Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (1979)

Download collection of documents about ISHM 1979 including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, etc.


International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Relief Valves
Author(s): Gary B. Emerson
Abstract/Introduction:
STOPPING PRODUCT LOSS THROUGH SAFETY RELIEF VALVES A safety relief valve is an essential and important piece of equipment on virtually any pressured system. Required by the ASME-UPV Code, among others, it must be carefully sized to pass the maximum flow produced by emergency conditions. After it is installed the user hopes that it will never have to operate, which makes the safety relief valve rather unique as compared to other types of process equipment. This article discusses a few of the ways in which product is lost through these valves, and offers some suggestions for reducing or eliminating these losses.
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Document ID: EA6C85CB

Design Of Metering Systems For Tanker Offloading
Author(s): Richard E. Wells
Abstract/Introduction:
A tanker t h a t is c l a s s i f i e d as a ULCC, U l t ra Large Crude C a r r i e r , has a c a p a c i t y equal to approximately 510,000 tons of crude o i l . This corresponds to 3.3 m i l l i o n b a r r e l s of o i l . The average s e l l i n g p r i c e of crude in January, 1979, was 12 per b a r r e l and, t h e r e f o r e , the amount of money is approximately 39 m i l l i o n.
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Document ID: 9EF7F7A9

The Energy Industrys Transition To Metric
Author(s): Don L. Verdiani
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1972, Sun Oil Company (now Sun Company, Inc.) began a program of metric awareness to insure that it would not be left behind as the United States joined the rest of the world in using the metric system. The corner stone of the program was this statement, issued in early 1974:
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Document ID: 25DFA019

Elements Of Gas Contracts
Author(s): James E. Stoic
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will review the elements of gas contracts as seen through the eyes of a Gas Buyer for an interstate pipeline. There are certain variations between interstate and intrastate gas contracts as well as certain differences between the contracts of different interstate gas pipelines. Regardless of these differences, certain basic subject matter must be addressed in all gas contracts.
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Document ID: B9852C6E

Refrigerated LNG Measurement
Author(s): Lee R. Jamison
Abstract/Introduction:
The transport and storage of large bulk quantities of Refrigerated Liquefied Natural Gas is now a very common practice. Present standards for the measurement of petroleum products are either not applicable or are inadequate for products at cryogenic temperatures. Accuracy is essential in all the factors involved in LNG Measurement. The accepted technology in 1978 requires the use of static measurement procedures for all bulk LNG transfers excepting truck load quantities which are determined by weight. This presentation covers those procedures of static measurement applicable to cryogenic liquid, which result in an ultimate expression of the Refrigerated LNG as Btus of Energy
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Document ID: ED3455E4

Mass Measurement Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): Bill R. Caffey
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the beginning of recorded history, one of the main means of measurement has been by weight. A pound of material anywhere in the world is for all practical purposes, a pound anywhere else in the world. Using this basic assumption, mass measurement of liquified petroleum gases has come to the forefront of the measurement process.
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Document ID: DF4F9B5B

Installation And Operation Of Densitometers
Author(s): James Bozeman
Abstract/Introduction:
The direct measurement of a fluids flowing density has many Important advantages it can offer in flow measurement. The volumetric measurement of fluids in the liquid state requires that the flowing product be related to an equivalent unit volume of H2O at a base temperature of say 60F. This is a commonly accepted practice due to the universal acceptance of water as a reference. In order to establish the relationship of the metered liquid at flowing condition to a unit volume of water at say another pressure and temperature, it is a must to know the density or specific gravity of the metered fluid. With many liquids this flowing density is not predictable and therefore must be measured by some means. The accurate volumetric metering of a fluid in the vaporous or gaseous state also requires some knowledge of the products density at flowing conditions as it passes through or around the primary flow element. In the case of orifice metering of a gas, it is very necessary to compensate somehow in the flow equation for the difference between (1) the density of the fluid which the discharge coefficient (or basic orifice factor) is based upon, and (2) the actual density of the metered gas passing the orifice. This is commonly done via specific gravity (air 1.000), supercompressibility and pressure/temperature correction factors. Sometimes it becomes extremely difficult to accurately compensate for these critical factors when the flowing conditions are in a varying, changing state. Therefore, an on-stream density analyzer or transducer becomes a very logical tool to the measurement man seeking accuracy.
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Document ID: 1180D98D

Monitoring Daily Demand Of Gas Volumes
Author(s): C. R. Saunders
Abstract/Introduction:
Monitoring the daily demand of gas volumes on Southern Unions System in this paper will be limited to the monitoring of the stations being served by El Paso Natural Gas Company (EPNG), the interstate supplier, from which Southern Union purchases the majority of gas for its customers in the City of El Paso, Texas and environs, the portion of Arizona served by Southern Union, and several communities in the State of New Mexico. These stations represent more than seventy different delivery points to Southern Union.
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Document ID: 67F8C0C3

Electronic Chart Scanning And Related Equipment
Author(s): Conway T. Sinclair
Abstract/Introduction:
The Electroscanner, as pictured in Figure 1, consists of two scan stations with an associated digital computer housed in one of the station cabinets. A different scan station is required for the integration of each type chart, i.e., American, Foxboro, or Rockwell. The instrument shown here will scan American or Foxboro charts. Temperature and gravity charts may also be scanned. The unit to be used at a given time may be selected by the operator. A front panel switch is provided for the selection.
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Document ID: 17FFC5C3

Proving Domestic Meters
Author(s): Douglas Dolinar
Abstract/Introduction:
American Meters facility in Nebraska City, Nebraska, manufactures and assembles domestic size meters. The meters manufactured at this location have capacities ranging from 75 CFH to 425 CFH and are proved in a room specifically equipped for proving domestic size meters.
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Document ID: 12365FDF

Sprague Pressure Pulse Automatic Provers For Gas Meters
Author(s): George C. Hughes Sprague Textron South Avenue Bridgeport, Conn.
Abstract/Introduction:
The Sprague Pressure Pulse Prover is a new approach to automatic meter proving that represents a significant improvement in proving speed, versatility and reliability. Extensive testing of both 4 chamber and 3 chamber gas meters has shown that the differential pressure absorbed to operate gas meters has a fixed wave form for each particular meter. Additionally it has been demonstrated that this wave form is extremely repeatable from one cycle of the meter mechanism to the next. This information led to the development of the pressure pulse prover which utilizes the differential pressure pattern of any particular meter to control the operation of the pressure pulse automatic prover. Many unique features are provided by this latest type automatic prove
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Document ID: 25851A09

Fundamental Principles Of Displacement Gas Meters
Author(s): Wilbur W. Lints
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the founding of the first gas company more than 160 years ago, there has been many variations in positive displacement meter design. Some of these meters were never produced for one reason or another, some have become obsolete, and others are being manufactured today in ever increasing numbers
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Document ID: 279ED076

Trouble Shooting In Metameter Telemetering Systems
Author(s): Wm. T. A. Caraway
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is concerned with trouble-shooting Pulse duration telemetering equipment. Initially a definition of telemetering is in order. Simple definitions simply state telemetering is remote measurement or telemetering is measurement at a distance.
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Document ID: 959430EC

Calibration Of Storage Tanks
Author(s): F. R. Conway
Abstract/Introduction:
Tank Calibration is commonly referred to as Tank Strapping. Tank strapping was originally the work of placing metal straps around wooden containers this was generally before the Petroleum Industry came into being. The wooden containers most commonly used were for liquor or Whale Oil.
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Document ID: 60891680

System Of Transfer Proving
Author(s): Gary L. Hanson
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for an accurate, reliable, and portable field transfer testing system has resulted from the growth of the gas industry. The growth has brought about the desire for better methods of field testing meters.
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Document ID: 174E10EF

Flow Measurement By Vortex Shedding Meters
Author(s): G. L. Williamson
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate, low-cost flow measurement has long been a vision of almost everyone associated with the hydrocarbon processing industry. Flow measurement affects many decisions made in ordinary plant operation - from the process engineer who depends on accuracy for material and energy balances to improve the productivity of his operation to the manager, who is not only concerned about the capital cost associated with flow measurement, but also the continued maintenance costs. A significant step has been taken in bridging the gap between economy and accuracy with the introduction of the vortex flowmeter.
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Document ID: 39459CC7

Sonic Nozzles For Gas Meter Calibration
Author(s): Richard J. Golfer
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the years, gas meter development has been extended to much broader ranges than was possible in the early twentieth century. This is especially true with regard to measurement at high pressures and higher flow rates. This development necessitated a secondary flow standard to work with natural gas flow meters.
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Document ID: 3CD205AC

Design Of Distribution Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Richard m. Nicholson
Abstract/Introduction:
Distribution metering and regulating stations can be of any size and capacity from the small domestic house meter to a large industrial plant. Proper design of metering and regulating stations is essential to attain accurate measurement at minimum cost, to allow for future expansion, and to meet all standards of safety which may apply. To accomplish this, the engineer or designer must have available to him full information as to the requirements of the facility, the system from which it is served, and the various types of meters, regulators, safety devices, and associated equipment available for use.
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Document ID: FADB7607

What The Office Group Expects From The Field Group
Author(s): Frank Douglass
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry has continued to play a major role in delivering energy to industrial and domestic consumers in the United States. During 1977 the gas industry supplied 25% of the total consumption of energy, 19.5 trillion cubic feet. Measurement and accounting functions have played a vital part in the purchase and sale of this great natural resource. In order to effectively accomplish this, the measurement office and field office must work together for a common goal, accurate measurement. Just as the field meter inspector relies on the office group for leadership, the office groups efficiency depends on how well the field group carries out their activities.
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Document ID: 6342B55A

Measuring Station Inspection Program And Guide
Author(s): D. R. Hurd
Abstract/Introduction:
A detailed and workable inspection program is a must if we are to expect accurate and dependable service from our measuring stations. The need for such a program is not new. However due to more sophisticated equipment, safety practices and governmental laws, we find that a measuring station inspection program suitable a few years ago will no longer meet the needs of today
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Document ID: B34593CA

Onshore And Offshore Meter Design For Natural Gas
Author(s): E. m. Deak
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America utilizes many forms of engineering to provide gas to 49 Midwest utilities including the two distribution companies in the system: the Peoples Gas Light and Coke Company, which serves Chicago, and North Shore Gas company, which serves a 275 square mile area of Northeastern Illinois. We have supported domestic exploration programs designed to find and develop new reserves of gas from conventional sources. NGPL is now taking gas deliveries through the recently completed Stingray pipeline offshore Louisiana, and soon will be taking gas deliveries through the new H.I.O.S. (High Island Offshore Systems) and UTOS (U-T Offshore System) pipeline offshore Texas. The Stingray system traverses some 120,000 acres containing more than one trillion cubic feet of proven gas reserves. NGPL has joined other energy firms in plans to construct a pipeline to tap the vast natural gas reserves in Alaska and Northwest Canada. NGPL has 56 compressor stations, 8 underground storage sites and 3,043 meters located in their respective meter stations.
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Document ID: AA4F81FB

Operation And Maintenance Of Catalytic Heaters
Author(s): Sam Ashley
Abstract/Introduction:
Since early in the 1960s catalytic heaters have been available to the oil and gas industry. In the beginning only a few companies would try to apply a gas heater that operated without a flame to overcome some of the many problems encountered in the production, transmission and distribution of natural gas. After nearly fifteen (15) years the flameless catalytic heater has become recognized as a standard with measurement personnel, along with the many other conventional methods of feeeze-up protection.
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Document ID: D778A6D8

Instrument Calibration Using The Pneumatic Deadweight Tester
Author(s): Bob Pitre
Abstract/Introduction:
The pneumatic deadweight tester was developed 23 years ago for calibration of low pressure instruments. Through the years the tester has undergone many refinements that have increased its range capabilities. Pneumatic testers are now capable of calibrating instruments that range from 4 inches of water pressure to 1000 PSIG. For demonstration purposes, a tester with a range of 4 inches of water pressure to 30 PSIG will be later used to show how the pneumatic tester is used in instrument calibration.
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Document ID: 71866C91

Fundamental Principles Of Orifice Flowmeters
Author(s): L. E. Grosshans
Abstract/Introduction:
Most people in industry are familiar with the term orifice flowmeter. It is classified as a flow measurement device, along with turbine flowmeters, positive (PD) flowmeters, and others. It is the most commonly used method of flow measurement. Many liquid flows and the great majority of gas flows are presently measured using the orifice flowmeter.
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Document ID: 3F41CD7F

Flow Measurement With Insertion Turbine Meters
Author(s): Bert O. Powell
Abstract/Introduction:
Insertion turbine meters offer most of the desirable features associated with conventional full bore turbine meters. They have wide rangeability, excellent repeatibility, and sensitivity, and an early interfaced pulse output which is linear over a wide range with respect to flow. They also share common features with other insertion type meters, such as negligible pressure drop, relatively low cost, and ease of installation.
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Document ID: 17593F0B

Diaphragm Meter Capacity Ratings At Elevated Pressures
Author(s): Howard W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
Diaphragm displacement meter cases or bodies are manufactured of various materials to accommodate their application and metering pressures which range from a few inches of water column to several hundred psig.
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Document ID: 023C36FA

Procedures For Manual Chart Calculation
Author(s): Wilda L. Ryvers
Abstract/Introduction:
Chart calculation on a day to day basis is really very much a function of the capability of the people who operate these systems. Care and concern is required, beginning in the field and carried through into the office in order to achieve a long term record of satisfactory performance. The world we live in is becoming machine oriented and procedural, but these machines and procedures are still dependent upon human concern. We must not overlook this critical factor. This human element is very important beginning with the men in the field who operate and maintain the instruments the operational people who control the flow variables the chart changers and the chart handlers who get the charts into the office and the many people who work there converting these instrument records into billing records.
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Document ID: 915A1A81

Principles. Application And Sizing Of Monitor Regulators
Author(s): Donald A. Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
Monitor regulation as an overpressure safety device has been around for many y e a r s . However since the Department of Transportation, Office of Pipeline Safety was given the authority to prescribe and enforce safety standards back, in 1968, the use of monitor regulators has increased dramatically throughout the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: 0871EC1F

Determination Of Water Vapor Content And Hydrocarbon Dew Point In Natural Gas
Author(s): Douglas E. Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
The determination of water vapor content and hydrocarbon dew point in natural gas is of major importance for the maintenance of quality control between gas supply points and ultimate end use. The following discussion will cover those methods used by the natural gas transmission industry for the determination of water vapor and hydrocarbon dew poin
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Document ID: B0C48552

Freeze-Up Prevention
Author(s): Lester S. Price
Abstract/Introduction:
Freezing in measurement and pressure regulating equipment is a problem faced in virtually all phases of the gas industry, from the well head to the low pressure town plant systems. The degree of the problems will depend on the amount of pressure reduction, quantity of water, and hydrocarbons in the gas being regulated or measured. Freezing in pressure regulators and measurement equipment may occur when the. atmospheric temperature is well above 32 if hydrocarbons and water are present in the gas stream. The first form of freezing will appear like packed snow and progress to form solid ice as the temperature lowers. The problems most frequently occur during peak winter flow operations when our systems are required to function under adverse conditions.
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Document ID: CFE43658

Test Instruments For Pressure And Water Vapor
Author(s): A. W. Chandler
Abstract/Introduction:
Volume measurement of natural gas at high pressure is principally accomplished by means of orifice type flow meters. Converting orifice meter readings to low pressure volumes requires exact knowledge of pressure and supercompressibility.
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Document ID: 7C0595D6

Test Instruments And Recorders For Specific Gravity
Author(s): A. R. Kahmann
Abstract/Introduction:
Computation of natural gas flow volume, when measured by orifice meter, is made by using the formula
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Document ID: EA35754D

The Use Of Density Meters And Microprocessors For Energy Measurement And Control
Author(s): J.Agar, B.W. Balls
Abstract/Introduction:
ANSI/API 25301 shows how natural gas volume and weight flow rates may be calculated from pressure losses across in-line orifice plates. AGA Report No. 52 uses these equations and known relationships between specific gravity and calorific value, to calculate energy flows. Both publications point to weight flow as the simplest and most direct approach, and indicate wider use for the natural gas equations. This paper discusses the advantages of density measurement and shows how a single, in-line density meter may be used with an easily-programmed microprocessor to provide rapid, reliable, low-cost, on-line solutions to the flow and energy equations, without the need for specific gravity meters and calorimeters. Similar techniques enable computation of calorific values - a so-called flameless calorimeter and feed-forward control of fuel supplies for steam generation, process furnaces etc., thereby improving combustion and process efficiencies and promoting energy savings. These techniques increase in value as fuel costs rise and as industry is forced to use more variable gas supplies,
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Document ID: 1DE19C5B

Methods Of Field Testing Large Displacement Meters
Author(s): Jim Juckes
Abstract/Introduction:
you bhaZJL not have. in youn bag two kind* oh wei.ght6, a lange. and a itnatt. you ihoJUl not have. In youn houte. two kindi, oi me.aiunu, a lange. and a maJUL. A hull and juAt weight you ihall have. that youn dayi, may be pnolonge.d in the. Zand which the Lond youn God give* you. Ton. alt who do iuch thingi, att who act dishonestly, one. an abomination to the Lond youn. God.
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Document ID: C41FB783

Methods Of Field Testing Large Capacity Meters Critical( Flow Method
Author(s): Albert C. Selman
Abstract/Introduction:
Field testing of large capacity meters offers a convenient and economical method of assuring correct measurement. There are several methods of field testing large capacity meters this paper will cover the critical flow proving method. There are differences of opinion as to which is the most accurate method to use. Each method will have its own advantages and disadvantages. One of the advantages of the critical flow proving is that the test is made at the actual operating conditions. This writer has experienced shift of proof of the meter at elevated pressures
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Document ID: F2F1BE47

Methods Of Field Testing Large Displacement Meters
Author(s): m. J. Graem
Abstract/Introduction:
The Meter I n s p e c t i o n Section at Lone Star Gas Company has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of maintaining a c c u r a t e measurement of approximately 8,000 Large Capacity Meters and t h e i r r e l a t e d instruments in c i t i e s and towns in our D i s t r i b u t i o n System. This i s accomplished by eight Meter I n s p e c t o r s located in d i f f e r e n t areas throughout our System. Each I n s p e c t o r has an assigned area artd an a l l o t ed number of meters to t e s t and maintain. The number of meters they have is dependent upon the geographic s i z e of t h e i r t e r r i t o r y and ranges from 850 to 1,100 per I n s p e c t o r.
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Document ID: 4831F6F7

Prover Accuracy & Sample Testing Relative To Meter Proof Specifications
Author(s): N. W. Bruening
Abstract/Introduction:
The proof is a very important characteristic for the acceptance of a new domestic gas meter shipment. Its obvious why the meter proof receives primary attention in a meter shop as this represents the cash register to the gas com
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Document ID: 3D35142F

Odorization
Author(s): Edward Huntley
Abstract/Introduction:
High on the priority list of every gas system operator is the concern for their customers and the general publics safety. Odorant is added to natural gas to act as a warning device to make people aware of any real or potential hazard, and each company strives to maintain an adequate odorization level in their gas systems. However, desire and ability are no longer sufficient criteria for the operator to say Im doing a good and/or acceptable job in natural gas odorization. What we are required to add today are TESTS and DOCUMENTATION or if you will Odorization Monitoring.
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Document ID: 8B8DF433

Chemical Factors In Selection Of Gas Odorant Constituents
Author(s): A. D. Nevers
Abstract/Introduction:
In the history of gas odorization, attention was initially paid to available odorant materials which were considered to have the best chance of imparting a noticeable and characteristic odor to gas. It was only natural, therefore, that amyl mercaptans and, later, mercaptans derived from petroleum were given the first consideration because these materials did meet primary requirements of availability combined with intense odor and recognizable odor characteristics. These same requirements still apply today as primary requirements for gas odorants, and it is hardly necessary to emphasize that strong smelling odors and odors which appear to possess a smell indicative of gas are of predominant interest before considering other chemical or physical properties of an odorant or its constituents.
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Document ID: DD782A8D

Gas Odorization: An Introduction With Hints For Safe Handling
Author(s): John D. Taylor
Abstract/Introduction:
The odorization of natural gas is becoming an increasingly established practice throughout the United States. Today, both distribution and transmission companies are required to odorize by government mandate a larger percentage or all of their gas lines. As more laws are legislated and rigid guidelines enforced by state and federal agencies, it becomes exceedingly important for us to stay abreast of regulations and guidelines to insure both safety and economy.
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Document ID: A124175A

Operation Of Orifice Meter Chart Integrators
Author(s): Marlin E. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Calculation of the chart record is necessary to the world of gas measurement. There is no other area of measurement that qualifies quite as well as the Integrator. It computes and multiplies the instantaneous square root values of the product of two variables-differential and absolute statis pressure . This method is much more accurate and easier than using radical or square root planimeters.
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Document ID: 1A82C6EA

Design And Operation Of The Seaway Pipeline Measurement System
Author(s): J. J. Bigby
Abstract/Introduction:
Seaway Pipeline, Inc. off-loads crude oil from tankers at its docks in Freeport, Texas, stores the crude in eight storage tanks at the Freeport Terminal (eight miles from the docks), pumps the crude through a 30 pipeline 500 miles north to the Cushing, Oklahoma Terminal into nine storage tanks. From tankage the oil is delivered into the pipelines of various partners and other shippers. The docks were designed to handle tankers with off-loading rates of up to 40,000 barrels per hour. The pipelines initial capacity is 368,000 barrels per day with an ultimate flow of 592,000 barrels per day. The objectives of the measurement facilities installed at three locations were accuracy, automatic ticket production, automatic meter proving and data gathering.
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Document ID: 95B1BF1F

Liquid Prover Calibration
Author(s): Carl Green, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Fluid measurement is normally done under flowing conditions using a meter. Since a meters output can change (from debris, mechanical wear, etc.) reverification of its readout should be checked periodically against an accepted standard. The standard for verifying meter throughput is to check it against a known-volume. This known-volume check of a meter is called proving and over the years many different devices have been used as provers (master meters, weigh tanks, tank gauging, etc.). The now, or soon to be, most common device for proving which offers a faster, less troublesome, less expensive, and more accurate means of proving is the Mechanical Displacement Prover. A prover allows proving a meter under actual operating conditions (flow rate, temperature, pressure, etc.) with the actual operating fluid at the time of actual operation and eliminates any question of meter performance by using some fluid to prove a meter when it is used on anothe
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Document ID: 308A24EA

Fundamentals Of Bellows-Type Orifice Meters
Author(s): m. J. Sergesketter
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to control and direct the flow of water was recognized at a very early stage in the development of civilization. In Europe and Asia can be seen the relics of hydraulic works, some of great antiquity, which display a high degree of engineering accomplishment, the best known of which are the aqueducts, which the Romans built to bring water to their cities. In the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum can be still seen lead piping, which conveyed water to houses and gardens, and which included orifice plates to act as flow limiting devices, providing a basis on which the service was charged to the consumer. These were installed almost 2,000 years ago. Some of these techniques were introduced to North America by engineers, who accompanied the Spanish missionaries and whose work can still be seen at some of the missions in California.
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Document ID: 1B2BB985

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Ray Forbes
Abstract/Introduction:
In the field of natural gas measurement, the term primary element generally refers to the orifice plate, the orifice plate holding device, and the adjacent piping or meter tube. The single most important item of the primary device is the orifice plate, since it is the orifice plate which creates the differential pressure within a flowing medium. The measurement of a pressure differential, along with certain other data, permits one to compute the rate of flow on the basis of well established physical principles. Frequent inspection of the orifice plate is necessary in some types of service to insure that it is in proper condition to meter accurately, i.e., it is flat and clean and the inlet edge of the orifice bore is still sharp, square and free from nicks or other damag
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Document ID: 0AA781D8

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Ed Pringle
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to the continually increasing cost of hydrocarbon products, both liquid and gas, there is a growing concern for accurate measurement. In many applications this begins with a signal from the primary element, consisting of the Orifice Fitting, Orifice Plate and Meter Tube.
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Document ID: C23CFEE2

Orifice Meters - Operation And Maintenance
Author(s): C. A. Lambert
Abstract/Introduction:
In the presentation of this paper, we will cover the operation and maintenance of orifice meters which is necessary to give the accuracy we must have in our measurement today. In addition to the orifice meter, we will discuss the related equipment, meter tubes, orifice plates, temperature recorders, etc., that play such an important role in providing the accuracy we require.
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Document ID: 2AFDA0DF

Bellows-Type Orifice Meters
Author(s): Giles m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
The bellows-type differential gauge has found widespread application and increasing popularity in orifice metering. Its operation does not require mercury nor critical leveling for operation. The rapid response and high output torque make the bellows meter particularly adaptable to integrating and controlling devices. The meter is generally not affected by condensed liquid in the measuring system. The self-draining feature along with proper installation makes it very adaptable to wet gas measurement.
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Document ID: 7CDF12D6

Inverted Orifice Meters
Author(s): C. E. Crawford
Abstract/Introduction:
With the concurrent increased value of natural gas and operations cost, the importance of better and more efficient measurement practices has become stringently pronounced. The use of the reverse scale orifice meter accommodates solution for achievement of rigorous standards.
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Document ID: 67E5AB7E

Large Capacity Displacement Gas Meters
Author(s): John L. Esola
Abstract/Introduction:
The term Large Capacity Displacement Meters, as used by the gas distribution industry, refers to those diaphragm type meters with a capacity of 500 to 10 or 11,000 cfh of 0.64 specific gravity natural gas at a maximum of 4 ounces inlet pressure with no more than two inches water column differential pressure between the meter inlet and outlet at capacity flow. It also refers to rotary meters which also operate on the positive displacement principle.
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Document ID: D8A74FB4

Operation And Maintenance Of Single Bellows Meters
Author(s): m. D. Beall
Abstract/Introduction:
The Bellows orifice meter was developed to replace the Mercury meter which has been the industry standard for measuring differential pressure generated across an orifice restriction. Bellows orifice meters produced today are of two types: a liquid filled dual bellows system and the single no fill bellows system. Each of the two available types, although similar in theory are different slightly in design, construction, and operation. We will deal in this paper with the Single no fill bellows type meter.
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Document ID: 9CA0D8ED

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
During the last decade the gas turbine meter has become established as a very useful instrument for the measurement and control of gas flow. This paper will present a summary of the principles of operation, the basic construction and the performance characteristics of the gas turbine meter
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Document ID: 6340FF20

Large Volume Measurement By Turbine And Rotary Meters
Author(s): Milton H. Craven
Abstract/Introduction:
Volume measurement of gas by turbine and rotary type gas meters is becoming increasingly important. Each type meter has its own characteristics and each offers distinct advantages in the production, transmission and distribution segments of the gas industryo With the value of gas increasing significantly, more attention is being given to accurate measurement at the point of sale and quite often, depending on the flow rates, either turbine or rotary meters best fit the need. In production measurement the turbine and rotary meter are used in custody transfer, well testing, compressor fuel and in other field accounting applications. In the transmission segment these same meters are used for custody transfer of gas volumes as well as for internal accounting of gas usage such as compressor fuel consumption. In distribution measurement turbine and rotary meters are used for large volume sales to industrial and commercial type accounts.
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Document ID: 662FEBDD

Field Experience With Turbine Meters
Author(s): Norman B. Lansverk
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas has become an extremely valuable fuel. Not too many years ago this perfect fuel was thought to be useless or in the way and was therefore flared or literally given away. Now we find ourselves with shortages, heavy curtailments, and a product wanted by many at any reasonable price. Knowing this, it is easy to see that the measurement of this lighter than air, colorless, sometimes odorless gas must be accurate, reliable, and repeatable.
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Document ID: 880F6AD2

Gas Turbine Meter And Continuous Integrator
Author(s): Richard J. Golfer
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of gas turbine meters in the fuel gas industry for production, transmission and distribution is rapidly increasing. Turbine meters also have wide acceptance in many industrial gas applications. They offer high capacity and wide rangeability, combined with compact size and light weight. Also, they have quick response and are easily maintained.
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Document ID: F5595C24

Installation, Operati And Maintenance Of Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): Richard L. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic chart changers have been available to users of circular charts since 1958. The first commercial installations of the Dial-O-Graph automatic chart changers recorded occurred in early 1959. To date, there have been over 26,000, of this brand manufactured. Some transmission companies have purchased well over 2,000, automatic chart changers.
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Document ID: DFAF37E0

Installation, Operation And Maintenance Of Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): Robert E. Martin
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic chart changers were developed for the specific purpose of changing circular charts at fixed time intervals, consistent with each 360 of chart rotation. This is accomplished by having a supply of standard charts stored on a chart plate which will release the topmost chart at a predetermined time period.
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Document ID: 1190249D

Installation, Operation And Maintenance Of Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): L. E. Reynolds
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic Chart Changers were developed for the specific purpose of saving time and money by changing charts when there was no one present but by no means should they eliminate company meter technicians or their chart grabber personnel. These people will always be needed to check the calibration and performance of the meter as well as collect the charts, monitor them for any unusual record and forward them to the chart processing/ accounting office at the end of the month.
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Document ID: 5596C385

Charts, Pens, And Inks
Author(s): Bruce J. Caldwell
Abstract/Introduction:
While all measurement personnel may possibly claim familiarity with charts, pens, and inks, not all are familiar with their relationship each to the other.
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Document ID: 3611BC80

Maintaining An Electroscanner And An Analyzer
Author(s): Thomas Y. Tramel
Abstract/Introduction:
short time after integrated circuits were available to the industrial market, we at UGCI redesigned our proven Electroscanner. Incorporating integrated circuits into our computer, in addition to other changes, has made possible a much more accurate and reliable Electroscanner system. This change in computing circuitry also eliminated much of the maintenance necessary to keep the Electroscanner functioning properly.
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Document ID: B9ECFD4F

Domestic Meters
Author(s): Donald H. Knapp
Abstract/Introduction:
The definition of a domestic meter is a meter having a capacity of 500 CFH or less. CONSTRUCTION Formerly these units were offered in a variety of case materials. Probably the most common of these were tinned steelcase commonly referred to as Tin Meters. These low pressure, handmade meters are accurate, the high cost of manufacture and repair, pressure limitations, lack of corrosion resistance and susceptibility to pipe stress made these units obsolete
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Document ID: 3B848AF7

Instruments For Leakage Detection
Author(s): Andre J. Massicott
Abstract/Introduction:
Key factors involved in selecting the proper instrument for the detection of combustible gases involves several decisions. These include definition of problem areas, economic limitations, a review of principles to be used and the choice of the best instrumentation available. We must engineer, supervise and check out the instrument installation. Supervision of the use of the equipment must include the training of all personnel in their respective areas. Equally important is the establishment of routine maintenance and calibration schedules including the maintenance of a written log on these schedules. Attention to establishing the guidelines noted above will prepare us to better meet our industry safety objectives and at the same time help us to comply with state and federal codes.
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Document ID: BAEA522A

Stealing Gas: A Growing Problem
Author(s): Raymond J. Crawford
Abstract/Introduction:
When the first gas company began in Baltimore, Maryland in 1817, gas was not measured. Customers were billed on a flat rate basis for a given number of gas lights when used for a reasonable number of hours per day. There was no incentive for the customer to conserve gas because of the flat rate and many left their lights burning during daylight hours.
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Document ID: B2C62991

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted-For Gas-Distribution
Author(s): R.F. Clark
Abstract/Introduction:
Unaccounted-for gas in a distribution system is the difference between the amount of gas purchased and the amount of gas sold or otherwise accounted for.
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Document ID: 41F0FB2E

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted For Gas
Author(s): Joseph D. Tannehill
Abstract/Introduction:
For reasons of safety, profits and conservation of natural resources, the gas industry has always shown a keen concern over leakage and unaccounted for gas.
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Document ID: F9C86DA4

Fundamental Principles Of Regulators
Author(s): Paul Adams
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside, and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a tendency to take them for granted. Even the gas man who handles regulators every day as part of his job frequently tends to view the regulator as simply a piece of hardware which fits in the line and regulates pressure. The fact that it will do precisely that, for months on end without human intervention, makes it easy to maintain such a view. Its only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application that we need to look more deeply into the fundamentals of the regulators operation.
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Document ID: 98D53D8B

Application, Maintenance, And Inspection Of District Regulators
Author(s): John H. Poole
Abstract/Introduction:
Requirements for Maintenance A definite inspection and repair program for regulators is the best way to insure safe gas operation and minimum service problems caused by erratic conditions. The size and load characteristics of a regulator determine the amount of inspection and care which should be given to the regulator.
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Document ID: 0EF22F13

Selection, Operation And Maintenance Of Regulators
Author(s): L. E. Gelnett
Abstract/Introduction:
Extended trouble free operation of a regulator installation can only occur if initial equipment selection is properly made, and that equipment properly maintained. Proper regulator selection is a process of analyzing the system requirements and then selecting the type and size of regulator or regulators to satisfy these requirements.
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Document ID: BF6485A1

High And Low Pressure Gas Regulators
Author(s): B. R. Elkins
Abstract/Introduction:
This topic covers a very broad area since it includes all regulators used in the gas industry. Every regulator is either high or low pressure depending upon the definition of high and low pressure. Section 192.3 of the dot code covers definitions. This section defines a low pressure distribution system as one in which the pressure in the main is substantially the same as the pressure provided the user. This simply means that there is no regulator needed between the main and the user. Generally speaking, this pressure is usually PSIG thus, for conveniencehere, a low pressure regulator will be defined as one delivering an outlet pressure at 1 PSIG or less.
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Document ID: 5FE851F6

Large Capacity Gas Regulators
Author(s): J. m. Kruse
Abstract/Introduction:
The definition of a large capacity regulator is often difficult to formalize. There are many types of regulators which could be classified as large capacity. This discussion will be concerned with the conventional double ported regulator. The double ported balanced valve regulator is probably the most commonly used style of regulator labeled as large capacity. The large capacity is also often classified as high pressure due to the function of the restriction. The restricting element Is positioned by an operator to permit equal flow into and out of the downstream system. The capacity of a restrictor is a function of the pressure differential across that restriction, therefore, the higher the pressure differential across the restrictor the greater the capacity for a given size restriction. The capacity will increase until sonic flow occurs. Sonic flow is the point at which the gas velocity reaches the speed of sound, and occurs when the outlet pressure absolute Is approximately half the inlet pressure absolute.
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Document ID: E4B7C759

Pressure Regulation And Flow Control With Expansible Tube Type Valves
Author(s): Milton H. Craven
Abstract/Introduction:
The Grove Flexflo is a valve of unique design. The operating member is an expansible tube. This tube is stretched over a cylindrical metal core having a series of longitudinal slots at each end, with a separating barrier between. Action of the expansible tube is determined by control of the differential pressure across it. In its operation the Flexflo valve resembles a diaphragm motor valve with the expansible tube acting as both diaphragm and inner valve. The tube is made from a Grove formulated synthetic elastomer especially compounded to assure a high degree of tear and abrasion resistance, flexbility and strength.
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Document ID: BED9919C

Domestic Meters
Author(s): George S. Cassimus
Abstract/Introduction:
Before entering into a discussion of domestic meters, it is interesting to note some of the statistics associated with these units. Today, of all the meters in the United States, 92% are of the domestic type. Through these meters pass only 32% of the total amount of gas sold, but they account for 52% of the revenue dollar received by gas utilities. Putting this in numbers, about 38 million meters are cash registers for approximately 5 billion in revenues or about 132 per year each. To say that the domestic gas meter is an important measuring device is really the understatement of the year.
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Document ID: 75D44083

High Pressure Farm Taps And Service Regulators
Author(s): Bill George
Abstract/Introduction:
High Pressure Farm Tap Regulators and the low pressure service regulator are the most basic and numerically the most common regulators utilized in the gas industry. They are simple, reliable, low in cost, easy to install and require practically no maintenance. Both the high pressure farm tap and the low pressure service regulators share many similar construction features spring and diaphragm, boost effect, single soft seat, mechanical advantage (lever arm) between valve and diaphragm. Despite the relative simplicity of this class of regulator, countless engineering hours have been spent on its development and refinement. Most of this work has been spent in the low pressure version-the service regulator.
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Document ID: 05CD0941

Operation And Maintenance Of Rubber Plug Type Control Valves
Author(s): Mack Jacobs
Abstract/Introduction:
An urgent need existed for a gas control valve that could meet certain criteria not available in existing valve designs, and in 1958, the JET STREAM rubber plug type control valve was introduced. Because of this, some readers will find this to be a review of things already known, while others may discover a new valve. Its interesting to note that since 1958 there have been a number of specialty valves developed in an attempt to meet the exacting demands of precise and careful control, but none of them have been able to match the rubber plug and the way it can be worked to provide all the same benefits.
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Document ID: 66DF4656

Application And Operation Of Ball Valve Regulators
Author(s): Roy J. Becker
Abstract/Introduction:
OVER TWENTY YEARS AGO A PLUG VALVE WAS EQUIPPED WITH A PNEUMATIC CYLINDER AND A POSITIONER AND USED AS A MONITOR REGULATOR. THE CONCEPT WAS A NEW METHOD OF GAS REGULATION AND WAS THE BEGINNING OF A NEW ERA.
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Document ID: 01AC7306

Fundamental Principles Of Pilot Control
Author(s): Paul Adams
Abstract/Introduction:
For all practical purposes, regulators used by the gas industry can be placed in either of three categories I. Self Operated II. Pressure Loaded III. Pilot Operated This categorizing of all regulators (plus all construction modifications) tends to be an oversimpliciations, but exceptions are rare.
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Document ID: 6B865B7C

Expansible Element Valves For Pressure Regulation And Relief
Author(s): Fred L. Ring
Abstract/Introduction:
Expansible element valves, also known as sleevetype valves, have been serving the natural gas industry for more than thirty years. They are commonly used for pressure regulation, overpressure protection, and flow control. Modern designs have greatly reduced size and weight, and maintenance is easily accomplished with but few common tools. In this paper we shall examine the construction, operation, application and maintenance of one of the expansible element valves, the Axial Flow Valve.
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Document ID: C54F856B

Specific Gravity Instruments - Care And Operation
Author(s): L. W. Dunn
Abstract/Introduction:
THE ARCCO-ANUBIS GAS GRAVITOMETER This gravitometer is a direct weighing type instrument and is constructed to measure the difference in the weight of a column of gas and an equal column of dry air. This difference is transmitted to a chart on which is recorded the specific gravity of the gas passing thru the instrument.
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Document ID: 9EAEEE9C

Kinetic Type Indicating And Recording Instruments For Determining Specific Gravity
Author(s): H. E. Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
This class offers a comprehensive presentation of the kinetic type gas gravitometer, Including: Simple explanation of operating principle Equipment set-up and operation In field Trouble-shooting, repair and adjustment The kinetic type gas gravitometer 1s manufactured as a portable Indicating type Instrument illustrated 1n Figure 1 and as a stationary recording type Instrument Illustrated In Figure 2. The basic operating mechanism 1s identical for both types, but the case, motive power and linkage are modified to adapt them to either portable use or permanent mounting.
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Document ID: 7A09C42D

Determination Of Hydrogen Sulfide And Total Sulfur By Titration Methods
Author(s): R. R. Austin
Abstract/Introduction:
ELECTROLYTIC GENERATION OF BROMINE AS A TITRATING REAGENT FOR MEASUREMENT OF SULFUR COMPOUNDS IN THE GASEOUS PHASE WAS INTRODUCED TO INDUSTRY NEARLY 20 YEARS AGO. WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSISTOR ELECTRONICS AND THE DISCOVERY OF A PRACTICAL COULOMETRIC BROMINE SENSING ELECTRODE SYSTEM, A NEW, WIDE RANGE ELECTROLYTIC TITRATOR WAS DEVELOPED AND DESIGNED TO MEET THE SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTINUOUS SULFUR MONITORING.
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Document ID: 62863723

Technical Session, Specific Gravity Instruments Installation And Operation
Author(s): Mark. Warner
Abstract/Introduction:
THE WHAT AND WHY OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY Fundamental to understanding specific gravity instruments and their use is the definition of specific gravity. Specific gravity is formally defined as the ratio of weight of a body to the weight of another body of equal volume taken as a standard unit. For gases, the standard is generally dry air.
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Document ID: 5EF4FCA4

Moisture Titrators
Author(s): James C. Bozeman
Abstract/Introduction:
The prediction or actual determination of the amount of entrained moisture in natural gas systems is recognized to be an essential part of pipeline operations. Water in the vaporous or fluid state poses not only operation problems but also greatly aids in internal corrosion/ errosion of the pipeline, the single largest investment most pipeline companies have, and it must be protected. By knowing the amount of moisture present, and where it is entering the system, various protective/preventive measures may be undertaken to negate the negative effects. In order to do this, the amount of moisture present as well as its source must be identified. This necessitates accurate means to measure the percentage of water to natural gas.
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Document ID: 5669EABB

Rotating Vane Gas Meters
Author(s): Wilbur W. Lints
Abstract/Introduction:
Two types of rotating vane meters were initially introduced to the gas industry during the 1960s. The first was introduced in the early 1960s and was designed with two vanes on the rotor assembly. The second was introduced in 1969 and was designed with four vanes on the rotor assembly. In 1978 a third model was designed and marketed utilizing a rotor assembly with three vanes. The following pertains to the four-vane and three-vane meters, designated CVM.
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Document ID: 4EC16B5E

Techniques Of Natural Gas Sampling
Author(s): Charles F. Drake
Abstract/Introduction:
The scope of this paper is to introduce some different, but not necessarily new, ideas concerning the sampling of natural gas for the purpose of determining the heating value.
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Document ID: 33E82CFA

Conditioning Natural Oas For Measurement & Transportation
Author(s): Bill G. Spradlin
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation is based on a number of years of experience in the field of producing and conditioning natural gas. A recent experience in the development and start up of the Union Island Gas Field in Northern California will be used to illustrate some of the requirements for conditioning gas for measurement and transportation.
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Document ID: 03FA6E45

Installation And Operation Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): M.W. Nielson
Abstract/Introduction:
The Cutler-Hammer recording Calorimeter measures the total calorific value of combustible gas. It continuously samples, indicates, and records BTU per cubic foot.
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Document ID: 93496F7A

Recording Calorimeters: Installation And Testing
Author(s): T. Y. Mclanahan
Abstract/Introduction:
British Thermal IJnit: Webster defines BTU as the quanity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water at its maximum density one degree Fahrenheit.
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Document ID: DF3DA088

Determination Of Calorific Value Of Natural Gases
Author(s): Adam R. Durant
Abstract/Introduction:
Determining calorific value of natural gases is finding the heating value of the gases. This is measured and recorded in Btu per standard cubic foot. One Btu (British Thermal Unit) is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one (1) degree Fahrenheit.
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Document ID: BD02BFE3

From Mcf To Mmbtu
Author(s): Nancy Tyler
Abstract/Introduction:
There is no need to emphasize the expense involved when dealing with natural gas the increasing cost is common knowledge. As a result of the value being placed on this commodity, the gas industry has become interested not only in quantity, but also in quality. Increasing importance is being placed upon the ability of a gas to act as a fuel rather than the amount of space occupied.
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Document ID: 0E7746CC

Basic Devices And Techniques For Supervisory Control And Telementry Systems
Author(s): Carol L. Massa
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for remote indications, telementry and controls has grown along with industrial expansion. This includes remote operation of valves, start function, stop function, indication and variable values. The electronic and measurement industry has responded with a large variety of instruments and equipment with the capability of handling any function needed. It can be as simple as an indication of one condition or as complex as computer control of a complete plant.
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Document ID: 0E4302B2

Telemetering And Data Acquisition Systems For Pipeline Control
Author(s): Richard H. Cadmus
Abstract/Introduction:
In this paper I would like to discuss the techniques and requirements of telemetering and data acquisition systems. Telemetry systems and data acquisition systems in the oil and gas industry are far from being new applications. Due to the geography of a gas or oil pipeline or production system, we must use the term telemetry (measuring at a distance) synonymously witli a data acquisition
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Document ID: 896A6639

Selection, Testing, Maintenance And Operation Of Electronic Flow Computers
Author(s): John Britton
Abstract/Introduction:
As the price of hydrocarbon skyrockets, the ability to measure the transfer of product from one location to another becomes increasingly more - important. As more information becomes available such as temp, pressure, meter factors, specific gravity, etc., a means of processing the information into a useful usable form is a necessity. With the development of one chip microprocessors the ability to perform mathematical equations on site with live inputs enable us to increase the measurement capabilities being limited only by the software developed by the applications engineer.
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Document ID: 62617C7E

Application Of Flow Computers For Gas Measurement And Control
Author(s): Michael J. Keady
Abstract/Introduction:
r a d i t i o n a l l y , o r i f i c e meter s i g n a l s have been recorded o n - s i t e by means of mechanical c i r c u l ar c h a r t r e c o r d e r s . These c h a r t s have been c o l l e c t ed weekly or monthly and i n t e g r a t e d for volume d e t e r m i n a t i o n . This procedure has a l e n g t h y l a g between time of a c t u a l gas flow and time of r e p o r t i n g. With the advent of s p i r a l i n g gas p r i c e s and p e n a l ty c l a u s e s for e x c e s s i v e r a t e d e l i v e r i e s , both custome r and s u p p l i e r a r e looking towards q u i c k e r and more a c c u r a t e methods of o b t a i n i n g flow and t o t al q u a n t i t y . By use of f i e l d mounted e l e c t r o n i c flow computers, flow i n f o r m a t i o n is processed on an i n s t a n t a n e o u s and continuous b a s i s.
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Document ID: 7586585F

Gas Measurement By Rotary Meters
Author(s): W. K. Clark
Abstract/Introduction:
The f i r s t rotary positive displacement gas meters were b u i l t about 1920 by the PH & FM Roots Company and the Connersville Blower Company, both located in Connersville, Indiana. The two companies later joined to form Roots-Connersville Blower, and in 1966 the gas meter operation was renamed Dresser Measurement Division. The rotary gas meters manufactured by Dresser Measurement are known as ROOTS Meters.
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Document ID: E6B5994D

Advanced Applications Of Flow Computers And Telemetering
Author(s): Thomas R. Tolbert
Abstract/Introduction:
As the price of natural gas continues to climb, more effort is directed toward precise measurement of gas flow. Traditional gas flow measurement, by telemetering temperature, differential pressure and static pressure to a central gas dispatching office, has met with increasing demands for local computation of flow and flow totals (quantity), because of accuracy improvements over chart integration. Price alone is not the only factor involved. Loss of flow measurement during an equipment failure (central computer down), or more likely a temporary telemetry link problem.
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Document ID: 54D4B54D

On-Site Plow Calculators And Transducers For Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Fred N. Debusk
Abstract/Introduction:
Energy is running out! Low oil and gas reserves. With the discussion of such topics, it becomes even more important to have accurate and fast information about gas transmission and individual usage.
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Document ID: DD116941

Application Of Microprocessors In Measuring Hydrocarbons Panel()
Author(s): Charles D. Smith, James C. Bozeman, Jerry D. Correll Michael J. Keady, Jr. Larry Murry
Abstract/Introduction:
The microprocessor is probably the most versatile tool available for use by todays flow measurement engineer. The advantages of designing with microprocessors instead of standard ICs are, by now, well known. Hardware versus software tradeoffs indicate that except for the most simplistic applications, the microprocessor based system is always the most cost-effective approach. In fact, the more functions handled by software routines, the less expensive and more flexible the system will b
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Document ID: A65BA1E3

Application - Gas Flow Measurement & Control With TC-10 Microprocessor
Author(s): Larry Murry
Abstract/Introduction:
Teledyne Geotech has provided the oil and gas industry with microprocessor based measurement and control systems since 1970. This paper discusses application of one of the Teledyne Geotechs microprocessors, the TC-10 GFC, with regard to gas flow measurement and control. The TC-10 is a compact, low-power microprocessor unit specifically designed for use in a field environment
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Document ID: 50150BE4

Elements Of Sound And Sound Measurement
Author(s): Chalmus E. Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years noise was considered a necessary evil in heavy industry, in the oil patch, and on high pressure gas transmission lines. This certainly is not the case today. Industry is finding more and more solutions to noise problems. The public and the work force are aware that they do not have to put up with unsafe or undesirable conditions. Government bodies pass new regulations every day which protect the rights and health of the public.
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Document ID: 7963CAB5

Effects And Control Of Pulsation In Gas Measurement
Author(s): G. G. Less
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increased cost of natural gas, it is becoming more and more important to do a better job of measurement. The reduction or elimination of pulsation e r r o r s could result in saving millions of dollars in unaccounted-for gas.
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Document ID: A871E9BF

Meter Station Noise Forecasting
Author(s): Don Day
Abstract/Introduction:
The scope of this presentation is limited to noise which originates in control valves. The generation, transmission, prevention, absorption, isolation, and prediction of control valve noise will be studied. The major problem with industrial noise is people. Society values people and their health and welfare. Federal and state governments, through legislation and through decree, determine standards and penalties which are intended to protect people. There are three elements of noise standards which are essential considerations of any industrial noise problem. People! Noise Level! and Exposure Time!
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Document ID: 924CBD1A

Maintenance And Trouble Shooting Lact Units
Author(s): Arnold Tims
Abstract/Introduction:
Lease Automatic Custody Transfer (LACT) Unit used for the sale of liquid hydrocarbons from a production tank battery to a pipe line.
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Document ID: DF55DA4C

Positive Displacement Liquid Meters
Author(s): William C. Reitz, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement of liquid by positive displacement has been employed by man since the very begining of his existence. Improvement in speed of measurement is the single element that has been the contribution of modern man. Accuracy is still measured and limited by mans ability to fill a container. This paper deals with the problems that faced the first man that wished to use a volumetric method and still face the man of today that uses a positive displacement liquid meter
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Document ID: 1697AFB7

Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Abstract/Introduction:
Although the liquid turbine meter principle dates back many decades, the axial flow turbine meters presently employed for liquid measurement are quite new. The axial flow turbine meter was first used for driving the rotor and normally where accuracy of measurement was not of prime importance. Reliability was of greater importance, so parts were made rugged and the rotor was designed more to be non-clogging than to be accurate. However, through the evolution of technology, the turbine meter has maintained reliability and ruggedness while attaining a high degree of accuracy. Today, the meters used for water flow have accuracies of +0.25% over ranges of 10 to 1 or more while maintaining the same high degree of reliability and ruggedness as did their predecessors.
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Document ID: 11302B8D

Meter Shop Design, Equipment And Techniques
Author(s): Dan Kennedy
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: DB936792

Measurement Of Ethane Rich Streams
Author(s): H.C. Tilley
Abstract/Introduction:
IN ANY MEASUREMENT SYSTEM, THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE STREAM TO BE MEASURED SHOULD BE MEASURED SHOULD BE CONSIDERED IN THE SELECTION OF THE MEASUREMENT EQUIPMENT. WHERE THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE STREAM ARE KNOWN AND CONVENTIONAL CORRECTION FACTORS CAN BE APPLIED, VOLUMETRIC MEASUREMENT METHODS MAY BE USED. IN ETHANE RICH STREAMS, HOWEVER, CONVENTIONAL CORRECTION FACTORS DO NOT NECESSARILY APPLY.
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Document ID: 48EFDC51

Gauging, Testing And Running Of Lease Tanks
Author(s): J. G. Upton, T. F. Sawyer
Abstract/Introduction:
The barrel of crude oil we buy or sell occupies a volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons at atmospheric pressure and a temperature of 60 degrees Fahrenheit and contains no impurities (BS&W). This barrel is commonly known as the net standard barrel and is the recognized unit of measure for purchases, sales, royalty payments, taxes, and so on. However, the barrel we physically measure and test occupies a volume of 42 U.S. gallons at whatever temperature it is measured, including suspended BS&W. This barrel is commonly known as the gross barrel, and obviously cannot be employed as the net barrel. The employee WHO actually measures, samples, tests and runs crude oil is called the gauger, regardless of his normal job classification. It is the responsibility of the gauger to provide the accurate measurement and test data necessary to determine the net standard barrel.
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Document ID: 3FDF6CAC

Liquid Meter Proving Techniques
Author(s): John B. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid meter proving is a physical test conducted on a liquid meter to determine its performance. Meter performance is the relationship of the volume of liquid registered on the meters counter to the actual quantity of liquid which passed through the meter. The only way to determine this relationship is to prove the meter aganist a known volume.
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Document ID: E5570E2F

Mechanical Displacement Meter Provers For Liquid Hydrocarbons
Author(s): Clifton P. Rennle
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement systems utilizing turbine or positive displacement type meters for liquids, and turbine type meters for gas, require the use of a precise method of determining the amount of error under operating conditions.
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Document ID: ABC84CEE

High Capacity Liquid Measurement Systems
Author(s): Neil Broussard
Abstract/Introduction:
THE INCREASED DEMANDS FOR ENERGY HAS PLACE MORE CONCERN WITH THE DESIGN AND OPERATION OF HIGH CAPACITY LIQUID MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS. THIS PAPER WILL EXAMINE THE DESIGN OF THESE SYSTEMS AND CONPONENTS.
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Document ID: 54682A59

Automated Measurement On Loading Racks
Author(s): Don Campbell, George Puckett
Abstract/Introduction:
With the advent of highly powerful miniaturized computers and high density memories, the technology connected with measurement and control of the loading racks in truck loading terminals has taken a quantum step forward. The total spectrum of information available to both the supplier and customer is virtually unlimited and the control of the loading function is total, yielding lower product loss and a maximum in safety. Additionally, computer based systems yield significantly reduced operating costs.
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Document ID: 86143919

Liquified Natural Gas: Operation And Measurement
Author(s): George H. Bowles
Abstract/Introduction:
The Cove Point LNG Terminal imports liquified natural gas from the port of Arzew in Algeria. LNG is transported and stored essentially at its boiling point temperature and near atmospheric pressure. Instrumentation within the tanks must survive a cryogenic atmosphere and perform within specifications for long periods.
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Document ID: CBC81C54

Royalty Verification Of Oil And Gas Accounting
Author(s): Mary Jo Armer
Abstract/Introduction:
THE TITLE SUGGESTS THAT THIS SUBJECT WOULD NOT BE RELEVANT TO ANYONE EMPLOYED BY PRODUCTION COMPANIES. HOWEVER, THAT IS NOT THE CASE. THE PREPONDERANCE OF ERRORS IN OIL AND GAS PAYMENTS TO THE ROYALTY OWNERS HAS CREATED THE NECESSITY OF VERIFICATION OF ROYALTY INCOME.
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Document ID: 7776E9EE

Test Of Densitometers For Use In The Custody Transfer
Author(s): Mr. Scott Craig
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is directed to practical aspects of proving high accuracy densitometers with an industrial pycnometer. This procedure is often employed on custody transfer mass flow measurement which is particularly common with ethane-propane mix streams. The mass flow technique involves multiplying flowing volume times flowing density to obtain pounds mass.
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Document ID: 23C22460

Liquid Pipe Line Leak Detection And Line Balance
Author(s): David E. Goldberg
Abstract/Introduction:
From the early days of the pipelining industry, leak detection methods have been used to warn against harmful and costly leak events. Early practitioners relied on human surveillance by walking the line. In modern time, a vastly different technical environment has created many techniques of leak-detection from which to choose. Additionally, a more stringent economic, socio-political environment has brought increasing pressure to bear on the advent and use of leak-detection procedures.
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Document ID: 0D4403E5

Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): Donald H. Knapp
Abstract/Introduction:
Although the design of bellows type P.D. meters dates back well into the last century, it has now and will continue to have wide acceptance in our industry. Other types of measurement may appear at first glance to be more advanced, but this type is the only one that has virtually 100% rangeability, that is, the ability to measure gas from full rated capacity of the meter down to the smallest pilot load.
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Document ID: DEE60202

Calibration Of Liquid Density Meters
Author(s): Mr. Eldon Peninger
Abstract/Introduction:
Historically liquid density meters have been a much ignored and misused piece of measurement equipment. With the increased need for mass measurement, accurate densities are required. Calibration procedures have generally inferred density of the measured product. With the use of A.P.I, approved procedures, using a pyknometer, the density readings can be proved, thereby greatly improving overall measurement accuracy.
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Document ID: DB58772E

High-Accuracy LNG Tank Gauging
Author(s): Robert C. Lecrone
Abstract/Introduction:
THE TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG) REQUIRE SPECIAL SYSTEMS AND INSTRUMENTS GENERALLY NOT REQUIRED WHEN HANDLING LIQUIDS AT ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE. THESE SYSTEMS AND DEVICES ARE NECESSARY TO COMPLY WHITH THE VARIOUS SAFETY STANDARDS, AND ADDITIONALLY, FROM A COMMERCIAL STANDPOINT. A GENERAL DISCUSSION OF LNG WITH A MORE DETAILED LOOK AT THE UNIQUE INSTRUMENTS USED IN THE CRYOGENIC ENVIRONMENTS IS PRESENTED IN THIS PAPER.
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Document ID: 5E62C9FA

Light Hydrocarbon Liquid Sampling
Author(s): Ronald E. Beaty
Abstract/Introduction:
The exact analysis of mixed natural gas liquid streams delivered over a period of time have become increasingly important to company management. This is due at least in part to the increased extraction of ethane. When significant amounts of ethane are added to mixed natural gas liquids, traditional volumetric measurement is no longer accurate. Mass measurement was found to be the most accurate measurement method available. Contracts continue to have the purchase and sales prices of the products based on volume. The volume is determined by converting the mass measured using published constants and an accurate representative sample of the product delivered.
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Document ID: 73373728

The Effects Of Liquid Properties On The Performance Of A Turbine Flowmeter
Author(s): Richard E. Zimmermann
Abstract/Introduction:
IDEALLY, THE OUTPUT OF A TURBINE FLOWMETER SHOULD DEPEND ONLY UPON THE VOLUMETRIC FLOW RATE OF THE FLUID PASSING THROUGH IT. HOWEVER, AS WITH ANY INSTRUMENT, THERE ARE VARIABLES OTHER THAN THE ONE WHICH IS TO BE MEASURED WHICH INFLUENCE THE OUTPUT. IN THE CASE OF A TURBINE METER, PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE, FLUID DENSITY AND FLUID VISCOSITY MAY ALL HAVE AN INFLUENCE ON THE OUTPUT. ACCURATE MEASUREMENTS CANNOT BE MADE WITHOUT ACCOUNTING FOR THE EFFECTS OF THESE VARIABLES.
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Document ID: 7ADA7BF8

Handling, Gauging And Transporting Carbon Black Feedstocks
Author(s): Earl J, Estopinal
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to appreciate the quality and quantity requirements of carbon black feedstocks, one should obtain a basic understanding of the product which is produced from this raw material. Carbon Black is a colloidal form of carbon, produced by the thermal decomposition of the hydrocarbon feedstock. While it is essentially 100% carbon, Carbon Black does contain other matter such as Hydrogen, Oxygen, Sulfur, and Ash. The sulfur and ash have adverse effects on the end uses of the Carbon Black, and can be regarded as contaminants.
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Document ID: 443DCC17

Commercial Keasurement Of Ethylene
Author(s): R. A. Huffman
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement is a critical part of the operation of your business. Some methods are very sophisticated. Others are very plain and simple. You are striving for the very best accuracy in measurement. Ethylene measurement involves many kinds of equipment and many different people. The seller has his personnel to run the necessary calibration of the meters, maintain their meter stations and operate the pipeline. The purchaser has personnel to witness all tests and changes on the equipment. Courtesy on everyones part is very important.
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Document ID: 0821EE4F

Problems Injecting Liquid Ethane Into Natural Gas Lines
Author(s): Robert J. Rau
Abstract/Introduction:
Last Winters harsh weather throughout the United States and dwindling supplies of natural gas served as a reason for development of new sources of supplies for energy. Transco Companies, Inc. developed their idea of ethane injection to help meet its customers fuel requirements. This process increased the heat content of natural gas without much increase in volume. Transco obtained its ethane from the Enterprise Products Company and Union Texas Petroleum.
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Document ID: 26997571

Low Volume Liquid Flow Prover
Author(s): Richard E. Zimmermann
Abstract/Introduction:
The discussion of the Flow Prover contained herein describes the actual construction and performance of a new meter prover design concept which significantly reduces size and cost while equalling or exceeding the performance of conventional provers. The new concept combines a unique, patented piston and valve arrangement with position sensing and data processing techniques that have been used successfully for years on Flow Technology calibrators.
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Document ID: 72D3EA73

Automatic Level Gauges For Crude Oil, Lpg & Product Storage Tanks Adapted( From Liquid Level Measurement By Victor N. Lawford, Manager DP Engineering, Itt Barton)
Author(s): E. A. Lommatsch
Abstract/Introduction:
MEASUREMENT OF THE LIQUID CONTENTS IN PROCESS TANKS AND VESSELS, CAN BE ACCOMPLISHED BY MANY DIFFERENT METHODS AND A WIDE VARIETY OF INSTRUMENTS. QUITE OFTEN, SATISFACTORY PERFORMANCE CAN BE OBTAINED FROM MANY OF THE DEVICES, SO THE SELECTION OF THE BEST INSTRUMENT MUST BE BASED ON THE SPECIFIC APPLICATION.
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Document ID: E3D0E956

Evaluation Of Ultrasonic Flowmeters For Liquid Petroleum Measurement
Author(s): Stacy T. Gehman, Allen B. Holmes
Abstract/Introduction:
THE U.S. ARMYS HARRY DIAMOND LABORATORIES (HDL) UNDER TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AUTHORIZATION, HAS BEEN CONDUCTING A FLOWMETER EVALUATION PROGRAM FUNDED BY THE CONSERVATION DIVISION OF THE U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. THE OVERALL OBJECTIVE OF THE PROGRAM IS TO IDENTIFY MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES THAT CAN BE APPLIED EFFECTIVELY AND EFFECIENTLY FOR IMPROVING SAFETY AND POLLUTION CONTROL DURING OPERATIONS ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF.
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Document ID: DF599D5D

Correcting Instruments Applied To Displacement And Turbine Gas Meters
Author(s): Stanley F. Humbert
Abstract/Introduction:
Positive displacement and turbine meters are considered basic elements in gas measurement. They measure the flow of gas passing through the pipe at line conditions and indicate the actual or uncorrected volume of gas which has passed through the meter on some type of index readout.
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Document ID: CEF1E092

Automatic Continuous LNG Level, Temperature And Density Measurement System
Author(s): Gilbert Halverson
Abstract/Introduction:
An LNG storage tank instrumentation system i s presented which provides an accurate LNG density and temperature profile equated to liquid level. Density, temperature and liquid level measurements are obtained by means of a single multi-sensor in-tank probe assembly which is driven in upward and downward directions manually, automatically, or in a programmed manner by means of a topof- tank drive mechanism. Signal conditioning, display and overall system control are accomplished via a digital logic-configured control unit designed for installation in the facility operations a r e a.
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Document ID: CBA475E8

Keeping Osha In Perspective
Author(s): Jack Neill
Abstract/Introduction:
It was in the first decade of the twentieth century that serious efforts to achieve occupational safety and health began to be made in a number of American industries. Researchers, like Crystal Eastman, brought to light the terrible cost of work accidents. A few outstanding leaders of management, like Judge Gary of U.S. Steel, promulgated company practices requiring intense safety efforts.
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Document ID: D20AFDAA

A Look At Dot Inspection Requirements
Author(s): J. Clifton Williams, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
It is indeed a pleasure and a privilege to be here today to take A Look at DOT Inspection Requirements. When I was first contacted about making this presentation, I thought, what will I talk about, DOT is not involved in measurement. Well, this is true, insofar as the gas or commodity accounting aspects of measurement is concerned. DOT has no jurisdiction over thru-put volumes and gas accounting and generally is not interested in this aspect of operations, except where leaks are involved. Other agencies, such as the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, are concerned with these matters. I realized, however, that I did have more than enough to discuss with you. DOT has jurisdiction over pipeline safety.
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Document ID: 5154C91D

Measured Steps For Training The Measurement Man
Author(s): C. L. Rousseau
Abstract/Introduction:
Good morning, John! John, you have been with our company almost three years now and for the last year you have been on a job that gave you experience in gauging tanks, turning wells on and off, and changing charts from time to time. You have also had an opportunity to observe the meter man as he preformed his duties and maybe you have worked with him from time to time.
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Document ID: AF5BBFAE

Fundamental Gas Laws
Author(s): F. Mark Townsend
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement is the determination of the volume of a gas at a particular temperature and pressure. The measurement should be as accurate as possible, making use of the best data and techniques available. The gas quantity is usually expressed in cubic feet at some specific temperature and pressure.
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Document ID: 804D5924

The Use Of Manometers In The Gas Industry
Author(s): Nick Gestrich
Abstract/Introduction:
In the Measurement Mans Corner of Gas Magazine in April, 1967, it was stated, If the gas measurement science could be represented by a corpse, upon dissection the heart would turn out to be a manometer.
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Document ID: A587DFB6

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Howard W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
When the word measurement is mentioned, the majority of the gas industry measurement personnel automatically convert their thoughts to a meter. The meter contributes only 1/2 to 1/4 toward the total science of measurement depending on the application.
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Document ID: 83F7A45F

What The Field Group Expects From The Office Group
Author(s): J. V. Bryan
Abstract/Introduction:
In the presentation of a paper on this subject I will assume that most of those persons in attendance are members of companies whose field people work directly under the supervision of a Gas Measurement Department headquartered in a central office. It is recognized that some companies are not organized in this manner, and the field people actually work under field operations supervision instead of gas measurement department supervision. Most of this paper will deal with the field peoples relationship
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Document ID: 4EADB35A

Problems In Offshore Measurement
Author(s): Ross Ford
Abstract/Introduction:
I would like to thank the Committee for inviting me to speak to you today about problems in offshore measurement. I am going to talk to you about some problems that we at United have faced. One of these is the problem of transportation.
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Document ID: 98793A6A

High Pressure Measuring And Regulating Station Design
Author(s): Ornald L. Gambrell
Abstract/Introduction:
In considering the design of high pressure measurement and regulating facilities, the concept of design, as discussed herein, will include the various phases of planning, construction and inspection. Measurement, for the most part, will be considered to be by orifice meter, but much of the material is also applicable to other types of measurement.
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Document ID: EEFC4D61

About Ishm 1979
Abstract/Introduction:
Collection of documents about ISHM including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, exhibitor and sponsor information, etc.
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Document ID: E2DE81F5


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