Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (1980)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Mass Measurement
Author(s): H.J. Sergesketter
Abstract/Introduction:
Mass flow measurement of fluids is. receiving Increased attention. It is a fundamental concept that can provide a significant reduction in numbers of variables to be measured and in measurement uncertainties. Its importance is spurred by the increasing value and volume of products being measured, processed and controlled. It has a significant impact on the cost of metering and data processing associated therewith. Both mass flow measurement systems and true, mass flowmeters are discussed.
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Document ID: 9EB8A893

Leakage Surveys And Instruments For Leak Detection How( To Perform Leakage Surveys To Best Benefit Distribution Systems)
Author(s): Andre J. Massicott
Abstract/Introduction:
Leakage survey means safety because it provides as complete an analysis of existing conditions over a gas system as is possible: its findings point to follow up maintenance and repair as necessary. The survey under these conditions is designed to maintain and also improve conditions within an existing gas system. Where are the leaks? What kind of leaks are they? Which ones should be followed up first? Which part of the system is bad? Which is good? Is leakage general throughout the system? The small leak adjacent to a building can be as bad or even worse than a large leak in the middle of an empty field. From a safety standpoint, the survey will provide as up-todate picture of conditions within a known period of time.
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Document ID: 2D9BEC59

Instrumentation For Orifice & Electronic Turbine Meters
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
Refinements in electronic instrumentation are continually providing more reliable and better quality measurement and control devices. Improved methods of calibrating, programming and operating of these instruments have broadened their application. The great variety of measurement and control applications require many different combinations of these instruments to achieve reliability, repeatability and accuracy with the lowest capital Investment.
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Document ID: 0ECC656F

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Howard W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject title is only one of many which could be applicable, such a s: Do Your Measurement Books Balance? Does Your Sales Volume - Your Purchase Volume? Are You Selling All The Volume Youre Entitled to? Do You Really Have Good Measurement? If you honestly answer No to any of the above, then it will be beneficial to explore a few basic reasons for measurement problems. When the word measurement is mentioned, the majority of the gas industry measurement personnel automatically convert their thoughts to a meter. The meter contributes only 1/2 to 1/4 toward the total science of measurement depending on the application.
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Document ID: 3986CEF5

Remote Meter Reading - Gas Meters
Author(s): Ed Dyer
Abstract/Introduction:
Remote meter reading is simply a means for determining consumption at a location away from the meter. Remote reading sy5tems can be classified into three basic groups: direct remote, semiautomatic, and automatic meter reading systems. The direct remote system is the most common type of remote reading. It generally consists of a generator mounted on a meter which activates a remotely-located register. The meter reader visually reads the remote register and records the reading in his log book or on mark-sense cards.
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Document ID: 704DB478

Wet Gas Gathering System
Author(s): Bruno Giovanini
Abstract/Introduction:
During the 1960s the San Juan Basin and 4-Corners Area experienced an accelerated drilling program to the Dakota foriiiation. These are wells with a high shut-in pressure and produce gas with a high hydrocarbon content. Well head flowing temperature is between 90 and 100 F. At this temperature and at flowing pressures of 450 pounds, large amounts of hydrocarbons are not removed by wellhead separators. The hydrocarbons remain entrained in the gas stream in gaseous form or vapor state. After leaving the well location, a cooling process takes place in the pipeline and as the temperature drops, liquid hydrocarbon condensates form. These condensates, commonly called drip gasoline, collect all along the pipeline and liquid blocks form at nearly all low spots in the gathering system. Due to the rough terrain in the San Juan Basin area a great number of liquid-loaded sections of the pipeline occur. Consequently field operating pressure rises, gas production falls, surging flows occur and gas transmission efficiency in the pipeline falls drastically,
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Document ID: 841A3FA7

Installation, Operation And Maintenance Of Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): Michael D. Beall
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic Chart Changers were developed for the specific purpose of saving time and money by changing charts when there was no one present but by no means should they eliminate company meter technicians or their chart grabber personnel. These people will always be needed to check the calibration and performance of the meter as well as collect the charts, monitor them for any unusual record and forward them to the chart processing/accounting office at the end of the month.
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Document ID: 50E6CAB1

Elements Of Gas Contracts
Author(s): James E. Sirois
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will review the elements of gas contracts as seen through the eyes of a Gas Buyer for an interstate pipeline. There are certain variations between interstate and Intrastate gas contracts as well as certain differences between the contracts of different interstate gas pipelines. Regardless of these differences, certain basic subject matter must be addressed in all gas contracts.
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Document ID: B83F7216

The What, Why And How Of Gas Chromatography
Author(s): J. C. Winfrey
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas chromatography (GC) is commonly thought to have been invented by Martin and Jaiiies about 1949-52. The term chromatography is a misnomer. It literally means color writing, so called by Tswett in 1906 after his work separating plant pigments.
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Document ID: 45435CDC

Effects And Control Of Pulsations In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Walter W. Von Nimitz
Abstract/Introduction:
Review of the detrimental effects of pulsations on gas flow measurement with the orifice, turbine and vortex flow meters indicates the need for effective pulsation control. The techniques for prediction and control of pulsations discussed and illustrated in this paper make it possible to design gas flow measurement facilities with the assurance of minimum uncertainty in flow measurement due to pulsation effects.
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Document ID: 0294E6BA

Gas Odorization: An Introduction With Hints For Safe Handling
Author(s): John D. Taylor
Abstract/Introduction:
The odorlzation of natural gas is becoming an increasingly established practice throughout the United States. Today, both distribution and transmission companies are required to odorize hy government mandate a larger percentage or all of their gas lines. As more laws are legislated and rigid guidelines enforced by state and federal agencies, it becomes exceedingly important for us to stay abreast of regulations and guidelines to insure both safety and economy, It is my wish today to impress upon everyone in the industry the increasing importance of safe handling and use of proper equipment for the odorization of gas. Many people consider odorlzation to be a nuisance, but nevertheless, it is required and advantageous from the standpoint of safety. We must try to take the time to odorize properly the first time we may not have a second chance.
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Document ID: 74FD98DC

Calorimeters Operation Installation Maintenance And Testing
Author(s): Donald F. Scholtes
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas, Synthetic, Liquid, Manufactured, or a combination of all of these,thats Gas. As the demand for gas increase,there is a corresponding increase in the cost which is due in part, to the exploration, transportation and handling. Tliis cost increase focuses a more direct attention to accurate B.T.U. measurement. A number of meters, turbine, orifice or positive meters may be used to measure the volume of gas that is marketed. Volume may be large or small.
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Document ID: 9591A6F2

Basic Principles Of Meter Testing
Author(s): David F. Kee
Abstract/Introduction:
The degree to which a gas meter is doing its job, in percent, is called Proof. Percent Proof can be found by delivering a known volume of air to the inlet of a meter at a constant flaw rate. Mathematically, then, divide that volume by the volume that the meter dial indicates (and then multiply it by a hundred, to get Percent). The equation looks like this:
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Document ID: 026558BF

Effective Utilization Of Measurement Personnel
Author(s): Pascal, L. Killingsworth
Abstract/Introduction:
To effectively utilize anything whether it be a person, a tool, or a machine you must know what it is, how it works, its component parts and its capabilities. You must expand your liorizons tn include all aspects of the operation of a particular item. You also must stretcti capabilities to the breaking point, all the time being prepared for unexpected success and failures. You too, must learn to look for all talents and facilities at your command. All this carrys with it the responsibility of pushing yourself, often times to the point much beyond that which you expect jfrom your people or equipment.
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Document ID: E7B4625B

Measurement Applications For Microprocessors
Author(s): R. D. Goodenough
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to fully appreciate the power of the microprocessor as it relates to gas measurement applications, lets review several ways of gathering and processing flow data from a meter station. An early means of gathering data from remote metgr stations was to use pulse duration type telemetering to transmit flow data to a central location. In this type of system, the length of time that a current loop is closed or a tone is transmitted is proportional to the value being transmitted. The receiver in the central location displayed the data on a recording instrument. The telemetered data is then used to compute the flow rate for the meter station.
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Document ID: 31D86BCD

Regulatory Commission Evaluations
Author(s): m. L. Fegenbush, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Utilities Division of the Railroad Commission of Texas is charged with enforcement of the safety standards for intrastate gas pipeline facilities as they apply to design, construction, maintenance and operation. To this end, each gas company operating in Texas, its officers and employees shall make readily available to the Commission or its staff, any files, records, or other documents which shall be reasonably required. Likewise, the plant, property, and facilities shall be accessible.
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Document ID: 846464FF

Fundamental Gas Laws And Their Application
Author(s): Patricia S. Osullivan
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement would be quite simple if all we had to do was read the value of gas measured by a meter. Unfortunately, the situation is not that simple. The volume of gas measured by a meter can be altered by two factors that a meter does not measure namely, the temperature and the pressure.
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Document ID: 442CDBE4

Field Inspections And Calibrating Measurement Instruments
Author(s): Mike Eads
Abstract/Introduction:
The rising cost of gas has placed accurate measurement the number one prioirity on most companies list. Most companies management are willing to spend much more money to accomplish good measurement than in past years. In the past, the phrase unaccounted for gas related mostly to leaks. Management is now looking to measurement supervisors for assistance in reducing unaccounted for gas.
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Document ID: F9E4DEED

Fundamentals Of Diaphragm Type Positive Displacement Meters
Author(s): Mark Hichens
Abstract/Introduction:
The Positive Displacement Meter principle is applied on both diaphragm type and rotary type meters. Although the operational principle is different, the fact remains that both types measure by means of sealing off a known quantity of gas, and subsequently releasing it. The bulk of the meters in use today are of the positive displacement type. Over 40 million gas meters are employed in measuring gas volumes by positive displacement in the U.S. Of this total, the large majority are used to measure gas volumes consumed by domestic residential customers. Other measurement principles are applied in the case of the Turbo-Meter, Orifice Meter or Swirl Meter.
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Document ID: E4AC42CE

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted-For Gas-Distribution
Author(s): R. F. Clark
Abstract/Introduction:
Unaccounted-for gas in a distribution system is the difference between the amount of gas purchased and the amount of gas sold or otherwise accounted for. The term unaccounted-for gas is often used synonymously with the term gas leakage, but this should not be the case in the average gas distribution system. Leakage is certainly one of the more important components of unaccounted-for, but it should be considered only after all of the accDunting-for has been taken care of.
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Document ID: 64A0E3DB

Prcblems Dealing With H2S
Author(s): Robert S. Purgason
Abstract/Introduction:
As all of you in the gas production and transportation businesses know, as we drill for deeper and more difficult gas to find, the percentage of new gas finds that are sour is on the increase. It appears ncv as if this trend will continue into the foreseeable future. Sour gas, gas that contains carbon dioxide and/or hydrogen sulfide, as well as various other sulfur compounds such as carbonyl sulfides and carbon disulfides, has been successfully handled in the gas industry since the industrys birth. But it is only with the recent increases in gas prices and sour gas finds that sour gas should now be the concern of everyone in the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: 68C00C67

New Concepts In Recorder Marking Systems For The Gas Industry
Author(s): Gerardo A. Samaniego
Abstract/Introduction:
Ink, as a fluid, is virtually worthless...ink as a line could be priceless...if its in the right place at the right time. For example, a droplet of ink, as a signature on a check, could represent a virtually limitless value...even millions of dollars. Well, the ink lines on your gas measurements charts are signatures showing the value of gas being measured.
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Document ID: AD5F766D

Effects On Entraihed Liquid On Orifice Measurement
Author(s): C. V. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
In the measurement of natural gas in field operations using the conventional orifice meter, all of the factors used in the calculation of flow are based on the assumption that the gas is dry. This condition is rarely the case in field measurements. The A.G.A. Committee Report No. 3, (1), does not give any information or data regarding the effect water and/or distillate may have upon gas measurement by the orifice meter. It vas in this area of gas measurement that graduate-engineering students at Texas A&I University, Kingsville, Texas have conducted research operation in the laboratory and in the field.
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Document ID: 845F6432

Seven Pounds Of Water Per Million Cubic Feet
Author(s): William R. Barnes
Abstract/Introduction:
Im sure most of you know more about these units than Ill ever know however, 1 would like to present this paper with an open discussion of some of the symptoms and various checks of the unit. Also, I would like to discuss a sample system which has proven to prolong cell life in most cases. One gallon of water weighs approximately seven pounds. Try and disperse this in a room 100 ft. high, 100 ft. long and 100 ft. wide. This is a million cubic feet. This is very dry as compared with the surrounding atmosphere, usually 100 humidity.
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Document ID: 9E6FCF8E

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
During the last decade the gas turbine meter has become established as a very useful instrument for the measurement and control of gas flow. This paper will present a summary of the principles of operation, the basic construction and the performance characteristics of the gas turbine meter.
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Document ID: D42DA398

Training Field Measurement Personnel
Author(s): Willard Sutton
Abstract/Introduction:
Most companies expect their lleasureraent-Technicians to be proficient at installing and maintaining regulators, controllers, dehydrators, samplers, telemetering equipment, etc. Providing the technician with just the fundamental information required to perform these tasks is a never endinj problem for those responsible for training. Remember training alone can never be substituted entirely for experience. Some companies operate on the theory that job knowledge for the field employee can best be acquired thru osmosis If the new employee works closely with the experienced craftsman, a transfer of knowledge is bound to occur. In reality, this basic assumption is correct.
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Document ID: 1E7B5859

Liquid Desiccant Dehydration Troubleshooting The Glycol Dehydrator)
Author(s): Reginald m. Harvey
Abstract/Introduction:
This article is restricted to dehydration and the associated operational oroblems. The Dow Chemical Company has for years provided technical assistance to the gas conditioning industry in the form of laboratory analysis of plant samples, field consultation by gas conditioning specialists, and basic research on the development of data and methods for the benefit of the plant operator. The followina discussion of gas dehydration technology and troubleshooting is based on experience in solving operational problems and optimizing dehydrator efficiency. It is the intent of this article to help prevent many of the unnecessary emergencies with which the Dow Gas Conditioning Technology Group has become familiar.
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Document ID: 1420EF2A

Relief Valves Sizing, Selection, Installation, And Testing
Author(s): Gary B. Emerson
Abstract/Introduction:
A safety-relief valve is an essential and important piece of equipment on virtually any pressured system. Required by the ASME-UPV Code, among others, it must be carefully sized to pass the maximum flow produced by emergency conditions. After it is installed, the user hopes that it will never have to operate, which makes thesafety relief valve rather unique as compared to other types of process equipment. This paper discusses sizing procedures, selection of the best type of valve, installation, and testing of relief valves.
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Document ID: B853F505

Domestic Gas Service Regulators -- Operation -- Selection -- Installation And Methods Used For Shop Repair
Author(s): Bill Abram
Abstract/Introduction:
The term Gas Service Regulators, commonly applies to those regulators used for reducing gas pressure in pounds to a reduced or service pressure of four to eight dunces as required by domestic gas burning equipment, such as gas stoves, floor furnaces, hot water heaters, central heating, and other similar gas heating equipment. Such gas service regulators are used wlienever gas pressure is distributed at a pressure in pounds and must be reduced to ounces pressure for these appliances. The regulator is installed ahead of the domestic meter because the meter is designed to measure gas consumed on the premises at ounces pressure and not in pound pressure.
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Document ID: F93DB742

Problems In Offshore Gas Measurement
Author(s): George F. White, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
In the beginning, there was the Gulf of Mexico and it sesTied to be void. For centuries there were only fishermen seeking to harvest the many various fishes from the waters and Gulf bottoms. Then, in 1947, the Gulf was discovered to have other products-oil and natural gas. Once this energy was found, many companies immediately formulated plans to engage in the search for and production of these products. Today there are over forty pipeline companies involved in the transportation of natural gas, condensates, and crude oil. Just as in other industries-farming, mining, or whatever - products have to be measured.
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Document ID: FCDE8989

Fundamentals Of Bellows-Type Oefice Meters
Author(s): m. J. Sergesketter
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to control and direct the flow of water was recognized at a very early stage in the development of civilization. In Europe and. Asia can be seen the relics of hydraulic works, some of great antiquity, which display a high degree of engineering accomplishment, the best known of which are the aqueducts, which the Romans built to bring water to their cities. In the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneuin can he still seen lead piping, which conveyed water to houses and gardens, and which included orifice plates to act as flow limiting devices, providing a basis on which the service was charged to the consumer. These were installed almost 2,000 years ago. Some of these techniques were introduced to North America by engineers, who accompanied the Spanish mLsEsionaries and whose work can still be seen at some of the missions in California.
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Document ID: 3405A5CB

Techniques Of Natural Gas Sampling
Author(s): Charles F. Drake
Abstract/Introduction:
Equipment and techniques are at hand to assist in the measurement of the Btu of gasses containing unstable hydrocarbons. This paper is a review of results found in an eighteen month study of the sampling of an aerosol type natural gas stream that required extraordinary procedures to correctly determine the heating value.
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Document ID: B3FEC9A6

Design Of High Pressure Meter And Regulator Stations
Author(s): Chalmus E. Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays world of energy shortages and high prices, the efficient measurement and control of high pressure natural gas is an important job. On large volume stations, measurement errors of 1% can easily make thousands of dollars a day difference at a single station. Thoughtless design of measuring and regulating equipment can build errors of 1% and more into a station which will measure billions of dollars worth of gas during its lifetime. Careless regulator station design may be a potential bomb ready to take lives under the wrong conditions.
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Document ID: A5539650

Periodic Inspections-District Regulators-Relief Valves
Author(s): A. R. Boydston
Abstract/Introduction:
With ever-increasing prices of natural gas, a workable Regulator and Relief Valve Inspection Program is a must. Accurate and dependable service of a regulating facility is directly related to a workable inspection program. Today regulatory agencies, safety practices, new and sophisticated equipment make necessary more detailed inspections. The purpose of this paper is to present guide lines, methods, procedures and expected results of a regulator and relief valve inspection program. However, each company must make its own interpretation of what is necessary for regulatory and contractual compliance requirements (D.O.T./OPS, etc). The information here is offered only as a guide line.
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Document ID: 24F3B750

Instruments For Positive Displacement And Mechanical Turbine Meters
Author(s): D. R. Fulton
Abstract/Introduction:
Instruments are a vital part of large volume gas measurement. They are classified in two basic categories: (1) volume recorders and (2) volume correctors. Recorders provide a permanent chart record of whatever values are being sensed, usually related to time. This includes pressure, temperature, volume, or combinations of these values. From these recorded values calculations are made to produce the correcting factors to apply to the metered volume.
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Document ID: 9013E3C4

Problems Encountered By A Small Distributing Company
Author(s): Kenneth Lott
Abstract/Introduction:
Small distribution companies have essentially the same problem as large distributors in the safe delivery of natural gas to their customers. One of the principal differences in operation is in the organizational setup of the company. The large distributor Is organized by function management, supply, construction, auditing, measurement, distribution and recordkeeping. These departments are further broken down into subgroups. At times, the small system operator fills all of these positions and thus has an overview of the system that is denied the employees of a large system that, for an example, works in measurement, or as a serviceman.
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Document ID: 7F7A4634

Gas Liquids Processing Plants
Author(s): Donald R. Raney
Abstract/Introduction:
The liquids are collected in the cold separator and pumped to the stabilizer. Heat is added to the bottom of the stabilizer to vaporize the light components and reduce the vapor pressure of the liquid product. The glycol separator removes the glycol from the product and the product is sent to storage. The glycol is then regenerated by adding heat to vaporize the water and pumped back to the plant inlet to complete the cycle.
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Document ID: EDB744D9

Methods Of Field Testing Large Meters
Author(s): David F. Kee
Abstract/Introduction:
For years the accuracy of gas meter measurement has been recognized as being important, but in recent years the shortage of gas and higher prices have renewed interest in field testing of meters. On-location testing of large meters offers a convenient and economical method of assuring measurement accuracy. This method eliminates the extra time required to replace the meter, equipment for hauling to a repair shop and stocking replacement meters. Another factor becoming increasingly important is that field testing allows for customer witnessing of the meter being tested.
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Document ID: 8640B46E

GAUGES/DEADWEIGHT Testers Principles Of Measurement, Operation Of Gauges & Pneumatic Deadweight Testers
Author(s): Lee A. Solomon
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most difficult problems facing the instrument engineer is the accurate calibration of orifice meters, particularly at remote or inaccessible locations. The object of this paper is to describe a unique solution to this problem, an automatic pneumatic deadweight test utilizing the floating ball principle.
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Document ID: AE88FAF8

From Mcf To Mmbtu
Author(s): Wilford Allen Tate
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry has, in recent years, continued to increase its emphasis on the use of the MMBtu or dekatherm in transactions involving transfer of title or right to natural gas. Price of domestic natural gas is escalating monthly and especially as foreign governments continue to demand ever-increasing amounts for their gas, in many cases tied to the price of oil, the importance of a fair and equitable transfer of this commodity cannot be overrated. The emphasis on cost has heightened the need for equitability in natural gas transactions and has created the climate in which many companies have switched to MMBtu transactions almost exclusively when only a few years ago, they would have been reluctant to do so. It comes as no surprise to gas measurement personnel that the calculation of MMBtu has become widely acknowledged as the exclusive method for determination of energy transfer. Measurement personnel have recognized the fact that the calculation of Mcf was by itself an incomplete statement, and that wide fluctuations in heating value could exist between equivalent volumes of natural gas. The higher the percentage of heavier llquefiable hydrocarbons the gas composition contained, the richer the gas in heating value. The higher the percentage of inerts and methane in the gas composition, the leaner the gas. Identical volumes of lean gas and rich gas are not energy equivalent. Therefore, inequities often result from Mcf transactions. These inequities were generally ignored when natural gas was cheaper. But the economic impact that higher gas costs have created has made the use of the MMBtu desirable for all gas transactions.
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Document ID: 1F8E9F8E

New Ideas In Low Flow Measurement
Author(s): Wayne T. Lake
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to appreciate accurate measurement at very low flow conditions, the parameters that control metering must first be understood. Then, in order to achieve a high degree of accuracy, these parameters must be dealt with in such a manner that their effects are minimized. This undertaking has been somewhat neglected In our field due to simple economics. As it is much more economical and easier to reduce errors on 100 MMSCFD station than on a 100 SCFH station. This paper deals primarily with ideas for solving low flow problems with conventional orifice metering equipment. I have limited it to this for two reasons, first is my limited knowledge and second is my first hand experience of failures of delicate devices due to all of Kurpheys Laws.
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Document ID: 50EB1DC6

Fuel Gas Measurement At Compressor Stations
Author(s): E. J. Gilmore
Abstract/Introduction:
What is the importance of measuring compressor engine fuel? Can it conserve fuel? If so, How? For many years, fuel gas for compressor engines on natural gas transmission pipelines was measured merely to account for the total amount of gas used. Normally, there was one meter measuring all of the fuel for a number of engines in a compressor station. Until just a few years ago, this kind of measurement of compressor engine fuel was sufficient. Until recently, natural gas was considered plentiful and cheap. Then along came the early 1970s, when natural gas supplies became a concern, as exploration costs were continuously on the rise and the overall cost of natural gas began to progressively increase. It is at this time that major natural gas transmission companies began looking for ways of conserving this product, as it became economically feasible and the proper thing to do, as energy conservation has become more and more a way of life.
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Document ID: C2EC24C1

Various Methods 0F Telemetering In Gas Distribution
Author(s): Bill Reyner
Abstract/Introduction:
Telemetering, a means of receiving information from a distant point, and telemotor (remote control) a means of causing motive force to be applied at a distant point, have been utilized by the gas distribution industry for many years. Some of the advantages are: Conservation of manpower and transportation expense. Reduced Unaccounted for Gas loss. Readily available distribution system information. With the ability to see and change conditions at strategic locations, one operator at a central location, can efficiently operate a relatively large distribution system. Being able to meet changing load requirements in a timely and efficient manner allows the distribution to be operated at a lower average pressure, reducing unnecessary gas loss. And information such as pressure and flow being continually indicated, and recorded if necessary, is readily available to operation and engineering personnel, facilitating the task of modifying, enlarging or repairing the distribution network.
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Document ID: 4808CD9D

Training Of The Measurement Office Personnel
Author(s): James C. Beaty
Abstract/Introduction:
The challenge for management people is to find new ways to help employees maximize their sense of personal growth within the limits of their abilities and opportunities. For in attempting to provide a good working climate in which workers can begin to fulfill their growth needs we will tap new sources of interest and job satisfaction. The rewards in meeting this challenge are high. Not every worker aspires to be the president. In this growing, complex, technical age very few employees can look forward to future supervisory assignments. Nevertheless, the desire to get ahead persists in most of us and in some the urge may be fulfilled by an advancement to a higher grade level or a more desirable assignment along with new responsibilities. Others with more ambition are shooting for more.
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Document ID: 806F3395

Gas Liquids Processing Plants
Author(s): Donald R. Raney
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas liquids processing plants are normally designed to remove gas liquids products in excess of the removal required to make the gas marketable. These gas liquids products are natural gasoline, butane, propane and ethane. In addition, gas processing plants will normally include many of the functions performed under, field processing such as, separation, dehydration and removal of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. The recovery of liquid hydrocarbons from natural gas is accomplished by changing the gas conditions so that tKe equilibrium between the liquid and vapor phase is upset. The new conditions will cause some heavy components to condense and some light components to vaporize in attempting to reach a new equilibrium. The conditions that are changed may be pressure, temperature, or introduction of a new material into the gas stream. In some processes all three conditions may be changed to recover liquid hydrocarbons.
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Document ID: 1E2152F5

Problems In Two-Phase Pipeline Operations
Author(s): Robert J. Rau
Abstract/Introduction:
Two-phase pipelines are becoming a common means of transportation of oil and gas from offshore both in the Continental Shelf of the United States and the North Sea, and other places all over the world. As we all know, offshore gas pipeline systems are a necessity to actively njeet the energy necessitites of our Nation and the energy crisis facing us today. Today, I wish to discuss with you some of the problems encoiintered in offshore two-phase pipeline operations.
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Document ID: BC6A905F

Development Of The Auto-Adjust Turbo-Meter
Author(s): David J. Gestler
Abstract/Introduction:
Rockwell Internationals technological contributions to gas meter advancement trace back 100 years. During that period of many and rapid changes, the company engineered, manufactured, and marketed diaphragm, rotary, orifice and, more recently, turbine meters, along with accessory instrumentation- Today, an estimated 20 million Rockwell gas meters are in service on all types of gas measurement applications, ranging from high pressure offshore producing platforms to individual homes. Each development, each Improvement, each introduction of metering devices has paralleled the growth and needs of the gas industry.
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Document ID: D6CDB3F8

Basic Volume Calculation For The Field Man
Author(s): John D. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
Computation of gas volumes as measured by an orifice meter, requires a rather lengthy formula and the gathering of information. Using a lengthy formula in the field is Impractical however, when the formula is understood it points out the requirements and information needed to determine the volume, regardless of the method used. In this paper we will discuss the flow equation, determine-the information necessary to compute the volume using various methods, and determine the source of all information needed. All calculations are based on American Gas Association - Committee Report #3.
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Document ID: 3417BBC5

Orifice Meter Testing How Often, By Whom & With What
Author(s): B. D. Waller
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry there is a continuous demand for greater accuracy in all phases of operations. This is emphasized by the increasing cost of gas. Therefore, it is in the best interest of all parties concerned to obtain the most accurate measurement possible. Each metering station should have an accuracy priority established. The priority level would be determined by the amount of sales or purchases going through the station. The larger the station, the more accurate the measurement should be. As the future price of gas continues to rise, you will see the accuracy priority continue to lower in order to take in lesser volumes. The orifice meter has long been an accepted standard of measurement in the gas industry and has proven to be a most reliable measuring device. The better the condition of the meter tube, orifice plate, and flow recorder, the more accurate the measurement will be.
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Document ID: EC03D021

A Brief Description Of The Various Separators And Filters Available
Author(s): John U. Clarke
Abstract/Introduction:
In any measurement system, the physical properties of the flowing medium to be measured should be considered in the selection of the measurement equipment. When the physical properties of the medium are known, conventional correction factors may be applied, Additionally, the condition of the medium should be considered relative to its liquid or solids content. When this factor is known, corrective measures may be taken toward removal of such foreign matter, thereby enhancing the likelihood of the much desired accuracy in flow measurement. To this end, the following is a description of the standard separators and filters utilized in the natural gas and petrochemical industry.
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Document ID: 903BABF1


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