Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (1981)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Orifice Meter Testing
Author(s): R. B. Brotherton
Abstract/Introduction:
In the matter of maintaining orifice meters for successful operation, a routine inspection, testing and maintenance program has been helpful in the past. Today, due to the value of gas, it is a MUST. The purpose of this paper is designed to aid in Securing the best possible orifice meter testing.
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Document ID: F10853A5

Regulatory Commission Safety Evaluations
Author(s): Terry L. Pardo
Abstract/Introduction:
The Railroad Commission of Texas was created in 1890 by an amendment to Article X, Section 2, of the Texas Constitution for the primary purpose of regulating the railroad industry. It was the first regulatory agency authorized for the State of Texas. The Cox Act of 1920 placed the regulation of the transportation, distribution and sale of natural gas under the Railroad Commission and led to the creation of the Gas Utilities Division. i The Pipeline Safety/Engineering Section of this division conducts safety evaluations of natural gas operators based on the requirements of 49 CFR 192 (Minimum Safety Standards), Gas Utilities Docket Nos. 446 (Adopting 49 CFR 192) and 484 (Requiring written leak complaint procfedures) and Gas Utilities Substantive Rule 12 (Odorization). Since the topic suggested by the title is rather broad the scope of this paper will be limited to the area of leaks - written procedures, handling and surveys.
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Document ID: F47FF7B8

Mass Measurement
Author(s): H. C. Tilley
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to the effects of non-ideal mixing, compressibility and intermolecular adhesion of streams containing significant percentages of ethane, traditional methods of volumetric measurement may produce significant errors, as conventional correction factors do not necessarily apply. The use of mass measurement allows for the measurement of the stream at flowing conditions, and requires no corrections for compressibility and temperature therefore, eliminating the use of compressibility and temperature correction factors.
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Document ID: 9F1AC029

Calorimeter-Operation, Installation, Maintenance, And Testing
Author(s): A.F. Kersey
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will touch briefly on the operation and installation of the recording Calorimeter and cover in more detail on the maintenance and testing of the instrument. Precise flow of gas to the main burner is controlled with the gas meter. This is the cubic foot of gas measurement necessary for the BTU per cubic foot measurement. Combustion air flow to the main burner is controlled with the combustion air meter. Combustion air is split into two streams. One (primary air) which mixes with gas upstream of the main burner. The second stream arrives at the burner as secondary air and passes over the flame.
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Document ID: F1491A00

Rotary Meters
Author(s): W. C. Eckenrode
Abstract/Introduction:
The first positive displacement rotary gas meters were built around the year 1920 by the PH & FM Roots Company and the Connersville Blower Company, both located in Connersville, Indiana. In 1966 this gas meter operation was renamed Dresser Measurement Division. However, these rotary meters today are still known as R00TS Meters. Rockwell International entered the market in the early 196Gs with a rotating vane design known as the ROTO-Seal Meter and in the late 1960s Singers American Meter Company introduced still another rotating design known as the CVM gas meter. The operating principles for each of these three meters are depicted and eplained in Exhibit #1.
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Document ID: 4501687D

Light Hydrocarbon Measurement
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
The term light hydrocarbon normally occurs In the measurement of liquids whose specific gravity (60/60) is equal to or less than 0.55. Ethylene being the lightest of the light hydrocarbons with a S.G. (60/60) of 0.35. The concerns of light hydrocarbon measurement can be divided into three traditional areas of concern: 1. the properties of the fluid 2. the measuring device 3. the measurement
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Document ID: 9CEA9257

Fundamentals Of Gas Pressure Regulation
Author(s): P. R. Adams
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, and by the roadside, and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a tendency to take them for granted. Even the gas man who handles regulators every day as part of his job frequently tends to view the regulator simply as a piece of hardware which fits in the line and regulates pressure. The fact that it will do precisely that, for months on end without human intervention, makes It easy to maintain such a view. Its only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application, that we need to look more deeply Into the fundamentals of the regulators operation.
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Document ID: AF4E41CA

Periodic Inspections - District Regulators-Relief Valves
Author(s): A. R. Boydston
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years the gas regulator has been taken for granted. It has become such a familiar sight we dont stop to realize the importance of this piece of equipment. With the complex pipeline systems of today, every cubic foot of gas passes through many regulators before it is consumed in some process or customer appliance. One of the most important regulating facilities in the gas industry is the district regulator station. It is the source of gas supply to industrial, commercial, and domestic customers from transmission and distribution pipeline systems.
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Document ID: 26AF09FC

Methods For Reducing Unaccounted For Gas
Author(s): Robert F. Clark, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Unaccounted-for-gas in a natural gas distribution system is the difference between the amount of gas purchased and the amount of gas sold or accounted for otherwise. The term unaccounted-for-gas is often used synonymously with the term gas leakage, but this should not be the case in the average gas distribution system. Leakage is certainly one of the more important components of unaccounted-for, but it should be considered only after accountingfor gas not sold. I would suggest that five of the possible causes of unaccounted-for listed below be monitored closely and thereby eliminated. This should put item six, leakage, in proper perspective as it contributes to unaccounted for.
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Document ID: 5BF1D147

Fundamentals Of Diaphragm Type Positive Displacement Meters
Author(s): Joe Barbour
Abstract/Introduction:
The Positive Displacement Meter principle is applied on both diaphragm type and rotary type meters. Although the operational principle is different, the fact remains that both types measure by means of sealing off a known quantity of gas, and subseguently releasing it. The bulk of the meters in use today are of the positive displacement type. Over 40 million gas meters are employed in measuring gas volumes by positive displacement in the U.S. Of this total, the large majority are used to measure gas volumes consumed by domestic residential customers. Other measurement principles are applied in the case of the Turbo-Meter, Orifice Meter or Swirl Meter.
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Document ID: DE623251

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Mike Ready
Abstract/Introduction:
During the last decade the gas turbine meter has become established as a very useful instrument for the measurement and control of gas flow. This paper will present a summary of the principles of operation, the basic construction and the performance charac teristics of the gas turbine meter.
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Document ID: A9491F0E

Instruments For Positive Displacement And Mechanical Turbine Meters
Author(s): D. R. Fulton
Abstract/Introduction:
Instruments are a vital part of large volume gas measurement. They are classified in two basic categories: (1) volume recorders and (2) volume correctors. Recorders provide a permanent chart record of whatever values are being sensed, usually related to time. This includes pressure, temperature, volume, or combinations of these values. From these recorded values calculations are made to produce the correcting factors to apply to the metered volume. Volume correctors on the other hand automatically apply the pressure correction and/or temperature correction factors to the metered volume and indicate by direct readout the corrected value of gas volume.
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Document ID: F918DFEE

Fundamentals Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): R. G. Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this discussion is to present the orifice meter in a format that will help you understand the basic workings of orifice meter measurement. Uhat is an orifice meter? What is being referred to when the expression orifice meter is used? The answer usually depends upon who you are talking to. The term orifice meter is used to mean everything from the orifice meter gauge recorder to the entire meter station. The American Gas Association defines the orifice meter as the complete measuring unit comprised of primary and secondary elements. The primary elements consist of the orifice plate, the orifice plate holder, meter tube, straightening vanes, and orifice tap gauge lines. The secondary elements consist of the differential pressure recorder, static pressure recorder, flowing temperature recorder, and any other required recordings such as specific gravity and heating value.
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Document ID: B15CBE40

Gas Odorization: An Introduction With Hints For Safe Handling
Author(s): John D. Taylor
Abstract/Introduction:
The odorization of natural gas is becoming an increasingly established practice throughout the United States. Today, both distribution and transmission companies are required to odorize by government mandate a larger percentage or all of their gas lines. As more laws are legislated and rigid guidelines enforced by state and federal agencies, it becomes exceedingly important for us to stay abreast of regulations and guidelines to insure both safety and economy. It is my wish today to impress upon everyone in the industry the increasing importance of safe handling and use of proper equipment for the odorization of gas. Many people consider odorization to be a nuisance, but nevertheless, it is required and advantageous from the standpoint of safety. We must try to take the time to odorize properly the first time we may not have a second chance.
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Document ID: 0EE60BCB

Meter Shop Operation
Author(s): R. m. Nicholson
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas meter Is often referred to as the cash register of the industry, and indeed it is. Although we in the meter repair business have always tried for accuracy, the recent increases in the price of gas have made greater accuracy imperative. We try for this greater accuracy in the Measurement Service Center of the company for which I work. This is a new, completely airconditioned facility designed to repair 100,000 meters per year. At the present time we are working about 7A,000 per year with a work force of 34 people.
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Document ID: 295BF934

High Pressure, Measuring And Regulator Stations
Author(s): William S. Zuccala
Abstract/Introduction:
To try to cover this subject in the time allotted is indeed an awesome assignment. Im sure that others have covered this time and time again. With this in mind let us see what can be added and hope that you may take home an idea or two with you. Before a measuring station can be designed, a maximum amount of information must be furnished to the person or persons detailed to do the designing. Numerous questions must be answered. Most of these questions can be answered in a gas contract. Hopefully, the gas contract will tell us of the customers daily maximum flows, his maximum hourly peak flow as well as his minimum hourly flow demands. Daily demands over a period of say 10 years must also be considered. Pipeline inlet pressures as well as delivery pressures must be known. All of the factors will determine the size of regulators, size of station, whether it would be a positive displacement, orifice meter station or whether or not it would be a combination of both. A suitable site is of primary importance. If it is near housing, what about noise and odor? If it is away from population centers, how about the future? Will we be plagued by housing projects to the point that the station will eventually have to be moved? With all this in mind we are now ready to size our regulators and design our station.
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Document ID: 2AA1DBF7

Specific Gravity Instrumentation
Author(s): J. R. Ledingham
Abstract/Introduction:
Specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of a definite volume of gas to the weight of an equal volume of dry air at the same temperature and presure. If the specific gravity of a gas is 2.0, it is twice as heavy as air, or if the specific gravity of a gas is 0.6, it is six-tenths as heavy as air.
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Document ID: 68B0D303

Offshore Gas Measurement
Author(s): B. G. Duke
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to present some of the problems encountered with offshore gas measurement. We will cover problems that you and I face each day with offshore gas measurement and some suggestions for solutions.
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Document ID: 3188040B

Pulsation Effects Of Gas Measurement
Author(s): David E. Pulley
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association Committee Report No.3 says the following about pulsation: Pulsations in a pipeline originating from a reciprocating system, or some other similar source, consist of sudden changes in both the velocity and pressure of the flowing fluid. The pressure changes are the more apparent and resemble low frequency sound waves, traveling in the flowing medium, with a velocity independent of the velocity of the fluid flowing. Reliable measurements of a gas flow with an orifice meter cannot be obtained when appreciable pulsations, from any source whatsoever, are present at the point of measurement. No way has been found to predict correction factors to compensate for such errors.
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Document ID: E41CB933

Living With High Concentrations Of Hydrogen Sulfide
Author(s): Seth T. Roberson
Abstract/Introduction:
NGO receives a stream of 90 - 98% HS from the nearby Exxon Refinery. The H S comes from the processing of sour crude oil. Specifically, the process is known as hydro-desulfurlzation. As the first process at the refinery, the entire crude oil stream is passed over a heated catalyst bed and all of the sulfur compounds in the crude oil is converted to HS and the corresponding dlefins. The trapped gasses. Including H S and the lighter olefins, are then contacted witn some type of an amine solution.
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Document ID: ED53E9F9

Methods Of Field Testing Large Diaphragm, Rotary & Turbine Meters
Author(s): R. L. Overbey
Abstract/Introduction:
As the price of natural gas increases, so does the incentive to have more accurate measurement. In many instances, gas consumption of a few large industrial customers by far outweighs the total residential consumption. Therefore it becomes advantageous to eliminate any possible measurement errors in these large capacity meters. Meters must be tested and repaired to maintain measurement accuracy. Repairs can take place either at a repair facility or in the field. The feasibility of field testing is usually determined by meter inventory, number of personnel available for test and repair procedures and proximity of the repair shop to the testing area. Field testing can reduce necessary meter stock since a meter can often be tested in place.
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Document ID: AF38D06F

Basic Principles Of Meter Testing
Author(s): Henry Hubbard
Abstract/Introduction:
The degree to which a gas meter is doing its job, in percent. Is called Proof, Percent Proof can be found by delivering a known volume of air to the inlet of a meter at a constant flow rate. Mathematically, then, divide that volume by the volume that the meter dial indicates (and then multiply It by a hundred, to get Percent). The equation looks like this:
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Document ID: BB8B9C50

Automatic Chart Changers Operation & Maintenance
Author(s): Don E. Carter
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic chart changers were developed to allow the unattended operation of circular chart recording instruments for extended periods of time while still providing for timely changing of the charts. Not only do automatic chart changers allow for extended unattended operation, they also allow for synchronous chart changing of large numbers of recorders at any chosen time and interval. Use of these devices reduces personnel requirements, and improves the uniformity and accuracy of recording periods, thus simplyfying the chart processing and gas accounting.
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Document ID: D826FC23

Meter Selection For Various Load Requirements
Author(s): George L. Bell
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the first gas meter, technical advances, improved material, economics, and energy conservations, the measurement of natural gas has seen many changes. These changes have occurred in both the theory and practices of measurement, as veil as the actual physical meter itself. The first meter, a positive displacement meter, has seen only minor changes which allows the positive displacement meter to measure more volume at higher pressure and is still widely used in the industry today. Expanding from this fundamental meter, the industry has come to a point where natural gas cannot only be measured riore ways, but hopefully, more accurately. The Measurement Engineer now has great opportunities and solutions at his or her fingertips. In selecting a specific meter which is to be used for measuring a cTs+cmer load, the Measurement Engineer should not forget any types of meters. The basic types of meters available to the Measurement Engineer and a brief description of each will be helpful at this time:
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Document ID: 3666A99D

Various Applications Of Telemetering In Gas Distribution
Author(s): Robert F. Schwartz
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the problems faced by gas distribution companies is to maintain low point system pressures in the gas distribution system. The distribution system itself is a complex network of piping with a given area fed by one or more district regulators. The far ends or low points of the system must maintain a minimum pressure in order to furnish an adequate service of gas to the customers in that particular area. Since the system low point is fed by one or more regulators, the regulator setting must be changed periodically to maintain the desired pressure at this system low point. Increase in the system load between the regulator and the low point will cause the low point pressure to drop, requiring that the regulator setting be increased in order to maintain adequate pressure. The pressure in the system must also be kept as low as possible and still maintain adequate service to prevent excess leakage loss in the distribution system between the regulator and the low point.
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Document ID: DADAEB27

Water Vapor Determination And Effects On Gas Measurement
Author(s): Douglas E. Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
The determination and the effect of water vapor on gas measurement is of importance to the gas pipeline industry because of the necessity for accurate gas measurement and for the maintenance of quality control. The following discussion covers typical methods which are used by the gas industry for water vapor determination. Each of the dew point instruments discussed use a specific method for water vapor measurement, and all are designed for use as either portable or fixed location instrumentation. In addition to a discussion of the typical methods for water vapor determination, the effects of water vapor on gas volume and heating value meaaurement is reviewed.
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Document ID: 2AA8227D

Gas Volume Calculations From Charts To Gas Statements
Author(s): Robert D. Starr
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to present Texas Easterns method of processing chart information into gas volume and ultimately energy information. Every company handles its charts and related data in various ways. The goal of the field measurement people is accuracy in measurement. Once these records from the field arrive at the chart processing office, the theme of accuracy in measurement is continued.
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Document ID: 12BB662A

Applications Of The Awnubae Measueing Elbment In Gas Production And Processimg
Author(s): Komian A. Alston
Abstract/Introduction:
Interesting and significant innovations in the primary flow measurement devices have occurred in the industry in recent years. The multiport averaging pitot type fluid flow measurement device (Annuhar) is among the most significant advances in flow measurement primaries. This averaging pitot type primary, when properly constructed and installed, provides flow measurement accuracy and performance equal to the traditional type primaries such as the orifice, venturi, and flow nozzle. Due to the economic value and the safety considerations of the product, the high performance and dependability of the flow measurement primary is directly related to process flow control and efficiency. The following materials describe the design details and performaxice capabilities of a properly constructed multiport averaging pitot tube (head type) primary with comparisons to traditional head type primaries to emphasise the flow measurement improvements available to the gas industry.
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Document ID: 9BAB38EA

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Robert H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
For several years gas men have been giving more thought to aerodynamic turbulence within their pipeline systems and, in particular, the turbulence that is a result of pressure regulation. Considering the noise from a measurement or regulating station, it is generally conceded that measurement facilities alone will rarely be a major source of noise, since we can design the pipe to give a desired and normally tranquil velocity. On the other hand, we must expect that in a regulator station control of the gas velocity is possible only up to the inlet side of an active regulator. At the point of regulation within the regulator body, the velocity of the gas may be expected .to increase greatly, perhaps up to sonic velocity. Now the question becomes, What is the best way to handle gas when it is traveling at high velocities?
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Document ID: B6548ECD

New Concepts In Recorder Marking Systems For The Gas Industry
Author(s): Robert W. Benner
Abstract/Introduction:
Ink, as a fluid, is virtually worthless . . . ink as a line could be priceless . . . if its in the right place at the right time. For example, a droplet of ink, as a signature on a check, could represent a virtually limitless value...even millions of dollars. Well, the ink lines on your gas measurement charts are signatures showing the value of gas being measured. From the smallest amount...several hundred dollars . . . up to major systems transfer or sales points where the value could be millions of dollars. These transactions are measured and recorded daily and, like checks, thousands of charts are sent to the sales office for computation and transfer of funds. Both buyer and seller want to be confident of a fair transaction price and the chart is the check reflecting the volume of gas bought or sold, the line tells the tale. Its the final expression of value combining the measurement methods, instruments, system, procedures, fieldman, home office staff and chart processing all into 12 inches of ink on a piece of paper. Such reliance on these charts makes measurement a very important subject in terms of equipment, people and procedures.
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Document ID: F843C850

Electronic Instrumentation For Orifice And Turbine Meters
Author(s): Michael J. Ready, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Traditionally, orifice meter signals have been recorded on-site by means of mechanical circular chart recorders. These charts are collected and integrated for volume determination. This procedure has a lengthy lag time between time of actual gas flow and time of reporting. With the advent of spiraling gas prices and penalty clauses for excess rate deliveries, both customer and supplier are looking towards quicker methods of obtaining flow volume Information. By use of field mounted electronic flow computers and/or remote telemetry of orifice meter signals to a central computer, flow information is made on an instantaneous basis.
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Document ID: 172084C4

Fundamental Gas Laws And Their Application
Author(s): Patricia S. Osullivan
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement would be quite simple if all we had to do was read the value of gas measured by a meter. Unfortunately, the situation is not that simple. The volume of gas measured by a meter can be altered by two factors that a meter does not measure namely, the temperature and the pressure. The roles of temperature, pressure and volume of a gas are important in every phase of gas measurement. The ways in which temperature, pressure and volume interrelate are known as the basic gas laws. These laws are formulated assuming that gases behave according to an ideal conceptualization of gases. Naturally all gases do not behave ideally, so the gas laws can be modified appropriately to fit the specific need. Still these gas laws provide basic information.
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Document ID: 03688D52

Problems In Two-Phase Pipeline Operations
Author(s): Robert J. Rau
Abstract/Introduction:
Two-phase pipelines are becoming a common means of transportation of oil and gas from offshore both in the Continental Shelf of the United States and the North Sea, and other places all over the world. As we all know, offshore gas pipeline systems are a necessity to actively igeet the energy necessitites of our Nation and tbe energy crisis facing us today. Today, I wish to discuss with you some of the problems encountered in offshore two-phase pipeline operations.
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Document ID: A52C11D8

Effects On Entrained Liquid On Obifice Measuhement
Author(s): C. V. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
In the measurement of natural gas in field operations using the conventional orifice meter, all of the factors used in the calculation of flow are based on the assumption that the gas is dry. This condition is rarely the case in field measurements. The A.C.A. Committee Report No. 3, (1), does not give any information or data regarding the effect water and/or distillate may have upon gas measurement by the orifice meter. It was in this area of gas measurement that gradiiate-engineering students at Texas A&I University, Kingsville, Texas have conducted research operation in the laboratory and in the field.
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Document ID: 3047AD6A

Troubleshooting Glycol Dehydrators
Author(s): J. L. Daughtry
Abstract/Introduction:
The production of natural gas in the United States has reached a level of approximately 20 trillion standard cubic feet per year. When natural gas is brought to the earths surface, it contains water, acid gases (hydrogen sulfide or carbon dioxide or both) and other contaminants which must be removed before the gas can be used for either industrial or domestic applications. Removal of water from natural gas is accomplished by using expansion refrigeration, dry desiccants, liquid desiccants, or calcium chloride. The purpose of this paper is to discuss problems associated with glycol dehydration and remedies for correcting these problems. Foaming, contamination, and corrosion are three of the more common problem areas which result in glycol losses and gas being out of compliance with pipeline specifications. Troubleshooting a glycol dehydrator primarily involves analyzing the glycol solution and observing changes in the plant operation. The conclusions of these investigations show for the most part that foaming can be corrected by scrubbing the inlet gas, using a flash tank, filtering the glycol solution, and using antifoam agents. Most contaminants can be prevented by installation of an inlet scrubber, side stream reclaimer, and charcoal filter.
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Document ID: 8B63DA48

Training Office Personnel
Author(s): R. A. Manson
Abstract/Introduction:
Training in lieu of experience, why thats absurd. There is no substitute for experience in any field, much less in an area as complex as Gas Measurement. Experience is the best teacher! To that I might reply it ought to be, look how much it costs. In the Chart Processing area of Gas Measurement, we know only too well that monthly billing deadlines arent extended because you dont have sufficient experienced personnel for timely accurate processing. These deadlines, coupled with the turnover in the office work force, render experience the exception rather than the rule. What then is the answer?
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Document ID: 4AB8E57B

Basic Volume Calculation For The Field Man
Author(s): John D. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
Computation of gas volumes as measured by an orifice meter, requires a rather lengthy formula and the gathering of Information. Using a lengthy formula in the field is impractical however, when the formula is understood it points oat the requirements and information needed to determine the volume, regardless of the method used. In this paper we will discuss the flow equation, determine.the information necessary to compute the volume using various methods, and determine the source of all Information needed.
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Document ID: 3F910903

Solar Powered Flow Cohputer
Author(s): Michael J. Keady, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Traditionally in the flow taeasurement of natural gas, orifice meter signals have been recorded on-site by means of mechanical circular chart recorders. These charts have been collected weekly or monthly and integrated for volume determination. This procedure has a lengthy lag time between time of actual gas flow and time of reporting. With the advent of spiralling gas prices and penalty clauses for excessive rate deliveries, both customers and suppliers are looking toward quicker and more accurate methods of obtaining flow and total quantity. By the use of field-mounted electronic flow computers, flow information is processed on an instanta- neous and continuous basis.
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Document ID: 09BDE189

Tracing The Metered Volumes To The Invoice Or Gas Statement
Author(s): Einar A. Poyhonen
Abstract/Introduction:
The movement of volume charts from the meter to the gas statement is a continuous and defined process. From the time the gas contract is negotiated until the gas statement or invoice is submitted, a large number of people, many procedures, and a lot of team work is involved. It takes the total effort of many knowledgeable people to arrive at the volume document, or chart, and transpose the information contained on it into accurate volumes and correct statements. It takes a great amount of planning, coordinating, training, supervision, and cooperation to accomplish the accurate determination and accounting of the volumes of gas purchased and sold. All the practices involved in measurement today are geared to achieve the greatest possible accuracy in volume determination due to the ever-increasing value of natural gas.
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Document ID: 47AE280E

Louisiana Gas Service Companys Experience With The Itron On Site Utility Billing System
Author(s): W. W. Dunbar
Abstract/Introduction:
LGS first learned of the Itron on site utility billing system in mid-1979. The system was then being installed at Washington Water Power in Spokane, Washington. After visiting Washington Water Power to see first hand how the system functioned and after studying the economic viability of the system, LGS decided to install it and entered into a client transaction agreement with Itron in the late spring of 1980. As of this writing, Itrons on site utility billing system is also being installed at Central Louisiana Electric Company in Alexandria, Louisiana, California American Division of American Water Works in San Diego and Arizona Public Service Company in Phoenix.
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Document ID: FEDE24EE

Process Gas Chromatography
Author(s): F. D. Martin
Abstract/Introduction:
Many outstanding developments have been made to improve the flexibility, maintainability and data handling ability of process gas chromatographs (GCs). The most recent development, an enhancement of the solid-state programmer, employs the microprocessor to control various operations and to handle the resultant data. The microprocessor improves reliability, adds flexibility to programming and simplifies peak calibration. Other chromatographic components such as sample valves, detectors, columns, and readouts have also been improved. The manufacturers covered are listed in Table I. Figure I shows the basic parts of a process gas chromatograph (GC). The sample valve, a critical process GC component, is the interface between the sample system and the analyzer. A gas sample valve transfers a measured volume of a sample in gaseous form into carrier gas which flows through the GC. The number of molecules transferred, or injected, must be reproducible. This operation must be repeated many times a day, seven days a week, A liquid sample valve delivers a metered volume of a sample in liquid form to a vaporizer.
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Document ID: BC2D7D6C

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): H. L. Dehart
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject title is only one of many which could be applicable, such a s: Do Your Measurement Books Balance? Does Your Sales Volume Your Purchase Volume? Are You Selling All The Volume Youre Entitled to? Do You Really Have Good Measurement? If you honestly answer No to any of the above, then it will be beneficial to explore a few basic reasons for measurement problems. When the word measurement is mentioned, the majority of the gas industry measurement personnel automatically convert their thoughts to a meter. The meter contributes only 1/2 to 1/4 toward the total science of measurement depending on the application.
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Document ID: C1E8BD1E

Instrument Calibration Using The Pneumatic Deadweight Tester
Author(s): Eugene R. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most difficult problems facing the instrument engineer is the accurate calibration of orifice meters, particularly at remote or inaccessible locations. The cbject of this paper is to describe a unique solution to this problem, an automatic pneumatic deadweight teat utilizing the floating ball principle.
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Document ID: 0EC24C8B

Evolution And The Therm-Titrator
Author(s): John Light
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the many joys encountered during 32 years in the natural gas business has been watching the development on evolution of the many quality-control monitoring devices presented to the industry during these many years. Thirty years ago, the methods available for determining heating value of natural gas were the Junkers calorimeter, analysis by low-temperature distillation, and the newly improved Cutler Hammer calorimeter. The Junkers calorimeter and the Pod column have pretty well fallen by the wayside leaving the Cutler Hammer machine as king of the hill for the past 30 years.
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Document ID: 1AEC785B

Leakage Surveys And Instruments For Leak Detection
Author(s): C. T. Shelton
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to present sane of the basic fundamentals and phases of operation in conducting gas leakage safety surveys and the types of instruments used. A safety survey program should consist of well trained and experienced instructors and qualified personnel. Instruments should be up to date, safety approved and well maintained.
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Document ID: FF576C34

Fundamentals Of Bellows-Type Orfice Meters
Author(s): Ernie Lommatsch
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to control and direct the flow of water was recognized at a very early stage in the development of civilization. In Europe and Asia can be seen the relics of hydraulic works, some of great antiquity, which display a high degree of engineering accomplishment, the best known of which are the aqueducts, which the Romans built to bring water to their cities. In the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum can be still seen lead piping, which conveyed water to houses and gardens, and which included orifice plates to act as flow limiting devices, providing a basis on which the service was charged to the consumer. These were installed almost 2,000 years ago. Some of these techniques were introduced to North America by engineers, who accompanied the Spanish missionaries and whose work can still be seen at some of the missions in California.
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Document ID: 5815C97E

A Brief Description Of The Various Separators And Filters Available
Author(s): John W. Clarke
Abstract/Introduction:
In any measurement system, the physical properties of the flowing medium to be measured should be considered in the selection of the measurement equipment. When the physical properties of the medium are known, conventional correction factors may be applied. Additionally, the condition of the medium should be considered relative to its liquid or solids content. When this factor is known, corrective measures may be taken toward removal of such foreign matter, thereby enhancing the likelihood of the much desired accuracy in flow measurement. To this end, the following is a description of the standard separators and filters utilized in the natural gas and petrochemical industry.
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Document ID: 8B831C22

Training Field Measurement Personnel
Author(s): C. L. Rousseau
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper relates to the conception and operation of a combined classroom and hands-on type training center for personnel responsible for the operation, accuracy, and maintenance of equipment necessary in present day gas measurement operations. Subjects taught are listed and training procedure is set out. Instructors are a very important part of the training venture and must be given consideration.
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Document ID: E48EF475

Field Inspection And Calibrating Measurement Instruments
Author(s): N.B. Alpers
Abstract/Introduction:
Everyone involved in the measurement area of the gas industry is acquainted with the reference to his department as the cash register of the company. This term may well apply, for metering devices installed and operated by the gas measurement department are the basis for calculation of gas quantities in and out of the companys gas system. With ever-increasing prices at the wellhead, a detailed and workable inspection program is a must if we are to expect accurate and dependable service from our measuring stations.
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Document ID: 53C66C86

Techniques Of Natural Gas Sampling
Author(s): Charles F. Drake
Abstract/Introduction:
Equipment and techniques are at hand to assist in the measurement of the Btu of gasses containing unstable hydrocarbons. This paper is a review of results found in an eighteen month study of the sampling of an aerosol type natural gas stream that required extraordinary procedures to correctly determine the heating value.
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Document ID: C784812B


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