Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (1980)

Download collection of documents about ISHM 1980 including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, etc.


International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Bellows-Type Orifice Meters
Author(s): Giles m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
The bellows-type d i f f e r e n t i a l gauge has found widespread application and increasing popul a r i t y in o r i f i c e metering. Its operation does not require mercury nor c r i t i c a l leveling for operation. The rapid response and high output torque make the bellows meter p a r t i c u l a r l y adaptable to integrating and c o n t r o l l i n g devices. The meter is generally not affected by condensed l i q u i d in the measuring system. The s e l f - d r a i n ing feature along with proper i n s t a l l a t i o n makes it very adaptable to wet gas measurement.
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Document ID: 58EBDDAB

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Howard W, Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
When the word measurement is mentioned, the majority of the gas industry measurement personnel automatically convert their thoughts to a meter. The meter contributes only 1/2 to 1/4 toward the total science of measurement depending on the application,
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Document ID: 768563F5

Flow Measurement By Vortex Shedding Meters
Author(s): G, L. Williamson
Abstract/Introduction:
THE VORTEX SHEDDING ELEMENT Accurate, low-cost flow measurement is important to almost everyone associated with the process industry. Flow measurement affects many decisions made in ordinary plant operation from the engineer who depends on accuracy for material and energy balances to improve the productivity of his operation, to the manager who is not only concerned about the capital cost associated with flow measurement, but also the continued maintenance costs. A significant step has been taken in bridging the gap between economy and accuracy with the introduction of the vortex flowmeter.
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Document ID: BE437324

Diaphragm Meter Capacity Ratings At Elevated Pressures
Author(s): Howard W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
Diaphragm displacement meter cases or bodies are manufactured of various materials to accommodate their application and metering pressures which range from a few inches of water column to several hundred psig.
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Document ID: 0AB1FFAC

Operation And Maintenance Of Catalytic Heaters
Author(s): Morris Sadleir
Abstract/Introduction:
Catalytic Heaters convert natural gas or LPG into a safe, flameless, radiant heat. This conversion is accomplished through a catalytic reaction in which natural gas (or LPG) and oxygen are brought into contact with a catalyst at minimum temperature of 225 F . Merriam-Webster defines a catalyst as a substance or agent inducing catalysis a substance that initiates a chemical reaction and enables it to proceed under milder conditions than otherwise possible. Extensive research on the effectiveness of catalysts in promoting the reaction of combustible gases with oxygen or air has established platinum as a desirable catalyst for use in flameless catalytic gas heaters
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Document ID: B5BF6555

Determination Of Plant Volume Reduction
Author(s): H. C. Tilley
Abstract/Introduction:
Plant Volume Reduction Is the reduction in gas volume between the volumes of gas delivered from all sources for processing in the plant and tie volume of residue gas resulting from the removal of liquid and liqueflable hydrocarbons, shrinkage, lant fuel usage, flaring, compressor fuel and other uses or losses of gas in the plant incident to or occasioned by processing gas.
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Document ID: D03D51BC

Multiport Averaging Pitot Tube In Gas Measuring & Control
Author(s): J. R. Mortensen
Abstract/Introduction:
- Plow measuring is a necessary parameter in all societies. Frequently , we look into the past to discover something new. Taking long proven methods and making them easier to use, often reinvents a new field of measurement. Such is the case with the Meriam Accutube, a multiport averaging pitot tube.
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Document ID: EB42ABD8

M)HITOE:NG Daily Demajto Of Gas Volumes
Author(s): James B. Eubanks
Abstract/Introduction:
The monitoring of daily demand of gas volumes has been a routine way of life in the gas industry, He monitors them I monitor him you monitor mej and, of course, the government monitors us all. It keeps everyone honest and it is perhaps the single most important factor that has broujjht about the accuracy in measurement experienced today. That is the need to stay a little ahead of the guy monitoring.
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Document ID: 52ACA91F

The Use Of Manometers In The Gas Industry
Author(s): Nick Gestrtch
Abstract/Introduction:
SIGNIFICANCE In the Measurement Mans Corner of Gas Magazine in April, 1967, it was stated, If the gas measuremimt science could be represented by a corpse, upon dissection the heart would turn out to be a manometer,
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Document ID: D8044BD8

Charts, Pens, And Inks
Author(s): Wl Iam L. Tatarski
Abstract/Introduction:
Most people involved in Gas Measurement are familiar with instrumentation and how they are used to collect and transmit data, and many claim to be familiar with charts, pens, and inks, but how many really know the total relationship between these three elements.
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Document ID: 2F08CB2A

What The Office Group Expects From The Field Group
Author(s): David A. Ward
Abstract/Introduction:
The functions of our Measurement Department have become increasingly more complex in the last few years. Federal and State regulations, and the demand for better measurement accuracy from both purchasers and producers, have placed new burdens on our industry. These requirements, coupled with pressures from the financial groups for earlier closings, demand that efficiency be maintained at the highest possible level
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Document ID: B35DAF6B

What The Field Group Expects From The Office Group
Author(s): Robert L. Davis
Abstract/Introduction:
The accuracy and reliability of information used by the Gas Measurement Department to compute volumes of gas either purchased or sold depends on two groups working closely as a team. These two groups are the Office Group and the Field Group.
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Document ID: 09BF6ADB

Conditioning Natural Gas For Measurement And Transportation
Author(s): B I L L G. Spradlin
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation is based on a number of years of experience in the field of producing and conditioning natural gas. A recent experience in the development and start up of the Union Island Gas Field in Northern California will be used to illustrate some of the requirements for conditioning gas for measurement and transportation.
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Document ID: CD890E33

System Of Transfer Proving
Author(s): Wilbur W. Lints
Abstract/Introduction:
Prior to the mid 1960s the only available method for field testing large capacity positive displacement meters was the Low Pressure Flow Prover or the Critical Flow Prover. Although tl ow provers are commonly referred to as ficld provers, in many instances they are used at the meter repair shop in lieu of a bell prove r of adequate size. For example, a diaphragm type meter having a capacity of 10,000 cu. ft . per hour would require at least a 20 cu. ft. bell prover to obtain the necessary hourly floi- rate for proving and adjusting.
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Document ID: E86112DD

Metrication
Author(s): D. Spence
Abstract/Introduction:
Conversion to SI is now largely an accomplished fact in the Canadian Gas Industry and this paper is a resume of how it was accomplished in a gas utility with particular emphasis on gas measurement.
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Document ID: 255CCC44

Principles, Application And Sizing Of Monitor Regulators
Author(s): Donald A. Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
Monitor regulation as an overpressure safety device has been around for many years. However, since the Department of Transportation, Office of Pipeline Safety was given the authority to prescribe and enforce safety standards back in 1968, the use of monitor regulators has increased dramatically throughout the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: F5C7673D

Methods Of Field Testing Large Capacity Meters
Author(s): A Panel, R. m. Nicholson
Abstract/Introduction:
The information presented in this paper is a resume of the various methods of field testing large capacity meters. The methods we will cover are: Low pressure flow proving, which is the use of an orifice meter at low pressure to compare the meter to. Critical flow proving, which tests the meter at its operating pressure by comparing it to the flow through a critical flow nozzle. Transfer testing , which is comparing the meter to another meter that is an accurate standard. Differential pressure testing of rotary meters, which is checking the condition of a rotary meter by the differential necessary to operate it. Spin testing is used with turbine meters to check the condition of the meter by timing the length of spin of the roto
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Document ID: 6B4AEF01

Methods Of Field Testing Large Displacement Meters
Author(s): Jim Juckes
Abstract/Introduction:
The reasons for con measurement &re obv to larger meters is our towns one or a revenue than severa My mission here is ing the I n t e g r i t y o placement meters th WHY FIELD TEST? s t a n t l y seeking accurate gas ious. The extra attention given s t r i c t l y economic. In many of few large customers provide more 1 thousand residential customers to suggest methods for maintainf measurement with large d i s - rough proper f i e l d t e s t i n g.
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Document ID: 60C8374A

Test Instruments For Pressure And Water Vapor
Author(s): A. W. Chandler
Abstract/Introduction:
Volume measurement of natural gas at high pressure is principally accomplished by means of orifice type flow meters. Converting orifice meter readings to low pressure volumes requires exact knowledge of pressure and supercompressibility.
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Document ID: 12F7FE71

LILA.KAGE And Unaccounted-For Gas
Author(s): J. H. Coyle
Abstract/Introduction:
The unaccounted-for gas is the difference between the amount of gas received into a pipeline system and the amount of gas delivered out of a pipeline system over a given time period. Unaccounted-for gas in a system is very costly and deserves the attention of both the office and field personnel alike.
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Document ID: 144C672A

Meter Shop Design, Equipment And Techniques
Author(s): Jim Jukes
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas meter repair shop has graduated - it is no longer a back yard nuisance created to satisfy state requirements. If awareness pervades the executive suite, reliable measurement probably ranks second only to rates, conservation and supply. A glance at your own gas bill should supply the evidence.
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Document ID: 5C871B6D

Manual Procedures For Chart Calculation
Author(s): William N. Donachy
Abstract/Introduction:
Chart Departments of a natural gas company deal with the calculation of volumes of gas. Whether or not gas is exchanged, purchased, sold, transferred front one system to another, or used in company operaition, the procedures for calculation of charts are normally designed to actually ac:count for the quantity of gas represented by the chart record.
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Document ID: 027C6B04

Test Instruments And Recorders For Specific Gravity
Author(s): A. R. Kahmann
Abstract/Introduction:
Computation of natural gas flow volume, when measured by orifice meter, is made by using the formula
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Document ID: A7914824

Freeze-Up Preventations
Author(s): Michael P. Hogan
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas ureeze-ups are a problem that plague the gas industry all the way from the production fields, through the transmission system, in to the distribution system and on through the individual customers meter. Improper treatment of this problem can potentially cause major interruption to large numbers of customers due to ice blockage or possible overpressuring of distribution systems due to freeze-ups in pressure reducing facilities-
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Document ID: 49846B13

Turbulence And Itei Effects In Measuring S Regulating Staticms
Author(s): Robert H. Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
WHAT IS THE REASON FOR A REGULATOR STATION BEING A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF UNDESIRABLE NOISE?
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Document ID: 6EFD7000

Calibration Of Storage Tanks
Author(s): F. R. Conway
Abstract/Introduction:
Tank Calibration is commonly referred to as Tank Strapping. Tank strapping was originally the work of placing metal straps around wooden containers this was generally before the Petroleum Industry came into being. The wooden containers most commonly used were for liquor or Whale Oil.
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Document ID: C62A56E6

Stealing Gas A Growing Problem
Author(s): Raymond G. Fcremer
Abstract/Introduction:
Is stealing gas or in fact all forms of energy an increasing or perhaps even more accurately, a national problem? You can quickly draw your own conclusions by simply reading the nev/spapers, Cleveland Ohio newspapers reported a loss of 3.2 million dollars by the Cleveland Electric Illuminating Co. and put the East Ohio Gas Companys loss at 10 of its net profit. Similarly Chicago Illinois papers noted E 7 million dollar loss for Commonwealth Edison, with the Peoples Gas Light and Coke Co. sJid Northern Illinois Gas Co. indicated as jointly having a loss of similar magnitude. The Miami Herald has reported on similar problems experienced by Florida Power and Light. New Orleans Public Service, Public Service Electric and Gas (New Jersey), Long Island Lighting, Con Ed, and my own company Brooklyn Union Gas are among the names on a long list of companies that have experienced significant meter tampering problems.
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Document ID: 705C22AB

Domestic Meters
Author(s): Thomas J. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
The definition of a domestic meter is a meter having a capacity of 500 CFH or less. CONSTRUCTION Formerly these units were offered in a variety of case materials. Probably the most common of these were tinned steelcase commonly referred to as Tin Meters. These low pressure, handmade meters are accurate, the high cost of manufacture and repair, pressure limitations, lack of corrosion resistance and susceptibility to pipe stress made these units obsolet
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Document ID: 5C9A83B4

Use Of Video Tape In A Measurement Department
Author(s): J. U. Sutton
Abstract/Introduction:
Most companies expect their Measurement Technicians to be proficient at installing and maintaining regulators, controllers, dehydrators, samplers, telemetering equipment, etc. Providing the technician with j ust the f ondaihental information required to perform these tasks is a never ending problem for those responsible for training. Remember training alone can never be substituted entirely for experience.
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Document ID: FA872E2E

Instrument Calibration Using The Pneumatic Deadweight Tester
Author(s): Bob Pitre
Abstract/Introduction:
The pneumatic deadweight tester was developed 25 years ago for calibration of low pressure instruments. Through the years the tester has undergone many refinements that have increased its range capabilities. Pneumatic testers are now capable of calibrating instruments that range from 4 inches of water pressure to 1000 PSIG. For demonstration purposes, a pneumatic tester with an output pressure calibrated in inches of water will be later used to show how the pneumatic tester is used in instrument calibration.
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Document ID: 5F51FB4C

Effects And Control Of Pulsations In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Wa.ter W. Von
Abstract/Introduction:
Pulsations have detrimental effects on the .accuracy of gas flow measurement. Consequently, effective pulsation control in meter runs is needed to minimize flow measurement uncertainty due to pulsations. This paper discusses techniques available for pulsation control and Illustrates the application of such techniques to several gas gathering systems.
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Document ID: BF102394

Large Capacity Displacement Gas Meters
Author(s): John L. Esola
Abstract/Introduction:
The term Large Capacity Displacement Meters, as used by the gas distribution industry, refers to those diaphragm type meters with a capacity of 500 to 10 or 11,000 cfh of 0.64 specific gravity natural gas at a maximum of 4 ounces inlet pressure with no more than two inches water column differential pressure between the meter inlet and outlet at capacity flow. It also refers to rotary meters which also operate on the positive displacement principle.
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Document ID: 5CED1513

Instaliation, Operation And Maintenance Of Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): Bruce Caldwell
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic chart changers were developed for the specific purpose of changing circular charts at fixed time intervals, consistent with each 360 of chart rotation. This is accomplished by having a supply of standard charts stored on a chart plate which will release the topmost chart at a predetermined time periods
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Document ID: 20128472

Leak Detection On Petroleum Pipelines
Author(s): Terry P. Lindsey, James C. Vanelli
Abstract/Introduction:
The advent of sophisticated computer-based pipeline control and data acquisition systems has made possible significant improvements in real-time leak detection. As a result, pipeline surveillance has reached accuracies which not only allow identification of leaks, but provide excellent integrity checks on flow measurement. The discussion to follow will suggest a general approach to achieving an accurate line surveillance system and present test data in support of some of the various methods to be mentioned.
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Document ID: 1942B1E3

Advanced Applications Of Flow Computers And Telemetering
Author(s): Thomas R. Tolbcrt
Abstract/Introduction:
As the price of natural gas continues to climb, more effort is directed toward precise measurement of gas flow. Traditional gas flow measurement, by telemetering temperature, diliferential pressure and static pressure to a central gas dispatching office, has met with increasing demands for local computation of flow and flow totals (quantity), because of accuracy improvements over chart integration. Price alone is not the only factor involved. Loss of flow measurement during an equipment failure (central computer down), or more likely a temporary telemetry link problem.
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Document ID: 4AAFEA60

Basic Applications Of Telemetering Systems & Flow Computers
Author(s): Robert F. Schwartz
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will be a basic paper illustrating the various types of telemetering and flow computing systems as utilized in the Gas Industry. The paper will be general in nature, as the entire field of endeavor. Therefore, only basic fundamentals of the various types of flow computing and telemetering systems will be covered in this paper.
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Document ID: A614D2C6

New Developments In Rubber Plug Type Control Valves
Author(s): Robert H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
A control valve utilizing a solid rubber plug for the controlling mechanism was first introduced in the gas industry in 1958. Of particular importance to that industry is the fact that this is the only control valve used in the industry that was designed within the gas industry and specifically for gas service. Over the years field experience has influenced improvements in the rubber plug type valve that has broadened its scope of operation along with improving its operational reliability.
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Document ID: 77AB030B

Gas Measurement By Rotary Meters
Author(s): Ben R. Wagner
Abstract/Introduction:
HISTORY The first positive displacement rotary gas meters were built around the year 1920 by the PH & FM Roots Company and the Connersville Blower Company, both located in Connersville, Indiana. In 1966 this gas meter operation was renamed Dresser Measurement Division. However, these rotary meters today are still known as ROOTS Meters
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Document ID: 1F75F357

Rotating Vane Gas Meters
Author(s): Donald H. Knapp
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of Rotary Vane Meters has several distinct advantages over the use of bellows type positive displacement meters. Their relatively smaller size and weight provides a much more compact measuring package for the volumnes involved. This companys meter provides some additional important features. For example the interchangeable cartridge. This allows a previously calibrated cartridge to be exchanged in an existing body with no change in accuracy. The cartridge requires no periodic lubrication, is interchangeable with all working pressures and is not critical to level. Accuracy is maintained from 100% to 47, o the meters capacity: otherwise stated 25:1 range- ability.
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Document ID: D2C0BDF2

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): William N. Donachy
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas turbine meter has become firmly entrenched as a measurement tool in our industry over the past fifteen years. This paper will present operating principles, construction, application and testing of the gas turbine meter
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Document ID: BD773C63

Large Volume Measurement By Turbine And Rotary Meters
Author(s): Daniel R. Fulton
Abstract/Introduction:
Volume measurement of gas by turbine and rotary type gas meters is becoming increasingly Important. Each type meter has its own characteristics and each offers distinct advantages in the production, transmission and distribution segments of the gas industry. With the value of gas increasing significantly, more attention is being given to accurate measurement at the point of sale and quite often, depending on the flow rates, either turbine or rotary meters best fit the need. For instance, in production measurement the turbine and rotary meter are used in custody transfer, well testing, compressor fuel and in other field accounting applications. In the transmission segment these same meters are used for custody transfer of gas volumes as well as for internal accounting of gas usage such as compressor fuel consumption. In distribution measurement turbine and rotary meters are used for large volume sales to industrial and commercial type accounts.
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Document ID: 8D41917D

Field Experience With Turbine Meters
Author(s): Chalmus E. Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
Ten years ago the gas turbine meter was virtually unknown in the gas transmission industry. Its use was limited to a few companies who were doing more experimenting and testing than buying and selling with turbine meters. The majority of gas transmission companies would not accept it for custody transfer. Most producers were completely unfamiliar with the turbine meter and preferred more conventional forms of measurement.
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Document ID: 0ACBF598

Gas Tukbihe Meters And Continuous Integrator
Author(s): August Buchhalter, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the introduction of the turbine meter to the U. S. gas industry in the early 60s, the turbine meter has found wide acceptance as a large volume measurement device.
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Document ID: 013EE3A1

Installation, Operation And Maintenance Of Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): Michael D. Beall
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic Chart Changers were developed for the specific purpose of saving time and money by changing charts when there was no one present but by no means should they eliminate company meter technicians or their chart grabber personnel. These people will always be needed to check the calibration and performance of the meter as well as collect the charts, monitor them for any unusual record and forward them to the chart processing/accounting office at the end of the month.
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Document ID: FC2850E1

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Ed Prlngle
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to the continually increasing cost of hydrocarbon products, both liquid and gas, there is a growing concern for accurate measurement. In many applications this begins with a signal from the primary element, consisting of the Orifice Fitting, Orifice Plate and Meter Tube.
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Document ID: B4768658

Installaticw, Operaticn And Maintenance Qp Automatic Chart Changer
Author(s): John H. Lindsey
Abstract/Introduction:
INTPODUCnCN Autcmatic Chart Changers have proven time and tine again that they will save noney for operating ccmpanies ien used judiciously.
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Document ID: B93BADFD

Selection, Testing, Maintenance And Operation Of Electronic Flow Computers
Author(s): Adam R, Durant
Abstract/Introduction:
Today as we read headlines such as Energy Reserves are Lou and Energy is Running Out, we can also see the price of energy going through the ceiling. With this, one can realize why the accuracy of measuring energy and the ability to obtain fast and up-to-date records is becoming very important. Until recently the orifice meter with mechanical chart recorder has been used to obtain this information, but this was a slow and timely procedure and was not as quickly up-dated as was needed. This need for information is needed not only for billing, but for almost every aspect of business, such as fast and reliable controlling, and the planning and prospects of new and added features of our systems. All of these reasons and more have led to the electronic flow computer becoming an important part of the energy industry today.
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Document ID: F7AF37CD

Electronic Chart Scahnihg And Related Equipment
Author(s): R. E. Randall
Abstract/Introduction:
The first Electroscanner was introduced in 1961. This first version had a digital computer and two scan stations. The computer was changed later to an analog version and in 1970 further improvements including integrated circuits and additional optional circuitry were added. All of these improvements have greatly reduced the cost and increased the accuracy and reliability of the instrument.
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Document ID: 8048AFA6

Maintaining An Electroscanner And An Analyzer
Author(s): Thomas Y. Tramel
Abstract/Introduction:
A short time after integrated circuits were available to the industrial market, we at UGCl redesigned our proven Electroscanner. Incorporating integrated circuits into our computer, in addition to other changes, has made possible a much more accurate and reliable Electroscanner system. This change in computing circuitry also eliminated much of the maintenance necessary to keep the Electroscanner functioning properly.
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Document ID: 9FEB6336

Elements Of Cas Contracts
Author(s): James E. Sirois
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will review the elements of pas contracts as seen through the eyes of a Gas Buyer for an interstate pipeline. There are certain variations between interstate and intrastate gas contracts as well as certain differences between the contracts of different interstate gas pipelines. Regardless of these differences, certain basic subject matter must be addressed in all gas contracts.
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Document ID: 8AFB215A

Operation Of Orifice Meter Chart Integrators
Author(s): Marl In E. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement by Orifice Meter has been developed to be the simplest and most accurate device for measurement of large volumes of gas. Since that time we have been seeking better ways to interpret the Orifice Metpr Charts, First we simply used the Sight Reading Method. This method we averaged the static and differential separately and multiplying the results together, Then came along the Planimeter Method. We rotated the chart manually under a pen arm and the product of static and differential pressures were obtained separately. Both of these methods were good when the flow was constant, however they provide the square root and not the average square root, which is the desired results
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Document ID: F8EDE62E

Determination Of Lkakage And Unaccounted-For Gas - Distributiok
Author(s): Scott C. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
The term Unaccounted-for gas has been described as being the difference between the amount of gas purchased and the amount sold. Expressed in percent it would be (Gas Purchased - Gas Sold) Gas Purchased X 100. However, one set of figures is never enough. One must not only have the figures in MCF lost (or gained), but also the percentage, MCE/mile of 3 equialent, and most importantly the trends in all of these figures. Discussed herein are some possible causes of unaccounted-for.
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Document ID: F994CB0E

Instruments For Leakage Detection
Author(s): David E. Bull
Abstract/Introduction:
Key factors involved in selecting the proper instrument for the detection of combustible gases involves several decisions. These include definition of problem areas, economic limitations, a review of principles to be used and the choice of the best Instrumentation available. We must engineer, supervise and check out the instrument installation. Supervision of the use of the equipment must Include the training of all personnel in their respective areas. Equally important is the establishment of routine maintenance and calibration schedules including the maintenance of a written log on these schedules. Attention to establishing the guidelines noted above will prepare us to better meet our industry safety objectives and at the same time help us to comply with state and federal codes.
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Document ID: 8E8BDF7E

Accounting For Unaccounted-For Gas
Author(s): W.B. Richardson, III
Abstract/Introduction:
THE INCREASING COST OF NATURAL GAS HAS MADE IT MOST IMPORTANT TO HAVE AS FEW LOSSES AS POSSIBLE IN A PIPING SYSTEM. GAS THAT IS PURCHASED BUT NOT SOLD IS A MONEY LOSS TO A GAS COMPANY. MORE THAN EVER IT IS NECESSARY TO KEEP RECORDS OF UNACCOUNTED FOR GAS, TO DETERMINE WHERE AND WHY IT OCCURS, AND TO CORRECT AS MUCH OF THE PROBLEM AS IS PRACTICAL.
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Document ID: 609B4FE6

Odorization
Author(s): J. Ronald Pope
Abstract/Introduction:
NATURAL GAS, AS IT IS OBTAINED FROM GAS WELLS, IS BOTH ODORLESS AND COLORLESS. IT IS COMPOSED PRIMARILY OF METHANE, BUT IT ALSO CONTAINS SMALL AMOUNTS OF ETHANE, PROPANE, AND OTHER HEAVIER HYDROCARBONS. ALTHOUGH THESE HEAVIER HYDROCARBONS HAVE A FAINT SWEETISH SMELL, NATURAL GAS AS A WHOLE HAS NO ODOR DUE TO ITS LARGE CONTENT OF METHANE, WHICH IS ODORLESS.
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Document ID: D233974B

Sonic Nozzles For Gas Meter Calibration
Author(s): J.T. Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
IT HAS LONG BEEN EVIDENT THAT A CALIBRATION STANDARD HAS BEEN NEEDED FOR DETERMINING THE ACCURACY OF HIGH PRESSURE, LARGE VOLUME METERING DEVICES. WITH THE GROWING ACCEPTANCE OF THE TURBINE METER AS A CUSTODY TRANSFER METERING DEVICE, THIS NEED HAS BECOME INCREASINGLY GREATER.
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Document ID: DB585757

New Ideas In Gas Measurement And Pressure Regulation
Author(s): Richard A. Price
Abstract/Introduction:
WHATS NEW? THIS QUESTION IS ASKED THE MEASUREMENT AND REGULATOR MECHANIC ALMOST DAILY.
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Document ID: CD6A67B3

High Pressure Measured And Regulating Station
Author(s): William H. Ryan
Abstract/Introduction:
FROM THE LARGE CITY GATE, WHICH PASSES SEVERAL MILLION CUBIC FEET PER DAY TO THE FARM TAP,WHICH PASSES BUT A FEW MCF PER MONTH, SAFE OPPERATION, ACCURATE MEASUREMENT AND DEPENDABLE REGULATION, ARE THE PRIMARY GOALS OF ANY DESIGN FOR A HIGH PRESSURE MEASURING AND REGULATING STATION.
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Document ID: 3073A932

Skid Mounted Meter And Regulator Stations.
Author(s): Bruce Shrake
Abstract/Introduction:
WHEN DESIGNING SKID MOUNTED METER AND REGULATOR STATIONS, THE DESING CRITERIA SHOULD MEET THE FOLLOWING OBJECTIVES: ACCURATE MEASUREMENT, SAFETY, MINIMIZE FIELD START UP COSTS, COMPACT YET FLEXIBLE FOR FUTURE EXPANSION, AND ACCESSIBILITY.
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Document ID: 6D57D89F

Expansible Element Valves For Pressure Regulation And Relief
Author(s): Fred Loring
Abstract/Introduction:
EXPANSIBLE ELEMENT VALVES, ALSO KNOWN AS SLEEVE-TYPE VALVES, HAVE BEEN SERVING THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY FOR MORE THAN THIRTY YEARS. THEY ARE COMMONLY USED FOR PRESSURE REGULATION, OVERPRESSURE PROTECTION, AND FLOW CONTROL. MODERN DESIGNS HAVE GREATLY REDUCED SIZE AND WEIGHT, AND MAINTENANCE IS EASILY ACCOMPLISHED WITH BUT FEW COMMON TOOLS. IN THIS PAPER WE SHALL EXAMINE THE CONSTRUCTION, OPERATION, APPLICATION AND MAINTENANCE OF ONE OF THE EXPANSIBLE ELEMENT VALVES, THE AXIAL FLOW VALVE.
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Document ID: 85CC975E

Domestic Gas Service Regulators Operation, Selection, Installation And Methods Used For Shop Repair
Author(s): Larry O. Boyle
Abstract/Introduction:
THE TERM, GAS SERVICE REGULATORS, COMMONLY APPLIES TO THOSE REGULATORS USED FOR REDUCING GAS PRESSURE IN POUNDS TO A REDUCED OR SERVICE PRESSURE OF FOUR TO EIGHT OUNCES AS REQUIRED BY DOMESTIC GAS BURNING EQUIPMENT, SUCH AS GAS STOVES, FLOOR FURNACES, HOT WATER HEATERS, CENTRAL HEATING, AND OTHER SIMILARGAS HEATING EQUIPMENT. SUCH GAS SERVICE REGULATORS ARE USED WHENEVER GAS PRESSURE IS DISTRIBUTED AT A PRESSURE IN POUNDS AND MUST BE REDUCED TO OUNCES PRESSURE FOR THESE APPLIANCES. THE REGULATOR IS INSTALLED AHEAD OF THE DOMESTIC METER BECAUSE THE METER IS DESIGNED TO MEASURE GAS CONSUMED ON THE PREMISES AT OUNCES PRESSURE AND NOT IN POUND PRESSURE.
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Document ID: 08CE0284

Fundamental Principles Of Pilot Control
Author(s): Henry Hubbard
Abstract/Introduction:
PRESSURE REGULATORS USED IN THE FUEL GAS INDUSTRY ARE COMMONLY CLASSIFIED AS SELF-OPERATED OR PILOT-OPERATED. EACH TYPE HAS ADVANTAGES FOR CERTAIN APPLICATIONS. PILOT REGULATORS HAVE DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS, SUCH AS CONSTRUCTION, FUNCTION, OR OPERATION. GENERALLY THEY OFFER SUPERIOR PERFORMANCE IN APPLICATIONS INVOLVING HIGHLY VARYING FLOW CONDITIONS REQUIRING CLOSE CONTROL, AND WIDELY VARYING INLET PRESSURES AND HIGH RATES OF LOAD CHANGE.
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Document ID: 67DB2C5B

Relief Valves - Design Am Calculations
Author(s): Phillip J. Murdock
Abstract/Introduction:
RELIEF VALVES ON NATURAL GAS TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS ARE INSTALLED, IN A MAJORITY OF CASES, TO RELIEVE OVER-PRESSURE WHICH IS CREATED BY THE WIDE-OPEN FAILURE OF A REGULATOR. THIS TYPE OF INSTALLATION WILL BE USED TO ILLUSTRATE PRINCIPLES AND PROBLEMS INVOLVED IN RELIEF VALVE CALCULATIONS.
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Document ID: B82BB286

Application And Operation Of Ball Valve Regulators
Author(s): Roy J. Becker
Abstract/Introduction:
OVER TWENTY YEARS AGO A PLUG VALVE WAS EQUIPPED WITH A PNEUMATIC CYLINDER AND A POSITIONER AND USED AS A MONITOR REGULATOR. THE CONCEPT WAS A NEW METHOD OF GAS REGULATION AND WAS THE BEGINNING OF A NEW ERA.
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Document ID: 443A4523

Operation And Maintenance Of Rubber Plug Type Control Valves
Author(s): Mack Jacobs
Abstract/Introduction:
AN URGENT NEED EXISTED FOR A GAS CONTROL VALVE THAT COULD MEET CERTAIN CRITERIA NOT AVAILABLE IN EXISTING VALVE DESIGNS, AND IN 1958 THE JET STREAM RUBBER PLUG TYPE CONTROL VALVE WAS INTRODUCED. BECAUSE OF THIS, SOME READERS WILL FIND THIS TO BE A REVIEW OF THINGS ALREADY KNOWN, WHILE OTHERS MAY DISCOVER A NEW VALVE.
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Document ID: 068C7EF8

Fundamental Principles Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): Richard J. Golfer
Abstract/Introduction:
ORIFICE MEASUREMENT, THE DOMINANT METHOD USED IN THE GAS INDUSTRY TODAY, IS TRACEABLE EVEN TO THE ANCIENT ROMAN EMPIRE.
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Document ID: B00E4022

High Pressure Farm Taps And Service Regulators
Author(s): Don Day
Abstract/Introduction:
HIGH PRESSURE FARM TAP REGULATORS AND THE LOW PRESSURE SERVICE REGULATOR ARE THE MOST BASIC AND NUMERICALLY THE MOST COMMON REGULATORS UTILIZED IN THE GAS INDUSTRY. THEY ARE SIMPLE, RELIABLE, LOW IN COST, EASY TO INSTALL AND REQUIRE PRACTICALLY NO MAINTENANCE - BOTH THE HIGH PRESSURE FARM TAP AND THE LOW PRESSURE SERVICE REGULATORS SHARE MANY SIMILAR CONSTRUCTION FEATURES SPRING AND DIAPHRAGM, BOOST EFFECT, SINGLE SOFT SEAT, MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE (LEVER ARM) BETWEEN VALVE AND DIAPHRAGM.
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Document ID: FFF0AE0A

Pressure Regulation And Flow Control With Expansive Tube Type Valves And Noise Abatement
Author(s): Dick Brunim
Abstract/Introduction:
SINCE 1948 WHEN IT WAS FIRST INTRODUCED TO THE GAS PIPELINE AND TRANSMISSION INDUSTRIES, THE EXPANSIVE VALVE HAS EARNED A REPUTATION FOR DEPENDABILITY AND VERSATILITY.
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Document ID: 86E66124

Selection, Operation And Maintenance Of Regulators
Author(s): J.L. Esola
Abstract/Introduction:
EXTENDED TROUBLE FREE OPERATION OF A REGULATOR INSTALLATION CAN ONLY OCCUR IF INITIAL EQUIPMENT SELECTION IS PROPERLY MADE, AND THAT EQUIPMENT PROPERLY MAINTAINED.
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Document ID: E70EE852

Fundamental Principles Of Regulators
Author(s): A. Rea Cameron
Abstract/Introduction:
THE BASIC FUNCTION OF A REGULATOR IS TO CONTROL PRESSURE. THIS CONTROL IS PERFORMED BY REDUCING A HIGHER INLET PRESSURE TO A LOWER OUTLET PRESSURE AND MAINTAINING THIS OUTLET RESSURE CONSTANT OVER A WIDE VARIATION OF FLOW CONDITIONS.
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Document ID: 82ECB16D

Large Capacity Gas Regclators
Author(s): J. K. Kruse
Abstract/Introduction:
The definition of a large capacity regulator is often difficult to formalize. There are many types of regulators which could be classified as large capacity. This discussion will be concerned with the conventional double ported regulator. The double ported balanced valve regulator is probably the most commonly used style of regulator labeled as large capacity. The large capacity is also often classified as high pressure due to the function of the restriction. The restricting element Is positioned by an operator to permit equal flow into and out of the downstream system, The capacity of a restrlctor Is a function of the pressure differential across that restriction, therefore, the higher the pressure differential across the restrlctor the greater the capacity for a given size restriction. The capacity will increase until sonic flow occurs. Sonic flow is the point at which the gas velocity reaches the speed of sound, and occurs when the outlet pressure absolute is approximately half the inlet pressure absolute.
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Document ID: E0CD934E

Industrial And District Regulators And Applications
Author(s): Frederick R. Loring
Abstract/Introduction:
Regulators employed In domestic service are generally used in standardized installations anc under somewhat similar operating conditions. In contrast to these, industrial regulators cover a bread spectrum of specialized applications with respect to pressure, flow capacity, accuracy, rangeability and other requirements. The multiplicity of available types provides an awesome choice to the uninitiated, but usually a few special requirements quickly narrow the selection for a given situation.
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Document ID: EBB43835

High And Low Pressure Regulators
Author(s): B. R. Llkins
Abstract/Introduction:
This topic covers a very broad area since it includes all Regulators used in the Gas Industry. Every Regulator is either High or Low Pressure depending upon the definition we use to classify them. Many Regulators can be both, again depending on the definition of High and Low Pressure.
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Document ID: 8E612684

Gas Chromotography
Author(s): Timothy J. Dunnigan
Abstract/Introduction:
Ch develop since 1 select i mixture colored column graphy. was est analyti chromat in fiel science romat ment 905. ve ab In comp and c In ablis cal t ograp ds as and ograp as an In t sorpt 1906 onent oined the hed a echni hlc t dive petro hy has be analytic hat year, ion to se Tswett s s in plan the word 1950s, c s a highl que. Tod echniques rse as th leum indu en in al technique Ramsey used parate a gas eparated the t s on a cbromotoh r o m a t o g r a p h y y sensitive ay various are in use e medical s t ry .
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Document ID: 00B208CB

Moisture Titrators
Author(s): James C. Bozeman
Abstract/Introduction:
The prediction or actual determination of the amount of entrained moisture in natural, gas systems is recognized to be an essential part of pipeline operations. Water in the vaporous or fluid state poses not only operation probltms but also greatly aids in internal corrosion/ erroslon of the pipeline, the single largest investment most pipeline companies have, and it must be protected. By knowing the amount of moisture present, and where it is entering the system, various protective/preventive measures may be undertaken to negate the negative e:fects. In order to do this, the amount of moisture present as well as its source must be identified. This necessitates accurate means to measure the percentage of water to natural gas.
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Document ID: 322DC7AC

Technical Session, Specific Gravity Instruments Installation And Operation
Author(s): E. F. Blanchard
Abstract/Introduction:
THE WHAT AND WHY OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY Fundamental to understanding specific gravity instruments and their use is the definition of specific gravity. Specific gravity is formally defined as the ratio of weight of a body to the weight of another body of equal volume taken as a standard unit. For gases, the standard is generally dry air. For example: Two tanks containing equal volumes of a gas and of dry air were weigned. After accounting for the weight of the containers, the dry air weighed one pound and the gas weighed 0.6 pounds. Using the definition of specific gravity:
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Document ID: D84A98C5

Orifice Meters - Operation And Maintenance
Author(s): Lonnie R. Grady
Abstract/Introduction:
During the past few years, many new and advanced methods have been developed to measure natural gas. Each of these methods has its place in our industry, but the Orifice Meter has to be considered the standard and most widely accepted method of measurement. The purpose of this paper is to briefly discuss the operation and maintenance of Orifice Meters as used in the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: 854B51BE

Kinetic Type Indicating And Recording Instruments For Determining Specific Gravity
Author(s): H. E. Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
This class offers a comprehensive presentation of the kinetic type gas gravltometer. Including: Simple explanation of operating principle Equipment set-up and operation In field Trouble-shooting, repair and adjustment
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Document ID: DDFE5F84

Specific Gravity Instruments - Care And Operation
Author(s): L. W. Dunn
Abstract/Introduction:
THE ARCCO-AKUBIS GAS GRAVITOMETER This gravitometer is a direct weighing type instrument and Is constructed io measure the difference in the weight of a column of gas and an equal column oj dry air. This difference is transmitted to a chart on which is recorded the specifie gravity of the gas passing thru the instrument
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Document ID: 12D7FAC1

INSTALLA::ION And Operation Of Densitometers
Author(s): James Bozeinan
Abstract/Introduction:
The direct measurement of a fluids flowing, density has many important advantages it can offer in flow measurement. The volumetric measurement of fluids in the liquid state requires that the flowing product be related to an equivalent unit volvime of H2O at a base temperature of say 60F. This is a commonly accepted practice due to the universal acceptance of water as a reference. In order to establish the relationship of the metered liquid at flowing condition to a unit volume of water at say another pressure and temperature, it is a must to know the density or specific gravity of the metered fluid. With many liquids this flowing density is not predictable and therefore must be measured by some means. The accurate volumetric metering of a fluid in the vaporous or gaseous state also requires some knowledge of the products density at flowing conditions as it passes through or around the primary flow element. In the case of orifice metering of a gas, it is very neces5ary to compensate somehow in the flow equation for the difference between (1) the density of the fluid which the discharge coefficient (or basic o:rlfice factor) is based upon, and (2) the actual density of the metered gas passing the orifice. This is commonly done via specific gravity (air 1,000), supercompressibility and pressure/temperature correction factors. Sometimes it becomes extremely difficult to accurately compensate for these critical factors when the flowing conditions are in a varying, changing state. Therefore, an on-stream density analyzer or transducer becomes a veiy logical tool to the measurement man seeking accurac
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Document ID: 6811409C

From Mcf To Mmbtu
Author(s): Larry E. Powell
Abstract/Introduction:
With the decline in new U.S. reserve additions over the last decade, several interstate pipelines found it necessary to broaden their search for new gas reserve? to all parts of the world. Southern Natural Gas was one of these interstate pipelines. In July, 1978, we began serving a portion of our system with regasified LNG which comes from Algeria. This new foreign source of gas has an average BTU content of 1135 BTU/CF, while the traditional domestic sources of gas hae an average BTU content of 1027 BTU/CF. This large difference in BTU content raised many questions concerning the impact it would have on the operations of Southern and its customers. This paper will examine some of these questions, the answers to them, and basically describe how one major interstate pipeline company has made the change From Mcf to MMBTU.
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Document ID: 51877E79

Recording Calorimeters Installation And Testing
Author(s): A. J. Kattawar
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to recommend procedures istiich will be helpful in the installation and testing of a dependable and versatile recording calorimeter.
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Document ID: 2B7BBE88

Installation And Operation Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): H.W. Nielson
Abstract/Introduction:
The Cutler-Hammer recording Calorimeter measures the total calorific value of combustible gas. It continuously samples, indicates, and records BTU per cubic f
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Document ID: 2B86CDB5

Thermal Energy Measurements
Author(s): William A. Fox
Abstract/Introduction:
Thermal energy, as generally used in the gas industry, refers to the amount of heat which may be produced through the combustion of .1 quantity of gas. Heat is energy in the process of being transferred and to most of us, is quantified in units of BTUs,
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Document ID: A3BD0C96

Dbteiminaticw Of Caidrific Vftlue Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Richard L. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
A new rrethod for determining calorific valie of natural gas has been developed. It is based on a proportional relationship between calorific value and the ratio of air to gas required to maximize the adiabatic flarre teirperature of mixtures of the two.
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Document ID: 70651F56

Energy Measurehent Utilizing On Line Chromatograph
Author(s): Arthur F. Haas
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of gas chromatographs for determination of the energy in natural gas is certainly not new. The laboratory chromatograph has been utilized for this purpose for many years quite successfully. The important difference in the system described in this paper is that the chromatograph is truly on line that is, it is located in the field at the sample tap and repeatedly samples directly from the line automatically. Previously, samples were taken in bombs and transported to the laboratory where a compositional analysis was run. It is now possible to take a sample from a flowing line, determine the composition and flow rate, compute the total energy and transmit the finished data to a remote location. This paper will concern itself with the system ENCAL II which is specifically designed as a total energy measurement syste
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Document ID: 5E77164C

Teghniiues Of Natural Gas Sampling
Author(s): Charles F. Drauce
Abstract/Introduction:
The scope of this paper is to introduce some different, but not necessarily new, ideas concerning the sampling of natural gas for the purpose of determining the heating value. Introduction Natural gas is sampled for an almost i n f i n i t e number of reasons in determining measurements for quality and quantity. The techniques for sampling :iiust vary according to the type of t e s t for whicT the sampling is done. Location of sampling p o i i t s, sample size, sample pressure, when the sample is taken and how the sample is taken, are a l l dependent on the desired end r e s u l t . The technician should understand the general purpose for wiiich a sample is being taken prior to actually taking the sample.
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Document ID: 37656110

Measuring Station Inspection Program & Guide
Author(s): N. B. Alpers
Abstract/Introduction:
Everyone involved in the measurement area of the gas industry is acquainted with the reference to his department as the cash register of the company. This term may well apply, for metering devices installed and operated by the gas measurement department are the basis for calculation of gas quantities in and out of the companys gas system. With ever-increasing prices at the wellhead, a detailed and workable inspection program is a must if we are to expect ac .rate and dependable service from our measuring stations.
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Document ID: 286B177C

Measurement And Control Systems
Author(s): Richard Cadmus
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic control has long been commonplace in the oil and gas industry, with a high degree of sophistication in the refining and processing areas. The automatic controls used in the production and transportation of oil and gas have been relatively simple. Most efforts have been directed in the areas of measurement and communication. We have experienced dramatic changes in technology in oil and gas production in recent years, and as we approach the 1980s we are all very much aware of the changes in technology used in oil and gas production controls. Coal gasification and liquefaction, tertiary recovery techniques, biomass conversion, oil shale, and tar sands extraction are either realities or close to becoming realities.
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Document ID: 3309D307

On-Line Computers For Custody Transfer
Author(s): Joe Hawkins
Abstract/Introduction:
Accuracy in gas measurement has always been of utmost importance in i n d u s t r y however, as gas s u p p l i e s have decreased and the value of the product has gone up, the means for even more a c c u r a t e methods of measurement have been sought. The development of the gas shortage has brought about the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the c o n t r a ct with maxirauiD allowable d a i l y volumes and the providing of r a t h e r severe p e n a l t i e s for exceeding the a l l o w a b l e s . This c r e a t e s a need for d i s p a t c h e r s to know what the flow p i c t u r e is from minute to minute.
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Document ID: E22EE7FF

On-Site Flow Calculators And Transducers For Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Michael L. Matthews
Abstract/Introduction:
As the cost of potential of s the need for a ment of this v a greater impo precise measur are no longer sometimes leng the actual cus for the produc changing requi calculator/tra combination as position among avallable to o producing and the elling natural gas ccurate and timely aluable commodity rtance. The somet ement methods of t acceptable, nor ar thy time lapses be tody transfer and t . In light of th rements, the on-si nsducer/gas turbin sumes a more promi the measurement m ur industry. profit escala tes measuretakes on imes imhe past e the tween payment ese te e meter nent ethods
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Document ID: 5D445CE7

Basic Devices Amd Techniques For Supervisory Control Amd Telemetry Systems
Author(s): Donald C. Mcbride
Abstract/Introduction:
Supervisory control and telemetry is the transmission and reception of information that deals with the measuring and/or controlling of a system process. The word telemetering is derived from Greek and Latin terms and means literally to measure at a distance. There are many ways of classifying telemetering. One method of classification is by the means of transmitting data, therefore electric (electronic), pneumatic, hydraulic, or mechanical.
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Document ID: 7E6E1562

Appucatick Of Floff Computers For Gfis Measurement And Ccw
Author(s): Michael J. Keady
Abstract/Introduction:
T r a d i t i c n a l l y , o r i f i c e meter s i g n a l s have been recorded o n - s i t e by means of mechanical c i r c u l ar c h a r t r e c o r d e r s . These c h a r t s have been c:ollected weekly or monthly and i n t e g r a t e d for volune d e t e r mination. This procedure has a lengthy l e g between time of a c t u a l gas flew and tirre of r e p o r t i n g. With the advent of s p i r a l i n g gas p r i c e s ard p e n a l ty c l a u s e s for e x c e s s i v e r a t e d e l i v e r i e s , both customer and s u p p l i e r a r e looking towards quicker and more accurate methods of o b t a i n i n g flow ar.d t o t a l q u a n t i t y . By use of f i e l d iiDunted e l e c t r c n i c flow cortputers, flow information is processed en an i n s t a n t a n e o u s and continuous b a s i s.
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Document ID: 56879555

Meter Station Noise Forecasting
Author(s): Paul Adams Fisher Controls Company Marshalltown, Iowa
Abstract/Introduction:
The scope of this presentation is limited to noise which originates in control valves. The generation, transmission, prevention, absoirption, isolation, and prediction of control valve noise will be studied.
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Document ID: 0670DA38

Measurement Of Ethane Rich Streams
Author(s): H. E, Meschke
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of an ethane rich stream can be thought of as a three step process. The first step in the process is to determine if the product should be measured in terms of volume or mass and which of these methods will produce the best results. In the case of an ethane rich stream, the physical properties are such that it would be difficult to apply conventional correction factors to obtain a net volumetric measurement. Therefore, by going to a mass measurement system we eliminate the need for these physical correction factors and still obtain an accurate measurement. The second step in the process is to determine the weight of the product. This can be done by measuring either the gravity or density of the stream under flowing conditions. The third step in the process is the sampling of the product to determine the streams composition. Once this is known, the volume of each component can be calculated, and the payment or exchange based on these calculated volumes.
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Document ID: 5044F5B0

Calibrfttiotj Of Liquid Density Meters
Author(s): Mr. Eldon Peninger
Abstract/Introduction:
Historically liquid density meters have teen a much ignored and misused piece of measuiement equipment. With the increased need for mass measurement, accurate densities are required. Calibration procedures have generally inferred density of the measured product. With the use of A.P.I, approved procedures, using a pyknometer, the density readings can be proved, thereby greatly improving overall measurement accuracy.
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Document ID: 2ED54CAC

Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
Although the liquid turbine meter principle dates back many decades, the axial flow turbine meters presently employed for liquid measurement are quite new. The axial flow turbine meter was first used for driving the rotor and normally where accuracy of measurement was not of prime importance. Reliability was of greater importance, so parts were made rugged and the rotor was designed more to be non-clogging than to be accurate. However, through the evolution of technology, the turbine meter has maintained reliability and ruggedness while attaining a high degree of accuracy. Today, the meters used for water flow have accuracies of +0.25% over ranges of 10 to 1 or more while maintaining the same high degree of reliability and ruggedness as did their predecessors.
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Document ID: BC0061C9

Application Of The Micro-Computer To Hydrocarbon Liquid Measurement And Line Balance
Author(s): Joseph D. Perret
Abstract/Introduction:
The increased cost for hydrocarbons and governmental pressures for accountability have spawned a need for more accurate measurement of all hydrocarbon products. At the same time, the electronics and flow measurement industries have made significant strides in the ability to answer these challenges. One of the results is the micro-computer as applied to the flow measurement of liquid hydrocarbons. This paper looks at the capabilities of the presently available technology and on what we can expect in the future.
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Document ID: 318AB424

Fundamentals Of Proving Domestic Meters
Author(s): Budd Spitler
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject of proving domestic meters is complex and could very well take up three or four periods, but we will concentrate on the basic fundamentals such as 1) What is proving? 2) The basic proven and 5) Proving the meters.
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Document ID: 69F82D92

In-Line Liquid Flow Provers
Author(s): Joel David Bell
Abstract/Introduction:
Fluid measurement is usually performed under normal flowing conditions using a particular type of meter. Since a meters output can be influenced fay debris, mechanical wear, liquid slippage, etc., the meter must be verified on a regular basis against an accepted standard. The accepted standard for verifying said meter throughput is to check its output against a known volume. This known volume verification is called proving, and throughout the years many different devices have been used as provers: weigh tanks, volumetric prover tanks, master meters, etc.
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Document ID: 86242389

Application Of Densitometers To Fluid Measurement
Author(s): Jack R. Hemphill
Abstract/Introduction:
With the advent of mass measurement, the density measuring instrument has become an extremely important part of the measurement package. Standard correction factors for temperature and compressibility can be used when the physical properties of a product are known, but due to solution mixing and intermolecular adhesion in ethane rich streams, these factors cannot be applied. Therefore, flowing density which can be considered as a factor of temperature and compressibility becomes a direct multiplier in the calculations to obtain mass. With this in mind it becomes obvious the accuracy of the densitometer is as equally important as volumetric accuracy. To achieve this needed accuracy the selection, proper installation, maintenance and provings must be accomplished.
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Document ID: C0D081DF

Liquid Meter Proving Techniques
Author(s): Richard L. Redilla
Abstract/Introduction:
Since, in any measurement system, there is always some error present, it is desirable to have a method for determining the amount of error and correcting for it. There are three basic types of meter provers used for this purpose: 1. Gravimetric - The reference prover is a tank mounted on a weigh scale. The correct volume is determined by using the specific gravity or density of the fluid to connect the weight of the liquid to a volume. 2. Volumetric - The reference prover is an open-tank calibrated to deliver or contain a certain volume at 60F, 3. Displacement - This prover operates on the principle of displacing a known volume of liquid. Displacement of liquid is accomplished by forcing a displacer through a calibrated section of pipe.
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Document ID: 92D583E8

Light Hydrocarbon Liquid Sampli
Author(s): Carl G. Hefley
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays Increased world demand for energy, it has become mandatory to have extremely accurate measurement and sampling stations. On todays market, losses of significant quantities of product would be a disaster. The management of most companies, if not now, soon will be requiring the most accurate and reliable performance of all measurement and sampling systems. To meet these requirements, improvements have to be made on the way measurement and sampling systems operate.
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Document ID: A342C195

Gaugimg, Testimg Amd Runwing Of Lease T m Ks
Author(s): D. L. Arrick, G. C. Bell
Abstract/Introduction:
IHTRODUCTIOM A person would never write a personal check without first ascertaining the value of the item he is purchasing. When writing a run ticket a gauger is writing a weigh bill, bill of sale and a check combined in one document. It is written to allow a change of ownership or custody of the content of the tank. A gauger has the responsibility to see that accurate information is obtained and recorded. Each true datum can only be obtained by careful observation and correct use of proper tools.
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Document ID: DF32A10C

Maintenahce And Trouble Shooting Lact Units
Author(s): Arnold Tims
Abstract/Introduction:
Lease Automatic Custody Transfer (LACT) Unit used for s a l e of l i q u i d hydrocarbons from a product i o n tank b a t t e r y to a p i p e l i n e.
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Document ID: EAE1EC55

Automated Measurement On Loading Racks
Author(s): John J. Connelly
Abstract/Introduction:
With the value of product stored and withdrawn in terminals ever increasing and therefore the requirements for security and accountability, so is the requirement for Terminal Automation. The need for real time Information by the operations department, the distribution department, the accounting department and, to some extent, regulations by the States and Federal Government make automation a must The use of mini and micro computers in modern terminal automation systems enables them to provide the security, control, data acquisition, formatting, and display required.
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Document ID: 6AC1F7AA

Positivi: Displacement Liquid Meters
Author(s): James W. Kennedy
Abstract/Introduction:
Positive displacement(PD) liquid meters have long been the standard of measurement for the liquid petroleum industry. Over the years, numerous design Improvements have resulted in an expanded product line that now serves industrial as well as petroleum applications. While PD meters are ideally suited for many applications, they are not recommended for others. This paper will examine their strengths and weaknesses as well as design principles that are fundamental to capillary seal PD meters. It will also highlight the system and meter parameters that must be considered before an accurate meter selection can be made.
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Document ID: 55B47B8C

Mass Measurement Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): H. C. Tilley
Abstract/Introduction:
In any measurement system, the physical properties of the stream to be measured should be considered in the selection of the measurement equipment. Where the physical properties of the stream are known and conventional correction factors can be applied, volumetric measurement methods may be used. In natural gas liquid streams, however, conventional correction factors do not necessarily apply. The utilization of mass measuring methods may be applied to obtain accurate measurement where accurate physical correction factors cannot be determined.
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Document ID: 4E7B7036

Correcting Instruments Applied To Displacement And Turbine Gas Meters
Author(s): Thomas R. Comerford, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Displacement and turbine gas meters provide an extremely accurate measure of the actual volume of gas consumed at the meter. If the density of the gas is also known at the meter, then the volume measured can be corrected to useful mass terms or to equivalent volume or standard volume for equitable contract billing. Correcting instruments calculate the density of the gas at the meter and directly modify the output frequency of the meter to provide a totalized reading in corrected contract volume. This effectively converts a volume meter into a mass meter. In order to understand how to best apply and use correcting instruments, we will discuss the details of how pressure and temperature measurements are used to provide correction of volume to mass. Dont let the details obscure the simplicity of what is being accomplished
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Document ID: A184D012

High Accuracy LNG Tank Gauging
Author(s): R. A. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
The buying, selling, and transportation of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) requires the use of sophisticated measurement systems for accurate determination of the total quantity and energy content for Custody Transfer reporting and safe cargo handling of this cryogenic product. These systems must meet strict safety standards for operation in a hazardous environment and, at the same time, provide accurate, reliable information for the storage, transfer, and data reporting required for both operational and financial accounting purposes.
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Document ID: 74D979C8

Design Of Metering Systems For Tanker Offload
Author(s): Don D. Haley
Abstract/Introduction:
The Tenagu Satu is on its way to your dock with 130,000 cubic meters of gas liquid at -40Celsius. The vessel has limited pumping for offloading, but the shipmaster has put out the word, He must be on his way to South America within 24 hours. Can your metering facility accomodate the implied requirements with the accuracy which todays product prices demand?
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Document ID: 4A5FF72F

Calibration Of Storage Tanks
Author(s): F. R. Conway
Abstract/Introduction:
Tank Calibration is commonly referred to as Tank Strapping. Tank strapping was originally the work of placing metal straps around wooden containers this was generally before the Petroleum Industry came into being. The wooden containers most commonly used were for liquor or Whale Oil.
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Document ID: BDF003F9

Modern Automatic Tankgauging Systems
Author(s): C. Eilers
Abstract/Introduction:
Efficient inventory control of liquids in lulk storage tanks requires accurate, reliable and safe systems for a continuous measurement of the product levels and t e m p e r a t u r e s.
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Document ID: 920CAE9B

Controlling Surge In Liquid Pipeline
Author(s): George m. Armstrong
Abstract/Introduction:
What is Surge? Surges or hydraulic transients, commonly known as water hammer are sudden increases or decreases of the total pressures in a piping system due to changes in velocity of the fluid in a pipeline. Change In velocity, such as would result frora the sudden closure of a valve in a flowing pipeline, causes the fluid to suddenly come to rest, resulting in a pressure increase in the system above the operating pressure. The energy associated with the moving fluid is converted into energy of pressure when it is suddenly stopped. In steady state pipeline flow, there is no change in the flow conditions at a point with passing time. The hydraulic grade line (HGL) elevation varies with two independent variables namely, the distance from the upstream end of the conduit & the flow rate. On the other hand, transient flow introduces time as a second independent variable such that both the flow velocity and the HGL elevation vary with both distance and the time elapsed from the start of a disturbance,
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Document ID: 3A0137BA

Clamp-Oh Ultrasonic Flowmeters Application Coasiderations And Field Test Results
Author(s): T. R. Schmidt
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary attraction of the clamp-on ultrasonic flowmeters (Doppler and through transmission*) is their relatively low installed cost when added to existing operating systems. This factor has prompted a limited evaluation and test program to determine these meters suitability and characteristics when measuring typical liquids encountered in the petroleum industry. This paper will outline some of the observations and results of this effort.
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Document ID: 006B0DCA

Measured Steps For Training The Measurement Man
Author(s): Jack I. Burger
Abstract/Introduction:
The increase of prices of all kinds of energy, especially natural gas which is approaching its true market value, creates the incentive for oil and gas companies such as Union Oil to revaluate their methods of handling and accounting for these fluids. We must expect scrutiny of existing gas product ion practices to intensify, and a high priority placed on accurate reporting of oil and gas streams,
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Document ID: EABAE94C

International Standards Organizations Developments On Orifice Meter Standards
Author(s): E. L. Upp
Abstract/Introduction:
There is a new and different standard on orifice meters that has been approved and is published by the International Standards Organization (ISO) in their Technical Committee 30 (TC-30) on the Measurement of Fluid Flow in a Closed Conduit. The differences in this standard and the present AGA-3 Orifice Metering of Natural Gas will be examined so that those parties who deal in the International area will be aware of them and thus be better prepared in negotiations where the two standards are at issue.
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Document ID: C1E6C916

The Rules Of Epa And Industry In Protecting Our Environment
Author(s): Wayne C. Smith, Dames & Moore
Abstract/Introduction:
An Overview of the R e s o u r c e C o n s e r v a t i on and R e c o v e r y Act (RCRA) R e g u l a t i o n s I n 1976 C o n g r e s s p a s s e d t h e R e s o u r ce C o n s e r v a t i o n and Recovery Act (RCRA). This Act i s d e s i g n e d t o c o n t r o l t h e d i s p o s a l o f s o l id w a s t e s and to p r o t e c t the g r o u n d w a t e r from p o l l u t a n t s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e s o l i d w a s t e s . This p a p e r d i s c u s s e s t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s of t h e RCRA r e g u l a t i o n s as r e l a t e d to t h e d i s p o s a l of s o l id h a z a r d o u s w a s t e s . E m p h a s i s w i l l be on I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of W a s t e s , S t a n d a r d s f or G e n e r a t o r s of H a z a r d o u s W a s t e , S t a n d a r d s f or T r a n s p o r t e r s of H a z a r d o u s W a s t e , P e r m i t s f or T r e a t m e n t , S t o r a g e or D i s p o s a l of Hazardous Waste a n d D e s i g n C r i t e r i a f o r a H a z a r d o u s W a s te D i s p o s a l F a c i l i t y.
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Document ID: D6AC8E41

Keeping Osha In Perspective
Author(s): Goiiier J. Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
The Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, commonly referred to as OSHA has been with us for almost ten years. This act, legislated by Congress, established Federal Safety and Health Standards that were adopted from National consensus standards at the time of the Acts introduction to the American Industrial Scene.
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Document ID: 8C32C3A0

Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): Donald H. Knapp
Abstract/Introduction:
Although Che design of bellows type Positive Displacement meters dates back well into the last century, it has now and will continue to have wide acceptance in our industry. Other types of measurement may appear at first glance to be more advanced, but this type is the only one that has virtually 1007o rangeabll ity, that is, the ability to measure gas from full rated capacity of the meter down to the smallest pilot load.
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Document ID: 3DB4681F

Fundamental Gas Laws
Author(s): F. Mark Townsend
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement Is the determination of the volume of a gas at a particular tGmperatL.re and pressure. The measurement should be as accurate as possible, making use of the best data and techniques available. The gas quantity is usually expressed in cubic feet or cubic meters at some specific temperature and pressure.
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Document ID: C56E5A56

The Calculation Of Gas Properties-Past, Present And Future
Author(s): Kenneth E. Starling
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas properties calculation methods used in the past and at the present time are discussed and a projection of future gas properties calculation methods is presented. Note Is made of the fact that gas properties calculation methods prior to about 1960 generally were made using tables and/or charts, while since the early 1960s the computer has been utilized extensively. Some of the inadequacies of present-day gas properties calculation methods are noted and improvements which can be expected in the near future are discussed. The compressibility factor of natural gases is given particular attention.
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Document ID: 1D83346B

About Ishm 1980
Abstract/Introduction:
Collection of documents about ISHM including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, exhibitor and sponsor information, etc.
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Document ID: 395D753D


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