Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (1981)

Storage: Its Economics And Role In A Changing Energy Environment
Author(s): Anthony Compton
Abstract/Introduction:
Controlling the cost of gas and supplying new heating customers was the driving force behind storage growth. Heating sales were more profitable than interruptible sales and avoided the problems that attach to selling gas to such markets. But there have been changes. The profits that storage once generated by converting interruptible sales have largely disappeared as incremental pricing has forced prices to industrial markets to levels only slightly below space heating rates. But storage has become as important as ever as pipelines and distribution companies position themselves for an even more competitive environment. This is one of the important effects on storage of the new energy environment. Some others are:
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Document ID: B535ACA2

Pneumatic Pressure Standards
Author(s): Larry B. Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
The instrument engineer is faced with the difficult problem of accurate indication and control of many levels of pressure. The operation of any pressure instrument must be tested or compared from time to time with an instrument of greater accuracy to insure its proper operation. This paper concerns itself with the ultimate in low pressure test standards-the pneumatic deadweight.
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Document ID: 9AAC9827

Secondary Containment For LNG Using 3D Insuiation
Author(s): Gideon Markus
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents insulation configurations for LNG secondary containment systems using a three-dimensionally reinforced insulation. The outer structure in concert with these insulation systems provides complete and safe containment of the cryogenic liquid spill which would resuh from a failure of the inner tank. These insulation system designs greatly mitigate the effect of an inner tank failure by greatly reducing the resultant vapor generation and moderating the temperature depression of the outer tank. Confidence in the ability to provide the desired level of performance is based on analyses and tests demonstrating the material properties of 3D insulation, its ability to maintain a liquid barrier and its high tolerance to the inevitable flaws in any structure of significant size. In addition, the paper presents site installation and quality control techniques, and beneficial design tradeoffs.
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Document ID: 83EA4FFA

A Decade For Accomplishment
Author(s): John C. Abram
Abstract/Introduction:
The outlook for the natural gas industry is the best I have encountered in the 30 years of my experience in this business. Truly, Gas is (he Energy of the Exciting 80s: To begin with, the last three or four years have seen the re-emergence of natural gas as a preferred fuel, from the standpoints of environment, of efficiency, of cleanliness, of availability, and of favorable impact on the national economy. It hasnt always been that way during the past decade. In the 1970s, as many of you will recall vividly, the media, members of government, the general public, and even many in the gas industry itself, were all too willing to write off natural gas. It was said to be a declining energy resource-a flame going out.
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Document ID: 75818F3C

Refrigerated Gas Safety Research
Author(s): D. R. Blackmore, J. Eyre, J. B. Homer
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is a brief general review of some of the gas safety projects undertaken recently by staff of Shell Group Laboratories at Thornton near Chester, England and Amsterdam, Holland. The projects are primarily concerned with issues relating to the handling and storage of large volumes of refrigerated gases -LNG or LPG and include work on fire fighting, radiation measurements of 20m diameter pool fires and refrigerated gas evaporation, dispersion and cloud combustion. This latter work took place at Maplin Sands on the north bank of the Thames estuary by permission of the British Ministry of Defence and included simulated spills of up to 20m of refrigerated liquid gas.
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Document ID: 5E2B2341

Welding On Pressurized Pipeiines
Author(s): H. W. Mishler, J. W. Kiefner
Abstract/Introduction:
Repair and hoi tap welding on pressurized pipelines are practiced widely ihroughout the natural gas, petroleum, and petrochemical industries. Though there are certain obvious potential hazards associated wilh such practices, they have been used for many years with few known hazardous incidents. It is generally believed that the good safety record associated with such welding is due to the conservative practices of pipeline operators. In a study carried out by Batteile researchers, the hot lap welding practices of various companies were reviewed and compared. The results of this study reflect ihe scope of pipeline operators concerns for safely conducting hot tap welding in a very wide variety of circumstances. In addition, the study has revealed factors in hot tap welding which require further research.
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Document ID: FFA8FA41

Construction Materials Acquisition Using Automated Bills Of Material
Author(s): Donald G. Olafson, Rhys K. Harrison
Abstract/Introduction:
A few years ago when NOVA first developed a computerized materials management system, one of the problems to be addressed was the design of an effective ordering method for construction materials. The ordering of operations material can normally be handled by familiar minimum/ maximum or re-order point methods. When these systems are automated to monitor variable material usage and lead times, many of the error-prone aspects of ordering and inventory control can be eliminated. The ordering of construction material, however, is more critical and requires different methods. Large volumes of data are generated to describe the complex phases and details of a single project. Effective coordination of the design engineering, materials management and construction functions is essential to avoid serious project overruns and timing delays. A well designed ordering system can therefore contribute significantly to the success of large construction projects.
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Document ID: 3B1AE180

Design And Operation Of The Intermediate Fluid LNG Vaporizer Using Shell-And-Tube Heat Exchanger
Author(s): Yuksel A. Selcukoglu
Abstract/Introduction:
Design and operation of the intermediate fluid vaporizer using a shell-and-tube heal exchanger are discussed. Main design concerns, such as balanced flow distribution, freeze-up, and stable and uniform gas outlet temperature, are addressed. Details of an innovative design with excellent actual field performance are given. The vaporization train, shown in Figure 1, consists of a specially designed shell-andtube heal exchanger, a gas fired water-glycol heater, a circulation pump, and a healer pump.
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Document ID: D9DE0437

Metrication Is For Distribution Construction And Maintenance, Too
Author(s): F. P. Gertson
Abstract/Introduction:
Within many industries, and the gas industry is no exception, the subject of metrication can give rise to deep emotions. One individual might claim absolute superiority for metrics, while another considers the whole thing unnecessary, unjustifiable, un-American and would require any proponent of metrication to walk the plank. There is still a third, which has the largest following of all: I dont really care, just so it happens after I retire. This is the RBM (Retire Before Metric) syndrome.
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Document ID: 9B20F1A5

Solar Combined Cycle System
Author(s): John J. Ford, Ken K. Nolen
Abstract/Introduction:
As the worlds leading supplier of small and medium industrial gas turbines. Solar has been working for several years to identify viable methods of offsetting rising fuel costs and the ever increasing emphasis on energy conservation and the reduction of emissions. This effort resulted in the design and development of combined cycle systems for Solars established Centaur and Mars product lines. Combined cycle is simply the combination of two thermodynamic cycles, the Brayton (simple cycle gas turbine) and the Rankine steam cycle), into a fuel efficient prime mover system Figure 1).
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Document ID: 14BAF14E

Sizing Of Residential Heating Equipment
Author(s): Robert H. Regester, Robert H. Reinauer
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses sizing of residential gas heating equipment and suggests simplified methods of obtaining gross heat loss. It encourages the use of properly sized equipment which is generally smaller than past industry practice.
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Document ID: 7C22C2E0

Corrosion Control Bibliography: Training-Research
Author(s): Richard m. Niedbala
Abstract/Introduction:
The Corrosion Committee of the Operating Section of A.G.A. formed a task group in 1979 to expand upon and summarize sources of information developed in previous years by the Corrosion Committees. The stated charge of the task group is to assemble a list of suitable articles, books, and various training methods in relation lo corrosion control and where this information may be obtained. The task group was composed of Richard M. Niedbala, chief engineer, Michigan Gas Utilities Company and Dennis Rossi, corrosion engineer, Boston Gas Company.
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Document ID: 390E977E

Importance Of Strict Adherence To Metric Si()
Author(s): Gerald W. Hanson
Abstract/Introduction:
A recent newspaper article recounted an accident which underHnes the need for a universal, worldwide system of measure. It seems that a tourist from South America was visiting this country and staying at a hotel with a swimming pool. The weather was quite warm and he decided to go for a swim. He went to the pool, observed the number 3 etched in the tile and dove in. While recovering from a broken neck, he stated that he believed the depth to be three metres, not three feet. While this may not occur very frequently it confirms the need for communication and comprehension in measuring systems.
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Document ID: 8DBDB2D6

Gas Storage In Northern Michigans Gas-Condensate Reefs - An Update
Author(s): Michael J. Whims
Abstract/Introduction:
ANR Storage Company was formed in 1978 o provide gas storage service. The company received FERC certification for development of its first project in July 1979 with a scheduled in-service date of April 1980. This first project involved conversion of two Northern Michigan pinnacle reef gascondensaie reservoirs for storage service, design and construction of a gathering system and compressor station at each location and the design and construction of a 16-mile, 36-inch diameter pipeline to provide 38.3 Bcf of working storage capacity for five pipeline and distribution companies. The project was in-service as scheduled and the fields have recently completed their first storage cycle. The company also put its second project in service in April 1981, a similar two-field development which was certified by the FERC in August 1980 to provide 11.9 Bcf of working storage service for two customers.
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Document ID: 23CD70B9

Sample Testing Of Gas Meters
Author(s): Henry P. Elias
Abstract/Introduction:
South Carolina Electric and Gas recently received approval from the South Carolina Public Service Commission to establish a program to test gas meters on a sample basis. This approval was the culmination of several years work in upgrading procedures, records, testing, and handling of the 177,000 gas meters currently on the system.
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Document ID: 6252E887

Automated Dekatherm Measurement
Author(s): Grahm D. Bogel
Abstract/Introduction:
Automated Dekatherm Measurement is becoming a necessity under present day operational and economic conditions. Varying gas composition, high prices, and delivery by displacement put a lot of stress on measurement systems and the men who handle them. A review is in order on techniques for automatically computing Dekatherms and telemetering the results for system control.
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Document ID: 3B1E0F04

Training Program For Pipeline Maintenance Personnel
Author(s): Merle W. Arr
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America found it difficult in the early 1970s to obtain qualified candidates for Maintenance Specialist, our basic Operations and Maintenance skilled job. Experienced candidates were either not available in our operating areas or industry competition limited our ability to attract them. Also, the locations and timing of openings were unpredictable because certain long service employees could elect to retire on short notice beginning at age 55. To resolve the problem. Natural, in 1973, established a sequence of probationary training grades and implemented a program of on-the-job studies and work experiences designed to enable inexperienced candidates to qualify as Maintenance Specialists. As a result. Natural has been able to keep pace with the increasingly complex Operations and Maimenance requirements of its transmission system and also has enhanced its ability to assimilate minority candidates into its work force.
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Document ID: 5745BD32

Mechanic Productivity Measurement
Author(s): Tom D. Grunig
Abstract/Introduction:
Iowa Public Service Company is an investor owned gas and electric utility serving customers in Iowa, Nebraska, and South Dakota. Our company decided to establish a work measurement system in 1976, A consultant from New Jersey WOLFAC helped us initially. The program was labeled time utilization. The theme was to work smarter not harder. The program is now utilized by the transportation, operations, and production departments. Our management felt this type of program was essential since utilities are facing the increasing problem of obtaining capital to finance programs of growth and continual review of utilities by rale commissions. We wanted to be able to show evidence of improved productivity and supply supervisory personnel with new tools to help them carry out basic job assignments.
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Document ID: 4C857594

How To Be An Effective Witness
Author(s): Sheldon B. Sepstead
Abstract/Introduction:
Judicial proceedings, civil and criminal, are like snowflakes and fingerprints. No two are the same. Variables abound. Some of them are: 1. The lime and venue or place of trial 2. The court or forum (state or federal) where the proceedings are held 3. The facts, issues and applicable law 4. The judge and jury 5. The parties, their attorneys and the witnesses Every litigated case has its own unique casi of characters. Included in that cast are the witnesses through or by whom the facts are elicited and, in the case of experts, opinions are given. On the theory that the chain of evidence is only as strong as the weakest link, witnesses play an important role, and the purpose here is to highlight the ways in which a witness can be effective.
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Document ID: AEA969C2

The Rebirth Of Utilization
Author(s): Mike Hanzlick
Abstract/Introduction:
When I was first approached by the A.G.A. and asked to give a presentation on the rebirth of utilization, 1 thought it would be an easy task. However, after considering the topic and looking back at my career in gas utilization engineering, 1 realized that the word utilization meant different things to different people, and that for some engineers, such as myself utilization was not undergoing a rebirth simply because it had never died. At any rate, I prefer to think that utilization is in a renaissance, or transition period that is stimulating intellectual and technical growth within the energy field as a whole. For those utilities that did not maintain a utilization staff in the past, utilization is probably undergoing a rebirth of sorts brought about by the ensuing energy shortages of the 1970s and the resulting concerns about energy conservation. Within the past few years, utilities and utilization people have been confronted with many new problems which had to be solved before we, as a nation, could become more energy efficient.
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Document ID: D26FB293

A New Computer Systems Effect On Gas Control Operations
Author(s): Marvin L. Gertz
Abstract/Introduction:
During 1978-80, Consumers Power Company replaced its original Gas Control computer with an IBM SERIES/1 dighal computer system. This conversion process, along with the resulting benefit to Gas Control operations, is discussed.
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Document ID: C6328311

Qualification Of Procedures For Joining Polyethylene Pipe
Author(s): I. K. De Blieu,
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation will describe the Department of Transportation/Materials Transportation Bureau rulings on joints in plastic gas distribution piping systems, which went into effect July 1, 1980, and how Du Pont serves the utiMty in qualifying the joining methods. The DOT/MTB rulings are specific that the supplier of polyethylene piping systems for gas distribution can qualify the joining procedures and provide examples of joints made using the qualified procedures. The utility can accept the suppliers procedures and can employ the suppliers examples if he elects to do so. The ruhng is also specific in that the utility bears the final responsibility for safe performance of the system. (Figure 1.)
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Document ID: 2E23FD5C

Leakage Control Through A Selective Gas Service Replacement Program
Author(s): Anthony J. Morrison
Abstract/Introduction:
Is it feasible to control gas leakage through the use of a selective gas service replacement program? I suggest that it is, provided the proper criteria are used in the selection of priority locations for the service replacements. The approach I am going to describe, which utilizes leak history and several other associated factors, was first developed in 1977 for use by The Hartford Electric Light Company (HELCO), a Connecticut-based combination company which serves approximately 30,000 gas customers. Presently, this methodology is being applied to the entire Northeast Utilities system which includes The Connecticut Light and Power Company as well as HELCO. In total. Northeast Utilities serves 147,000 gas customers in 47 cities and towns across the State of Connecticut.
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Document ID: 6507521A

Test And Evaluation Of Plastic Valves
Author(s): Leonard R. Libenson
Abstract/Introduction:
The Consolidated Edison Co. of New York has installed more than two milhon feet of plastic gas pipe since 1971. Today, more than three-quarters of the buried pipe being installed on the Con Edison gas system is polyethylene plastic, ranging in sizes up through 8-inch diameter. Successful experience with this material, both from a safety and economic viewpoint, has led us to maximize the use of plastic pipe, tubing, valves, fittings and couplings on our system. Every attempt has been made to install all-plastic systems within the limitations of the various safety codes.
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Document ID: C5AD9DEA

Storage Field Automation-A Case Study Of The Lyons, Kansas Underground Storage Field Automation System
Author(s): John W. Rose
Abstract/Introduction:
With the advent of natural gas deregulation and increasing natural gas prices, prudent reservoir management and control of underground storage reservoirs is becoming increasingly important. Storage Field Automation is a sophisticated tool that provides the reservoir engineer with individual well data and control to most efficiently manage an underground storage field. This paper is a case study of the justification, development, and compionent parts of the Data Acquisition and Supervisory Control System at Northern Natural Gas Companys Lyons, Kansas, Underground Storage Field.
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Document ID: 060D9E46

National Electrical Code Impact On LNG Facilities
Author(s): Dennis E. Kazinoff, Ronald C. Van Meerbeke
Abstract/Introduction:
On October 6, 1979, an explosion occurred at the Cove Point, Maryland liquefied natural gas receiving terminal when leaking LNG was ignited by an electrical arc. The explosion destroyed an electrical substation building containing switchgear and motor controllers. Investigations inio the cause of the leak led lo the redesign of numerous electrical/ process interface connections and to the development of industry proposed changes in both the National Electrical Code and the National Fire Protection Association Standard for the Production, Storage and Handling of Liquefied Natural Gas.
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Document ID: 29A68B1B

Optimal Removal Time Of Inactive Meters
Author(s): Harish Vaish
Abstract/Introduction:
The trade-offs involved in not imoving a gas flow measuring meter from a vacated residence are examined. A probability distribution for the time such a meter remains inactive is constructed. This distribution is used to calculate the net present value of costs and benefits as a function of the time after which an inactive meter is removed. By differentiating this function, the optimal removal time is calculated.
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Document ID: D3AE1D4D

Light Weight Fuei-Efficient Service Vehicie Innovations
Author(s): J. Robert Hudson
Abstract/Introduction:
Pacific Gas and Electric Company has experienced the same drastic increase in vehicle owning and operating costs that has been felt by every vehicle owner in the United States today. Although bulk gasoline purchases afford significant savings for large fleet operators 1.24/gal. today as compared to .55/ gal just three years ago), the increase is proportional to retail prices for the same interval. Most of us have nearly forgotten the outrage we felt as recently as mid-1979, when some unscrupulous service station operators jacked up the price to one dollar per gallon and it was approximately three years ago that gasoline retailed for .65/gal. Other vehicie costs, purchase price and replacement parts and accessories, have tracked the basic inflationary curve over this same interval. Tripling of gasoline costs in approximately five years has had the greatest impact on our increased cost of owning and operating our fleet service vehicles.
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Document ID: 24DFB721

Closed Loop Odorant Injection Control Utilizing A Feedforward And Titrator Control System
Author(s): Peter H. Bosse
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper introduces a new concept in odoranl control. This new concept incorporates a closed-loop system of automatic odorant injection utilizing an indicating process controller and an odorant analyzer (titrator) as a feedback control for a precise downstream odorant concentration. The system also has a feedforward control enabling quick response during How changes. This paper will also cover a general description of all the principal components that make up the automatic control system.
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Document ID: 112B8234

Potential Gas Supply
Author(s): Harry C. Kent
Abstract/Introduction:
As we consider the subject of potential resources of natural gas in the United States from the viewpoint of 1981, there seems to be increasing concern and awareness on the part of the general public as well as the natural gas industry on the importance of natural gas as an energy source and its future role in meeting the energy needs of the United States. There certainly have been a number of newspaper and magazine articles, and television news presentations during the past year which have addressed the subject. More than ever before, the Potential Gas Agency at the Colorado School of Mines has been involved in discussions with the news media, public officials and citizens regarding the natural gas supply situation. Some of the reports in the public press have given credibility to very large estimates for both conventional and nonconventiona! resources, while the estimates from some parts of the industry and the federal government tend to be much more conservative.
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Document ID: 549DE5F9

Keeping Track Of Pipelines And Wells Using Computer Graphics
Author(s): J. H. Deakin
Abstract/Introduction:
Graphic data related to the location of pipelines, class location corridor boundaries, special Class 3 areas, and dwelling unit buildings have been captured with state plane coordinate values, and combined with alphanumeric material and testing data for the pipeline, to be used for the calculation of class location and maximum allowable operating pressure in a computer system known as Class Location and MAOP System (CLAMS). This information is input and can be displayed using a Tektronix 4014-1 Graphics CRT Terminal. Hard copy printout of the graphic display as a plot of the pipeline location and population density for check print or other purposes is available by use of a remote drum plotter. Additions or deletions to population events or changes to the pipeline configuration can be input through the graphics digitizer. Class location changes are calculated automatically. The changes in graphic data are merged with replacement material and testing data to automatically calculate changes in MAOP and to identify exceptions where present operating pressures exceed the calculated MAOP.
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Document ID: E9D2B103

Adapting Gas Service Policies To The Customers Changing Needs
Author(s): Arthur C. Seale, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
We at Long Island Lighting Company take pride in our record of providing our residential customers with prompt, dependable service on their gas appliances. The residential service policy that is presently practiced by LILCO may be considered Limited Service with a charge for parts, on a no-charge for labor basis, Our policy has undergone many changes over the past two decades: In the early 60s we serviced all gas appliances on a partial charge basis. Since 1970, we have limited our service to only space and water healing units. We perform the following services at no charge:
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Document ID: 4497C12A

The Rebirth Of Utilization
Author(s): Mikehanzlick
Abstract/Introduction:
When i was first approached by the A.G.A. and asked to give a presentation on the rebirth of utilization, I thought it would be an easy task. However, after considering the topic and looking back at my career in gas utilization engineering, I realized that the word utilization meant different things to different people, and that for some engineers, such as myself utilization was not undergoing a rebirth simply because it had never died. At any rate, I prefer to think that utilization is in a renaissance, or transition period that is stimulating intellectual and technical growth within the energy field as a whole. For those utilities that did not maintain a utilization staff in the past, utilization is probably undergoing a rebirth of sorts brought about by the ensuing energy shortages of the 1970s and the resulting concerns about energy conservation.
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Document ID: B38498FD

LNG Research: The Questions To Be Answered
Author(s): William E. Mott, Myron Gottlieb, John m. Cece, Henry F. Walter
Abstract/Introduction:
Although the amount of imported LNG use has not increased as rapidly as predicted in the niid-l970s, LNG still represents an important supplemental fuel in several regions of our country. Expanded future use of LNG is dependent on several well-recognized factors, including international politics, pricing, domestic policies on alternative fuels such as coal, and public perceptions of the safely implications associated with transport, storage and use. Of the four factors listed, perhaps the last is most amenable to influence through objective and systematic investigation of the issues that surround it. in brief, notwithstanding the current excelleni safety record of the LNG industry, there has been a small but vocal group of critics that are convinced that unacceptable risks are associated with LNG operations. Their postulated accidental spill scenarios in which a large quantity of LNG is released, perhaps as much as 25,000 cubic metres, with the resulting LNG cloud reaching into inhabited areas where it experiences either deflagration or detonation, have led to the general perception that LNG is inherently dangerous. Unfortunately, both the science of predicting LNG spill behavior and the experimental data base describing spill behavior are not adequate at this time to allay completely the fears of those who consider such a scenario plausible. The purpose of this paper is to present our perceptions of the major questions, both technical and programmatic, that still require resolution to address public concern.
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Document ID: 27C39C26

Mechanic Productivity
Author(s): Philip m. Capron
Abstract/Introduction:
Transportation departments within the utility industry have been subject to greater inflationary pressures than the economy in general. This condition is caused by a greater dependence upon petroleum related products. The resulting cost pressures demand that efficient transportation management maximize output relative to available resources. In many cases this may be difficult because of antiquated work facilities. Therefore, maximizing labor output becomes even more crucial if transportation management is to achieve its intended function of serving the needs of the using departments.
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Document ID: 50C7F243

Customer Service Policy Changes-IVIeeting Todays Needs
Author(s): George G. Vapaa
Abstract/Introduction:
Customer service policies evolve to meet the needs of utilities and the customers they serve. With the passage of time, it is not unusual for those needs to change, and it is appropriate for the policy to change to meet those needs. It is important to realize that each company represented here is faced with a unique situation and that there is no universal customer service policy that meets each and every utilitys needs. The size and nature of a companys service territory, be it urban, surburban, rural or some combination, is rarely duplicated elsewhere and is in a constant state of flux. Forums such as this allow us to learn how others make decisions and why the decisions were necessary. The lessons learned by others can help us rectify problems that are current concerns and avoid errors in the future.
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Document ID: 84387AB2

Placing Your Bets On Technology: Sure Thing Or Long Shot?
Author(s): Sam F. Segnar
Abstract/Introduction:
A French balloonist once floated acoss the English Channel and landed in a field of wheat. He spotted an Englishman and said Excuse me, sir, can you tell me where I am? Certainly, the Englishman said. You are in a basket in a field of wheat. You must be an engineer, said the Frenchman. Amazing, said the Englishman. How did you know? Easy, said the Frenchman. Your information is typical. Totally accurate but absolutely useless. Ten years ago, when the scientific community was essentially concerned with technology, the scientist was too remote a figure for the comment to be funny.
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Document ID: D414670D

Nox And Emission Testing On Water Heaters
Author(s): Bodh R. Subherwal
Abstract/Introduction:
In recent years emphasis has been on the fact that NOx emissions be reduced on residential Water Heaters. Research and Development departments of various gas utility companies have invested lots of time and money to make the application of available and new technology to these appliances so as to accomplish low NOx emissions which can meet the proposed emission standards of various state and federal agencies. At BR, a methodology for monitoring emissions on residential appliances has been developed. Substantial test work has been conducted on various conventional and newly developed appliances to establish the reliability of monitoring the NOx emissions. It has been observed that there is a definite relationship between the recovery efficiency and the NOi emissions produced by an appliance. Appliances with low NO, emissions have higher recovery efficiency.
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Document ID: A293F365

Western Europe And The International Natural Gas Trade
Author(s): Burckhard Bergmann
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is today one of the three mainstays of energy supplies both in Western Europe and in the United States. On both continents, three factors have been crucial in the history of this fuel. These three factors are: natural gas reserves, overall energy demand and pricing. The natural gas industry in Western Europe is considerably younger than in the United States and has never assumed U.S. proportions. While the exploitation of natural gas reserves in the United Slates for local use began as early as the second half of the I9th century, and long distance pipelines canje into use many decades ago, natural gas has only been used on a large scale in Western Europe since the late 1950s. Due to the large size of proven U.S. natural gas reserves, domestic production has covered a much larger part of energy demand in the United States than in Western Europe. In the U.S., natural gas supplies some 25 percent of all primary energy and has been over 30 percent, while the share of natural gas in Western Europe is still rising and reached a level of approximately 15 percent in 1980 (cf, Figure 1).
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Document ID: 73E7608B

One Companys Approach To Damage Prevention
Author(s): E. Hugh Erwin
Abstract/Introduction:
Damage to underground plants continues to be a significant problem for gas utilities across North America, and one-call systems are being embraced as the panacea for prevention. Introduction of some onecall systems reportedly have resulted in improvements in damage statistics. There is more than slight suspicion thai these improvements reflect the degree of attention focused on the entire subject of damage prevention. In other words, the success of a damage prevention program depends on the amount of determination and commitment by the utility in tackling the problem as a whole, not simply on the introduction of a one-call communication system. We offer the following summary of the Consumers Gas Damage Prevention Program to illustrate that there are many management tools that can be used in the fight against construction damage.
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Document ID: 58694DF3

Precision Alignment: The Micro-Alignment Telescope And Laser Alignment Systems
Author(s): Alastair J. Campbell
Abstract/Introduction:
Precision alignment is something that is required in this day and age to prevent mechanical failures on both reciprocating and centrifugal equipment. It is the purpose of this paper to give some insight into optical and laser alignment methods used in measuring cold alignment plus the movement of compressors from their cold, shutdown position, to hot, operating position, and from such measurements determine the best alignment for operating said units, be they reciprocating or centrifugal type compressors. Many gas transmission pipelines have reciprocating type compressors and gas turbine driver centrifugal compressors moving millions of cubic feet of gas per day alt over North America.
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Document ID: EEC5A83E

Mechanic And Shop Productivity Measurement
Author(s): Stephen J. Frank
Abstract/Introduction:
When discussing productivity measurement, I think that it is important to first answer the following questions: What is productivity? Why do we want to measure it? Productivity can be easily defined as the output per resource input. The reason we want to measure productivity is to determine the effectiveness of our effort that is, how well output achieves results. From this we can determine the worth of our efforts or the value of achieving results. if we do not know the effectiveness of our productivity, we will not be able to determine if our outputs are worth the resources we used to obtain these outputs. Is it worth doing this activity or is it best to discontinue the activity and place our resources in another activity? We cannot determine this unless we have some measure of our productivity.
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Document ID: 7574A2A8

Determination Of Water Vapor Content And Correcting For Its Effect On Volume and/or Btu Determinations
Author(s): W. F. Barker
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas transmission companies are committed to measure and transport only the energy contained in natural gas. Water can be present in a gas transmission system precisely as it exists in the atmosphere, e.g., solid liquid or gas. It is probably the most common undesirable and detrimental ingredient contained in a natural gas stream. When excess water vapor is present to react with other ingredients in the gas problems are created subjecting various parameters of the entire gas transmission system to damage or malfunction. We refer to these problems because they are the prime reason gas companies have set quality standards relating to the maximum allowable quantities of moisture that their product may contain. Therefore, it is necessary to have a reliable means of determining water vapor content in natural gas.
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Document ID: 73199B85

Lets Stop Pipeline Damage
Author(s): Paul Carson
Abstract/Introduction:
If were going to stop pipeline damage, one of the first bits of information that an excavating or utility contractor needs to know is where is that pipeline located. Buried under the grass, pavement or sidewalks are a myriad of utilities - all presenting a challenge to anyone excavating in that area. Many utility companies have found that by joining together to form a one-call system for location of the underground utilities, safety is promoted, and damage to the underground plant is reduced. Contractors feel that this is the best game in town for handling the locating of the various underground facilities, and they support the organization of these locating services throughout the United States.
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Document ID: B3262A8B

Application And Economics Of A Mini-Computer In A Meter Shop
Author(s): Paul m. Herman
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1976, the Metering Department of Michigan Consolidated Gas Company in Detroit was faced with a need to replace 34 modified typewriters that interfaced with bell provers to automatically prim meter intest results. The capital outlay of this replacement decision amounted to 204,000 and became the basis to evaluate other economically feasible methods to retrieve meter intest data. The results of this search and the current application of two DEC PDP-11 minicomputers to collect, record and process meter data became known as the Metering Department Information System (MDIS). MDIS operates as an extremely useful management tool. The economics, application, benefits, problems and future plans of this system are discussed in this paper.
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Document ID: DA104BBC

Engine Oils For The 80s
Author(s): Roy P. Dwyer
Abstract/Introduction:
Five years ago people were predicting the end of the internal combustion engine. Despite those disciples of doom the internal combustion engine is not only still here but there is a whole new generation of cieanburning, fuel-efficient internal combustion engines. Experts in the automotive industry say not since the automobile was invented have there been such dramatic changes as during these past few years. The reasons for such change are two unrelated causes, the first being OPEC and the end of cheap energy, the second EPA, ending the era of uncontrolled exhaust emissions.
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Document ID: B2986B06

Distribution Uprating-An Economical Alternative To Pressure Reinforcement Mains
Author(s): Gregory S. Veraa
Abstract/Introduction:
An uprating is a procedure for increasing the maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) on a pipeline. A distribution uprating then is a procedure for increasing the MAOP on a distribution system. The purpose of this paper is to first develop the rationale behind using a distribution uprating as an alternative to pressure reinforcement mains and, secondly, to describe our experiences at Washington Gas in performing a large-scale uprating on a distribution system.
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Document ID: 78C7693E

History Of 9% Nickel Steel Development And Use
Author(s): John W. Flannery
Abstract/Introduction:
With respect to materials used for low temperature and cryogenic services, there is a wide range of industrial gases that are readily handled as liquids. This requires liquefaction over a range of temperatures from -28F to -452F. As the temperature goes down, the amount of alloy, primarily nickel, is increased. The 2-1/4% and 3-1/2% nickel steels find use in the petroleum and petrochemical industries. The 9% nickel steel and austenilic stainless steels find applications in handling methane and various industrial gases down to -320F, Below -400F, the nickel-containing materials used are the austenitic stainless steels, such as Types 304 and 304L and the 36 nickel iron alloy, frequently referred to as Invar.
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Document ID: AA454CA1

Experience In Japanese Gas Industry On Nine Percent Nickel Steel LNG Storage Tanks
Author(s): Hisashi Miyakoshi, Noriyoshi Ishikura, Tetsuro Suzuki, Kiyoshi Tanaka
Abstract/Introduction:
Research efforts on welding and fracture of land based LNG storage tanks paid by Japanese steel makers, tank fabricators and gas suppliers are reviewed. Differences among Japanese, American and European regulations concerning allowable design stress are also studied. After extensive and careful investigation was conducted on fracture characteristics of 9% nickel steel plates and their welded joints, they are now considered to have enough high toughness to arrest a running crack in case it is created at one of the most embrittled regions such as welded joints. As for automatic welding methods, the gas tangusten arc welding method seems to be most advantageous because weld metal deposition rate and penetration can be controlled independently by the method. Primary design stress applied in Japan for the LNG tanks is in accordance with ASME Sec. VIII Div. 1 and lower than the design levels in the United Slates and Europe.
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Document ID: D49259D5

Natural Gas Reserves
Author(s): Robert B. Kalisch
Abstract/Introduction:
No problem today affects our way of life more than our national energy supply. The aspect of that problem which I will address is the status of proved reserves of natural gas. This problem is of great importance because it is the single most important factor in establishing the forecasts of gas supply in the next five to ten years. The long term history of the proved reserves, net production and reserve additions of natural gas is shown in Figure 1. Proved reserves are those volumes of natural gas about which there is a reasonable certainty of their existence and which are producible under current economic and operating conditions,
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Document ID: 893D4DD0

New Concepts In Residential Servicing
Author(s): Steven J. A. Szilard
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past few years the rapidly escalating cost of housing and land has caused a number of changes to take place in housing design which create problems for utilities. Lot frontages have decreased in many areas, more twin or semi-detached houses are being built, and condominiums, townhouses and rowhouses are becoming increasingly popular. With these denser building styles, it becomes more difficult to find a place for utility lines and components. This paper addresses some old and new solutions to two aspects of this problem. The first is the utilities abihty to locate pressure regulators serving residential units where the number of windows, doors and vents are such that it is not safe to relieve gas from the regulators overpressure relief valves without a danger that the gas will enter the building (Figure 1).
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Document ID: B460511B

What To Do After The Incident
Author(s): Wallace E. Zeddun
Abstract/Introduction:
At the outset, I believe that it is important to remember that because of the nature of our varying job responsibilities, many times there is a potential for conflict between operations and legal personnel at the scene of a major incident. Operating personnel are primarily concerned with making the scene safe and repairing any company facilities which may have contributed to the incident. Their primary concern is to do this as expeditiously as possible. This concern obviously is well justified. In many cases, the desire of operating personnel would be to accomplish this without any interference or concern for such things as evidence preservation.
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Document ID: 9331BC95

Variables Influencing The Toughness Of 9% Nickel Steel
Author(s): Alexander D. Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
Since its development over 30 years ago, 9% nickel sleel has been used successfully throughout the world for liquefied natural gas (LNG) and other cryogenic applications Because of its critical application the cryogenic fracture toughness properties of 9% Ni steel have been extensively characterized and fracture mechanics design analyses of LNG tanks performed. These analyses have confirmed that this steel specification provides a wide measure of safety for these applications.
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Document ID: BB4B00DC

Responsibility And Authority Of The First Line Supervisor
Author(s): James C. Dunaway
Abstract/Introduction:
The first line Gas T&D Supervisor at Pacific Gas and Electric Company is in a difficult position. He has, generally speaking, come up through the ranks of the collective bargaining work force to the first level management position of Field Foreman. He now faces the often frustrating task of harmonizing the demands of higher management with their corporate goals, and the needs of the collective work force, of which not long ago he was a member. The purpose of this paper is to present a method designed to assist the T&D Field Foreman in reaching and understanding the role, responsibility, authority and tasks of his position.
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Document ID: 326318AF

Sng Via The Hydrocracking Route
Author(s): Leon m. Lehman
Abstract/Introduction:
Cryogenic purification of recycle hydrogen streams in existing units producing benzene by the HDA Process produces a waste gas stream which can be used directly as SNG. If needed, cryogenic techniques could also be used on many refinery streams to recover SNG. Large quantities of SNG could be produced from naphtha or middle distillate streams using thermal hydrocracking operations which have been commercially demonstrated. This process could also be developed to handle heavier feedstocks including vacuum gas oils. This paper emphasize the recently proven cryogenic operations which permit low cost recovery of SNG.
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Document ID: 399934E4

Open Forum On Design Criteria-Part 9
Author(s): E. L. Traub, A. W. Amurgis, T. A. Davison, D. Pickel, J. S. Van Zandt
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of the Open Forum on Design Criteria is to cover those subjects that do not lend themselves to lengthy discussion or preparation of a paper. These subjects or questions-lend themselves to quick, informal answers or the display of hands as to what various companies practices are. During the past year the members of the Distribution Design and Development Committee have assembled questions relative to the gas industry. These questions were submitted to each member of the committee for their answers. Where only yes or no answers were given, they are summarized immediately following the question. Narrative response is given to other questions with typical answers to relay the intent of the committee member. These responses come from gas company representatives within the continental United States and Canada.
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Document ID: 680EEB16

Going Metric In Engineering
Author(s): E. H. Visscher
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper focuses on some of the challenges, problems and uhimate rewards that will be earned when the total engineering profession goes metric. First, however, as a good engineer, let us state the ground rules, or requirements to which we design, We will assume that the argument To go or not to go metric has been settled, whether we liked it or not, and many of us are In that last category. We go SI nie.tric only and not with some of the many preceding metric systems (mks, cgs, etc.). With those two ground rules, almost any engineer could go to work and perform his job, if it were not for the supporting documentation such as standards, handbooks and specifications which are not yet available. Because you see, the rest is really a matter of human behavior and rightfully does not have very much to do with engineering.
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Document ID: EA5D0B3E

U.S. LNG Imports: An End Or A New Opportunity?
Author(s): George D. Carameros, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Events of recent months have dramatically demonstrated the current state of affairs surrounding the U.S. LNG import industry. Perhaps a more accurate description would be the non-existent U.S. LNG industry. Failure by the U.S. and Algerian governments to resolve the pricing impasse in the El Paso Algeria project precipitated a firm commitment on the transporters part to extricate itself from this pioneering project. If Algerian LNG deliveries to the Cove Point and Savannah terminals are ever to resume, the project will have to be completely reorganized and restructured.
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Document ID: 528A075E

Conservation Of Fuel Through Automatic Fuel Dispensing And Motor Fuel Management Systems
Author(s): Eugene J. Toth
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past, we at Wisconsin Gas Company have had suspicions that our gasoline might be subject to pilferage. Most of the time our figures were correct and corroborated. When the figures did not jibe, was it human error or was it pilferage? Since gasoline can shrink or expand due to weather conditions or temperatures we could not really corroborate our figures. Also in the past we did not have a true system of figuring miles per gallon on an ongoing basis. With our limited manpower we would only spot check vehicles that were obviously low on miles per gallon.
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Document ID: 540993B8

Service For Domestic Solar Water Heating Systems
Author(s): Paul C. Heilmann
Abstract/Introduction:
Historically, Pacific Gas and Electric Company has provided and continues to provide gas, electricity, water and/or steam service to customers in northern and central California. Of the 3.5 million PGandE customers approximately 2.9 are natural gas customers. As energy costs continue to rise, most of our customers are turning to various types of energy conservation. This report describes just one of several ongoing energy conservation programs (solar water heating) which are presently underway in our service territory. With the advent of this solar program, PGandE is modifying its customer service policy to include providing technical, diagnostic service for domestic solar water heating systems.
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Document ID: 821689A8

Save On Main And Service Installations - Sure!
Author(s): James F. Drain
Abstract/Introduction:
To engineering, distribution and other operating personnel, pressure usually means pounds per square inch gauge (psig) as opposed to inches of water column (w.c) reduced pipe sizes and reduced installation costs. To them, pressure also means capacity to expand beyond present geographic limits with minimal investment. With adequate gas supply, pressure allows them flexibility to respond to demand during peak and off-peak periods. Clearly, pressure is key.
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Document ID: 0775651C

An Objective Method For Establishing An Optimum Rate Of Odorization
Author(s): Frank V. Wilby
Abstract/Introduction:
This report proposes an odorization criterion that should enable the customer to detect a fuel gas leak that poses a potential hazard, rather than to detect a leak after it already has become a hazard. Information and techniques are available to provide a safe minimum standard of odorization based on objective data and deliberately apphed judgment factors. By establishing a rate of odorization in this manner, management can be aware of the significance and reliability of each factor entering into the decision. The method applies to unodorized and naturally odorized gas streams as well as those requiring supplemental odorization.
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Document ID: 1A194B96

Damage Prevention Legislation
Author(s): Thomas J. Cusworth
Abstract/Introduction:
The System Protection Committee of A.G.A. has been compiling and examining state damage prevention legislation for several years. We try to keep abreast of these laws in all states, study their various provisions, look for ihe reasons behind those provisions, and attempt to evaluate their effectiveness. We have found a wide variety of laws, all of which reflect local conditions, and lo a degree Ihe influence of special interests groups.
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Document ID: 789D4BEC

Quality Control Of Flow Meter Charts
Author(s): Robert L. Beloat
Abstract/Introduction:
This is a brief review of one method of evaluating the quality of Flow Meter Charts. Due to the acquisition of high precision equipment, this task has recently been assumed by the Meter Performance Control Section of the Southern California Gas Company. While not intended to be a definitive procedure, it is hoped that these methods win lead to better quality charts. Historically, paper charts have been utilized in the adjustment of instruments used to measure pressure or flow and in the recording of this information for measurement evaluation. Methods of evaluating inked lines on blank charts have been around for a long time however, the rising costs of gas delivery have made the customer more aware of his usage. This has precipitated an action of insuring that the charts used for billing the customer are readable and uniform. The need for accuracy in charts to calibrate measurement equipment is self-evident.
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Document ID: 84D4E088

Mms At Con Edison: A Five-Year Retrospective
Author(s): Oscar F. Baldwin
Abstract/Introduction:
Five years ago, following two and a half years of design, we implemented an on-line, real-time, fully integrated material management system at Con Edison. This paper discusses the improvements which this system, referred to as MMS, has brought about, the problems that remain despite it, and what we would and would not do if we had it all to do over. While I will emphasize the good points of the system, no attempt will be made to hide its flaws. MMS is a reliable, accurate information system. The information is current because the system provides for real-time processing, and it is immediately accessible on line, via remote video terminals.
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Document ID: DB9C2E15

Water Vapor Determination In Natural Gas
Author(s): Douglas E. Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
The knowledge of the water vapor content within a gas pipeline distribution system is of major importance for the maintenance of quality control within the system. The following discussion covers typical methods for water vapor measurement used by the gas industry. The instruments discussed are different from each other in that each presents a specific method for water vapor measurement. The determination of the water vapor content within a pipeUne system is important because many operational and measurement problems created by poor quality gas can be prevented. Some of the operational problems which can result from wet gas are as follows:
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Document ID: E8436182

The Impact Of Rising Rates On Customer Relations
Author(s): Michael S. Reeves
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper puts the spotlight on a subject that is perhaps the number one issue facing the natural gas industry today. I am referring to the impact of rising gas rates on Customer Relations activities.
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Document ID: 675EB317

Rockwell International: New Developments
Author(s): R. Bradley Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
Rockwell is proud to introduce four new product line offerings. They are: 1. The Rockwell Electronic Temperature Corrector 2. The Centralized Meter Reading Transponder 3. The Auto-Adjust Turbo-Meter 4. The MPB Gas Flow Computer
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Document ID: 02A92883

Experience In A Gas Distribution System With Hvdc
Author(s): Malcolm Carlson
Abstract/Introduction:
The interference effects on cathodically protected small town gas distribution systems caused by a high voltage direct current power hne are discussed. The power line runs from Underwood, North Dakota to Delano, Minnesota. Most of the information presented involves the Minnesota Gas Company town closest to the East Electrode, a distance of seven miles. Three periods of testing have been completed. The first test in 1978 at earth current values up to 600 amps was conducted for the purpose of locating areas of interference and providing indications of the magnitude. Remedial devices were then installed and a second test at 600 amps was conducted in 1979. Additional remedial devices were installed and a third test at 1,200 amps was completed in 1980. The status at this time is that more remedial devices are being installed and additional testing will be performed in 1981.
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Document ID: D84A5D6B

Using Computer Models To Forecast Supply And Demand
Author(s): Merriel C. Dewsnup, Brian R. Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
The current modeling system for supply and demand projections at Mountain Fuel Supply Company is described with observations for development of future models. The need for better data to support the models has caused a major effort lo be undertaken lo develop a Well information System. This paper discusses why it is needed, what it is, and how it is being developed.
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Document ID: E2754082

Department Of Energy Decat Program And Van Pooling
Author(s): Boris Hubar
Abstract/Introduction:
Motor fleet drivers substantially affect our nations energy use. By employing energyefficient driving techniques, these 8 million vehicle fleet drivers could improve their fuel economy 10 to 20% and decrease U.S. fuel requirements by over a billion gallons per year. With uncertain supplies and everincreasing gasoline prices, such efforts could greatly ease the energy crunch and diminish our reliance on foreign supphes of oil. The Driver Energy Conservation Awareness Training (DECAT) program is designed to teach fleet managers and operators energy-efficient driving techniques. Drivers can employ these techniques with virtually no sacrifice in fleet service and at minimum cost.
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Document ID: B898C252

Wire Alignment Technique
Author(s): Frank Wornhor
Abstract/Introduction:
To receive maximum longevity and utilization of any unit the proper engine base alignment is critical. The majority of most crankshaft problems can be traced back to improper base alignment. One should also be keenly aware of the importance of periodically checking the condition of the foundation, grout, chocks and sole plates or skid installation, as these must be in good condition before good alignment can be maintained.
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Document ID: 142B417A

Old Trucks Never Die
Author(s): Donald R. Ashton
Abstract/Introduction:
A review of the vehicle disposal questionnaire presented in the appendix of this report doesnt offer any major surprises but it does indicate some general trends we should review. The answers show that most companies continue to use either auctions or sealed bidding to sell their used equipment however, none do any reconditioning prior to sale. The disposal function still is generally performed by the transportation and/or purchasing departments, and replacement decisions remain heavily influenced by age and mileage. We do, however, see increasing emphasis on economics with some companies now including complex mathematical models as a standard ingredient in the replacement analysis. After the 1973 oil embargo and attendant economic problems, we saw a significant increase in the mileage and age figures that were being used as replacement guides. Although this trend has now stabilized, there has not been any appreciable drift back toward the lower figures of the sixlies and early seventies.
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Document ID: E2061878

A Consideration When Pressure Uprating An Already Installed Polyethylene Piping System Pressure( Rating Capabilities Of Heat Fused Polyethylene Piping Components)
Author(s): Stanley A. Mruk
Abstract/Introduction:
Under current practice, the pressure rating capabilities of a polyethylene gas piping system is determined on the basis of a well established method that was originally developed for forecasting long term performance of PE pipe. The performance capability of heat fusion PE fittings is essentially inferred through tests that compare fitting to pipe performance under certain prescribed conditions. A new theoretical proposal for more precisely forecasting system performance for ambient and higher temperatures is reviewed and the significance of the predicted values upon current fitting pressure rating design practice is discussed. Although it is unheard that a field failure has been discovered that can be attributed to fitting failure due to internal pressure, recommendations are made based on the additional insight suggested by this newly proposed theoretical approach. The essential recommendation is that for service conditions above 60 psi and 73 F consideration should be given to assuring that each PE gas piping component can provide the anticipated service life.
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Document ID: 6FA1255B

An Overview Of The Engineering, Permits, Construction And Status Of The Great Plains Coal Gasification Project
Author(s): Jack W. Parker
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents an overview of the Great Plains Coal Gasification Project relative to engineering, permits, construction and overall current status. Under the partnership arrangement, American Natural Resources is the project manager in regard to the ongoing day to day project activities. The objective of the Great Plains high-Btu coal gasification project is to demonstrate on a commercial scale the technical, economic and environmental acceptability for converting coal (hgnite) to pipeline quality substitute natural gas (SNG) in the United States. Although high-Btu gasification technology has been successfully demonstrated in other countries, this plant will provide the first commercial use of the technology in the United States. As such, it will serve as a forerunner for a United States synthetic fuels industry. This, in turn, will contribute to a reduction in foreign oil imports and the conservation of natural gas for residential and industrial use.
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Document ID: E8695A51

Mobile Heat Storage
Author(s): John Knarr, Arthur Clyne
Abstract/Introduction:
Energy Recycling Company is a Michigan Corporation which was founded in 1977, Although the company itself is rather young, the principals of the company have been working on energy conservation and related projects for nearly ten years. Currently we hold two patents on our products and the systems in which they can be used, and we have further patent applications pending. During the years that we have been directing our efforts toward energy conservation we have recognized that there are many individuals in many companies addressing the matter of collecting surplus or free energy and further addressing the application and utilization of this energy.
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Document ID: 8A82F0F7

Alternate Fuels: Coal Dust Or Oil Engines In The Gas Utility Fleet
Author(s): Henry J. Desrosiers
Abstract/Introduction:
Great progress has been made in the internal combustion oil engine since Dr. Rudolph Diesel, a German engineer, devised a method in 1892 of using high compression air to ignite fuels in engines. His experiments began by using coal dust as a fuel but were soon dropped in favor of Hght oil. In 1897 a successful compression ignition engine was built by a Dr. Lauster in conjunction with Dr. Diesel and the M.A.N. Company of Germany. Strangely enough, this engine and its principles got off to a very shaky start. In 1898 the worlds first commercial diesel was manufactured in the United States by Adolph Busch to be used in his brewery.
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Document ID: BD0A40F2

A Safety Device For Domestic Meter Installations
Author(s): Bill Abram
Abstract/Introduction:
Using a new and different approach to the problem of overpressure in a gas meter, a unique meter relief system has been designed. This relief system has several distinct advantages: 1. Fast and easy installation The system can be mounted directly to the top of the gas meter in place of the cover plate by merely using four bolts. This is done without disturbing the piping.
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Document ID: C726DC6E

Problems Associated With Pipelines Occupying Joint- Use-Corridors With Overhead Ac Transmission Lines
Author(s): A. Akhtar
Abstract/Introduction:
An overview is presented of the problems associated with pipelines occupying jointuse- corridors with overhead AC transmission lines. Accurate analytical models are available for the prediction of electromagnetically induced potential and current in the pipe due to load current and fault current in the transmission line. Mitigation measures are also known for the protection of pipeline equipment and personnel from the induced voltage hazard. The induced AC potential appears to have an insignificant corrosion enhancement effect on a pipe with conventional cathodic protection system. Ground fault currents entering the pipe, however, can cause serious damage to the pipe. Factors affecting the extent of fault current reaching the pipe are discussed.
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Document ID: 03A750B7

Philadelphia Gas Works Sng Plant Startup Experience
Author(s): Thomas J. Hanna
Abstract/Introduction:
The Philadelphia Gas Works (PGW), like most other distribution companies, obtains most of its energy needs from transmission companies pipeline connections to our gas distribution system. In the late 1960s, PGW embarked upon a program to replace the aging oil gas facilities employed at that time as a winter load supplement to the natural gas supply. This included the design and construction of the largest distributionowned liquefied natural gas facility in the United States, which came on stream in the mid-1970s. By then, it had become apparent to company management, with the natural gas curtailments then being projected, that even more gas supplies were necessary. Under evaluation and ultimately selected was the construction of a substitute natural gas (SNG) plant to complement the liquefied natural gas (See Figure 1). This facihty, which utilizes naphtha as its feedstock, has been completed and successfully started up this past year, and not unlike most other plants, experienced a certain degree of difficulty in reaching that stage.
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Document ID: 0F4239EB

Measurement Trends In Europe
Author(s): Joseph A. Bonner
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper concerns measurement practices in Europe and the changes occurring. By necessity, certain requirements imposed by national laws, are covered to provide the background to explain these changes. The basic requirement is to measure gas and energy as error free as possible with equipment available and approved for custody transfer. Operating practices and equipment are being modified to achieve even smaller errors in day-to-day measurement.
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Document ID: 64B57E5D

Waste Heat Recovery From Reciprocating Gas Engines: Glycol Regeneration
Author(s): John R. Stroder
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is an update of a paper given by Mr. R. J. Hlozek and Mr. J. B. Bardov, CE&R InlerNorth, at the 59th Gas Processors Association meeting March 18, 1980. Northern Natural Gas Company, like other gas transmission companies, is a large user of energy in the production, gathering, treating and transmission of naturai gas to the market place. The rising cost of purchase gas, new facility additions, and system operation in general require that the facilities be operated at an energy efficient level. Not only are new facilities designed for efficiency but where economics permit, older systems are also modified to be more efficient. For energy saving projects, it is our companys policy to evaluate the economics of a project by the gas saved at a cost equivalent to the projected cost of #2 fuel oil and a cost of service computation. In many cases, energy saving additions to a facility can now be economically supported where it was not economical at the time the facilities were installed.
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Document ID: 9B142B5D

Cooperative Corrosion Research Sponsored By The Pipeline Research Committee Off A.G.A.
Author(s): William B. Smith, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
A brief history of the Pipeline Research Committee (PRC) of the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) along with budgets and project numbering is discussed. The formulation of the Corrosion Research Supervising Committee as sponsored by PRC is presented and followed by a method of project introductions for research and supervision. The original Pipeline Research Committee (PRC) of the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) assembled for the first time on December 15, 1952, with a meeting of 16 persons from 15 natural gas companies and an A.G.A. representative. The objective of this formation was to investigate ways of overcoming operating problems and to bring forth means of promoting safe and efficient pipehne operations through research. The following year a research program was initiated with a budget of less than 200,(XX). The need for research in the pipeline field was recognized by the American Standards Association (ASA) B31.8 Code Committee as early as 1950 when several unusual pipeline breaks occurred while gas tests were being performed on a new 30-inch diameter pipeline.
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Document ID: 0D3E75A5

On Line Computers
Author(s): Robert D. Goodenough
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper on On Line Computers discusses the application of on line flow computers for gas control purposes, meter station control, and custody transfer by Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company.
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Document ID: 1212A5DA

Chartless Billing
Author(s): John C. Wallace
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the last several years, field-proven electronic gas flow calculators have been applied to gas measurement tasks where charts were previously used. These calculators are now in a position to facilitate the task of billing under most circumstances. Industry interest has grown rapidly since the cost of natural gas escalated, and the new calculators offer potential cost savings. This paper examines the applicability of gas flow calculators as a device for billing purposes. The basic questions of how they are used, why they are used, and when they are used are discussed.
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Document ID: 0E13E231

If Over-Pressure Protection Is Required, Then What?
Author(s): Glen R. Schwalbach
Abstract/Introduction:
The safety record of the natural gas industry is one that we all can be proud of. And every day distribution utility companies, as well as the rest of the industry including equipment suppliers, continue to work to make it still a better one. In this regard, 1 would like to present my views on the subject of overpressure protection. 1 will only discuss overpressure protection as it relates to the customers regulator and meter set. Or, in other words, as it relates to the facilities provided by the utility to reduce distribution system pressure to the customers utilization pressure. 1 will not be discussing over-pressure protection as it relates to the distribution system itself and its pressure relieving and limiting stations.
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Document ID: 6982E478

Federal LNG Safety Standards- Philosophies, Facts And Features
Author(s): Walt Dennis
Abstract/Introduction:
Legislative history justified Department of Transportation (DOT) jurisdiction over liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities under the Natural Gas Pipeline safety Act of 1968 (N6GSA), making them subject to Parts 191 and 192 since publication in 1970. However, in amendments and legislative history of the Act in 1979, Congress mandated development of comprehensive and more stringent LNG standards within a prescribed time frame. In developing the standards, assuring that LNG industry success be dependent on its own economic merit and societal benefit, free of unreasonable obstruction, was a guiding DOT philosophy. Public concern would not be assuaged by probabihstic risk analyses of questionable merit. Rather, credible federal standards were necessary for achievement.
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Document ID: FC5B9D9F

A.GA Metrication Task Committee 1980-81 Year
Author(s): L. J. Kemp
Abstract/Introduction:
The A.G.A. Metrication Task Committee entered the 1980-81 year with several serious problems. The most pressing of these were: Serious understaffing Extremely poor relations with managing committee Limited ability to communicate to the Gas Industry Companies, The very ambitious set of committee goals were established at the start of the year and most were designed to improve the above situations. Admittedly these were based more on what was needed rather than on what was reahsticaily possible of achieving. While probable, not prudent, this has worited out very well. I am very pleased to report that the accomplishments in the most important areas have been far beyond what any of us would have considered realistic in June of 1980. It has been a most successful year.
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Document ID: FC75C5C2

Energy Management
Author(s): Richard J. Trieste
Abstract/Introduction:
Energy, uncontrolled, moves in all directions but with effective control maximum utilization can be achieved, thereby reducing its overall use. Our Energy Management logo displays this statement since the woven pattern represents the energy and the circle represents management control. Up until March 1, 1980 conservation of energy consumed internally at Brooklyn Union was fractionalized, with each department striving to reduce its energy use but without an overall corporate plan. Most of the effort concerned itself with budgetary considerations with no real work being done with weather and system considerations. In spite of this seemingly disoriented effort, much was accomplished in terms of conserving energy, with most of the savings attributed to housekeeping.
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Document ID: 233AC530

Productivity Measurement In The Meter Shop
Author(s): Allen E. Sheffler
Abstract/Introduction:
The emphasis in the Washington Gas Light Company, like many other gas utilities in the past few years, has shifted from an operations-priority company to a financiallyoriented business. Increasing pressure from rate governing bodies to prove cost control before granting rate increases has led to the requirement of economic justification not just for new programs, but also for established, continuing processes, It has always been necessary to re-examine ongoing functions, but in our case, the examination was habitually from an operalions-and-engineering viewpoint with an aim to increase efficiency, but without continued economic oversight.
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Document ID: AF075E0A

Risk Analysis Approach To Planning Peak Day Gas Capacity
Author(s): Joseph A. Masino
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to plan for the future in any industry, projections must be made for those important factors impacting decision making: sales forecast, raw materia! availability and cost, money availability and cost, future technology, and government policy. But the environment in which most companies, especially we in the energy industry, operate today is characterized by an ever increasing degree of uncertainty. This uncertainty has resulted in a continual reassessment of the assumptions used for most of these factors. To cope with these ongoing changes, to evaluate their impact, computer models have become a necessity.
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Document ID: 0CE0B60F

Microseismic Monitoring Of The New Haven Gas Storage Reservoir
Author(s): H. Reginald Hardy, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
At present the microseismic technique is the only available method Cor evaluating the mechanical stability of a large geologic structure such as an underground gas storage reservoir. In this technique the low-level seismic signals associated with the development of underground stress concentrations, and with such structural activity as fracture initiation and propagation, bed separation, and relative motion of structural elements are detected using a series of surface and/or downhole transducers. By recording the signals from a set of such transducers over a period of time, and under a variety of conditions (e.g., storage pressure, stored gas volume, etc.), it is possible to gain information in regard to the general stability of the overall structure, and if any prominent defects are present to determine their approximate location.
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Document ID: 494466B5

The Current Outlook-Pipeline Safety Regulation
Author(s): Charles Swinburn
Abstract/Introduction:
For the last year I have been working almost exclusively on the problems of the autmobile and railroad industries. As I am sure you know, both face serious problems. You, on the other hand, represent a sector of our transportation system, the natural gas pipeline industry, that is thriving. You are in an enviable position when compared to many of the other transportation modes, With regard to your industry, the Department of Transportations primary responsibility is pipeline safety regulation.
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Document ID: 9385A6D6

Mimimizing Shock Hazards Near High-Voltage Lines
Author(s): A. W. Hamlin
Abstract/Introduction:
Both electric and gas facilities transmit power. However, the theory and system of transport are completely different, and operation of these facilities on a common right of way can cause serious electrical interference problems. Because of these inherent problems, the first response to a request for common right of way is frequently NO! However, the decreasing access to, and higher cost of, private and public land for new rights of way and the ever increasing pressure of governmental and environmental groups to develop utility corridor concepts frequently make NO impractical. It is, therefore, necessary to understand and control mutual interference conditions to permit normal operation of both facilities when they must coexist in physical proximity.
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Document ID: A23DC040

Fleet Fueling Practices: Update On Utility Fuel Accountability
Author(s): Bobby G. Cooper
Abstract/Introduction:
Reaction by utilities to the soaring cost and impending shortage of vehicle and equipment fuel has resulted in numerous programs of alternate fuels, increased storage capacity and conservation. However, little change has occurred in the security and accountability of fuel, though systems are available. A survey of several A.G.A/EEl member companies showed Ihat 16 of the 17 companies that responded provided bulk fuel storage and pumping facilities. The concern created by the Arab oil embargo has resulted in the addition of more fuel storage capability by 9 of the responding companies. Alternate fuels such as compressed natural gas and gasohol are being tested by 6 of these companies. Vehicles have been downsized for better fuel efficiency by all companies.
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Document ID: 4619ADD5

Selection And Implementation Of A Computer Aided Design And Drafting (CAD/D) System
Author(s): John P. Davis
Abstract/Introduction:
in a study of ways to more effectively cope with the problems of extremely heavy workloads in the face of limited engineering and drafting manpower, the use of Computer Aided Design and Drafting appears to offer one of the best solutions. A task group spent some 11 months studying, specifying and selecting a CAD/D system for Transco. Specifications were prepared for a long-range objective. Review of Vendor proposals, benchmark testing and constant coordination with user groups allowed a proposed implementation pattern to evolve to maximize the early use of a CAD/D system and provide for the orderly development of additional applications.
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Document ID: 0BD69EC3

Gas Storage And Archeology In Historical Areas
Author(s): Russell G. Clausing
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper was prepared to share Trunklines experience in studying and preserving archeological, or historical, data in an area proposed for an underground gas storage field. There are three federal statutes dealing with the preservation of archeological and historical sites and materials. The State of Louisiana also requires that any archeologically known area be protected. Its Antiquities and Archeological Survey has developed standards for conducting cultural resource surveys, and these standards were followed in designing a program for archeological investigations. The Environmental Impact Statement prepared for Trunklines storage project acknowledged that part of the area was sensitive historically, and that Trunkline would make an archeological survey to protect any artifacts or critical sites prior to starting any construction.
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Document ID: 844A3A6B

LNG Peakshaving Facility Turnaround
Author(s): Gregory H. Brown, Edward C. Gruner
Abstract/Introduction:
Wisconsin Natural Gas Company successfully purged a 250 million standard cubic feet capacity liquefied natural gas (LNG) tank out of service, entered the tank, made necessary inspections and the planned modifications. The ease with which this tank was taken out of service, purged and modified illustrates one of the advantages of above grade metal storage tanks with separate sec- -ondary containment (dikes).
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Document ID: 3859EF92

Mobile Housing, The Trend Of Today
Author(s): Rita B. Schueler
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to share with the reader government regulations, types of gas metering and safety responsibilities within mobile home parks. As our inflation rate rises, conventional home mortgages become difficult to obtain, and mobile homes have reached a level of acceptance with todays home buyer. The mobile home industry has reached the 4 billion dollar category. This figure prompted action by the Federal Trade Commission, which is the federal agency charged with policing industry practices and protecting consumer interests. If a mobile home is truly the last affordable home in the U.S., the sale of units and park land will rise to dizzying heights in the years to come.
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Document ID: EC50EBA9

A Look Ahead In Gas Storage Technology
Author(s): Donald L. Katz
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas storage technology is a mature industry. Starting with gas technology from natural gas production and its affiliate of oil production, specialized topics have been addressed because of their importance to gas storage. This ongoing process is extrapolated into the future based on current experiences observed by the writer. Confining gas in the storage reservoir and the development of procedures to provide assurance that the gas resides in the intended place are of increasing concern because of the escalating value of the gas in the reservoirs. With water as a frequent confining fluid for storage gas, a better understanding of the displacement of gas by water is needed, as well as new ways to produce edge gas from thin wafers to reduce gas pressure.
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Document ID: 648B86A7

Computer Based Energy Dispatch System
Author(s): Francis Desautels
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to describe the new data acquisition and control system that was installed by Bay State Gas Company in a new dispatch center built in Ludlow, Massachusetts, on the site of an existing LNG plant. This computer-based dispatch system will assist the dispatcher in performing gas distribution system monitoring and control functions.
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Document ID: B587AA33

Use Of Data Graphics For Facility Information Management
Author(s): L. J. Timms, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The merging of computerized data bases and computerized mapping into an integrated system was a logical marriage for the Consolidated Gas Supply Corporation. This system will solve a number of data handling requirements for the corporation, and also allow information to be displayed on maps or drawings which are familiar tools for engineers and geologists. This paper is intended to give the reader assistance in the selection, justification and installation of a graphics system from a management viewpoint.
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Document ID: CB1D838A

Report Of Committee Activities: A.G.A. Corrosion Control Committee
Author(s): Harry J. Hagan
Abstract/Introduction:
Someone once said. Every successful endeavor begins with people, their character, ability, pride and dedication. From there, teamwork produces the final finish. 1 would like to add, Committees are composed of people and from my point of view, this group is one very fine assemblage.
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Document ID: D561A814

The Hasp System Of Aligning Gas Engine Compressors
Author(s): Ranny Stith
Abstract/Introduction:
Much has been written about the alignment of gas engine compressors. The major shortcoming of most publications is the assumption that we are always dealing with the original setting with machined surfaces, leveling blocks, and ideal crankshaft and bearing conditions. Few have addressed the dilemma of alignment when problems arise such as: When bearing clearances are excessive When the bearings have uneven wear patterns due to frame movement or years of running with the frame in a twisted state When the frame is level and the crankshaft deflection readings are out of tolerance Coping with the influence of piping strain Where a frame has been cracked and metat stitched Where a rod had broken years ago upsetting a bearing cradle
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Document ID: 55D2EDC9

Selection And Installation Of Electrical Isolating Materials
Author(s): Orville W. Everett
Abstract/Introduction:
Electrical isolating materials are necessary to provide efficient and economical cathodic protection to buried or submerged metallic structures. According to NACEs RP 01-69 (1976 Revision) electrical isolation is, the condition of being electrically separated from other metallic structures or the environment. Section 4 of the same document points out most of the significant strategic points where isolation is required. The author recommends that the design engineers keep this entire document handy. One significant area not specifically mentioned in the above document is often found in gas distribution systems where electrical isolation is installed for convenience in monitoring and maintaining cathodic protection. Experience is the best factor in determining how many of these are required.
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Document ID: 49479EA6

LNG Tank Inventory Measurement By Photogrammetry
Author(s): Duane C. Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
In the latest edition of the Manual of Photogrammetry published by the American Society of Photogrammetry the word photogrammetry is defined as: the art, science and technology of obtaining reliable information about physical objects and the environment through processes of recording, measuring, and interpreting images and patterns of electromagnetic radiant energy and other phenomena. The classic and still the major application of photogrammetry is in aerial mapping wherein sequences of stereoscopically viewed pairs of overlapping photographs taken from an airplane are used to generate topographic maps. However, over the past two decades a specialized subdiscipline referred to as close-range photogrammetry has been met with noteworthy success in applications involving the precise measurement of structures.
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Document ID: 179766EE

Gas Sales And Peak Day Forecasting An Econometric/End-Use Approach
Author(s): G. S. Levitt, T. P. Brunetto
Abstract/Introduction:
A comprehensive, credible, and welldocumented gas sales and peak day forecast should serve as the basis for determining strategies for solving both technical and business-related problems. It provides the foundation for estimates of future operating revenues, gas costs, and other operating expenses, the need for new capital additions, and the timing and magnitude of future requests for rale relief. As one of the cornerstones of corporate planning, the forecasting methodology upon which a gas sales forecast is based should: Identify the primary causal determinants of sales growth. Provide information to other areas of corporate planning. Answer questions asked by corporate managers and regulators, Be defensible in the present regulatory environment, Utilize available resources efficiently.
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Document ID: BA32C545

Quality Control Testing Versus Material Evaluation
Author(s): Edmund Reaney
Abstract/Introduction:
As most of us in the gas industry are aware, there is a wide variety of procedures being used to test plastic pipe. This paper compares the tests used to evaluate a resin with those used for quality control testing of pipe manufactured from this resin.
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Document ID: D19455DD

1980 Research Results In The Analysis Of Pipeline Response To Nearby Buried Explosive Detonations
Author(s): John D. Mcnorgan
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the results of a program performed by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). They have been conducting scale model tests on pipes exposed to buried explosive detonations under contract to the Pipeline Research Committee of the American Gas Association. Although reference is made to previous reports, the primary purpose of this paper is to discuss highlights of the most recent results of the research. To this end. material contained in the 1980 Interim Annual Report is used as the primary source for the discussions which follow. Since this paper highlights the results of the program, the development of equations has been omitted. It is suggested that those who have an interest in following the equation development obtain a copy of the final report where there will be a full discussion.
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Document ID: D4671C1C

Effects Of Paving On External Loadings On Buried Pipelines
Author(s): Richard Olson, Denny Stephens, David Finley
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents an improved calculation procedure for determining live loads on pipelines in uncased road crossings. Previous methods of calculating the loads have been overly conservative because they have ignored the beneficial effects of pavement and of load distribution at the tire contact patch. Results of the method introduced here show that including these two effects can reduce the calculated live load by up to 50 percent. This is enough, in some circumstances, to lower the design factor of a crossing design from an unacceptable level to an acceptable level.
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Document ID: 9973AE0D

Heat Fusion Of Different Brands Of Polythylene Piping
Author(s): P. P. Petro
Abstract/Introduction:
The proper technique for heat fusion of polyethylene pipe and fittings from different manufacturers has been the subject of a number of studies over the past 10 years. In the early 1970s, papers were presented at the American Gas Association Distribution Conference, and the American Gas Association Plastic Pipe Symposium covering the strength of joints when different brands of polyethylene pipe were joined by the various heat fusion techniques. Since that time, a number of other presentations have been made providing similar information and a joining standard has been published by a European based international group.
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Document ID: 2E992F8E

Video Monitoring Of Pipeline Right-Of-Way
Author(s): Arthur R. Good
Abstract/Introduction:
The problems associated with maintaining and protecting our pipeline facilities along our system right-of-way have been increasing in recent years. With the continued population growth, new residential, commercial and industrial construction projects and increased environmental concerns, these problems will continue to affect our business. To assist us in coping with many of these problems, Panhandle Eastern has been experimenting with the utilization of video tapes to add to our methods of monitoring our pipeline right-of-way.
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Document ID: FB8486E0

Effective Operation Through Computer Control
Author(s): George F. Terry
Abstract/Introduction:
Using a computer driven data acquisition and control system, the Gas Control Department of Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, a Division of Tenneco, Inc., effectively operates one of the nations largest interstate natural gas transmission systems. The object of this paper is to define the Tennessee Gas Pipeline Data Acquisition and Control (DAC) System.
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Document ID: A183A238

Computer Aided Dispatching System For Routine Logging Of Customer Service And Street Department Trucks
Author(s): William F. Eckles
Abstract/Introduction:
All gas utilities have some method for dispatching Customer Service and Street Department trucks. The majority of work is normally pre-assigned the day before, although emergency orders and same-day work, such as that related to leaks and turnons, are dispatched as soon as possible. In other words, most work is already assigned to the crews before they leave the shop in the morning. The truck radio is used to dispatch emergency work and to log where the drivers are and what they are doing. As the number of trucks each dispatcher handles increases, the confusion over the radio also increases. As confusion increases, so does inefficiency. A typical series of transmissions for a dispatcher may include three or four tricks and the exchange would take approximately 2 minutes of extreme confusion and noise.
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Document ID: 2F120829

The Role Of A State Gas Association
Author(s): R. Frank Nowlin
Abstract/Introduction:
The Texas Gas Association can trace its earliest beginnings as a viable organization back eight years. The growth of the organization during this period in both size and importance to the gas industry in Texas has been for me a source of great pleasure and pride. I am sure that similar associations have provided equal pleasure and pride to our colleagues in the gas business in other states. A state gas association can play a highly important role to the gas industry in the state and to the public in general.
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Document ID: B369D7CA

Redesign Of Remote Telemetiry Equipment To Improve Accuracy
Author(s): Robert J. Yaffe
Abstract/Introduction:
An extensive network of data acquisition equipment is used by Southern Union Company to monitor its daily allocations of natural gas from pipeline companies. Curtailment plans implemented some years ago require us to use only our daily allocations or face penalties for overruns. Our first experience with Remote Transmitting Units (RTUs) convinced us we had problems that needed to be solved. This paper deals with our problems and the solution to those problems.
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Document ID: 80F3A51C

A Canadian Transmission Companys Approach To System Protection
Author(s): J. C. Wong, B. P. Ashworth
Abstract/Introduction:
in the last 25 years, the development of Canadas huge natural gas deposits has led to the formation of a large industrial sector in Canada, the natural gas transmission and distribution industry. Canadian gas pipeline companies have built a grid of 150,000 km (95,000 miles) of pipelines from British Columbia to Quebec, from the U.S. border to north of the 60th parallel. Natural gas accounts for one quarter of all primary energy used in Canada.
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Document ID: CE0D1BC5

Techniques To Determine The True Pipe-To-Soil Potential Of A Buried Pipeline
Author(s): T. J. Barlo, R. R. Fessler
Abstract/Introduction:
Techniques have been developed that now make it possible to compensate for the IR drop that occurs between the reference half cell and the buried pipeline when measuring the pipe-to-soil potential at ground level. These techniques have been applied to operating gas-transmission and distribution pipelines. The techniques are applicable to bare pipelines and coated pipelines for which there is a measurable transverse potential gradient. The development of four techniques is presented with a discussion of how the techniques are applied in the field. Sample data obtained on operating pipelines where the techniques were applied are presented with discussion of the limitations of the techniques. Key words: IR drop compensation, buried pipelines, true pipe-to-soil potential, and measurement techniques.
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Document ID: 24121248

Pushbutton Calibration On A City Gate Turbine Meter Station
Author(s): Harry P. Bean
Abstract/Introduction:
A city gate gas sales meter station consisting of four 8 turbine meters is described. The station has a capacity in excess of 92 million standard cubic feet per day with wide fiow rate fluctuations. Three of the turbine meters are used as sales meters. The fourth or master meter provides on-line proving of the sales meters. The station flow computer has been programmed to monitor the operation of the station, to alarm and print a record of abnormal conditions, in addition to printing a daily volume and flow data record. The unique feature of the station is the ease with which the accuracy of the sales meters can be verified.
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Document ID: C224EBA2

Design Of Polyethylene Pipe Subject To External Loads
Author(s): William B. Allman
Abstract/Introduction:
Previous papers by Watkins, Szpak and Allman 34.5 ijayg reported the extensive tests of Utah State University on the structural performance of polyethylene pipe subject to external loads. This paper concentrates on these key relationships from a design standpoint. It outlines good burial practice and discusses a generalized sequential design approach for buried flexible pipe. Actual design examples are given. Appendix A discusses two straightforward and interesting Du Pont tests on ring deflection from compacted earth loading, one of which attempts to simulate the effects of commercial drop hammer compactors. Two related field failure analyses arc also discussed.
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Document ID: D4FF1173

Wheeling And Dealing
Author(s): Nicholas D. Ruvo
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper illustrates the growth of Brooklyn Union Gas Company, how it deals with the everyday trial and tribulation of gas dispatching, the problems occurring during cold weather and how it moves gas from one of its suppliers to hs system. What the outlook for future supplies might be is given from one point of view.
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Document ID: BE73D1C2

Distribution Construction Equipment: Crew Truck Mounted Back-Hoe
Author(s): Anthony J. Digiovanni
Abstract/Introduction:
Boston Gas Company is the largest gas utility in New England and, as such, provides service to 500,000 customers in the eastern section of Massachusetts. The second oldest utility in the nation, it covers an area of 1000 square miles, and operates a distribution system of 5,800 miles of steel, cast iron, and plastic mains, ranging in pressure from 200 psig to A psig. Distribution activities for this system are carried out by 60 crews providing for operation, maintenance, main and service replacements, and extension of the system. Much work has taken place to insure an efficient operation, from the introduction of a work measurement system to the investigation of new equipment.
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Document ID: FA4A9601

Foamed Acid, An Effective Stimulation Fluid
Author(s): William G. F. Ford
Abstract/Introduction:
Dynamic laboratory testing of foamed acid on limestone cores has established the effectiveness of foamed acid as a stimulation fluid. The effects of foam quality, foam stability, and chemical compatibility on fluid loss and fracture flow capacity were investigated. Recommendations are presented for deriving maximum benefits from a foamed acid treatment. Field results are presented that show the effectiveness of foamed acid in the stimulation of both oil and gas wells.
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Document ID: EB29D2AF

Prediction Of Peak Day And Annual Gas Supply Requirements
Author(s): Cecil Head
Abstract/Introduction:
How does your company estimate peak day and annual gas supply requirements? Do all the people involved with the gas supply problem go into a little room with scratch pads, scribble for hours, then choose the prediction which has been written by the highest ranking member of the team? Or does your company have a system in which the estimation is bogged down in computations that do not have sufficient data, is crunched through the computer but has no meaningful results? Last but not least, does your company have a method of prediction in which the independent variables are dependent variables upon dependent variables which require sophisticated mathematical techniques which nobody can understand?
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Document ID: B1BACEA1

Important Properties For Cryogenic Steels
Author(s): Alan W. Pense
Abstract/Introduction:
The proper application of 9% nickel steels to cryogenic LNG tankage service requires a knowledge of their strength, ductility and toughness ai low temperatures. Typical tests performed are the tension lest, the Charpy impact test and various fracture toughness tests. A review of data from these tests shows 9% nickel steels to have good strength and ductility combined with high toughness the cryogenic range.
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Document ID: 35499736

An Overview Of Gri Research On Damage Prevention
Author(s): Raymond A. Day
Abstract/Introduction:
The U.S. gas distribution system is a vital link between gas transmission pipelines and the customer. It is important that all possible steps be taken to prevent damage to the inplace underground gas distribution piping system that provides a reliable and efficient means of supplying low-cost energy to more than 46 million gas customers. Gas Research Institute (GRI) is the principal source of funds for conducting distribution operations research. A part of the GRI program is directed at efforts to avoid or prevent damage to buried piping. Before presenting a review of these research projects, perhaps a few words about GRls mission are in order.
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Document ID: 130DD774

LNG Instrumentation For Custody Transfer
Author(s): J. D. Siegwarth, J. A. Brennan
Abstract/Introduction:
The value of a cargo of liquefied natural gas (LNG) undergoing custody transfer is commonly based on the total healing value. Because of the high cost of LNG, accurate determinations of the value are desired -especially to minimize discrepancies between successive measurements of value. The National Bureau of Standards (NBS) has done work on LNG properties and custody transfer measurement methods for several years. This work was reviewed in a paper presented at an earlier transmission conference. The work in measurement methods involved both development of new and evaluation of existing measuring techniques and instruments.
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Document ID: A6AFA1EC

Microprocessor-Based Performance Controls And Fuel Optimizing For Large Stationary Gas Engine/Compressor Units
Author(s): Hans D. Lenz
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry is making considerable efforts to make better use of natural gas, one of our important natural resources. Fortunately, electronic technology has given us, in the microprocessor, a tool to aid us in this efforl. Microprocessor-based optimizing systems are improving the fuel efficiency of engine/compressor units because of their flexibility, programmability, and their ability to operate in industrial environments The evaluation of cost effectiveness, system requirements, and operating experiences of such a system are described.
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Document ID: 9F28C34A

Basics Of Polyethylene Manufacture, Structure, And Properties
Author(s): R. L Ayres
Abstract/Introduction:
Everything has to have a beginning, and the plastics industry has established 1868 as its start. In that year, an Albany, N.Y. inventor named John Westley Hyatt compared the declining population of elephants and the resulting shortage of ivory with the popular game of billiards and came up with an idea that launched the plastics industry. The young printer, who already had several inventions to his credit, began experimenting and found that a certain mixture of cotton, nitric acid, solid camphor and a small amount of alcohol became soft when heated and could be molded in a press. When it cooled, it became hard and strong.
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Document ID: 58BAC709

Tests Performed By Gaz De France On Filling LNG Storage Tanks And Mixing Their Contents
Author(s): Christian Bonnaure
Abstract/Introduction:
Gaz de France has tested various measures as pari of a search for means of preventing rollover by maintaining Ihe whole of the LNG stored in permanent equihbrium with the vapor phase. These experiments have shown that such absolute prevention is difficult to achieve owing to the existence, according to the proposed interpretation, of a stable surface boundary layer. Consequently only methods which can disturb that layer (filling from the top, from the lop and the bottom simultaneously, recycling from the top and injection of gaseous helium into the bottom Of the lank) are proposed for large-scale experiments.
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Document ID: 8AD66FA9

Overview Of Gris LNG Research Programs
Author(s): Sami Atallah
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the strategy that GRI has adopted in planning its LNG research program and the bases for making that choice. In addition, an update is provided which describes the status of active LNG research projects.
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Document ID: 50BCF680

American National Metric Council Sector 1.03 Petroleum And Natural Gas: Chairmans Report
Author(s): Nicholas D. Basic
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the organization and plans of the American National Metric Council (ANMC) and more specifically the efforts of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Sector Committee during 1980 and outlines plans for 1981. Metrication efforts have been underway for several years in these industries although benefits are minimal. Increasing activity in international standards and external pressures are providing the impetus for continued activity. Before going into the activities of the American National Metric Councils Petroleum and Natural Gas Sector Committee, this paper describes the American National Metric Council.
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Document ID: DC77DD53

Sensible Regulation And The Nations Energy Future
Author(s): Robert H. Willis
Abstract/Introduction:
The A.G.A. staff carried out an interesting exercise the other day . . . starting with the 400 billion in 1980 dollars needed in new capital investment by the gas industry to meet its supply objectives for the remainder of the century. We all recognize that transmission companies have a large stake in these investments. It is a problem common to both distribution and transmission companies. Al a six percent infiation rate, this figure soars to 720 billion, and at a 10 percent inflation rate, to an incredible 1.04 trillion. The latter figure is over 17 times our total present industry investment.
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Document ID: 2066E619

Metric Conversion In Construction And Maintenance: One Companys Experience
Author(s): R. W. Little
Abstract/Introduction:
For the past decade, Canada has been committed to adopting the metric system as its standard measurement system, as have most nations in the world. Union Gas Limited, a natural gas utility serving southwestern Ontario, converted a large portion of its operation to metric in 1980 with the aim of being entirely metric within the next several years. The Distribution Engineering Department within Union Gas has been heavily involved in the conversion of the distribution construction and maintenance functions. This paper reviews the process Distribution Engineering employed in planning and implementing use of the metric system in these areas, and provides a viewpoint on its approach after having operated in metric for one year.
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Document ID: 425F298A

Waste Heat Economic Opportunities
Author(s): Jack Gault
Abstract/Introduction:
Energy use in the United Stales is divided among four market sectors: electric, transportation, residential/commercial, and industrial. The industrial sector is responsible for about 25% of the present total energy consumption, with projections for 1995 indicating growth to approximately 34%. At present, 68% of the industrial energy use is for heal generation in industrial processes, with this figure also expected to increase. Among the many alternate energy technologies currently under development, the production of steam and electricity utilizing waste heat recovery systems appears to offer good potential to supply the industrial sector. The conversion of waste heat to steam and eiectriciiy is a proven state-of-the-art technology however, the technical and cost readiness of wasteheat energy recovery from gas compressor stations has yet to be clearly demonstrated to potential industrial system users. The establishment of an acceptable confidence level in performance requires the installation and operation of multiple identical systems. Cost and system reliability considerations require minimizing the oneof- a-kind, or site tailored engineering associated with each waste heat recovery installation.
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Document ID: A1ACEC16

Corrosion Control Group Vs. Construction Forces: Time For A Truce
Author(s): Richard C. Berger
Abstract/Introduction:
Throughout the history of corrosion control programs some companies have experienced a running battle between those whose job it is to install piping and those whose job is to provide cathodic protection to that pipe. Some construction people view the corrosion engineer as a very strange person, with very strange equipment, attempting to do very mysterious things. This paper discusses the common goals of the corrosion control group and the construction forces, and shows how the best possible initial piping installation affects these goals. It also presents some construction problems which we have discovered.
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Document ID: 445E25B7

Cost Competitiveness Of Supplemental Gas Sources: A Hint Of An Explanation
Author(s): Thomas J. Woods
Abstract/Introduction:
The U.S. energy system has entered an era of rising prices. Future energy sources give every indication of being more expensive than the already expensive existing energy sources. Future energy prices wilt be affected by two major factors: the physical effort to produce and consume (e.g. mining, refining) the energy and the financial effort necessary to raise the capital to build the energy system. Bolh factors have now come together in a highly inflationary environment to contribute to an explosive growth in projected future energy costs.
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Document ID: 922E6E7D

The Pipeline Camera Pig: Seeing Is Believing When Viewing Photographs Of Pipeline Internal Surfaces
Author(s): Fred Clarke
Abstract/Introduction:
As natural gas reserves in offshore areas have become an increasingly vital segment of the total supply serving our nation, it has become equally vital that this supply be steady, reliable, and uninterrupted in service to customers throughout our market areas. The operational and logistical problems associated with offshore systems have accelerated internal corrosion and erosion attack in some gas gathering pipelines.
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Document ID: 782A8ACC


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