Measurement Library

Western Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (1979)

Western Gas Measurement Short Courses

Measurement - Whats New?
Author(s): R. A. Price
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses some philosophy of what is new in measurement and what might be coming up somewhere down the road. It describes three new meter proving devices currently available. These are: theSprague Pulse Prover, the Agar Sonic Prover and the PSI Sonic Prover. Also discussed are four new type meters These are the PSI meter-regulator Roots BC meter, Rockwell H.P R-1600, and American 2M CVM
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Document ID: 144B9A99

Transducers
Author(s): B. Buse
Abstract/Introduction:
What is a transducer? Were going to talk about transducers for the next few minutes, so I feel we first need to know what were talking about. Webster sas that a transducer is a device that is actuated by power from one system and supplies power, in anni-iiQ f- 4- - . sys another form, to a tem. 7c second For our purposes today we are generally talking about a device that is actuated by power from a pneumatic, or a liquid system that supplies power to an electrical or electronic system, in terms of,an electrical or voUage level This also could be reversed to be from an electronic system to a pneuinlic system, with the same bac requirements
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Document ID: F6884E16

Microprocessors Applications Applied In Acquiring, Processing, Reading, And Telemetering Measurement Data
Abstract/Introduction:
The costs of reading meters, picking up daily and weekly charts to determine demands, flows, temperatures, pressures and other information, are spiraling. The feasibility and economics in using microprocessors for telemetering by dial-up phone should be considered.
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Document ID: 017D07B4

Just A Minute Needed To Determine Btu Values Of Natural Gas
Author(s): John Garnett W. Webb
Abstract/Introduction:
Our business transporting, gas is rapidly changing,andour methods of accurately measuring and controlling the wide range of gas quality encountered today becomes increasingly important as the price of gas reaches its true value. The supply of natural gas handled by Colorado Interstate Gas Company a few years ago was dry with stable gravity and BTU values that required only a monthly sample or a calorimeter at major sales points.
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Document ID: 2F959093

Low Cost Systems For Data Acquisition And Control For The Gas Industry
Author(s): u. Wager
Abstract/Introduction:
As the cost of meter reading continues to rise and the need to obtain metering data on a daily basis for conodity management becomes a way of life, systems for automatic gas data acquisition become economically feasible. As penalty rates and customer curtailment become of paramount importance in day to day gas management, the need to measure the pulse of the distribution system as well as customer deliveries becomes a necessity.
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Document ID: CF0FE9A0

The Use Of Heaters In Regulation Design
Author(s): Lee D. Weber
Abstract/Introduction:
As natural gas flows through a pressure reducing regulator the gas expands with the drop in pressure and the temperature of the gas is also reduced If the temperature is reduced sufficiently, any water vapor present may condense and freeze to plug the line. Also, gas hydrates may form at high pressures and block a line at temperatures considerably above the freezing point of water. Hydrates are combination of hydrocarbon and w, molecules which form a light, porous, crystalline solid and i similar in appearance to packed snow.
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Document ID: C0EADA2D

Leak Detection Equipment, Methods, And Record Keeping
Author(s): Gene R. Dyer
Abstract/Introduction:
We in the Gas Industry have now experienced over ten years of operation under the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act and over nine years with the requirements of this act for leak reporting. By now we are all familiar with the various requirements regarding leak surveys and the corresponding record systems which must be maintained.
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Document ID: 94FB0CD1

Fegulator Selection: Sizing And Application
Author(s): Walter E. Albright
Abstract/Introduction:
size and select a pressure ducing regulator for any specific reducing regulatorfor anyspecific application it is first necessary to determine what the regulators capabilities and characteristics are. In other words, what can it do? How well can it do it Why does it react as it does
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Document ID: 387B6CC5

Application And Utilization Of Elbow Meters In Regulator Station Design
Author(s): Floyd-Holnis
Abstract/Introduction:
The objective of this paper is to review the progress, develop,ent, and utilization of the existing pipeline elbow as a flow measurement device. The search for metering equipment that does not create prohibitive restrictions to flow, has increased extreme interest in the use of elbow meters
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Document ID: C6259BB2

Gas Pressure Regulator Fundamentals
Author(s): James A. Simpkins
Abstract/Introduction:
A gas pressure regulate for reducing pressur- * r is a device re to a certann It has often been said that ss are lthe cash regitter of the i rs INTRODUCTION device .uucxn. uressure .o a cr-- value. meters gas industry, however, regula t o . play an equally important role. A regulator that is not doing its job properly can have a horrendous effett on gas measurement
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Document ID: 18E7F009

Fundamentals Of Three-Mode Controllers
Author(s): Woody Dickinson
Abstract/Introduction:
Controllers in one form or another have been around the process industries for a number of years. In fact, they are such a familiar sight in most industrial operations that they frequently suffer from being taken for granted. Yet, the quality of performance provided by a control system is determined bv the performance of the controller, and the other elements in the loop The controller, with its various adjustments, is the one element in the control loop that allows any measure of operating flexibility For optimum performance, it is necesaar. to use the controller properly This requires a thorough understanding of some fundamental relationships.
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Document ID: 4EC07F5D

Automated Gas Meter Proving
Author(s): J.-Bronner
Abstract/Introduction:
In late 1977, Pacific Gas and Electric Company opened its new meter repair plant. Several old shops were consolidated and major changes were made in the gas meter proving system. Our domestic meter removal program is based on statistical sampling of meter group performance, making prover accuracy an important factor. Prover accuracy has been improved by
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Document ID: 19807935

Overpressure Protection Part I Overpressure Protection Part II
Author(s): Milt Shannon Don Klempe
Abstract/Introduction:
The intent of this paper 1S to provide basic information for the requirement,, review the various methods and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each method of overpressure protection. Overpressure protection is very much part of design, construction opee ration and mmaaiinntteennaannccee oi It regulat Lon, )f measurement and regulation facilities. Wherever the failure of a primary pressure reduction device co.ld cause the pressure in the system downstream of it to exceed the maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) of the system, overpressure protection is required.
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Document ID: 22A5EFA8

Inking Systems And Charts
Author(s): B- D Csnhilly-
Abstract/Introduction:
When we speak of inking systems, weee combining both pens and inks. So were realyy investigagine the inter-reontionships of three s e p a r a t e items-cha,ts, pens and i n k s . The failure of any one will creaee a probeem for any of us who a r e responsiele for accuraee chart records and for the accounting people who will have to make the estimates when our efforts to provide a legible chart recodding f a i
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Document ID: 768CAC42

Inking Systems And Charts
Author(s): C. V. Bugarin
Abstract/Introduction:
The intent of this workshop is to examine some of the various components of a typical recorder and to discuss their operating functions and maintenance relating inking system and chart lications. to app DOOR GASKET - is used to aid in the control of abrupt changes in humidity and/or temperature inside the recorder. Inadequate door gasket in high humidity climates, causes excessive moisture absorbtion of the chart and ink reservoir
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Document ID: A637D4BF

Odorization-Methods And Equipment
Author(s): Hilton R, Lee
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will cover the requieemenss of gas odoriz a t i .n. Starting with the Federal Law requiring odorization, we will answer some questions such as: 1. What is added? 2. How is it added? 3. How much is added? 4. How do you determine proper odorization
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Document ID: 2504CE75

A Switch In Time Saves Measurement
Author(s): Herbert Clark Donald Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
With todays energy shortage problems and the growing need 1 more closely account for and control the use of natural gas, there is an increased requirement to extend the rangeability of many meter set assemblies (MSAs). This stems primarily from the necessity to accurately measure gas during prolonged periods of low flow during curtailment and to monitor the adherence to end use priority curtailment regulations
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Document ID: 594C60D4

Noise Control
Author(s): JamesAther-ton Terrance Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
Noise pollution is rapidly becoming the third greatest menace to the human environnient after air and water pollution. Since noise is a byproduct of energy conversion, there will be increasing noise as the demand for energy, for transportation, power, food and chemicals increases. Before a talk noise can be adequately handled, few definitions are in order.
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Document ID: EE82AC9D

New Concepts I Regulation
Author(s): Ed.Hanson
Abstract/Introduction:
For my portion of this workshop presentation, I would like to discuss the following new or relatively new regulators: 1. The Rockwell sleeve type regulator 2. The Rollseal regulator and pilot 3. The Fisher 1098 regulator 4. The Axial Flow regulator 5. The Reliance 1800 CP
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Document ID: 8156C710

New Concepts And Regulation
Author(s): GunarMeneks
Abstract/Introduction:
FISHER 1805P-167AR RELIEF VALVE PILOT-OPERATED Earlier this year our Company field-tested the Fisher 2 1805-3 and the 1805P-167AR pilot-operated relief valve. The purpose of our tests was to verify reliieef c-ap aci-t-i--e s a-n-d also see if the existing 2 1805-3 spring-loadedI relief shop . converted capacity pilotthis relief
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Document ID: D33C20D2

Complying With The Dot Codeinspections And Records Of Transmission And Distribution Systems
Author(s): Cesar Deleon
Abstract/Introduction:
The Federal gas pipeline safety standards are published as Title 49 CFR Part 192. These standards provide a minimun, level of safety for designing, constructing, testing, operating and maintaining gas pipeline systems. It is the operators responsibility to develop methods and procedures to achieve compliance with each of the regulations. It is incumbent upon the regulatory authorities to insure that the minimum standards are followed
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Document ID: FD647C9A

American Gas Association Distribution Measurement Committee Activities
Author(s): James C. Devore
Abstract/Introduction:
For those who may not be familiar with the organizational structure of the American Gas Association it might be worthwhile to take a few minutes to explain exactly where the Distribution Measurement Committee fits into the overall picture. The American Gas Association is composed of three sections along with various committees of the board. The three sections, the Operating Section, the Financial and Administrative Section, and the Marketing Section, are organized by divisions which, in turn, are made up of committees.
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Document ID: D5613665

How To Put A Meter In Its Place
Author(s): Herbert-C-3 Rif
Abstract/Introduction:
In dealing with meter selection one must remember that the parameters on which the selection will be based are hardly ever going to be exactly the same. Because of this, we must take into account all the possible variables that are present with each installation. This paper will cover the different types of meters available for different conditions the importance of load surveys and finally, the meter selection process once the conditions have been established.
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Document ID: 70505899

Structure And Current Projects Of The AGA Transmission Measurement Committee
Author(s): Jim Martin
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association Transmission Measurement Committee is a group of dedicated individuals with primary interest in providing the industry with all necessary technical guidance for commercial quality measurements, pressure and volume regulation and quality measurements of fuel gas in connection with Gas Production, Storage and Transmission Systems. The membership of the Measurement Committee is comprised of four separate classifications: Voting members, Manufacturers Advisors, Technical Associates and Special Task Group members.
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Document ID: F2C9BF88

General Discussion Of An LNG Transportation System From Producing Field To The Consumer
Author(s): William L. Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
Many natural gas reserves are located. great distances from the ulitmate user. In the early 1940s compression of natural gas to transmission line pressure reduced its volume 60 times making pipeline transport of natural gas economically feasible. In the 1960s with the decline of indigenous supplies of natural gas and rising energy prices, transporting natural gas great distances via ocean vessels became an economic reality
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Document ID: D3DCF619

Update On AGA Reports 3, 5, & 7
Author(s): J. L. Nartin
Abstract/Introduction:
Very seldom does one read a newspaper or listen to or watch a news broadcast today without encountering references to enerev .shor.t.a,ges. or consumer price increases The shortages have caused many new problems in the gas industry such as higher prices for the product increased use of costly storage facilities for peak load periods such as storage fields, liquid, natural gas plants, and propane air plants.
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Document ID: F51F1A5E

Basic Fundamentals Of Orifice Meter Measurement
Author(s): Ken Kendall
Abstract/Introduction:
One measures primarily quantity (Positive Displacement) the other measures primarily rate of flow (Inferential.) All Kid-meEf however, consist of two distinct parts, each of which has different functions to perform. The first is the primary element, which is in contanh the fluid, resulting in some form of interaction. This interaction may be that of imparting motion to the primary element the fluid may be accelerated etc The second or secondary element translates the interaction between fluid and primary element into volumes, weights or rates of flow and indicates
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Document ID: D1979E85

Diaphragm Meters-Fundamentals Installation, And Maintenance
Author(s): Wil Lints
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the founding of the first gas company more than . 160 years ago there have been many variations in positive displacement meter design Some of these meters were nevef produced, some have become obsolete and others are being manufactured today in ever increasing numbers Since the development of the first diaghragm meter more than 140 years ago, outward appearances and materials have changed however the same basic principle of operation remains
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Document ID: 76A819E3

Wheel Of Fortune-Turbine Neters
Author(s): Jim Call
Abstract/Introduction:
Basically the turbine type meter is a vane rotor installed in a stream of flowing gas. The velocity of the gas flow puts a force on the vanes of the rotor and turns it at a speed proportional to the velocity of the gas flow. The turning of the rotor shaft is put through a gear train and transferred up to an index or a correcting device usually through a magnetic ccoouupplliinngg ss ystem avoid twhich leak around the shaft.)
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Document ID: 148F2AB5

Mechanical Correcting Devices - Fundamentals, Installation & Maintenance
Author(s): Jim Axelton
Abstract/Introduction:
Correcting devices correct volumes to Standard Cubic Feet at a specific metering location . incorporating pressure and/or temperature into the read. There are many different styles of these devices on the market, but Im going to discuss the three different models that we use mostly in our system. They are the Mercor III by Mercury Instrument, the Base Pressure Index (BPI) and Base Volume Index continuous integrator (BVI-CI) by American Meter
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Document ID: 9E3C0AFF

Instrument Maintenance - Shop
Author(s): G-.- Moore
Abstract/Introduction:
All instruments are field calibrated every six to nine months by our field meter and regulator personnel Any pressure compensating indexes found with an error in excess of 4% at the normal operating pressure are changed out regardless of date set. In addition, we have a change out program as follows
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Document ID: 3CEB2EBF


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