature, as the entire field of endeavor. Therefore, only basic fundamentals of the various types of flow computing and telemetering systems will be covered in this paper.
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Document ID: 46BD3E07

Pneimatic Controllers Aito Transmitters
Author(s): Les Souter
Abstract/Introduction:
Amongst the most impprtant instruments that those involved in the gas industry will come across are pneumatic controllers and transmitters. These devices are relatively uncomplicated but often misunderstood and because they are so essential to modern day gas control the objective of this paper will be to try and create a better understanding of them.
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Document ID: F2A4FFB7

Appuicaticn Of Plow Ocmpoters For Grs Measurement And Ccwtbol
Author(s): Michael J. Keat
Abstract/Introduction:
Traditionally, orifice meter signals have been recorded on-site by means of mechanical circular chart recorders. These charts have been collected weekly or noithly and integrated for volune determination. This procedure has a lengthy lag between time of actual gas flow and tine of reporting. With the advent of spiraling gas prices and penalty clauses for excessive rate deliveries, both customer and SLplier are looking towards quicker and more accurate methods of obtaining flow and total quantity. By use of field mounted electronic flew ccaiputers, flow information is processed on an instantaneous and continuous basis.
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Document ID: 4CF6FA08

Basic Devices And Techniques For Supervisory Control And Telemetry Systems
Author(s): O. P. Home
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of remote supervisory control systems has increased greatly in the past few years because of the need for more efficient operation due to escalating costs of product and operations. An effective telecontrol system is necessary if optimum pipeline operation is to be achieved. This paper will treat briefly some of the elements and techniques used in such a system.
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Document ID: 11D3F5BF

Advanced Applications Of Flow Computers And Telemetering Systems
Author(s): Joe Yakamavich
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow calculators with expanded capabilities are now available for use in the field. In the past, a flow calculator would only calculate volume flow rate. Now equipment is available that will also perform other functions for the operator. The flow calculator can compute data and, in turn, uses this data to control valves, open and close meter runs, activate relays, and set alarm flags. In addition, this same equipment can transmit the data to a master station either through telephone lines or by a radio link. This presentation will offer an overview that will show the above mentioned capabilities of a flow calculator. The equipment described in this presentation is sometimes called a Remote Terminal Unit/Gas Flow Calculator (RTU/GFC).
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Document ID: A090A09F

Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): Donald H. Knapp
Abstract/Introduction:
Although the design of bellows type Positive Displacement meters dates back well into the last century, it has now and will continue to have wide acceptance in our industry. Other types of measurement may appear at first glance to be more advanced, but this type is the only one that has virtually 100% rangeability, that is, the ability to measure gas from full rated, capacity of the meter down to the smallest pilot load.
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Document ID: 08CF33F2

On-Site Flow Calculators And Transducers For Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Fred N. Debusk
Abstract/Introduction:
On-site flow calculations and transducers have become an important part of the gas measurement industry. Refinements in electronic instrumentation are continually providing more reliable and better quality measurement and control devices. Especially with the advent of the microprocessor used in on-site gas flow calculators (computers), the microprocessor now gives new and expanded functions. Improved methods of calibrating, programming and operating of these instruments have broadened their application,
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Document ID: A1F17543

Measurement Of Ethane-Rich Streams
Author(s): Robert E. Vickrey
Abstract/Introduction:
Ethane-rich streams are more difficult to measure than the heavier hydrocarbon streams because of solution mixing, high vapor pressure, intermolecular attraction, liquid compressibility and poor lubricating qualities. As the price of ethane for petrochemical feedstock increased above its value as a fuel in natural gas, cryogenic gas processing plants increased the percentage of ethane extracted from natural gas. The value of products contained in a typical demethanized stream is about SOi per gallon in todays market, A certain plant in West Texas delivers about twenty million gallons of demethanized product to pipelines each month. An error or bias of only 0.2% in a densitometer or in a meter factor will cause an error value of nearly 24,000 per month at this plant. This amount of money for such a small error justifies careful attention to assure accurate measurement.
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Document ID: A2D7824C

Flow Measurement By Vortex Shedding Meters
Author(s): Frank D. Gunther
Abstract/Introduction:
Today, because of the inherent characteristics of the vortex shedding flowmeter, there is almost universal agreement that vortex shedding flowmeters will be the predominant type of flow measurement in the 1980s. The Neptune Eastech vortex shedding flowmeters offer an inclusive coverage of in-line and insertion type flowmeters for measurement of steam, gases, liquids, and cryogens. Another noteworthy design feature is the signal processor which takes the signal from the sensor and processes it into a useable signal for totalizing and/or process control and recording. Plug-in modules are readily interchangeable between different size meters as well as models and types.
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Document ID: C1E7F178

Multipoet Averaging Pitot Tube In Gas Measubemeht & Control
Author(s): Norman A. Alston
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry requires the best flow measurement accuracy and operational performance from a primary flow measurement device that state of the art technology can provide. Due to the economic value and the safety considerations of the product, the high performance and dependability of the flow measurement primary is directly related to process flow control and efficiency. The following materials describe the design details and performance capabilities of a properly constructed multiport averaging pitot tube (head type) primary with comparisions to traditional head type primaries to emphasize the flow measurement Improvements available to the gas industry.
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Document ID: 339E8412

Commercial Measurement Of Ethylene
Author(s): R. H. Pfrehm
Abstract/Introduction:
Improved ethylene measurement accuracy is provided by 3 turbine meter based mass measurement system with on-line calibration using a mechanical displacement prover as a mass standard.
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Document ID: E8494E5A

Commercial Measurement Of Ethylene
Author(s): R. H. Pfrehm
Abstract/Introduction:
Improved ethylene measurement accuracy is provided by a turbine meter based mass : . measurement syfetem with on-line calibration using a mechanical displacement prover as a mass standard.
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Document ID: EA0E7364

Metrication - Hydrocarbon Industry
Author(s): D. Spence
Abstract/Introduction:
THIS PAPER IS A FOLLOW-UP TO ONE GIVEN AT THE 1980 INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL OF HYDROCARBON MEASUREMENT AND AGAIN WILL DEAL MAINLY WITH GAS MEASUREMENT.
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Document ID: 4CC29307

The Use Of Manometers In The Gas Industry
Author(s): D.A. Kearney
Abstract/Introduction:
In the Measurement Mans Corner of Gas Magazine in April, 1967, it was stated, If the gas measureme-nt science could be represented by a corpse, upon dissection the heart would turn out to be a manometer.
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Document ID: 8FF5E6A9

Conditioning Natural Gas For Measurement And Transportation
Author(s): Gary A. Bartlett
Abstract/Introduction:
Solid and liquid contamination of natural gas Streams can be very costly both in terms of maintenance costs and loss of measurement accuracy. Various designs of filtration and separation equipment have proven successful in minimizing these problems at reasonable cost and low maintenance requirements. A basic understanding of these contaminants and the equipment used to remove them should be very beneficial to personnel involved with the design and/or operation of gas measurement equipment and compression stations.
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Document ID: 7ED57DF1

Problems In Offshore Gas Measurement
Author(s): Robert J. Rau
Abstract/Introduction:
Today, the operation of offshore gas pipe line systems is a necessity to actively compete in the constantly expanding market areas of our country and to also meet the energy crisis our country faces today. Offshore reserves drilling and discovery have been retarded by cancellation of offshore lease sales, legal battles and political battles based on the modern day ecology revolution. Today, I wish to discuss some of the problems encountered in offshore gas measurement now and also some of the future problems we must face and solve.
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Document ID: 927C0F78

Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): John m. Schnltzer
Abstract/Introduction:
The fifty-million gas meters currently In service with the different phases of the gas Industry In the United Sates, plus the majority of a similar number of meters installed elsewhere in the World, use two different physical principles to measure gas volumes.
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Document ID: E6AA6DEF

Domestic Gas Service Regulators Operation - Selection - Installation
Author(s): Bill Abram
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Pressure Regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside, and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a tendency to take them for granted,
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Document ID: 8E8EAF86

Fundamental Principles Of Regulators
Author(s): A. Rea Cameron
Abstract/Introduction:
The basic function of a regulator is to control pressure. This control is performed by reducing a higher inlet pressure to a lower outlet pressure and maintaining ,this outlet pressure constant over a wide variation of flow conditions. In the natural gas industry, pressures in transmission and distribution systems generally vary from 1440 PSI to fractions of 1 PSI, usually measured in inches water column, and operating safety standards are provided to cover this pressure range for all components in these systems. Pressure regulators must be provided to meet the needs of this pressure range and comply with the safety standards,
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Document ID: C53BA964

Industrial And District Regulators And Applications
Author(s): A, Rea Cameron
Abstract/Introduction:
In the natural gas industry, the terms Industrial and District when applied to pressure regulators usually refer to those installations which supply greater capacities or operate at higher pressures than the Domestic or Service type regulators normally used for the supply of gas to residential dwellings.
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Document ID: D0D7F936

Large Capacity Gas Regulators
Author(s): J. W. Barbour
Abstract/Introduction:
The definition of a large capacity regulator is often difficult to formalize. There are many types of regulators which could be classified as large capacity. This discussion will be concerned with the conventional double ported regulator. The double ported balanced valve regulator is probably the most commonly used style of regulator labeled as large capacity. The large capacity is also often classified as high pressure due to the function of the restriction. The restricting element is positioned by an operator to permit equal flow into and out of the downstream system. The capacity of a restrictor is a function of the pressure differential across that restriction, therefore, the higher the pressure differential across the restrictor the greater the capacity for a given size restriction. The capacity will increase until sonic flow occurs. Sonic flow is the point at which the gas velocity reaches the speed of sound, and occurs when the outlet pressure absolute is approximately half the inlet pressure absolute.
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Document ID: 76AA8E02

Principles, Application And Sizing Of Monitor Regulators
Author(s): Donald A. Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
Monitor regulation as an overpressure safety device has been around for many years. However, since the Department of Transportation, Office of Pipeline Safety ,was given the authority to prescribe and enforce safety standards back in 1968, the use of monitor regulators has increased dramatically throughout the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: 98CAC4E8

Fundamental Principles Of Pilot Control
Author(s): Cindy Scott
Abstract/Introduction:
For all practical purposes, regulators used by the gas industry can be placed in either of two categories: I. Self Operated, or II. Pilot Operated. This categorizing of all regulator (plus all construction modifications) tends to be an ov,er-simpllfication, but exceptions are rare. Lets examine each of them closely.
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Document ID: EF45BABF

High And Low Pressure Regulators
Author(s): B. R. Elkins
Abstract/Introduction:
This topis covers a very broad area since it includes all Regulators used in the Gas Industry. Every Regulator is either High or Low Pressure depending upon the definition we use to classify them. Many Regulators can be both, again depending on the definition of High and Low Pressure.
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Document ID: E9EC207B

Operation And Maintenance Of Rubber Plug Type Control Valves
Author(s): Mack Jacobs
Abstract/Introduction:
urgent need existed for a gas control valve that could meet certain criteria not available in existing valve designs, and in 1958, the JET STREAM rubber plug type control valve was inintroduced. Because of this, some readers will find this to be a review of things already known, while others may discover a new valve. Its interesting to note that since 1958 there have been a number of specialty valves developed in an attempt to meet the exacting demands of precise and careful control, but none of them have been able to match the rubber plug and the way it can be worked to provide all the same benefits.
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Document ID: EDE0E32B

Application And Operation Of Ball Valve Regulators
Author(s): Roy J. Becker
Abstract/Introduction:
OVER TWENTY YEARS AGO A PLUG VALVE WAS EQUIPPED WITH A PNEUMATIC CYLINDER AND A POSITIONER AND USED AS A MONITOR REGULATOR. THE CONCEPT WAS A NEW METHOD OF GAS REGULATION AND WAS THE BEGINNING OF A NEW ERA.
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Document ID: 12E9999D

Operation And Maintenance Of Rubber Plug Type Valves
Author(s): R. H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
A control valve utilizing a solid rubber plug for the controlling mechanism was first introduced in the gas industry in 1958. Of particular importance to that industry is the fact that this is the only control valve.used in the industry that was designed within the gas industry and specifically for gas service. Over the years, field experience has influenced improvements in the rubber plug type valve that has broadened its scope of operation along with improving its operational reliability.
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Document ID: C5480AD6

About Ishm 1981
Abstract/Introduction:
Collection of documents about ISHM including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, exhibitor and sponsor information, etc.
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Document ID: 4595D354


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