Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (1979)

What To Do After The Incident
Author(s): Wallace E. Zeddun
Abstract/Introduction:
At the outset, I believe that it is important to remember that because of the nature of our varying job responsibiUties, many times there is a potential for conflict between operations and legal personnel at the scene of a major incident. Operating personnel are primarily concerned with making the scene safe and repairing any company facilities which may have contributed to the incident. Their primary concern is to do this as expeditiously as possible. This concern obviously is well justified. In many cases, the desire of operating personnel would be to accomplish this without any interference or concern for such things as evidence preservation, etc.
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Document ID: A2FCD940

Mechanical Testing Of Fusion Joints
Author(s): Peter R. Collette
Abstract/Introduction:
Public Service Electric and Gas Company supplies natural gas to approximately 1.3 million customers in its 2,300 square mile service territory through 12,00 miles of main. Of thai total approximately 200 miles are plastic. This company began the use of plastic in the mid 1960: on a limited basis. its use has grown steadily to the point where it is now used for 80 percent of our installations. In 1978, over 500,000 feet of plastic mains, mostly 2 IPS, were installed. The material used is Driscopipe 7000 manufactured by Philips Products Co., Inc., a subsidiary of Philips Petroleum Company. For those people not familiar with this product, it is a PE3406. ultra high molecular weight, high density polyethylene. Until the change in the federal codes, our standards were to use SDR 9:33 for all high pressure installations. With the recent code change, company standards have been revised and we now use SDR 11.
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Document ID: C05B4807

LNG Plant Experience Data Base
Author(s): J. Reed Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to provide information on the rates of malfunction and failure of equipment in LNG plants. The data are based on a summary of information on operalion of 25 LNG peak-shaving plants in the United States. These peak-shaving plants range in age from a few monlhs to more than 10 years. The survey covers total periods of more than 400,000 hours of liquefaction experience, more than 1.5 million hours of tank storage, nearly 35,000 hours of vaporization, nearly L5 billion feel-hours of pipe use, more than 15 million hours of controller operations, and more than 1.3 million manhours of operating time.
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Document ID: 67CAC27F

Recent Developments In Regard To Rollover Wrenshall LNG Plant Operating Procedures
Author(s): Terry W. Delahunty
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses operating procedures developed to avoid LNG tank stratifications and to detect their presence. Emphasis is on the practical aspects used at Northern Natural Gass 10 MMSCFD liquefaction and 630,000 BBL storage facility at Wrenshall, Minnesota.
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Document ID: 53ABBF02

Simulating Operational Change In Distribution
Author(s): K. Bray
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the application of computer simulation techniques to distribution operations in the United Kingdom. Two particular examples have been used to illustrate the methods. In the first, the district surrounding Aberdeen in the Scottish region of British Gas was analysed to determine whether service laying teams should be supplied with individual team vehicles. In the second, the implications of working to a new operational procedure - the so called Model Agreement - have been assessed. These examples may provide interesting points of comparison with the American experience in distribution operations. The results of these studies have helped to identify mobility levels for service laying teams in British Gas, and will assist in the definition of special vehicle requirements over the next decade.
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Document ID: 8E972B0A

Fleet Leasing: Fleet Financing
Author(s): Richard A. Yorks
Abstract/Introduction:
The first electric utility fleet leasing program was instituted nearly 25 years ago. Today, more than 40 percent of major electric utilities and a substantial group of gas distribution companies lease all or a major portion of their vehicle fleets. During 1977, 47 of the 120 largest U.S. electric utilities paid 77 million in rentals for automotive and mobile equipment to 36 differeni lessors. Is there a common denominator among those utilities who lease fleet as opposed to those who do not? Not really, but we can generalize to an extent. First, geographically - utilities located in every state east of the Mississippi except Kentucky, Tennessee and Florida lease fleet. Leasing is prevalent in Ihe South Central states, but not the North Central states. Not many utilities in Southwest and Mountain states lease fleet, bul many West Coast utilities do, A second attribute of those electric utilities who lease fleet as opposed to those who do not is that they tend to be larger.
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Document ID: AE5C224A

Packaging, Shipping, Handling And Storage Of Polyethylene Pipe And Tubing
Author(s): Eegene J. Escolas
Abstract/Introduction:
Packaging, shipping, handling and storage of polyethylene pipe and tubing is our topic. Our objective is to provide for safe efficient handling of this pipe while it is being transported or in storage or in the process of being installed. The old ground rules, which developed for handling rigid metallic pipe, have been changing as we commit ourselves to ever increasing use of flexible pipe such as polyethylene. Some changes have been made. There are, however, still some very real challenges to those of us in materials management or in operations to optimise safe efficient handling of polyethylene pipe.
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Document ID: 0FDEA49B

Turbine Meter Testing
Author(s): Herbert L. Clark
Abstract/Introduction:
The turbine meter is classified as a velocity type inferential flow meter. It is so designated because the flow of gas causes the meter impeller to rotate at a speed proportional to the velocity of the gas stream and the number of times the impeller turns infers a certain amount of gas has passed through the meter which has an area of known dimensions. Anything that changes this relationship will change the proof of the meter. The impeller is the heart of the measuring module and its design is the most critical item of the meter. Many hours were expended in testing different shapes, angles and sizes of impeller blades to obtain the required results. Starting torque, running torque, speed and many other considerations were plowed into the final product. If the design is altered in any way it may adversely aflect meter accuracy. If the impeller is designed and built strongly enough, the angle of the blades on the impeller will not change and we should not have to be concerned with that. However, it has been found that the most important portion of each blade is the configuration of the downstream edge and surface. If this edge or surface is altered, including a buildup of any foreign material, the meter proof at all ilow rates can be affected. Oddly enough the leading edge of the blade has very little, if no effect on the meter proof. It can be worn or nicked and as long as the balance of the impeller is not seriously affected, there will be no appreciable change in the proof.
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Document ID: 0D9DBC5D

Underground Storage Of Gas In Salt Caverns
Author(s): Hans-Gnter Haddenhorst
Abstract/Introduction:
The practical and efficient storage of natural gas in solution mined underground caverns has, in recent years, gained greatly increasing importance. The importance of this development is recognized and employed by both the natural gas distributing and ihe energy using industries. The technology for storing natural gas in underground porous formations has been known for decades. It is used to accommodate both seasonal fluctuations in demand and, in some cases, for peak load shaving applications.
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Document ID: A95001B2

An Alternate: Offshore Terminals
Author(s): Henrys Marcus
Abstract/Introduction:
Future U.S. liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects face many problems, including opposition to onshore receiving terminal sites. This paper considers to what extent offshore facilities are feasible as an alternative to the traditional onshore locations. Off shore terminals are defined, for the purpose of this paper, as facilities where both the vessel docking and the LNG gasification take place offshore. The gas is delivered onto the shore by pipeline. (Note that the Core Point, Maryland facility may be viewed as a semi-offshore terminal in that the vessel docks one mile from shore but the LNG is gasified on shore.)
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Document ID: F0463EAD

Weight Flow With Orifice Meters
Author(s): Edgar E. Buxton
Abstract/Introduction:
Weight flow measurement using orifice meters is an intriguing subject Equation 12b of the ANSI/API 2530 American National Standard on Orifice Metering of Natural Gas (A.G.A. Committee Report No. 3) sums the idea up very well. When we add the expansion factor Y it is applicable to compressible fluids also.
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Document ID: C21C0165

The District Regulator
Author(s): Edward H. Dannemann
Abstract/Introduction:
We have about 144.000 customers and some 350 district regulators. Incidentally, our district regulators are the last regulator before the customers property. Dividing this out shows about 411 customers per regulator. The majority of our customers are served at low pressure (8-inches of water) and systems of 5 lbs. or less. Of these 350 regulators about 29 percent, or 100, are in vaults. The size of our average regulator is 3 and we still have a lot of Emco 014s and 015s in service. All our settings contain at least two regulators. The first or upstream is a monitor. The bypass is below the regulators.
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Document ID: 70D7AA17

Implementation Of The Rosemount Diogenes Process Control System At The Northern Natural Gas Ventura LNG Plant
Author(s): James m. Snook, Richard L. Drewry
Abstract/Introduction:
This is a description of the Rosemount Diogenes process control system in service at the Northern Natural Gas Ventura LNG plant. Principal uses of the system are for conventional process control, flow calculations and the switching of time controlled valves. A description of the plant process is included so applications of the control system are more easily understood by those unfamiliar with LNG plant operation.
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Document ID: 824D3CCC

Online Odorization Monitoring
Author(s): Gerald R. Wenzel
Abstract/Introduction:
A direct reading online odorization monitor has been developed. A direct readout of odorant added is achieved by interfacing a signal processor with an electrolytic sulfur titrator system. A direct reading odorization monitor is very practical and has significant potential for odorization control systems. Where background sulfurs are low but variable the odorani added can effectively be determined with this system. Odorization monitoring is essential for a number of reasons but the principal ones are safety and compliance with state and federal regulatory agency requirements, as well as company policy.
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Document ID: 30D640A1

The Supplemental Fuels Task Group Report On Propane
Author(s): L. W. Bros
Abstract/Introduction:
Propane as a utility fuel is used in three types of distribution systems. The most common utilization is for a propane-air mixture which is added to the natural gas supply in the distribution system lo act as a peak shaving fuel. A second application is a propane-air mixture with no natural gas and distributed in a system sized for future conversion to straight natural gas. The last application is a straight propane vapor distributed in a system which has been sized appropriately for the higher BTU content of the straight vapor. In this application, there are no plans for future conversion to natural gas.
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Document ID: ADC9AA24

Consumers Power Companys Space Heating Efficiency Improvement Program
Author(s): Gary E. Reese
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the planning, the implementation, the experiences and the results of Consumers Power Companys Space Heating Efficiency Improvement Program. Furnace retrofit devices were installed on furnaces in the homes of 180 of the Companys customers selected by random sampling. in addition to monitoring the 180 retrofitted furnaces for energy consumption, a control group of 60 customers was also monitored. The two-year field tect began in the fall of 1977 and will conclude in May of 1979, Consumers Power Company is a combination utility serving 64 of 65 coumies in Michigans lower peninsula with corporate headquarters in Jackson. The Company serves slightly over one million gas customers and 1.25 million electric customers in its eight operating regions.
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Document ID: 0EA95DD2

Computerized Mapping System At Union Gas Limited
Author(s): A. R. Semmler
Abstract/Introduction:
Union Gas Limited has a serviced area covering approximately 12,400 square miles in Southwestern Ontario, and distributes natural gas to over 430,000 customers dispersed through this area. The Company also operates major transmission facilities across Southwestern Ontario, including storage wells and compressor stations for the transportation of gas to its markets and to other Eastern Canadian markets. (Figure I) The major source of natural gas is Western Canada and it is delivered to the Union Gas transmission network by the Trans- Canada Pipelines and Great Lakes Gas transmission systems. Local production in Southwestern Ontario accounts for approximately 2 percent of the Companys requirements.
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Document ID: E255B309

Using A Minicomputer To Control A Gas Distribution System
Author(s): Dan L. Lindsey, C. L. Woody
Abstract/Introduction:
Entex has developed and constructed a new Gas Control Center that rehably monitors and automatically controls the operation of the gas distribution system in Houston, Texas. The control system, utilizing an I.B.M. System/7 mini-computer, has proven to be so reliable that it is entirely satisfactory for normal systems operation. It has also proven to be capable of recognizing abnormal system operations and alerting the systems operation personnel to take necessary corrective action. The justification, design, and performance of the system are the subject of this paper. Particular emphasis is placed on the role of the mini-computer as the heart of the system.
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Document ID: ED0E42B4

Vehicle Modification Dos And Donts
Author(s): J. E. Colvin
Abstract/Introduction:
In operating a Heel of automotive equipment, we arc all faced at one time or another with the need lo modify vehicles to have ihem fit work requirements. This modification may take several forms. 1. Modification of a chassis-cab vehicle by the installation of a body or other equipment. 2. Modification of a completed vehicle by the installation of additional equipment or the removal or relocation of existing equipment. 3. Modification of a completed unit by the replacement of existing components with componentii with different specifications. The majoriiy of the vehicles which our companies are purchasing and using must comply with a variety of standards from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the Bureau of Motor Carrier Safety along with slate and local regulations. Incorrect modification can result in vehicles which do not meet current safety standards and which, if involved in accidents, can result in civil liabilities.
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Document ID: B9016494

New Master Station System For Control Of Automated Compressor Stations
Author(s): A. P. Liaugaudas
Abstract/Introduction:
An obsolete computer system was replaced with a dual modern mini. The project was done by company employees using unfamiliar equipment and working for the first time in a higher level language. User acceptance has been excellent, and system operation has been very smooth. This system interfaces to two Gas Control operators and about thirty remote minicomputers, most of them at automated compressor stations scattered over ten states. Highlightsof the planning, implementation, and operation of this system are presented.
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Document ID: 2D0DD11A

Mobile Printer System Dispatching
Author(s): Earl W. Rapp
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation traces the history of communications and computer based teleprocessing at Mountain Fuel Supply Company. It shows how these systems have been united to better serve both the company and its customers. Mountain Fuels private communications systems have expanded into almost every pan of the companys operations. The companys mobile communication system is one of the most fully utilized of any in the country, making use of selective calling, paging, remote control of base stations, mobile teleprinting, mobile data transmission and the latest in dispatching techniques and equipment.
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Document ID: 0C1DEDA7

Pressure Drop And Rate Of Flow Line Break Detection
Author(s): Richard W. T. Skinner
Abstract/Introduction:
The housing boom which followed World War II started a period of suburban sprawl across the countr). This resulted in the rapid growth of interstate pipeline systems, and the encroachment by subdivisions on the rights-ofway of high pressure cross country pipelines which had been constructed in rural areas. With this increase in population density adjacent to the pipelines, ihe need for a method of automatic detection and isolation of pipeline breaks was recognized. The oldest and still most widely used systems of automatic line break detection are the Rate of Flow System and the Rate-of- Pressure-Drop System, Both systems were developed around a pneumatic diaphragm type differential pressure pilot valve, which opens at some preset pressure differential, to pressurize an instrument gas line to a selector valve controlling power gas to one more valve operators.
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Document ID: 79A2358C

Start-Up Of The Elba Island LNG Terminal
Author(s): Joel A. Anderson, C. Marvin Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
The Elba Island Terminal is owned and operated by Southern Energy Company, a subsidiary of Southern Natural Gas Company, The island is located in the Savannah River about 10 miles upstream from the Georgia coast. Being a part of the Algeria 1/EI Paso project, the plant operates as a baseload facility regasifying on the average about 320MMsfd. Approval of the project was granted March, 1973. For the terminal to have a successful startup, years of preparation were required prior to the delivery of the first LNG. It was necessary to ensure that the plant had been properly designed, constructed in accordance with the design and operationally checked before the terminal could be placed into service.
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Document ID: E862A25F

The Use Of Acoustic Emission For Buried Pipeline Flaw Detection
Author(s): W. D. Munk, D. L. Parry
Abstract/Introduction:
Acoustic Emission Analysis is a relatively new non-destructive testing (NDT) technology which is being applied in industry to a wide variety of structures. Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Research Department, has sponsored three demonstration tests using acoustic emission analysis to determine the structural integrity of buried pipelines. This paper describes the acoustic emission analysis system, its application to buried pipeline inspection and the results of the test program. Columbia plans continued acoustic emission demonstrations however, the work to date has shown the technology is a viable NDT tool for buried pipeline evaluation which offers several advantages over existing pipe testing methods.
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Document ID: 5EE37756

The Calculation Of True Cathodic Protection Interference Drain Current From Easily Measured Field Data
Author(s): Richard L. Seifert
Abstract/Introduction:
The meager clues which one can gather from various electrical observations at aboveground terminals, are all that one usually has to work with in the study of underground interference problems. From such observations, the author has established mathematical models of the known types of interference problems and from the study of those models, aided immeasurably by a Hewlett- Packard HP-97 programmable calculator, he has developed a simple method for determining the true interference drain current at interference sites. This paper describes his reasoning and approach to the solution, with examples and should be a welcome piece of literature for field corrosion engineers and technicians.
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Document ID: AB564A62

Probability Of LNG Spills In Boston Harbor A Comparison With Conventional Tanker Spills
Author(s): L Cave, m. Kazarians
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to compare the probabilities of large, rapid spills from conventional tankers and from an LNG ship in Boston Harbor it was necessary to estimate the probability distributions for the size of spill from each type of vessel for certain types of accidents. Consideration of the rates of spill from conventional tankers showed that only collisions, fires and explosions were potential causes of large, rapid spills (defined in this study as spills if more than 2000 tons at a rate of at least 600 tons per minute). However, for LNG ships, it was found necessary to consider also grounding and ramming accidents as well as the effects of external hazards such as hurricanes and earthquakes.
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Document ID: 7DA22998

Private Enterprise At Work On The Last Frontier
Author(s): Harold F. Schmidt
Abstract/Introduction:
Private Enterprise at Work on the Last Frontier - now isnt that an exciting title? Actually, this paper would be better entitled Gee, But Its Lonely Up Here, or Hurry, Winter is Coming Again, or Why Dont They Tell It Like It is? - or all of the above. Actually, its all of the above. First we will look 10 the Gee, But Its Lonely Up Here part. There are three primary reasons for such an impression, and they relate to the size of the stale, its location, and its degree of governtnentalization. Alaska is large. It contains 586,412 square miles (not acres) of land and represents an area equal to one-fifth that of the contiguous 48 states. If a map of Alaska were superimposed over a same scale map of the United States, Ketchikan would be in the Carolinas, and Point Barrow would be in Minnesota, while Attn would be near Los Angeles. The state is large enough to contain Texas twice, plus Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Vermont and Rhode Island with room 10 spare.
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Document ID: 87478E22

Fluid Measurements For Off-Shore Ekofisk Production, North Sea
Author(s): Gordon W. Swinney
Abstract/Introduction:
Off-shore measurement systems for the Ekotlsk, North Sea project had to meet many unusual operating conditions. Because of these operating conditions usual methods of volumetric measurement were not adequate. In order to overcome the deficiencies, a mass measurement concept was used for both gas and liquid production, and pipeline measurements. In order to convert weight and products to volume, sampling and analysis was included to permit component volume calculations.
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Document ID: B2DA0775

Canadian Si Billing Experience
Author(s): D.W. Popwich
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation will briefly review the experience of Canadian Western Natural Gas Company in the preparation for billing in metric units, including the impact on computer operations and public relations aspects. Four areas relating to the subject are discussed as follows: 1. Reasons for the change to SI and the expected benefits. 2. The methodology chosen to convert the system. 3. Problems encountered in the process. 4. The observed and predicted reactions to the conversion by the companys employees, customers and business associates.
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Document ID: 0F94D1CB

Sheip Status Report
Author(s): Robert F. Robb
Abstract/Introduction:
With the objective to determine the energy conservation potential and then encourage the implementation of useful and safe options for improving energy efficiency in residential natural gas central heating systems, SHEIP has now completed two winter seasons of testing new systems and compiling the resulting information. The first winter season of 1976.77 armed us with enough information and experience for a significant improvement in the data obtained from the testing during the winter season of 1977.78. We are now in the third heating season of this ihree-ycar effort and a final report will follow.
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Document ID: 2DF4FBA2

Its Been Boiling For Twelve Years
Author(s): Anthony J. Dibrita
Abstract/Introduction:
A iot has been said about base load LNG facilities and LNG importation. The purpose of this paper is to retlect on the experiences of an LNG facility designed, built and operated for PEAK SHAVING capabilities. This paper describes the various aspects of fhe Brooklyn Union Gas Companys peak shaving LNG facility located in the Greenpoint section of Brooklyn. Its intended purpose is to outline the philosophies and concept of a particular peak shaving facility and to briefly review its operational and design changes over its lifetime of a period of 12 years. The political climate is entwined within the body of this paper in an effort to explain and examine the intentions of various rules and regulations postulated throughout the past twelve years and to determine their effect on an LNG facility.
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Document ID: 3226D625

Fracture Mechanics Evaluation Of Girth Welds
Author(s): E.L Von Rosenberg
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to present to you a status report on the use of a fracture mechanics analysis to evaluate the suitability for service of welding defects in pipeline girth welds. I am sure that most of you are familiar with API 1104. which is the standard used throughout the world for the qualification of welding procedures, the welders, and the inspection and acceptance of the finished weld. The standard was developed by a joint committee sponsored by API and A.G.A., with representatives from the Contractors Association, the Pipe Manufacturers, AWS, and ASNT. The first edition was published in 1953. At that time, and, in fact, to this day, standards tend to be based on what is typical in the industry. In other words, a workmanship standard is adopted. What I propose to describe is another approach called fitness for purpose.
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Document ID: 6E438023

Weather Forecasting - Have Temperature Forecasts Improved? An Interim Report
Author(s): Samuel I. Hyman
Abstract/Introduction:
The predecessor of the National Weather Service was First established in the early 1870s to forecast the weather at Rochester. New York. The storms on Lake Ontario were such as to cause severe economic losses to shipping across Lake Ontario as well as to the high value agriculture in the Northwestern part of New York State. To this day. the National Weather Service has been mandated by the Congress to serve special interests. These are air and marine transportation, and agriculture. In consequence, for an annual budget of approximately 1 per capita, the Weather Service maintains observation points at the major airports of the United States and at a few city stations, and issues forecasts specialized for agriculture, airlines and shipping, and generalized for the general public.
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Document ID: 5AC81867

Consumers Gas LNG Satellite
Author(s): R. G. Riedl
Abstract/Introduction:
The decision to build the first LNG satellite peak shaving plant in the Consumers System was taken early in 1977 after a gas supply and demand study for the Eastern Region showed peak demand in the Ottawa Valley towns that exceeded the areas pipeline capacity. This particular part of our distribution system is supplied by a 8 transmission Une as shown in Figure I. The 125 mile long 8 line was reaching its capacity and an evaluation of other reinforcing possibilities, such as looping a section of the line, indicated that the LNG satellite alternative was most advantageous because it could be used for peak shaving, improve the security of this oneway feed line and facilitate its retesting and pressure elevation.
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Document ID: A5D2AB01

New Concepts In Gate Station Pipeline Heater Design And Control
Author(s): D. K. Mcmillan, G. J. Cripps C. F. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses two new methods utilized by B.C. Hydro and, Power Authority to substantially improve pipeline heater efficiencies. One method employs ihe use of a temperature controlled, three-way by-pass valve which determines the amount of gas heated by the pipeline heater. The second method employs a shell and tube pipeline heater system with high thermal efficiencies. This paper identifies cost savings which can accrue through use of these two methods.
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Document ID: 1CC0201C

A Sampling And Analysis Program For Quality Determination Of Natural Gas
Author(s): m. L. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1976 one of the large intrastate transmission companies began a project to expand their quality determination responsibility. They made the decision to operate with a single large centralized facility, and to eliminate all their other laboratories then being used. The centralized facility with the addition of new automatic equipment quadrupled their analysis capacity from an average of 3OO samples per month or more than 1200 samples per month. The following is a detailed description of how this was accomplished, together with comments on certain alternate methods which were considered.
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Document ID: 3AE4B8F3

Damage Prevention - Where We Are And Where We Are Going In The Future
Author(s): Barry m. Sweedler
Abstract/Introduction:
I know that most of you are well aware of the excavation damage problem-because you live with it every day. Fortunately for you and for the American public, only a small number of catastrophic accidents have resulted from the more than 100,000 damages that occur each year. Let me show you a few pictures to put this in proper perspective. Even though excavation damage is the number one cause of pipeline accidents, it has not been given the attention by the pipehne industry that a nunnber one problem deserves- at least not until recently, Your Systems Proteciion Committee, and its predecessors have always been in the forefront and in the past few years has made tremendous strides. I am particularly pleased with the committees coordination efforts with the APWA Utility Location and Coordination Council, the group that is coordinating this program for all industries, labor, and government. But Im still not sure the industry as a whole shows the committees commitment.
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Document ID: 10EDDCA5

Detection Of Cracked Heat Exchangers On Warm Air Furnaces
Author(s): James F. Wunderlin
Abstract/Introduction:
Most methods used to detect holes or cracks in the heal exchangers of warm air furnaces are either unreliable or have undesirable side effects associated with the tesi such as corrosion, smoke, or odors. This paper will describe a method of delecting discontinuities in heat exchangers of warm air furnaces that is generally more reliable and eliminates the undesirable side effects of other tests. The following paper will be presented as follows: 1. Describe Ihe characteristics of the various types of furnace heat exchangers. 2. Indicate effects of discontinuities in heal exchangers. 3. Summarize laboratory tests performed to develop sodium carbonate lest. 4. Sodium carbonate lest procedure. 5. Summary of actual field experience using sodium carbonate test.
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Document ID: BBADAB7D

By Hook - By Crook - By Pass
Author(s): Raymond J. Crawford
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the first gas utility was formed, certain individuals have been devising methods of defrauding the utility. Underground publications are selling helpful hints on how to beat the big bad utilities. The suggestions range from turning the meter around so it runs backwards to removing the index for part of the billing period. One paper, available by subscription, details how to remove and replace the wire and lead seal so the meter reader will not readily notice the lampering. It explains how to hook up a meter with a vacuum cleaner to turn back the index. The paper is full of safety lips, not only for handling gas, but also for ways to avoid detection. In many areas of the country, independent businessmen are selling their questionable talents to utility customers. These nefarious individuals will alter the registration capabilities of the meter by 30 percent to 50 percent in return for one months utility bill. However, even individual customers are finding their own way of altering meter registration.
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Document ID: EF786EEA

The Grh Process With Cryogenic Recycle To Produce Sng From High Sulphur Gas Oils
Author(s): John C. Tao, Joe Klosek, H. L. Conway, P. A. Borrill
Abstract/Introduction:
In view of the DOEs policy of preserving light petroleum fractions for use as petrochemical feedstocks, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., has adapted the British Gas Corporations Gas Recycle Hydrogenator (GRH) technology for the production of SNG from high sulphur gas oils, a lower cost feedstock which is not allocated by the DOE. Construction has started on such a facility at a site in Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania, which Air Products will own and operate to supply SNG to the gas distribution arm of Philadelphia Electric Co. (PECO). Figure 1 shows an overall input/output diagram of such an SNG facility. As shown, there are feeds of hydrogen, gas oil/naphtha, and refinery off-gas. In turn, the facility produces enriched SNG as well as various by-product streams- typically BTX, heavy aromatics, and C2+. In Marcus Hook, we are using 4 MM SCFD of SNG which will be sent to PECOs gas distribution system, and by-product streams of BTX and heavier aromatics which will be returned to the Sun Petroleum Products refinery which supplies the facility inputs.
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Document ID: 0EA6D742

Pipeline Response To Nearby Detonations
Author(s): Gordon J. Bart
Abstract/Introduction:
The authors wishes to acknowledge the very fine work of Alex B. Wenzel. Peter S. Estine and Edward Esparza of Southwest Research Institute on ftoject PR-15-76 and their valued assistance on this paper. Also, appreciation is expressed to Joe S. Taylor, Chairman, and the other members of the Blasting Research Supervisory Committee for their support and aid. Finally, the opinions and judgements, especially the ill-formed ones, expressed in this paper are not necessarily held or espoused by the A .G. A.. the Pipeline Research Committee, or Southwest Research Institute. It must be cautioned that use or employment of the information or illustrative matetial contained herein is at the users discretion and risk only.
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Document ID: D6BDD1E4

Baltimore Canyon - A Lost Gamble?
Author(s): Allen R. Stern
Abstract/Introduction:
If you have been reading news accounts about the oil industries activities in the Baltimore Canyon, you are probably aware of the Boom to Bust attitude that has developed over the past year. In the next twenty to thirty minutes I hope to place these events into perspective and furnish you with an exploration companys viewpoint on the status of this area. Figure 1 shows the general location of the area where leasing and drilling activity has taken place. This area is located offshore in the Mid-Atlaniic approximately 50 to 100 miles off the coasts of New Jersey and Delaware. As a result of two Federal lease sales, one held in August 1976, and the other more recently in February 1979, the BLM has awarded 132 tracts covering 731,000 acres in this area. These tracts occupy an area primarily on the Continental Shelf in water depths ranging from about 130 to 2,500 feet. Generally this is a tough area to operate in because of adverse weather and has many similarities to the harsh environment of the North Sea.
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Document ID: 54994A94

LNG Satellites In A Distribution System
Author(s): Charles T. Ellis
Abstract/Introduction:
On behalf of Bay State Gas Company, I would like to thank the Liquefied Natural Gas Commiltee for inviting Bay State to participate in this conference. To set the stage for this presentation, I would like to give you a brief background of Bay State. Bay State is a fairly new corporate entity which was formed through the merger of four Massachusetts Gas Companies: the Springfield Gas Light Company, the Brockton- Taunton Gas Company, the Northhampton Gas Light Company and the Lawrence Gas Company. Since none of these companies were contiguous, Bay State has a very fragmented service lerritory which spans ihe state of Massachusetts. To more effectively serve the areas originally supplied by these companies, Bay State has been subdivided into three operating divisions: The Springfield Division, the Brockton Division and the Lawrence Division. In addition, Bay State is currently in the process of acquiring Northern Utilities, Inc., which serves southeastern New Hampshire and southern Maine, Upon completion of this acquisition. Bay State will be operating seven non-contiguous service territories located in three states.
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Document ID: C89E25E7

Application And Evaluation Of Training For Response To Emergency Situations
Author(s): Martin D. Kidwell
Abstract/Introduction:
In our Transmission and Distribution Departments training section at the Washington Gas Light Company (WGLCO), a magnetic situation board has become a very effective training aid in evaluating our field personnels knowledge of emergency procedures, and their ability to make correct decisions pertaining to emergency response. I will attempt to illustrate the components of our situation board as well as how to set up various actual incidents and hypothetical emergency situations designed to enable personnel to improve their skills. I will not illustrate or discuss my companys emergency procedures, since I feel each of you has your procedures and order of priorities based on your individual operating experience.
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Document ID: 0F9C0DA9

Evaluation Of Service Leakage
Author(s): Marvin D. Ringler
Abstract/Introduction:
This study, which is now underway, was designed 10 determine by statislical methods the quantity of gas loss attributable to leaking services and their annual deterioration rate, which can be used to establish capital requirements for service replacements.
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Document ID: 78C9E9CE

The Economics Of Pressure Vs Inches Gas Measurement
Author(s): Donald m. Davis
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will examine the economics of low pressure metering, fixed pressure factor metering, and instrumented pressure delivery metering. A procedure is detailed for determining the total cost of each method by including the after-tax capital costs and the present value of the after-tax operating costs over 20 years. From this the most economical metering can be selected, allowing for special operating conditions or customer requirements which must be met. The minimum capital costs for stations with design loads of 2.0 MCFH through 16.0 MCFH are presented and tables for converting future operating cost cash flows into present dollar values are provided. When total costs are evaluated, it is found that usually low pressure metering should be given first consideration when designing a new station. When pressure delivery is required, fixed pressure factor metering is usually the next most economical.
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Document ID: 865324A1

Shop Repair Of Industrial Regulators Equipment And Policy
Author(s): George E. Coates
Abstract/Introduction:
The modern gas regulator is one of the most reliable, durable and well designed mechanical products in commercial use today. The extremely low failure rate of all the gas regulators in service is proof of their excellence. However, one failure under certain conditions could resull. in a very large monetary loss as well as considerable embarrassment. Therefore, a well developed maintenance program is essential to the continued success of the gas regulator. I will be describing the maintenance program we use at Laclede Gas.
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Document ID: DD79A6AD

Metric Conversion In The Canadian Gas Industry-Update79
Author(s): T. E. Gieruszczak
Abstract/Introduction:
The author updates his presentation on Canadas metric conversion program which was given at the A.G.A. Transmission Conference held in Montreal, Quebec, in May 1978. This update focuses on the progress over the past year in metric conversion planning in Canada, by the Canadian Gas Industry, the Ontario gas utilities, and within his own company.
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Document ID: 5B011219

Methods Of Forecasting And Scheduling Of Shop Maintenance Part II Inspection Scheduling
Author(s): George R. Harrington
Abstract/Introduction:
The Philadelphia Electric Company fleet is made up of some 2,700 vehicles - passenger cars, light to heavy trucks, construction equipment, and trailers of all sizes. The Maintenance Section of Transportation Division has 206 employees from the Superintendent to Helpers among these are 107 mechanics. Inspections and repairs performed by these mechanics are recorded on a Vehicle Repair Order, divided into 113 categories, eight of which are inspections. Information from the VROs is key punched and added to the Maintenance Data Information System for a monthly update which is run on the first Tuesday of each month and Is delivered to Transportation on Wednesday. Included among these reports are two vehicle inspection print outs: (1) the State Inspection report and (2) the Preventive Maintenance report, which together include the inspections on the following pages where they are explained in somewhat greater detail.
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Document ID: 1264FA72

Where Were You When The Lights Went Out
Author(s): Richard D. Kempner
Abstract/Introduction:
Where were you when the lights went out? This question or similar questions may have been asked of you or by you in recent years after there had been an electrical power failure in your service area. In other words, how well is your gas distribution system designed and operated for maintaining an adequate gas supply during and just after an electrical power failure. In 1976, the AGA Distribution Design and Development Committee became interested and concerned about a number of changes or trends being experienced in natural gas distribution system requirements and a task group was established to investigate various new upset conditions in gas distribution systems. The members of this task group were:
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Document ID: CA284C70

Clean Burn Engine
Author(s): m. J. Helmich
Abstract/Introduction:
The Clean Air Act established in J963, together with its many amendments already enacted and those in the process of being enacted, has created some unique problems with respect to (he application of reciprocating compressor engines.
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Document ID: 958AE7A3

Recent Code Changes Concerning Plastic Pipe And Their Impact
Author(s): Joseph S. Van Zandt
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper today is to summarize the impact of the revision to Part 192, Code of Federal Regulations - Minimum Federal Safety Standards for Gas Lines regarding the use of plastic pipe in gas distribution systems, which became effective May 18, 1978. Since almost 100 percent of the plastic pipe installed today is thermoplastic pipe. I will limit my remarks to this material. Al this point I would like to explain some of Ehe terms used in the presentation: ASTM D 2513 refers to the American Society for Testing and Materials Standard Specification for Thermoplastic Gas Pressure Pipe, Tubing and Fittings - Number D 2513.
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Document ID: 401F2A10

Design And Economics Of Pipeline Bottoming Cycles
Author(s): R. J. Rossbach
Abstract/Introduction:
Organic Rankine cycle apparatus in the 600 to 900 horsepower range appears to be technically feasible and economic. Since several units in this power range are being developed under the Department of Energy (DOE) by three different manufacturers, it was thought that this new technology lihould be applied to pipeline bottoming cycles which are of a larger size, giving them the advantage of economy of scale. Thus the DOE ha established a pipeline bottoming cycle program which strives to save an appreciable amount of the natural gas used as fuel for the compressor station prime movers and which will progress through research, development and demonstration of bottoming cycle apparatus under actual pipeline operating condition. In this paper the bottoming cycle system design, the instailalion design for three compressor sites, the technical feasibility and the economic assessment of the three installations are discussed. The pipeline bottoming cycle apparatus in the 5000 to 6000 horsepower range is shown to be technologically feasible now. It is concluded under the assumptions of the study that the pipeline bottoming cycle apparatus is economically viable now when pumping new gas and economically viable in the 1980s when pumping gas with the average of new and old gas costs.
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Document ID: E5F37E02

Second Utility Vehicle Maintenance And Repair Survey Summary Of Results
Author(s): Salvatore L. Bibona
Abstract/Introduction:
A survey of mihiy vehicle maintenance and repair practices was conducted by Stone & Webster Management Consultants, Inc. during the summer of 197. Survey questionnaires were distributed to more than 200 representative utility companies throughout the United Stales. Useful responses were received from 83 companies, or more fhan 40 percent of the companies surveyed. The companies were questioned on the size and dispersion of their service territory, fleet and maintenance and repair operations policies and procedures and perceived areas of maintenance problems. The results were tabulaied and analyzed and industry-wide comparisons were made. (Individual company responses were not reported in the Summary of Results in order to preserve confidentiality.) In addition, selected comparisons were made with the results obtained from the previous Stone & Webster fleet survey conducted in 1976.
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Document ID: 206BF595

How Well Logs Were Used To Improve Evaluation Of A Gas Storage Project
Author(s): J. m. Hawkins, R. W. Snyder, S. B. Pahwa
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the application and interpretation of well logs in gas storage projects. A case history of a storage project in New Mexico is presented as this example had a full suite of base and monitor logs run during the life of the project. A combined application of surface geology, seismic interpretation, reservoir modeling, log evaluation, and field observations was used in developing the field and analyzing the storage operations to date. Time-lapse logging was used to monitor gas bubble growth and to help predict future gas movement. The combination of modeling and logging allowed for better interpretation of reservoir structure and faults (location and sealing efficiency), and verification of gas inventory.
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Document ID: 63780A6E

The Effects Of Hydrogen-Natural Gas Mixtures On A Distribution System - A Practical Approach
Author(s): D. C. Nielsen, W. S. Ku, C. R. Guerra
Abstract/Introduction:
The production of hydrogen by electrolysis using excess energy available from base load electric generating units provides a potential means of supplementing dwindling natural gas supply. This paper summarizes PSE&G work on two studies for the United States Department of Energy concerning the practical problems of distributing and utilizing blends of hydrogen and natural gas on existing systems, and concerning the economics of producing hydrogen by electrolysis as compared to producing synthetic natural gas from naphtha.
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Document ID: 5AFEB177

Physical Security: Peak Shaving LNG Facilities
Author(s): Mario L. Gabos
Abstract/Introduction:
Charges have been made that the federal government has failed to protect the public health and safety in the face of a number of attacks on utilities by various terrorist groups. Some government agencies believe that a terrorist attack at an LNG facility could cause a major rupture in LNG storage tanks. Suggestions have been made to site new LNG plants at remote locations and to strengthen security measures and practices at both existing and proposed LNG facihties. The charges have been addressed by the American Gas Association, They counter that the threat of sabotage to LNG facilities is no different than a threat to a number of other major energy facilities and general public facilities located throughout the continental United States. Storage of gasoline, ammonia, chlorine and phenol represent substantially no different risks of sabotage than natural gas.
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Document ID: 6DCB1B5A

The Fleet Is In A Review Of New Fleet Management Policies At Brooklyn Union Gas
Author(s): Coby m. Hoffman
Abstract/Introduction:
During 1977. Brooklyn Union decided to lake a hard look at its Fleet operations. Increasing Operating/Maintenance costs were the primary reasons for this decision. A Management Consultant was retained lo review the operations of the Companys Transporiation Division. During their stay of one year, a number of important areas including Replacement Policies, Productivity, Fleet Management Systems, etc. were sludicd in detail. A number of recommendations were presented and subsequently implemented by ihe company. The new policies/procedures are now having positive effects on the overall effectiveness of Brooklyn Unions Transportation Division.
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Document ID: F0F34AF3

Summary Of Conservation Observed By Michigan Consolidated Gas Company
Author(s): Allen B. Ferree
Abstract/Introduction:
Michigan Consolidated Gas Company is a natural gas distribution utility serving about one half of the State of Michigan including the city of Detroit. Of sales of 443.8 Bcf in 1978. 171.0 Bcf were to residential customers, 117.4 Bcf to commercial customers and 155.4 Bcf to industrial customers. As in most northern areas of the country (6,OOO to 9,OOO DDD per year) conservation in all market sectors has caused decreases in gas consumption per customer. Michigan Consolidated has, however, been in an advantageous supply position being able to offset the effects of conservation by the addition of new customers. In order to understand the past and potential effects of conservation on Michigan Consolidateds markets, we have been monitoring detailed consumption factors since 1975, and have analyzed historical billing and send-out records back to 1973. Since that year was prior to the oil embargo and the last year before major conservation effects were observed, we have selected 1973 as the base year to which all current levels of consumption are compared.
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Document ID: 63DE1F29

Odorant Concentration Measurement To Control Odorant Injection
Author(s): Wiley m. Cauthen
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas analysis as a control technique for odorant injection is not a common practice. Most natural gas industry odorant injections are controlled by ratio of odorant to gas volume. Using gas volume flow rate as the control method for prorata injection of odorant is quite satisfactory if the system is properly designed, constructed, maintained, and operated however gas volume flow control may prove expensive from a first cost basis in mainline installations where valves and meters must be installed. Also il is not capable of accouniing for naturally occurring odoranis in the gas nor does ii provide a quantitative record of odorant in the gas. This paper presents an alternative control method using gas analysis by either chromatography or titration to insure proper odorization of gas.
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Document ID: D358E1BE

Gas Flow Calculations With Metric Units
Author(s): Tibor E. Haynal
Abstract/Introduction:
Following the recommendation of a While Paper on metrication in 1970, the Canadian Governnieni set up the Metric Commission Canada to organize the orderly and progressive change to the metric system in 1971. The Commission comprised several sectors covering all areas of industry, trade and commerce and each of these sectors developed plans of conversion In their own area. The natural gas industry was represented in Sector 4. Natural gas distribution and transportation companies are covered in Subsector 4.04. In lale 1975 TransCanada appointed a Task Force to consider the impact of metric conversion in the company. This Task Force reported in May, 1977 and following its recommendations, a metric coordinator and committee were set up in August, 1977 to plan Trans- Canadas conversion to the Iniernalional System of Units. By December, 1977 this committee developed a detailed plan for the company. That plan listed the activities at TransCanada which were considered necessary and attainable to meet the general commitments of Sector 4.04 and the companys best interest.
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Document ID: F6A009F1

An Overview Of LNG Facility Siting Criteria
Author(s): Elisabeth m. Drake
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past tew years there has been a proliferation of proposed and promulgated LNG regulations in response to increasing public and govemnncntal safety concerns. A major emphasis has been on the choice of siting criteria for LNG facilities. This paper presents an overview of some of the major issues and describes in general terms the range of requirements included in major regulatory documents. This is not intended as a comprehensive comparison of all siting regulations, but rather to provide some insights on the current issues related to siting of LNG facilities. The comments and opinions presented in this paper are solely those of the author.
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Document ID: 103B03F0

Pneumatic Ground Penetration Rocket
Author(s): Fred R. Bruch
Abstract/Introduction:
Im not trying to promote the sale of any particular product - nor do I wish to disparage any method or equipment, but . . . Im happy to report that after experimenting with various underground projectiles for almost 20 years, at Long Island Lighting Company (LILCO), we feel that we have finally found the one that really does the job. Its successful operation with a small crew size has produced dramaLic savings over conventional methods on small boring and jacking assignments. We first became interested in missiles in the early 1960s and after numerous attempts gave up because of lack of Success. The missile either deviated up, down, or sideways or got stuck enroute. We finally gave up on missiles when we got one stuck under a state highway that couldnt be pulled out - even with a bulldozer!
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Document ID: 4C6A2356

Open Forum On Design Criteria
Author(s): N. Dwight Stevenson, Gerald T. Smith, A. W. Amurgis, De Forest E. Hubbard
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of the Open Forum on Design Criteria is to cover those subjects that do not lend themselves to lengthy discussion or preparation of a paper. These subjects or questions lend themselves to quick, informal answers or the display of hands as to what various companies practices are. During the past year the members of the Distribution Design and Development Committee have assembled questions relative to the gas industry. These questions were submitted to each member of the committee for their answers. Where only yes or no answers were given, they are summarized immediately following the question, then followed by narrative where each paragraph represents a response from a different committee member. These responses are generally unedited for this paper.
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Document ID: 2E09AFA9

Selection Of Hydraulically Fractured Wells For Workover Using A Regression Analysis Of Fall-Off Tests
Author(s): Larry E. Coble, John S. Rodgers, John H. Samonsky
Abstract/Introduction:
After initial fracture stimulations, well performances often show long-term decay in gas deliverability or injectivity which cannot be attributed to normal losses in flow efficiency, Scale buildup, compressor lubricants and fracture healing appear to be major sources of this abnormal decay. A practical procedure for evaluating these effects and selecting wells which should respond most favorably to remedial treatment is presented. This procedure employs a computerized nonlinear regression method to evaluate current fracture conductivity, fracture length, effective matrix permeability and reservoir thickness. Results of these evaluations can also serve as guides for selecting type of remedial treatments.
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Document ID: 627DBF66

Minnesota Gas Company Peat Gasification Program
Author(s): Arnold m. Rader
Abstract/Introduction:
Peat, a geologically young coal, has been used as a fuel for centuries, and in the last few decades has become an important industrial fuel in a number of European countries. Peat presently accounts for about 25 percent of Irelands energy supply and for about 2 percent of (he total energy supply of the Soviet Union. Peat has never been an important source of energy in the U.S. in the past, due to the low cost of other available fuels. Recent increases in energy costs make peal an attractive source of energy at present. This caused Minnesota Gas Company (Minnegasco) in 1974 to become interested in peat as a source of Synthetic Natural Gas.
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Document ID: 8CB11EBE

The Extinguishment Of Natural Gas Fires
Author(s): John F. Riley
Abstract/Introduction:
The liquefaction of natural gas, which reduces its volume by a factor of over 600, has made the storage and transportation of this fuel economically atlractve. However, this liquefaction technique has also served to increase the amount of energy in storage, process and transportation equipment by the same amount. This tremendous concentration of energy has not been overlooked by the gas utilities, nor gone unnoticed by the authorities and the general public. The safely of natural gas, especially from the fire protection standpoint, has been the subject of considerable research in recent years, and many techniques have been refined in the overall fire protection approach to the problem.
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Document ID: 4236BB42

Non-Destructive Examination Of Heatfused Polyethylene Pipe Joints
Author(s): Ervin Dziengielewski
Abstract/Introduction:
Inspection is something most everyone believes in, bul its importance is not always recognized. At the present time nonmechanical on non-destructive examination of heat fused plastic pipe is receiving more attention. In non-mechanical or nondestructive examination of thermoplastic piping, the fabricated joint is examined for defects without physically destroying the joint. What disciplines are available to us for the examination of heat fused plastic pipe? We have several of which visual inspection, radiographic inspection and uhrasonic inspection are perhaps the most acceptable.
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Document ID: 6890A38F

Fleet Leasing: Perspective Of A Lessee
Author(s): Vernley R. Rehnstrom
Abstract/Introduction:
In reviewing and preparing for this paper, 1 went back to the lirne frame of 1969-1970 when the company first utilized a fleet leasing arrangement. We in the utility business are all well aware of the changes in our industry in the last decade yet even this short time span has produced significant changes in operating revenues, construction programs and financing requirements. In our 1969 annual report, we reported that our three year 1970-1972 construction program would total S180 million. For our company, I can remember that we thought this was a significant program. But by contrast today, our three year 1979-1981 construction and nuclear fuel program will total 1.6 billion - almost 10 times as much. I dont think I need to mention that a significant portion of this increase reflects inflation, environmental considerations and regulatory costs.
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Document ID: 34DF6055

Cove Point LNG Receiving Terminal Control Systems
Author(s): Dennis Kazinoff
Abstract/Introduction:
The Cove Point LNG Receiving Terminal, located 60 miles south of Baltimore and 40 miles south of Annapolis near the mouth of the Patuxent River on the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay, is a jointly owned facility of the Columbia Gas System. Inc. and the Consolidated Natural Gas Company. Although this presentation will deal specifically with the various t-ontrol systems at the Cove Point Terminal, 1 v.ould like to spend a few minutes to familiarize everyone here with a brief description of the terminal and its operation. You will then be able to understand some of the problems that had to be overcome in the design conslruction and ultimately the operation of the control system at Cove Point.
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Document ID: 05F8B6F0

The Evaluation Of A Corrosion Control Program
Author(s): K. G. Behrens
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1971, the Office of Pipeline Safety published Subpart 1 of the Minimum Federal Safely Standards for the Transportation of Natural and Other Gas by Pipeline. Subpart I established the Federal regulations dealing with Corrosion Control of gas pipelines. The regulations covered all aspects of corrosion control including the cathodic protection of pipelines installed prior to August 1, 1971, determination of areas of active corrosion, maintenance procedure when corrosion is found, etc. When the regulations were first published, the gas industry immediately assumed the role of trying to understand and interpret the regulations. Once the interpretations were made, decisions were required by each individual company on how lo implement the regulations and how to measure the results of the corrosion control programs. Within this paper, a review will be made of some of the original intentions of the regulations, some of the decisions made by the industry and some of the ways to measure whether the decisions made have produced corrosion control programs which are successful.
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Document ID: 52DDC9DB

The Hygas Process-Coal To Sng
Author(s): Francis S. Lau, Wilford G. Bair
Abstract/Introduction:
The United States is extremely rich in coal and it is in the national interest to use this resource to the greatest exient possible. The HYGAS Process is an economic, efficient, and environmentally acceptable method of producing highly desirable substitute natural gas (SNG) from our coal HYGAS Process concepts and the HYGAS Pilot Plant are described in this paper. The details of key tests from campaigns using major U.S. coal types (lignite, and bituminous) are presented. In conjunction with the proven versatility of the process, commercial/demonstration design projects have been undertaken by the C. F. Braun Co. and Procon, Inc., and the economic implications of these studies are discussed.
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Document ID: B5C98B9A

Atmospheric Dispersion Of Emissions From Compressor Stations
Author(s): m. Dean High
Abstract/Introduction:
To aid in the prediction of groundlevel concentrations from a given facility, the EPA and other research groups have developed mathematical models which typify the plume behavior once it leaves the stack. The X, Y and Z axis are illustrated (Figure 1) for a typical plume released from an elevated stack. As i.s true in all fields, the models work best for rather simplistic situations (i.e., fiat terrain, steady-state meteorological conditions). For dispersion modeling, the accuracy becomes questionable when weather conditions (like windspeed or wind direction) are highly variable or when buildings or rough terrain create turbulence thereby affecting the plume. Weather variabiliiy likewise makes longer term predictions more difficult than an instantaneous prediction which assumes steady slate emission rates, steady state weather conditions, and flat terrain.
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Document ID: 7D76DC57

Preempioyment Testing And Test Validation
Author(s): J. m. Lane
Abstract/Introduction:
As a result of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, subsequent Executive Orders, and State Equal Opportunity Legislation, employment practices have been reviewed and revised by many employers. Federal guidelines now require that all selection testing procedures be validated or proven if they adversely effect the employment opportunities of females or minorities. Since the development and validation of tests are relatively complex, time consuming, and expensive many companies have elected to Slop preempioyment testing and have adopted a quota system of hiring. Although a quota system of hiring may be the expedient way of achieving compliance with the Civil Rights Act it also results in numbers of newly hired employees with an unknown potential for ultimate success in their job.
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Document ID: 2C922080

Fleet Operations Experience With Radial Tires
Author(s): J. R. Ainsworth
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject I am going to discuss with you is a test comparing radial and conventional truck tires carried out at Francon Division of Canfarge Limited between May 1976 and October 1977. For those of you who are not familiar with this company, Francon is a wholly owned subsidiary of Canada Cement Lafarge Ltd. and is involved in heavy construction (highways, airports, etc.), as well as ready-mix concrete, asphalt, crushed stone and prestressed/ precasi concrete products. Its main areas of operations are the Province of Quebec and the greater Ottawa areas.
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Document ID: F3E045DB

Fuel Gas Conservation Trends In Philadelphia Area
Author(s): Frank C. Hunsberger
Abstract/Introduction:
This information about Philadelphia is meant to supplement the graphic data to be presented here and to set it in proper perspective, The data has been taken from the records of the Philadelphia Gas Works. PGW is strictly a gas utility franchised to market gas within the city and county of Philadelphia, a densely populated area of 135 square miles, housing approximately 1.900,000 people. There are 532,433 active connected meters in our system. The housing in Philadelphia consists mainly of row construction (about 70 percent) the remainder being single, twin or multiple family dwellings. About 70 percent of all homes are healed with gas.
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Document ID: 059F489E

The British Connection
Author(s): Jack Bates, Alan D. Mason
Abstract/Introduction:
The authors wish to think the American Gas Association for the opportunity of presenting this paper to the annual Distribution Conference. A brief insight is given into the way in which British Gas, and the West Midlands region in particinlar, supphes new domestic loads. Throughout Britain there has recently been a dramal ic expansion in the demand for gas, and this has been supported by the availability of assured and ample supplies from the North Sea gas fields. Total sales of gas have doubled in seven years and have quadrupled in 12 years. Domestic Sales have experienced a similar surge after a relatively static period during the 1950s and early i960s. Recent legislative changes, coupled witli augmented supplies, may well initiate a siiriilar surge of activity in the United States during the next decade.
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Document ID: 3186C17E

Encounters With Internal Corrosion In Offshore Gas Pipelines
Author(s): R. P. Badrak, C. J. Schoppe
Abstract/Introduction:
Traditionally natural gas pipelines have been relatively free of severe corrosion problems initiating on the inside surface. In the last few years this has been changing and severe internal corrosion has been found frequently in offshore pipelines. Some of this internal corrosion has been diagnosed as erosion-corrosion. Erosion corrosion can be detlned as a corrosion process which experiences an increase in attack because of the relative movement between the environment and the metal surface. In the case of the internal surface of a pipeline, the metal surface with its protective corrosion products is being continually bombarded by the abrasive constituents of the pipeline media. This results in removal of these corrosion products exposing fresh metal surface to the environment and erosion of the surface.
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Document ID: 06473566

Baltimore Gas And Electric Companys Sng Plant Start-Up Experience
Author(s): P. L. Dziubinski
Abstract/Introduction:
Reviewing Baltimore Gas and Electric Companys SNG Plant start-up history the initial mechanical difficulties we experienced in early and mid 1976, in retrospect, were minimal compared with the major operational difficulties experienced in the last quarter of 1976. The two years after achieving commercial operation in December 1976 were required along with approximately 2,000,000 of capital expense to overcome the shortcomings of the plant design and equipment. Our experience in Ihis regard has not been. to a large exlenl, any different than most industrial companies. This last winter, our third operating season, the BG&K SNG facility achieved design capacity lor the first time and demonstrated unprecedented reliability.
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Document ID: 2675703E

Gas Demand Analysis
Author(s): Richard J. Trieste
Abstract/Introduction:
The area serviced by Brooklyn Union is within ihree of the counties that make up New York City. It consists of 187 square mites with a population of almost 3,900,000 people. Our market consisis of two parts with one part covering our firm rates supplying the residential, commercial and industrial areas and the second part consisting of our interruptible rates supplying similar areas as the First part. The parts are not equal in that the interruptible load represents only 9.2 percent of Brooklyn Unions annual sendout.
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Document ID: 8ED8C780

Status Of Alaskan Gas Reserves And Their Potential Impact On The United States And Canada
Author(s): D. L. Simasko
Abstract/Introduction:
Alaska has long been recognized as a storehouse of vast mineral wealth. What started out as Sewards Folly in 1867, may very well be the element which will significantly contribute to the United States ability to maintain its present level of economic activity and continue a lifestyle foreseen by its founders and fostered through two hundred years of its existence. Among the many items in the Storehouse of the North are proven and potential reserves of natural gas. The American Gas Association estimates that proved reserves of gas in the United States at year-end, 1978, were 200.3 trillion cubic feet. As of January I, 1979, the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission estimates that there are at least 33.7 trillion cubic feet of proven recoverable gas reserves in the state of Alaska (see Figure 1). The tabulation prepared by the commission was computed from data compiled last November and was adjusted to reflect estimated remaining recoverable reserves as of January 1, 1979.
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Document ID: A3CA7BD6

Refcom Refuse( Conversion To Methane)-A Project Review
Author(s): Peter J. Ware
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1975, the U.S. Depanment of Energy (formerly ERDA) awarded Waste Management, Inc. a contract to design and construct a proof-of-concept experimental facility to demonstrate the biological gasification of urban solid waste and sewage sludge to produce methane-rich gas. Named RefCOM, the facility will process between 50 and 100 tons per day of the organic fraction of shredded urban refuse. Jacobs Constructors, Inc., a subsidiary of Jacobs Engineering Company of Pasadena, California, was the engineering/ construction management sub-contractor for the project. Construction of the facility was completed by May 1st, 1978, and was followed by a sixmonth start-up phase. The plani has been in daily operation since November, 1978, and is being run in accordance with a predetermined experimental program which will be of two-tofour years duration. Waste Management, Inc. has been awarded an operating contract to manage the program and operate the facility.
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Document ID: 8AD4AD58

Cove Point: Commissioning Of An LNG Terminal
Author(s): Robert Venendaal, Bland Osborn
Abstract/Introduction:
The Cove Point terminal received its first shipment of Algerian LNG in March 1978, some nine years after project conception. Commissioning began in August 1977 and continued until June 1978, a period of some ten months. As is usually the case, commissioning and start-up ran concurrently with the completion of construction, and required extensive coordination between construction and operating personnel. This article addresses the most noteworthy events in the commissioning of Cove Point. The first major process commissioning activity was the dryout of all cryogenic vessels, piping and equipment after field pressure testing. Its purpose was to remove all standing water and moisture from cryogenic systems to prepare them for the introduction of LNG and cold vapors. Without dry-out, ice could form and result in damage to pumps, compressors, expansion joints, and valve seats, not to mention blockages in the small bore instrument and control tubing, and the seizure of bearings and bushings in rotating machinery.
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Document ID: F35BEA85

The Use Of Transient Flow Simulator In Evaluating Transmission System Problems
Author(s): Mike Forster
Abstract/Introduction:
Transient flow analysis provides a useful tool when analy?:ing gas flow when there are time varying loads. Transient flow refers to a state of unsteady flow or unbalanced flowing conditions. Transient flow modeling allows the prediction of the real life behavior of a piping network as it would occur during the period of the simulation. The prediction of the time lag between a system operation (valve or compressor, etc.) and the effect either up or down stream is an application for transient flow simulation. The displacement of the inventory throughout the system is dependent on the recent history of the system operations. An accurate accounting of inventory displacement and system response can only be made through transient flow simulation.
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Document ID: E1284143

An Extra Job A Day Through Home-Based Truck Program
Author(s): J. m. Shalom
Abstract/Introduction:
Increased Productiviiy - The byline of the 70s, Economists around the world have a multitude of solutions to combat one of the foremost problems of our era, Inflation. However, the single factor that appears in most formulas is increased productivity. I am sure there is virtually no company represented here today that is not, to some degree, concerned with productivity and methods to improve it. Philadelphia Electric Company is no exception. Numerous efforts have been made over the years and various programs implemented, all with ihe same goal - that is, increase the productivity of the work force. Today, I would like lo describe one such program - home-based trucks for appliance servicemen - first conceived by our Gas Operations Department in 1968. I hope lo relate not only the merits, bul possible pitfalls associated with this program.
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Document ID: E223FE6D

Automated Drafting Systems And Their Future Uses
Author(s): Alfred J. Smith, Jr., Curtiss N. Stuart
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the current status of the Automated Drafting System (ADS) at San Diego Gas & Electric, and a feasible approach to an expanded utilization of ADS equipment. The paper and the presentation will cover the following areas: 1. The current status of automated drafting at SDG&E. 2. The transition from automated drafting to a Facilities Information System (FIS). 3. Some examples of the applications and capabilities of a FIS. 4. An outline of economic factors to be considered when evaluating a FIS. 5. Conclusions.
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Document ID: 75443AB6

The Deep Tuscaloosa Gas Trend Of Southern Louisiana
Abstract/Introduction:
The recent, and continuing, rapid development of the Deep Tuscaloosa Gas Trend throughout Ihe south-central Parishes of Louisiana represents a major industry play which is yielding many new gas discoveries at a low exploratory risk. This high level of successful activity has created an intensely competitive environment where as many as one hundred individual operating companies are estimated to be participating in the drilling, the leasing, and the conducting of geophysical surveys throughout the entire trend area. Commencing with Chevrons initial production of gas at False River 18 months ago, several additional new fields have been put on stream as the Industry now enters the production, transportation, and marketing phase of this trend exploitation program.
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Document ID: 179DF09C

Why Bury The District Regulator
Author(s): Gilbert A. Holmstoen
Abstract/Introduction:
With the development of the temperature compensated gas meter in the late 1950s, it became evident to a number of companies that gas distribution facilities could be installed outside and above ground. Predictions of vandalism and damage proved to be largely unfounded. In 1967, Minnegasco decided on a field trial of two post mounted district regulators. Prior to this lime, our standard installation consisted of a working monitor and a primary regulator - each in its own three section precast concrete vault. The new inslallations were easily accomplished and the economics were attractive. Since that time, we have installed approximately 100 above ground district regulators - some of the loop or hairpin type, but mostly post mounted and almost all on public right-of-way.
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Document ID: 05E10362

Null Methods For Locating Electrical Shorts And Open Couplings On Underground Pipelines
Author(s): Darrel D. Byerley
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes an improved method and apparatus used in locating electrical shorts and open couplings on underground pipe lines. Locating underground electrical contacts and open couplings on coated pipelines forms one of the major field problems in the installation and maintenance of a cathodic protection system. Locating and removing these contacts or open couplings is often very time consuming and expensive, particularly in urban areas where a considerable amount of the system lies under paving and in close proximity with other underground structures. Another hindrance is AC interference from overhead power lines or where the AC ground neutrals are connected to the system.
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Document ID: EF035460

Workload Forecasting Of Automotive And Equipment Maintenance
Author(s): D. J. Postl
Abstract/Introduction:
Consumers Power Company is a combination electric and gas utility serving approximately 1.3 million electric and 1 million gas customers in Michigans Lower Peninsula. The Company conducts its distribution activities through eight Regions. Each Region is charged with the responsibility of developing a workload forecast and work force requirements to satisfy the anticipated workload. This workload forecast becomes a very vital part of the annual budgeting process. In addition to the eight Region headquarters repair facilities, (here are 26 staffed repair centers located throughout the service area. The staff at these centers varies from 15 to one repairman (Exhibit 1). Ninety percent of all general repair work is accomplished with Company personnel. Contracting is limited to the specialty trades such as bumping and painting, upholstery work, glasswork, machine shop, etc.
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Document ID: 3F9FAD75

Computerized Leak Management
Author(s): William Kinneary
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the Computerized Leak Management System developed by and for the Brooklyn Union Gas Company. It details the need for the system at a time when increasing street leak volumes were overburdening our manual leak controls. The use of a team development concept utilizing systems, distribution and engineering personnel is detailed along with the attempt to tailor the system to the users need and the operating personnels background. To best demonstrate the use of the system, the flow of a typical leak is followed from its initial receipt through final verification of repairs. Finally the plans for continuing development are discussed and both current and possible future benefits are outlined.
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Document ID: 1669062F

Pocket Size Chart Drive Battery Tester
Author(s): D. R. Fulton
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most aggravating things to find is a partial chart record of metered volume or in the case of a recording gauge, the pressure or temperature hasnt been recorded for the last several days or weeks. Closer inspection finds that the battery powered clock or chart drive has slopped. Was it a faulty battery? Did the power pack develop a short? Was the battery too weak when it was first installed? In the past, perfectly good docks have been removed for repair because they have stopped during cold weather. Most clock stoppage occurs on the coldest uay of the season but it isnt always the clocks fault. The batter or the power pack could be the cause of the clock failure and just when the chart record is needed the most for a good indication of what the line pressure was in a distribution system or what the high flow conditions were through the gas meter, the recording chart stopped. Often times the clock was not at fault, it could be that the battery just didnt have enough power when the ambient temperature reached record lows, so the clock didnt rewind itself.
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Document ID: D96925C3

Considerations And Use Of A Gas Supply Model Applied To Company Planning
Author(s): Thomas A. Sacco
Abstract/Introduction:
When I was asked to give this presentation several months ago, I couldnt help but reminisce about how the gas-supply mix situation had changed even within the ten short years that 1 have been involved with the problem. During the late sixties, gas-supply planning was not encumbered by todays supply constraints and, like many other businesses, we determined our supply mix based on simple economics. Each season we received a projection of the expected load lo be added from our marketing departments. When this increment of new load was added to our known requirements, we then calculated the level of pipeline gas required. We would attempt to purchase pipeline gas up to the point where the incremental cost of purchasing the gas was equal to the incremental cost of peak-shaving. Load duration analysis would indicate the break-even pipeline level and the volumes of production required. (See Fig. I).
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Document ID: 8142FBA9

Radial Tires And Proper Tire Maintenance Save Money
Author(s): Alex Jankowsky
Abstract/Introduction:
Fuel savings is on everybodys mind. To an average fleet, the price of diesel fuel has more than quadrupled since 1973, and indications are that it will go higher. Therefore. even a 1 percent fuel savings can translate into a considerable dollar savings to any fleet. The radial truck tire, with less tread squirming and cooler running, has less heat buildup and a lower rolling resistance and thus saves fuel. Of the 144 documented fuel saving tests on record, the average fuel savings is 11.7 percent. Exxon ran a test in one of its operations in the Northeast and came up with a 14.28 percent fuel savings. Perhaps your fleet will save only 5 percent or even 3 percent by switching to radial tires - in other words, if youre spending 1 million on fuel. a 3 percent saving would mean saving 30,000.
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Document ID: 7A186503

Customer Service Personnel As Public Relation Agents
Author(s): Joseph J. Drechsler
Abstract/Introduction:
It is my pleasure to tell you about the Its Our Pleasure program of the customer service department of the Baltimore Gas and Electric Co. A program designed to help make every employee a public relations agent in their daily contarts with our customers.
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Document ID: AAD20E3F

U.S. Coast Guard LNG Regulations
Author(s): P. J. Pluta
Abstract/Introduction:
LNG is rapidly becoming an important source of imported energy to meet the overall energy needs of the nation. Concern expressed by news media, the general public and public officials has focused on the safety of the related transportation, storage, and distribution systems, including those under Coast Guard jurisdiction in the marine mode. On October 4, 1976, the U.S. Coast Guard published Proposed Standards for Self- Propelled Vessels Carrying Bulk Liquefied Gases. These standards implement the corresponding international code developed under the auspices of the International Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO), formally IMCO Resolution A.328 (IX), the Code for the Conslruciion and Equipmenl of Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk.
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Document ID: EA1B2801

LNG Olympics: U.S. Vs The World
Author(s): Edward K. Faridany
Abstract/Introduction:
One year ago it was possible to observe that uncertainties of a greater magnitude hung over the future of interiiationa! LNG trading activities than probably had ever been the case in the past. Perhaps the dominating uncertainty concerned the US, where project developments were seriously hampered by a progressively slower regulatory process and an absence of a detmable import policy towards LNG. In the intervening 12 months there has been some reduction in this level of uncertainty, but at the expense of the industrys development prospects. Official US policy, to the extent that it can be identified, now appears to militate against LNG as a major long-term source of natural gas for the US. While policy can, of course, always be reversed, it .is the object of this paper to consider the effects of (he present trend in policy against the background of the international baseload LNG market. In particular, indicating the extent to which the apparent contraction in US trading relates to the supply outlook for LNG to Western Europe and Japan, as the two other major LNG import areas of the 1980s.
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Document ID: F28D497A

Pacific Coast Gas Associations Natural Gas Safety Information Program
Author(s): George F. Gaebler
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for a gas safety information program stems from peoples decreasing firsthand experience with fire and fuel on the one hand, and the increasing level of gas technology on the other. Manually operated oil, wood, coal or gas-burning appliances have not been in ordinary use for over a generation. From 1915 to 1925 the industry changed from manufactured gas to natural, from lighting to heating, from cast-iron lo welded steel distribution piping and to greatly increased distribution pressures in order to handle the vastly larger volumes of fuel being used.
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Document ID: AD0C8B94

Rupture Detection In Multiple-Line Gas Transmission Systems
Author(s): Cecil R. Sparks, Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
The comments in this paper are based upon preliminary results of a program currently under way at SwRI for the Southern Gas Associations Pipeline and Compressor Research Council (SGA-PCRC) to define the present state of the art of pipeline rupture detection for the gas pipeline industry and to provide direction for future activity by the industry both in detecting and controlling the effects of pipeline rupture. Since the comments made today arc preliminary in nature, they do not necessarily represent final conclusions or the position of any particular segment of the pipeline industry. In the discussions that follow, an analysis will be made of several possible detection approaches which are at least theoretically functional and which show promise of usefulness. No discussion is given of the rarefaction wave (acoustic pulse) detectors, since these are covered in a separate paper at this conference.
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Document ID: 020BF3B6

Nondestructive Evaluation Of Engine And Compressor Components
Author(s): David L. Culbertson
Abstract/Introduction:
It hasnt been that long ago since mass produced parts for power engines, such as gears, valves, and piston pins, were just merely spot checked or examined. This was called sampling and was quite acceptable provided the risk for reliability was known. For example, if out of 1,000 parts only 30 of them were examined, this could lead to a 50 percent chance of accepting a lot of parts in which 20 perceni of the parts were defective, the wrong side, the wrong hardness, and etc. These odds may be acceptable to some, but if they are not, then how many samplings would be required to get belter results?
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Document ID: C9C90856

Methane Degasification Of Coal Seams
Author(s): Robert Stefanko
Abstract/Introduction:
The declining nature of our domestic oil industry, coupled with the rise of the OPEC cartel, has created, during the 1970s, a severe energy crisis that promises to get worse. However, although a reevaluation of our energy posture has been under way. no significant program has yet evolved. Instead, we continue to import increasing quantities of oil with disastrous economic results. Alternatives continue to be studied and unconventional sources, one of which is methane gas from coal seams, are being explored.
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Document ID: 50123361

LNG Spill Fire Tests On Water - An Overview Of The Results
Author(s): P. K. Raj, N. A. Moussa, K. Aravamudan, C. D. Lind
Abstract/Introduction:
A series of 16 tests have been conducted at the Naval Weapons Center involving the spill and ignition of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on water. Two kinds of fires have been studied namely, pool tires and vapor cloud fires. The principal objective of the tests was to measure the thermal radiation output of LNG fires on water, and to study their main physical characteristics. The quantities of spilled LNG varied between 3 and 5.5 m3 with spill durations from 30 to 250 s. Thermal radiation from the fires was measured using wide-angle and narrow-angle radiometers and a spectrometer. Based on the corroborating radiation data from independent measuring instruments, a mean value of 210 kW/m2 has been obtained for the flame emissive power in the pool fire on water experiments. From the spectral record the fiame temperature is estimated to be 1500 K. While Ihis radiating temperature is higher than previously expected, much of this radiation is from water and carbon dioxide.
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Document ID: 336E78C3

Performance Of Canadian Gas Research Institutes High Efficiency Water Heater
Author(s): S. W. Khoo
Abstract/Introduction:
The CGRI high efficiency water heater was developed to provide energy conservation and durability features at an acceptable cost to the consumer. Recovery efficiencies of 82-85 percent compared to 70 percent for conventional heaters were obtained. The standby losses were reduced to 3-3.5 percent/hour of input from the values of 4.5-6 percent/hour for contemporary units. The merits of the CGRI high efficiency water heater lie in its simplicity of design, minimal additional first cost, solid field evidence of extended tank life, low operating cost, reduced service problems and ease of manufacture. The potential energy saving of the CGRI high efficiency water healer will make it economically viable especially in comparison to the operating cost of an electric water heater.
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Document ID: F0259F21

Overview Of Plastic Pipe Research Projects
Author(s): Michael m. Epstein
Abstract/Introduction:
The plastic pipe research program at Battelles Columbus Laboratories (BCL) plays a key role in the development of improved materials and test standards for plastic gas distribution piping systems. The program has been under way without interruption for close to two decades, first under the sponsorship of the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) and since January, 1978, under the sponsorship of the Gas Research Institute (GRI). During (he past five to six years, the program has undergone significant growth in terms of breadth of Battelle staff participation, the range of projeci scope, and sophistication. This has been possible because the level of direct support provided by the sponsoring agencies and the indirect support provided by many individual segments of the gas industry have increased commensuraiely.
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Document ID: DFFE90C8

Stimulation Of Gas Storage Fields To Recovery Deliverability
Author(s): H. S. Fogler, E. R. Grain
Abstract/Introduction:
The deliverability of a number of gas storage fields in the Michigan stray sands has been steadily decreasing in recent years. Previous attempts to recover deliverabihty by acid stimulation have either been unsuccessful or produced slight or moderate gains in deliverability. In this study, a mathematical modeling coupled with laboratory core flood experiments provided the basis for the design of the matrix acid stimulation of 10 gas storage wells. Increases in the deliverability of these wells ranged from 41 percent to 463 percent.
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Document ID: 120EE5C6

Panhandle Eastern Pipe Lines Approach To Esd Reliability Testing
Author(s): Robert J. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
Approximately two years ago. Panhandle Eastern Pipe Line Company experienced two major compressor station fires. For both of these fires, the severity of the damages incurred would have been extremely reduced had there not been a malfunction in the Emergency Shutdown System, We found at that time that these systems, like many others, had been sorely neglected. This, we felt, was due to the rising workload presented by a major expansion of our facilities to cope with the problems of reducing field pressure.
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Document ID: 0FA9DAA1

Preliminary Report On The A-G.A, Pipeline Research Committee Project PR-15-98 Shielded Ignition Study Summary Of Field Experience
Author(s): R. S. Applegate
Abstract/Introduction:
The ignition systems applied to internal combustion reciprocating engines have taken many forms, but they all had the same end purpose: to reliably ignite the fuel mixture inside the cylinder. To accomphsh this, ihe ignition system had to produee the following: 1. 30 to 40 KV at the spark plug electrodes 2. maintain Ihe spark for about 10 microseconds 3. a total spark energy of about 10 millijoules An ideal ignition system would perform its function reliably wilh minimum maintenance. It would not rapidly erode the spark plug gaps, sustain rapid wear or damage other components such as the plug transformers or the secondary leads.
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Document ID: 391991D5

European Cooperative Pipeline Fracture Propagation Research
Author(s): C. Coors, G. D. Fearnehough, F.O. Koch, J. Kugler, S. Venzi, G.H. Vogt
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes a research programme which was designed to study certain aspects of unstable shear fracture propagation in gas transmission linepipe. In particular it was necessary to evaluate divergencies between several existing analyses in predicting toughness levels to give fracture arrest in large diameter pipes. Consequently a series of nine full scale experiments was carried out according to a factorial design involving the parameters impact value, hoop stress level and diameter. The programme was proposed and sponsored by a group of European pipe manufacturers and gas transmission companies (EPRG) and also the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and was conducted by British Gas Corporation.
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Document ID: 4F6EE4D8

History Of Corrosion In Liquid Feed Sng Plants
Author(s): George W. Stubblebine
Abstract/Introduction:
In the early 197Os sustained and increasing cutbacks in the quantity of natural gas being delivered to distributor utilities in the United States led to the planning of facilities to supplement their reduced supplies. The state-of-the- art production methods at that time were catalytic steam reforming processes which used liquid hydrocarbon feedstocks of compositions ranging between propane and naphtha with a 365F (183C) maxiumum boiling point.
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Document ID: 643A61D5

Conservation Of Gas Through Continuous Fuel And Horsepower Monitoring
Author(s): B. J. Roberts, D. J. Dietrich
Abstract/Introduction:
Panhandle, hke many other gas transmission companies, has been engaged in the past in several approaches to evaluate fuel consumption and to address itossible ways to conserve this premimum fuel at its compressor stations. In the past, it has been difficult to birddog and respond quickly to fuel and horsepower loading inefticiencies since continuous monitoring of this fuel usage and its possible optimization was extremely time consuming and labor intensive. However, we have over the past years, spot checked these fuel conditions, hand calculated what we fell was an attainable optimum fuel rate with an alternate configuration of horsepower and/or through trade outs between speed and torque adjustments, and proved to ourselves that fuel economics were possible and practical if we only had a technique for continually monitoring and calculating alternate loading conditions and unit allocations that would keep pace with a fairly dynamic and ever-changing line of service horsepower requirement.
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Document ID: 7CD1480C

Gaining Consumer Satisfication
Author(s): David R. Conover
Abstract/Introduction:
Beginning with the of trading goods and services over 4,000 years ago, consumer satisfaction has played an important role in the ultimate design and utilization of all consumer products. Initially this probably applied to items such as food and household goods, but as technology brought more sophisticated types of goods and services to consumers doorsteps, consumers became more aware of the need to shop for the premium product. Of the items reviewed by the consumer, first-cost, durability, serviceabihty and cost of operation are the most important, if the person that purchases these goods and services for his or her own needs finds they do not meet expectations, wishes or desires, he or she will be dissatisfied.
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Document ID: 91A4E18E

Computer Mapping At Entex A( Progress Report)
Author(s): C. L. Woody, George O. John, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Early in the 70s it became apparent that ENTEXs Houston Division Engineering Department, with its staff at that time, was falling behind in its effort to keep block maps, construction drawings, operating maps, and other map records current. Investigation revealed that many service orders and main orders were not being posted to block maps on schedule. Additionally, while ENTEX has always located its underground lines on request, the expanded use of plastic pipe was resulting in greater than normal increases in requests from contractors for this service. Much of this activity was in the more recently piped areas, requiring that as-built drawings be prepared as soon as possible after construction to provide the necessary location of new mains.
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Document ID: 23DCE668

The Effect Of Paving On Pipe-To-Soil Potentials
Author(s): Bernard Husock
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for obtaining accurate pipe-to-soil potential measurements for the purpose of monitoring the effectiveness of cathodic protection on underground pipeHnes is well established. In the procedure used for taking this measurement, as shown in Fig. 1, it is recognized that resistances in the measuring circuit can introduce error. Thus, the voltage V, as measured on the voltmeter can be of lower value than the actual potential E because of resistance:
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Document ID: DE62D09F

Rollover Experience At An LNG Peak Shaving Facility At Omaha, Ne
Author(s): V. J. Barkus, J. G. Loll
Abstract/Introduction:
The LNG peak shaving plant in Omaha, Nebraska, became operational in 1975. Since then, several minor rollovers have been experienced. These have been classified as minor because, in each instance, the vapor pressure in the tank increased a small amount and was brought down to normal values with standard, non-emergency, operating procedures. We plan to obtain additional and more precise data during any future rollovers, if and when they occur.
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Document ID: 065969E7

Large Diameter Plastic Pipe: The Time Has Come
Author(s): Jmes V. Lauricella
Abstract/Introduction:
On one cold winter night in 1977, an explosion occurred at a main intersection of Schenectady, New York. No one at the time knew what happened. Our crews were sent lo the area to investigate. We probed the area, checked all the manholes and sewers and to our dismay found that there was indeed a gas leak. Further investigation determined that it was natural gas. Excavating, we found that a 12 east iron main which was operating at about 20 pounds pressure had cracked and leaked gas under the pavement and into the building. We were fortunate that no one was hurt, but the building and sidewalk needed a little reconditioning.
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Document ID: 62B7A9E9

LNG And Hydrogen Review
Author(s): Alan Coates
Abstract/Introduction:
As the supply of natural gas declines, there has been a concerted effort to study and develop alternative energy sources for use as supplemental fuels. Studies of some fuels have been made where their use may never become reality as a supplemental fuel due to economical and technical considerations. LNG, however, is already on stream in some areas, and its compatability with existing natural gas distribution systems has been evaluated. LNGs vary in healing value depending upon the geographical source and age of their mixture as well as with the amount of stripping, if any. that is undertaken.
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Document ID: F74526B2

Methane From Biomass And Organic Wastes
Author(s): D. E. Hubbard
Abstract/Introduction:
Biomass simply refers to all growing organic matter such as trees, grasses, and other land and water based plants. Biomass gasification is the process by which carbon energy, stored in the vegetation through photosynthesis, is converted to methane, the principal ingredient of natural gas. The fossil fuels - coal, oil, and natural gas are the remains of long dead plants, and the combustible elements in them were extracted from air and water by solar powered photosynthesis millions of years ago. If we were able to economically manufacture methane on a large scale from biomass, we would have speeded up the normal geological process of growth, decay, fossilization, and generation of natural gas and developed a perpetual methane economy.
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Document ID: 78406AFB

Applied Hydrocarbon Condensate Control Techniques
Author(s): Alexander J. Dukat
Abstract/Introduction:
The Research Department of the Columbia Gas System Service Corporation improved and applied the technology of condensate formation originally developed in A.G. A. Pipeline Research Committee Project PR 26-69, Predicting Pipeline Condensate. The accomplishments of the A.G.A. program are reviewed and in an introduction to vaporliquid behavior the retrograde condensation phenomenon is explained. The fundamentals of droplet dynamics are introduced as a guide to understanding the effectiveness of liquid collection in pipelines. The application of the technology at two company locations is discussed.
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Document ID: F3DBD7A2

Can The U.S. LNG Industry Weather The Storm?
Author(s): Jack H. Ray
Abstract/Introduction:
Well, lets look at this question. First, you ail know we are running out of gas! Youre knowledgeable people and I wont bore you proving that fact. Our reserves have been declining since 1967-and they still are. They will go critical in two or three years. Well, surely we are not just going to sit here and run out of gas are we? Why, certainly not. We are responsible, resourceful people, and we are going to go all out to serve our customers and fulfill our contracts, To do this, weve go! to go with supplemental sources of supply and most of us have jumped on this hard and spent a lot of effort and dollars trying to maintain our reserves and our deliverability.
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Document ID: 31BCC31F

Penetrabilities Of Gas Odorant Compounds In Natural Soils
Author(s): R. m. Parlman, R. P. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
The problem of soil adsorption of natural gas odorants was investigated further, A previous study employing predried Mississippi montmorillonite clay was extended to include the moist clay and a highly decomposed organic (high-humus) soil from Michigan. The purpose was to learn if odorant compounds in dry natural gas differ significantly in their resistance to adsorption by moist montmorillonite clay and an organic soil such as might be encountered in an underground gas leak. A further objective was to learn if tertiary butyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide exhibit the same penetrability superiority in moist clay and organic soil that they demonstrated in predried clay in the previous study.
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Document ID: D6C773FD

Implementation Of A Materials Management System
Author(s): Joseph S. Tesoriero
Abstract/Introduction:
Im going to tell you what a materials management system means to us at Brooklyn Union Gas. Ill tell you why we decided to develop this system, how we developed it, some of the pitfalls to avoid and something about the benefits we expect to derive from the system. This should be of particular interest if youre starting down the same path. Or if you have your own system now, you may find some features that you might want to adopt. First, a little information about Brooklyn Union - to help you evaluate the features of our system versus what you already have or what you contemplate for your company. In general, the scope of a materials management system (MMS) should conform to the size of your company.
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Document ID: FE54DE34

Application Of Automatic Transmissions To The Utility Fleet
Author(s): J. A. Kidd
Abstract/Introduction:
The Detroit Diesel Allison Division of General Motors has been in production with the present family of heavy duty, fully automatic transmissions for the truck and bus markets since 1970. With increasing emphasis on overall economic improvement in the general truck and bus industry, the application of automatic transmissions in this industry has become readily apparent, as proven by many major trucking firms using the Allison Automatics in quantity.
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Document ID: 7B5966C7

Meter Shop Training Programs, Methods And Devices
Author(s): N. A. Hammersly
Abstract/Introduction:
Training of workers in gas meter repair shops has generally lacked the emphasis given to other utility crafts. The value of a formal training program can far exceed its cost. Recommended method is the use of an instructor equipped with visual aids in a separate training room, using a formal curriculum, with progress measures and grading.
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Document ID: 04339245

A Vernier Valve Natural Gas Regulating System
Author(s): Ralph A. Barbakoff
Abstract/Introduction:
The Vernier Valve Control System provides the capability of controlling large changes in flow gas requirements with only two parallel piped regulator valves. This system was developed to replace the conventional muiti-run regulator systems previously used ai The Peoples Gas Light & Coke Company Gate Stations. With this system pressure or flow control operation is obtainable using commercially available pneumatic or electronic analog instrumentation. Therefore, both pneumatic and electronic controllers may be incorporated in single system, one being used as back-up for the other. Response times of under one minute are being obtained for set point changes of 5 percent or less with system turn down ratios of 200 to t which is a control accuracy of less than .5 percent deviation between process and set point.
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Document ID: 4089D544

Conservation Of Gas During Scheduled Shutdowns
Author(s): Conrad D. Lawson, Tom D. Parker
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas historically has been priced artificially below the level of competing fuels. Consequently, the gas industry has enjoyed ever-increasing demand tor its product. In the days when supply was abundant, most companies were attaching new gas sources to serve steadily growing markets. Pipeline companies were operating their facilities at maximum capacity and adding loop lines and new facilities to increase capacity practically every year. There was no financial incentive to conserve gas. because it was lowpriced in relation to labor costs associated with conservation efforts and, besides, nobody wanted facilities out of service any longer than was absolutely necessary. But the regulatory pressure to hold prices down eventually resulted in the markets growing faster than new supply could be attached. As production from older sources began to decrease, new sources simply couldnt be located and produced at allowable prices fast enough to keep pace with demand. This is a familiar story that has been told many times, but consider the impact it had on gas industry operations.
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Document ID: BAE8CB33

Techniques To Optimize Fuel And Compressor Combination Selection
Author(s): Vijender N. Gopal
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents a method to optimize pipeline operations for minimum fuel usage utilizing very simple and practical operations research techniques. I call the techniques simple because all that is involved for finding the optimum is addition and subtraction of numbers.
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Document ID: D7626D7C

The Cretaceous Niobrara Gas Play
Author(s): Tom Smagala, Mary Beth Cooper
Abstract/Introduction:
The Upper Cretaceous Niobrara Formation has yielded natural gas of biogenic origin from structural closures on the shallowdipping east flank of the Denver-Julesburg Basin and the northern plunge of the Las Animas Arch. Present production is from structural traps in the Smoky Hill Member of the Niobrara Formation. It was deposited in the deep, quiet water of the Cretaceous Interior Seaway. The majority of fields located to date are in Colorado and Kansas however, several discoveries have been announced in the Nebraska portion of the Basin. Potential for significant Niobrara gas production exists in the Kennedy and Salina Basins of Nebraska, and from parts of South Dakota, Montana, and Canada. The formation has high porosity and low permeability and requires hydraulic fracture stimulation for economic production. Producing depths range from 1000 and 3200 feet.
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Document ID: 9B127517

Impacts Of Natural Gas On Drinking Water Quality And Human Health
Author(s): Fred C. Hopkins, Betty L. Herndon, Harry V. Ellis III, Ivan C. Smith, Thomas L. Ferguson, Adi Aleti
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation describes the results of American Gas Association Contract No. PR- 138-99, Impacts of the Natural Gas Industry on Drinking Water Quality and Human Health, performed by Midwest Research Institute (MRl). The work was conducted by Dr. Betty L. Herndon, Dr. Harry V. Ellis HI, Dr. Adi Aleti, and Fred C. Hopkins. Dr. Ivan C. Smith and Thomas L. Ferguson served as coproject leaders. The report was prepared under the supervision of Dr. Edward W. Lawless, Head. Technology Assessment Section.
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Document ID: 4E6D12FA

Gas Demand Analysis Whats Been Happening The Last Few Years Observed Gas Customer Conservation At PSE&G
Author(s): J. A. Masino
Abstract/Introduction:
Before discussing the conservation effects upon our gas loads, a brief background of our company is appropriate. PSE&G is the third largest combination electric and gas company in the nation in sales revenue from the ultimate consumer and in investment in utility plant. Our service area occupies a corridor which extends diagonally across the state of New Jersey. Opposite the Northeast end ties the city of New York while Philadelphia is opposite the Southwestern end. Both of these cities are represented on this panel today.
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Document ID: A402C118

Testing Emergency Shutdown Systems
Author(s): Norris E. Mcdivitt
Abstract/Introduction:
Before discussing how we test the Emergency Shutdown Systems at our compressor stations, I would like to take a typical ESD system and discuss that system. At Calvert City, Kentucky, we have two reciprocating engine buildings and one turbine engine building. In one of the reciprocating engine buildings we have eight HBA-6 Clark engines. In the other recip building we have four TLA-6 Clark engines. In the turbine building we have a Pratt & Whitney GG3C-4 turbine driving a Cooper-Bessemer centrifugal compressor. Drawing 9-MC-902, is a high pressure gas flow diagram which shows valves marked in red that are activated by an ESD system.
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Document ID: 8E7F6B35

Inspection, Maintenance And Rebuild Procedures Of Aerial Manlift Devices
Author(s): Victor N. Farhi
Abstract/Introduction:
We owe to Latin and to French the origin of the words to inspect and to maintain. Whereas the former merely means to look into, the other signifies the act of holding at hand or keeping securely. Surely the words are as old as history. One precedes the other. Both demand the exercise of discipline, and neither is always heeded. The economic and financial necessities of today compel the preservation of capital investment in equipment. Aerial devices are no exception. In these days of surging inflation, and of the weakening purchasing power of the dollar, it would not be uncommon to have a tidy sum tied up with the acquisition of a package consisting of a vehicle, a line body, and an aerial device.
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Document ID: A5CD004A

Scheduling Of Shop Maintenance
Author(s): Robert J. Adams
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to institute any type of scheduling system, the procedures, forms and controls that comprise a Management Control System must first be established. These will provide the fundamental principles and guidelines which are required to maintain, perpetuate and allow for modifications to the system. The overall intent being to plan and control units of work, labor hours used and unit costs. It is important that supervision is constantly aware that management supports the maintenance of the system installation and desires the benefits accruing from its complete and proper operation.
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Document ID: EBB1CD3F

Stresses In Pipeline
Author(s): Samuel I. Hyman, Louis J. Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
The first gas pipelines were laid in 1807 in England. The buried pipelines carrying the gas, used the techniques which evolved from the period before the rule of the Romans, with the materials then commercially available. One unverified story is that lead pipe was too expensive at the time for use for the then experimental gas lines used. Worn out musket barrels were the initial service pipes. Since pressures were low, the major function of the gas pipe was to serve mainly as a conduit. The pipes were laid in carefully bedded earth, using the same techniques as had been used for thousands of years in laying ceramic drainage piping.
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Document ID: 1E149EF8

Expanding Or Modifying LNG Facilities
Author(s): John J. Closner, Chris Hosford
Abstract/Introduction:
Changes in the business pattern of liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities, and/or the consideration of investment protection, are the two major reasons for making modifications to existing facilities. For existing LNG terminals that must expand or modify their facilities to receive LNG from new contracts or that must upgrade the security of the facility to respond to owner or regulatory requirements, prestressed concrete, as either the outer wall of new tankage or as a high dike surrounding existing tankage, is a proven solution. A significant trend in many current LNG projects is the use of a prestressed concrete wall as the outer wall of the system in conjunction with a prestressed concrete or 9 percent nickel inner wall. However, the outer wall acts as the principal protective element for the storage container.
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Document ID: ADD8D1F5

Review Of Current And Proposed Gri Research Programs Pertaining To: Operations And Distribution
Author(s): Sami Atallah, Samuel G. Booras, Robert B. Rosenberg
Abstract/Introduction:
Distribution operations among ihe nations gas utility companies form the vital, although relatively unnoticed, hnk between the transmission lines and ihe consumer. Early advances in gas distribution operations helped make gas available economically to a wide range of residential, commercial, and industrial consumers. In addition, building and maintaining this large distribution network is a significant cost item in the final price of natural gas. GRI is the principal, and mos important, source of funds for distribution research. While federal energy H&D efforts address many aspects of gas technology, critical distribution research has been generally neglected.
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Document ID: 14537D91

The Production Of Sng From Naphtha And Kerosene Feedstocks By The Catalytic Rich Gas Process
Author(s): J. A. Lacey, B. H. Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
The Catalytic Rich Gas process (CRG) was developed by the British Gas Corporation in the 1960s tor the manufacture of town gas from light naphtha, following earlier work on (a) methane synthesis or methanation from oxides of carbon and hydrogen available by the gasification of coal and (b) the gasification of coal and (b) the gasification of methanol to produce gas suitable for use as town gas or SNG. In the original CRG process the oil feedstock was vaprorised mixed with a gas containing hydrogen and desulphurised over a nickel molybdenum catalyst followed by zinc oxide or Luxmasse, steam was then added and the feedback gasified adiabatically at elevated pressure over a nickel based catalyst to give a gas of approximately 650 Btu/ft3. This gas was then blended with a lean gas from a high temperature reforming stage (approximately 350 Btu/ft3) to obtain a product after partial carbon dioxide removal with a calorific value of 500 Btu/ft3.
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Document ID: EC48A168


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