Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (1979)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Methods Of Reducing Unaccounted-For Gas
Author(s): Robert A. Smith, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The increasing cost of gas is of great concern to Management as well as other people associated with the gas business. The prevention of gas loss is more important today than ever before. Unaccounted-for gas can be defined as the difference between the volume of gas purchased or delivered into a gas system, and the volume of gas sold or used. In simple terms, it is the volume of gas which cannot be accounted for and is considered either a loss or a gain. The discussion in this paper will consider losses, since the greatest instances of deficiencies exist in the loss column.
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Document ID: 47D7A618

Design Of High Pressure Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): R. D. Goodenough
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to present some of the basic rules and information required to design high pressure measuring and regulating stations. A high pressure measuring and regulating station should consistently provide accurate measurement and dependable pressure control. Factors such as safety, flexibility, expansion and governmental laws must also be considered in the overall design of these stations.
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Document ID: 959E4FA7

Installation, Operation And Maintenance Of Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): Michael D. Beall
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic Chart Changers were developed for the specific purpose of saving time and money by changing charts when there was no one present but by no means should they eliminate company meter technicians or their chart grabber personnel. These people will always be needed to check the calibration and performance of the meter as well as collect the charts, monitor them for any unusual record and forward them to the chart processing/accounting office at the end of the month.
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Document ID: 3329AA36

Basics Of Methr And Regulator Testing
Author(s): Perry D. Bonner
Abstract/Introduction:
In recent years the natural gas reserves in the United States have steadily declined to the degree that the price of gas has Soared. Many problems, including economical and political, have caused this shortage and resulting price increase. Because of the increased value of gas, it is imperative that accurate measurement be obtained. Consequently, proper meter and regulator testing methods are of the utmost importance. The effectiveness of & companys testing program can mean the difference between profit and loss for the entire company operation. Because the revenue of our industry for the most part is obtained by meter registration, then without question a testing and maintenance program of the highest caliber should be established to insure accurate measurement at the lowest operating cost. This paper will cover the basic methods of testing meters and regulators.
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Document ID: 9FFBC580

Fundamentals Of Rotary Metering
Author(s): Ben R. Wagner
Abstract/Introduction:
The first positive displacement rotary gas meters were built around the year 1920 by the PH & FM Roots Company and the Connersville Blower Company, both located in Connersville, Indiana. In 1966 this gas meter operation was renamed Dresser Measurement Division. However, these rotary meters today are still known as Roots Meters. Rockwell International entered the market in the early 1960s with a rotating vane design known as the ROTO-Seal Meter and in the late 1960s Singers American Meter Company introduced still another rotating design known as the CVM gas meter. The operating principles for each of these three meters are depicted and explained in Exhibit #1.
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Document ID: DC350575

Routine Inspection Of Regulating Equipment And Meter Instruments
Author(s): L. Lehr
Abstract/Introduction:
At a time when the price of natural gas is rising to heights that only a dreamer would have thought about years ago, this business of measurement is getting increased attention throughout the industry. Not so long ago, we were left to go about our business almost unnoticed but, in the last few years everyone seems to be sticking his nose into our affairs. Aggravating as this may be at times, it is not all bad. This focus on measurement has opened some eyes to our problems and has helped us to do some of the things that may :iot have been feasible in the past. Still, we in measurement find ourselves in an awkward situation. On one hand, we are constantly told that due to the increased cost of gas, we must measure it more accurately. On the other hand, we are being asked to cut the operating costs by going to longer reading charts, fixed factor billing or compensating indexes. I realize that there are some who feel that longer reading charts are as accurate as any other, but I cannot see where a 31-day chart, for instance, can possibly be as accurate as a 7-day chart. We should all be committed to the best measurement possible. We must determine if the cost of accurate measurement can offset the necessary operating costs of more than once-a-month visits to meters.
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Document ID: 1CCF4E28

Effects And Control Of Pulsations In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Walter W. Von Nimitz
Abstract/Introduction:
Review of the detrimental effects of pulsations on gas flow measurement with the orifice, turbine and vortex flow meters indicates the need for effective pulsation control. The techniques for prediction and control of pulsations discussed and illustrated in this paper make it possible to design gas flow measurement facilities with the assurance of minimum uncertainty in flow measurement due to pulsation effects.
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Document ID: 01E7E329

Gas Processing Plant Measurements
Author(s): Russei Buss
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas processing plants, whether gas transmission pipeline straddle plants or field gas gathering plants, are an integral part of the Energy industry in the United States. These plants, totaling 763 in the U.S., extract natural gas liquids (ethane, propane, normal and iso-butanes, and natural gasoline) from natural gas at a rate of 600 million barrels a year, which is 1/6 of the U.S. liquid petroleum production. Since the cost of natural gas and the price of NGL (natural gas liquids) has been significantly increasing during the past few years, accurate gas accounting measurement, NGL custody transfer measurement, and Gas plant operation control is essential to the profit margin and overall efficiency of Gas processing plants. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of these measurements and a description of the equipment used.
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Document ID: 33D11F29

Training Of The Office Measurement Personnel
Author(s): W. E. Farr
Abstract/Introduction:
In the many years that we have been measuring gas it is still confusing to some, and especially so to new employees just entering measurement work. To each of us involved in Gas Measurement, lies the responsibility of passing on our knowledge and allowing new ideas to spring forward as improved equipment becomes available. Listening to new ideas as they develop is a key factor. It is not enough to tell of tried and proven methods, but we should listen as new ideas are expounded. In the Tennessee Gas Measurement Department we have trained our employees to perform all levels of chart work. The training consists of four basic phases.
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Document ID: 7625728F

Gas Meter Proving Using Sonic Nozzle-Venturis And Microprocessors
Author(s): B.W. Balls
Abstract/Introduction:
AGA Report No. 6, Part IV, describes the use of critical flow (sonic velocity) orifice plates to test large capacity, displacement gas meters over a limited range of pressures, temperatures and gas specific gravities (1). Improvements using critical flow nozzle-venturis have been described 2,3 and an international standard method, proposed by IS0/TC30 W.G.5 describes two nozzleventuri designs 4. This paper reviews state-of-the-art use of sonic velocity test methods and shows how a microprocessor, combined with in-line density, pressure and temperature measurements and a selection of nozzleventuris enables automated meter proving in both shop and field. Shop-located, truck-mounted and permanent field installations are possible. Operating costs are reduced and accuracy is improved because the new method eliminates depenence upon test air, or gas conditions such as humidity and composition. The new method enables in-line testing of high pressure gas meters, such as turbine. Roots-type and orifice meters at operating conditions, without errors due to gas compressibility (Z) and other performance specification changes due to operating pressure. No error is caused by pressure pulsations.
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Document ID: 8B9EDC7B

From Mcf To Mmbtu
Author(s): Wilford Allen Tate
Abstract/Introduction:
The calculation of MMBTU, which is the volume of gas expressed in thousand cubic feet multiplied by the heating value per cubic foot of gas, or British Thermal Units (BTUs) expressed in thousands, quantifies the energy content of natural gas. The calculation of MMBTU is a simple procedure and lends itself quite readily to calculation by persons such as Accountants not schooled in the technical aspects of natural gas measurement. Relatively little time is necessary to explain the calculation of MMBTU given the needed factors, while an explanation of the calculation of MCF to someone who is not familiar with gas measurement is tedious, at best. Thus, the simplicity of calculation of the MMBTU and the recognition that it is a better measure of energy in title and custody transfer has caused the realization, though slowly in some circles, that the MCF without its companion the BTU, is a poor measure of gas transfer.
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Document ID: 4CBFCC08

Problems In Two-Phase Pipeline Operations
Author(s): Robert J. Rau
Abstract/Introduction:
Two-phase pipelines are becoming a common means of transportation of oil and gas from offshore both in the Continental Shelf of the United States and the North Sea, and other places all over the world. As we all know, offshore gas pipeline systems are a necessity to actively meet the energy necessitites of our Nation and the energy crisis facing us today. Today, I wish to discuss with you some of the problems encountered in offshore two-phase pipeline operations.
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Document ID: CB1C5812

Leakage Surveys Akd Instruments For Leak Detection
Author(s): Andre J. Massicott
Abstract/Introduction:
Leakage smrvey means safety because it provides as complete an analysis of existing conditions over a gas system as is possible its findings point to follow-up maintenance and repair as necessary. The survey under these conditions is designed to maintain and also improve conditions within an existing gas system. Where are the leaks? What kind of leaks are they? Which ones should be followed up first? Which part of the system is bad? Which is good? Is leakage general throughout the system? The small leak adjacent to a building can be as bad or even worse than a large leak in the middle of an empty field. From a safety,standpoint, the survey will provide an up-to-date picture of conditions within a known period of time.
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Document ID: 988A4CAD

Effective Utilization Of Measurement Personnel
Author(s): P. L. Killingsworth
Abstract/Introduction:
To effectively utilize anything, whether it be a person or a tool or a machine, you must know what it is, how it works, and its capabilities. The best way to know how to utilize a particular item is to study it, glean all Its facets and possibilities. You must be open minded and ever ready for the unexpected talent or the unexpected failure. You must push almost to the breaking point to find out what you can accomplish. What you discover will surprise you, it may even surprise the person you have pushed- The person that you challenge with new responsibilities must be aware of the increased faith you are putting in his work and his ability. It is no easy job to effectively utilize your personnel, because you must also push yourself to be ever reaching for new ideas and incentives. You cannot effectively utilize your personnel without effectively utilizing your own skills as a supervisor, manager and planner. You put forth the extra effort and so will your people.
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Document ID: 05924C46

Calorimeters Operation Installation Maintenance And Testing
Author(s): Donald F. Scholtes
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Natural, Synthetic, Liquid, Manufactured, or a combination of all of these, thats Gas. As the demand for gas increases, there is a corresponding increase in the cost which is due, in part, to the exploration, transportation, and handling. This cost increase focuses a more direct attention to accurate B.T.U. measurement. A number of meters turbine, orifice, or positive meters may be used to measure the volume of gas that is marketed. Volume may be large or small, but the recording calorimeter will measure the final B.T.U. This energy unit, when multiplied by the corrected cubic unit of any or all of the various meters in a system, determines the unit price to the customer.
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Document ID: AC1E9CE9

Bellows-Type Orifice Meters
Author(s): Leon White
Abstract/Introduction:
In the oil and gas industry we depend on orifice meters for accuracy in measurement of our product. There are many different types of meters on the market and it is up to each company to make a choice according to how the meter is to be used, The Bellows-type orifice meter, in the early days of the industry was thought to be less accurate than the mercury meter. However, today there are 90% Bgllovs-type meters in the production area and 75% in the sales area. This ia an 80% increase in Bellows-type meters in the last 20 years. The Bellows-type orifice meter was designed to measure with accuracy fluid or gas to be bought or sold and for allocation purposes. An instrument cannot be accurate without competent personnel to operate and maintain it.
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Document ID: 7252D5FC

Methods Of Mass Flow Measurement
Author(s): m. J. Sergesketter
Abstract/Introduction:
What is mass flow? We must understand this before we discuss methods to accomplish mass flow measurement. First, consider volumetric measurement of liquids. The simplest method to understand is the positive displacement meter. This type of meter allows a fixed amount of fluid to pass for each revolution of the metering element. If water is being measured, no corrections are necessary. If oil or other liquid hydrocarbons are being measured, it is necessary to adjust the actual volume measured by the meter to the equivalent volume at 60F. This is because liquid hydrocarbons expand and contract with chajiges in temperature, and a standard unit of volume is that volume existing when the fluid is at a temperature of 60F.
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Document ID: A88F5832

Microprocessor Controlled System For Hydrocarbon Gas Analysis
Author(s): m. F. Arnold, C. Perham, L. S. Ettre, B. Welton
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the earliest applications of gas Chromatography was the analysis of natural gas and refinery gases. Although very simple at first glance, this analysis is actually very complicated for a number of reasons. First, there is no single column which can provide adequate resolution of all the components present and even a dual-column combination would be inadequate. At the same time the column required for separation of some of the inorganic compounds (molecular sieve) would irreversibly adsorb carbon dioxide and some of the important hydrocarbon constituents of the sample therefore, a way had to be found to prevent these sample components from entering the molecular sieve column.
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Document ID: D89136A2

Orifice Meter Testing
Author(s): B. D. Waller
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry there is a continuous demand for greater accuracy in all phases of operations. This is emphasized by the increasing cost of gas. Therefore, it is in the best interest of all parties concerned to obtain the most accurate measurement possible. Each metering station should have an accuracy priority established. The priority level would be determined by the amount of sales or purchases going through the station. The larger the station, the more accurate the measurement should be. As the future price of gas continues to rise, you will see the accuracy priority continues to lower in order to take in lesser volumes. The orifice meter has long been an accepted standard of measurement in the gas industry and has proven to be a most reliable measuring device. The better the condition of the meter tube, orifice plate, and flow recorder, the more accurate the measurement will be.
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Document ID: C8ED7E37

Water Vapor Determination
Author(s): William R. Barnes
Abstract/Introduction:
Im sure most of you know more about these units than Ill ever know however, I would like to present this paper with an open discussion of some of the symptoms and various checks of the unit. Also, I would like to discuss a sample system which has proven to prolong cell life in most cases. One gallon of water weighs approximately seven pounds. Try and disperse this in a room 100 ft. high, 100 ft. long and 100 ft. wide. This is a million cubic feet. This is very dry as compared with the surrounding atmosphere, usually 1007o humidity. The most this analyzer will read is 1/10 of 1%. The seven pounds is what most gas contracts are written around, so the moisture determination is very critical and a very good sample method must be used to get a good representative sample to the analyzer. The analyzer only reads what you deliver to the unit.
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Document ID: 79E462BF

Specific Gravity Instruments Amd Recorders
Author(s): H. E. Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
Fundamental to understanding specific gravity instruments and their use is the definition of specific gravity. Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of the gas, under the observed conditions of pressure and temperature, to the density of dry air at the same pressure and temperature.
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Document ID: E3D0FAA8

Operation And Maintenance Of Production Separators
Author(s): E. Murray Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
There are a number of approaches to production separation, i.e., dehydrators, wet and dry process, LTX Units, stack packs but I would like to direct your attention to the mechanical separators for the removal of liquids and/or solids from a gas stream and to the controls to be considered for these separators. There are a number of different types of mechanical separators. Some of the better known types are: A. Wire Mesh Separator, B. Vane Type Separator. C. Single Cyclone Separator. D. Recycle Separator. E. Multiple Cyclone Separator. F. Filter Separator.
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Document ID: 59ADFB0A

Flow Computers For Gas Measurement
Author(s): W. W. Moring
Abstract/Introduction:
As the cost of natural gas has gone up, accuracy of measurement has become more important. At the same time, the Increasing number of interconnections between pipe systems to fulfill transport and exchange agreements has made the ability to obtain flow data quickly more Important. The need to know up-to-date volumes and to prevent exceeding daily volume allowables, which can be very expensive, is also Important today. All of these are reasons for the emergence of the on-site flow computer as a factor in todays measurement picture.
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Document ID: 74A33175

Process Gas Chromatography
Author(s): F. D. Martin
Abstract/Introduction:
Many outstanding developments have been made to improve the flexibility, maintainability and data handling ability of process gas chroitiatographs (GCs). The most recent development, an enhancement of the solid-state programmer, employs the microprocessor to control various operations and to handle the resultant data. The microprocessor improves reliability, adds flexibility to programming and simplifies peak calibration. Other chromatographic components such as sample valves, detectors, columns, and readouts have also been improved. The manufacturers covered are listed in Table I. Figure 1 shows the basic parts of a process gas chromatograph (GO). The sample valve, a critical process GC component, is the interface between the sample system and the analyzer. A gas sample valve transfers a measured volume of a sample in gaseous form into carrier gas which flows through the GC. The number of molecules transferred, or injected, must be reproducible. This operation must be repeated many times a day, seven days a week. A liquid sample valve delivers a metered voliime of a sample in liquid form to a vaporizer. The liquid volume must be reproducible. The vaporizer volatilizes the liquid and passes it to the flowing carrier gas. Since the liquid must be volatilized in as short a time as possible, it is generally necessary to heat the vaporization zone to rapidly flash the sample.
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Document ID: 989B94AB

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Robert H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
For several years gas men have been giving more thought to aerodynamic turbulence within their pipeline systems and, in particular, the turbulence that is a result of pressure regulation. Considering the noise from a measurement or regulating station, it is generally conceded that measurement facilities alone will rarely be a major source of noise, since we can design the pipe to give a desired and normally tranquil velocity. On the other hand, we must expect that in a regulator station control of the gas velocity is possible only up to the inlet side of an active regulator. At the point of regulation within the regulator body, the velocity of the gas may be expected to increase greatly, perhaps up to sonic velocity. Now the question becomes, what is the best way to handle gas when it is traveling at high velocities?
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Document ID: EB3A9135

Trouble Shooting Glycol Dehydrators
Author(s): Don Ballard
Abstract/Introduction:
Millions of dollars per year are lost unnecessarily in high glycol losses, excessive plant shutdowns and equipment replacement. However, a glycol plant, when properly designed, operated and maintained, will provide a low-cost operation, with little difficulty and attendance. This can be accomplished by thoroughly understanding the process principles and physical limitations of the equipment. With this knowledge, plus these operating and maintenance suggestions, most plant problems can either be prevented or quickly eliminated.
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Document ID: 7F4603F5

Using Deadweight Testers
Author(s): Bob Pitre
Abstract/Introduction:
The pneumatic deadweight tester was developed 25 years ago for calibration of low pressure instruments, Through the years the tester has undergone many refinements that have increased its range capabilities. Pneumatic testers are now capable of calibrating instruments that range from 4 inches of water pressure to lOOO PSIG. For demonstration purposes, a tester with a range of 4 inches of water pressure to 30 PSIG will be later used to show how the pneumatic tester is used in instrument calibration.
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Document ID: 85E19D25

Wet Gas Gathering Systems
Author(s): F. Todd Hickman
Abstract/Introduction:
During the 1960s the San Juan Basin and 4-Corners area experienced an accelerated drilling program to the Dakota formation. These are wells with a high shut-in pressure and produce gas with a high content of hydrocarbons. The wells flow, after the head pressure is drawn down, at 90 to 100 F. temperature. At this temperature and at a producing pressure of 450 pounds, hydrocarbons travel through the well-head production equipment in gaseous form and are not fully recovered as liquid at the well site. After leaving the well location, a cooling process takes place in the pipeline and condensates form. These condensates, or drip gasoline, collect all along the pipeline and liquid blocks form at nearly all low spots. With the rough terrain in the San Juan Basin a great number of liquid-loaded sections of the pipeline occur. Field operating pressure rises, gas production falls, surging flows occur and transmission efficiency falls drastically as a result of liquid loaded gathering and field lines.
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Document ID: 54DC6B66

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Robert H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
For several years gas men have been giving more thought to aerodynamic turbulence within their pipeline systems and, in particular, the turbulence that is a result of pressure regulation. Considering the noise from a measurement or regulating station, it is generally conceded that measurement facilities alone will rarely be a major source of noise, since we can design the pipe to give a desired and normally tranquil velocity. On the other hand, we must expect that in a regulator station control of the gas velocity is possible only up to the inlet side of an active regulator. At the point of regulation within the regulator body, the velocity of the gas may be expected to increase greatly, perhaps up to sonic velocity. Now the question becomes, what is the best way to handle gas when it is traveling at high velocities?
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Document ID: 71EC8924

Status Of AGA Report No. 3
Author(s): E. L. Upp
Abstract/Introduction:
For measurement of high pressure, high volume natural gas, the orifice meter remains the predominant cTioice for flow measurement, AGA-3, which is the standard upon which the orifice measurement is based, makes this statement in its foreward: This is not a final report, but is made with the understanding that the committee will continue its analytical studies of data already developed. The committee also fully expects that it will be necessary for it to conduct further, experimental work of its own. This will make necessary one or more supplemental reports, in which data will be summarized and the mathematical principles announced, which are the basis for the present report, and such modifications and extensions will be made as additional data and further study may require.
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Document ID: 26F8E231

Meter Selection For Various Load Requirements
Author(s): Clyde C. Bradford
Abstract/Introduction:
Prior to making any meter selection, it is important to become familiar with the gas parameters and load conditions (temperature, pressure, specific gravity, maximum and minimum delivery, steady delivery, cyclic delivery, etc.) that the meter will be subjected to upon installation. The measurement equipment which is best suited for a specific installation may be selected only if all of the pertinent information regarding the load requirements is available and accurate. Partial or inaccurate information regarding the load requirements may result in improper meter selection resulting in early replacement of the meter and related equipment and/or costly errors in the measurement of gas volumes.
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Document ID: 1945ADEC

Whats New At Sprague
Author(s): H. L. Dehart
Abstract/Introduction:
The Reg-U-Liner control valve is of the flexible element type. However, it has unique construction and operational features not found in other valves of this category. The main valve consists of only two parts a one-piece stainless steel body and an elastomeric liner. The valve is designed to mount between standard (ANSI 150 & 300 lb.) pipe flanges as a wafer-type valve structurally equivalent to a thick gasket. The outer periphery of the valve body is fluted to provide clearance for the 150 lb. flange bolt pattern and centers within the 300 lb. flange bolt pattern.
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Document ID: 8A5A6E2F

Design Of High Pressure Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): R. D. Goodenough
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to present some of the basic rules and information required to design high pressure measuring and regulating stations. A high pressure measuring and regulating station should consistently provide accurate measurement and dependable pressure control. Factors such as safety, flexibility, expansion and governmental laws must also be considered in the overall design of these stations.
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Document ID: ED4020E8

Effects On Entrained Liquid On Orifice Measurement
Author(s): C. V. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
In the measurement of natural gas in field operations using the conventional orifice meter, all of the factors used in the calculation of flow are based on the assumption that the gas is dry- This condition is rarely the case in field measurements. The A.G.A. Committee Report Mo. 3, (1), does not give any information or data regarding the effect water and/or distillate may have upon gas measurement by the orifice meter. It was in this area of gas measurement that graduate-engineering students at Texas A&I University, Kingsville, Texas have conducted research operation in the laboratory and in the field. Schuster, (2) has conducted full range field tests of gas-liguid mixtures at 6OO and 1,000 pounds per square inch pressure using the orifice meter.
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Document ID: 37677D2E

Fundamentals Of Diaphragm Type Positive Displacement Meters
Author(s): George S. Cassimus
Abstract/Introduction:
Diaphragm meters fall into the category of positive displacement type meters. These measure gas by means of sealing off a known quantity of gas, and subsequently releasing it. The bulk of the meters in use today are of the diaphragm positive displacement type. Over 40 million of these are employed in measuring gas volumes in the U.S. alone. Of this total the large majority are used to measure gas volumes consumed by domestic residential customers.
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Document ID: 77A4FAB8

Total Energy Measurement System Encal II
Author(s): Arthur F. Haas
Abstract/Introduction:
It is truly difficult to imagine a really new idea in any field. Rather it is almost always a case of the idea being around a long time but the desired results unattainable, because of a lack of the proper hardware at a cost that makes the system practical. We like to look at ENCAL II in this fashion. The chromatograph has long ago proven its capability as an analytical tool, orifice measurement has been the standard since the gas transmission industry began. The Microprocessor was the missing item required for an inexpensive, secure, versatile, total energy, total flow system. All of the above facts come together at this time to make possible a new direct automatic Total Flow Total Energy billing system. The billing period for all intents and purposes can be of any time frame from once per second to once per month, depending on agreement of the parties involved. In addition, ENCAL II is capable of delivering to a host computer on demand all data required for billing in these time intervals, since flow data is updated every second and compositional data every ten to fifteen minutes.
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Document ID: 310A9C58

Odorization Of Natural Gas And Regulatory Reporting
Author(s): Betti Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
One major responsibility of the Railroad Commission is to protect the public through the enactment and enforcement of various safety rules and regulations governing natural gas. One such rule. Gas Utilities Substantive Rule 051.04.03.012 entitled, Odorization Equipment, Odorization of Natural Gas and Odorant Concentration Test, more commonly referred to as Rule 12 will be discussed herein. Gas Utilities Dockets 122 and 183 were repealed on August 14, 1978, and replaced with Rule 12. This changed the odorization reporting procedures. All of you who deal with natural gas are aware that pure natural gas is odorless, therefore, a malodorant agent must be introduced into the gas to make its presence readily detectable by the human sense of smell. This malodorant agent is injected through a unit called an odorizer. There are several types of injection equipment. To name a few, there are the wick types, by-pass types, drip types, meter driven pumps, and displacement pumps.
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Document ID: 5765ECDD

Status Of A.G.A. Report No. 7
Author(s): W. G. Birkhead
Abstract/Introduction:
Although the turbine meter principle is quite old, the axial flow turbine meter, as we know it today and which is presently employed for liquid measurement, is quite new. The modern gas turbine meter dates from about 1950. The turbine meter principle was used for gas measurement in a very crude form in Great Britain in the early 1900s. These early meters were used mainly for manufactured fuel gas. This gas was relatively dirty, causing serious difficulties with rotor bearings. The meter design was usually of the anemometer type similar to instruments employed in adjusting ventilating equipment today. They were usually constructed with a vertical turbine shaft in the meter for use in a horizontal plane, with flow in an upward direction to minimize the effect of dirt. They were calibrated by adjusting openings in upstream flow passages and by deforming the blade angles. Measurement was generally at very low pressures and accuracy was very questionable.
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Document ID: 30B2417D

Energy Management By An Industrial User
Author(s): W. A. Rollwage
Abstract/Introduction:
Not long ago a politician friend asked what I thought about his position on the Seadock, offshore, oil terminal project at Freeport. lliy reply was that support for the project was late in coming from the governmental arena - valuable time had been lost. However, I reminded him that in the early 1970s political support was difficult to achieve simply because the general public did not anticipate or look beyond the 1973-7-4 oil embargo. The same remarks could be made about energy conservation. After all, in 1972 the price of natural gas had just begun to slip above 20 cents per million Btu and gas fired power plants could be constructed for about 100 per kilowatt.
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Document ID: FA80EB73

Problems In Two-Phase Pipeline Operations
Author(s): Robert J. Rau
Abstract/Introduction:
Two-phase pipelines are becoming a common means of transportation of oil and gas from offshore both in the Continental Shelf of the United States and the North Sea, and other places all over the world. As we all know, offshore gas pipeline systems are a necessity to actively meet the energy necessitites of our Nation and the energy crisis facing us today. Today, I wish to discuss with you some of the problems encountered in offshore two-phase pipeline operations.
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Document ID: 22328F40

Instruments For Positive Displacement And Mechanical Turbine Meters
Author(s): D. R. Fulton
Abstract/Introduction:
Instruments are a vital part of large volume gas measurement. They are classified in two basic categories (1) recorders and (2) volume correctors. Recorders provide a permanent chart record of whatever values are being sensed, usually related to time, This includes pressure, temperature or volume, or combinations of these values, From these recorded values calculations are made to produce the correcting factors to apply to the metered volume, Volume correctors on the other hand automatically apply the pressure correction and/or temperature correction factors to the metered volume and indicate by direct readout the corrected value of gas volume.
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Document ID: C854B271

A New Solid State Pulse Duration Telemetering Receiver
Author(s): R. W. Lowell
Abstract/Introduction:
Time proven pulse duration -telemetering techniques are now updated with the introduction of the solid state Metameter receiver by Bristol. Traditionally, a pulse duration receiver has been an electro-mechanical device made up with gears, differentials, brake disks, a solenoid, and driven by a synchronous motor - the receiver ultimately positioning an output shaft according to the pulse duration input signal. The new solid state unit accomplishes exactly the same function (output shaft positioning) by use of electronics in place of electro-mechanical techniques and eliminates the clickety clack - the noise associated with mechanical receivers. The input to the receiver, in the form of a timed length of contact closure from the transmitter, is a 45 ma dc current flowing through the coil of the Input relay (290 ohms). The measurement signal is therefore completely isolated from the electronics in the receiver Itself and the input is not polarity sensitive.
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Document ID: 6F992683

Meter Shop Design, Repair, Ahd Meter Accuracy
Author(s): R. m. Nicholson
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas meter Is often referred to as the cash register of the industry, and indeed it is. Although we in the meter repair business have always tried for accuracy, the recent increases in the price of gas have made greater accuracy more imperative. In the case of the company I am with, we built a new meter shop. We had two shops, neither of which were air-conditioned. The new central shop that replaced these two is air-conditioned to improve the proof tests of the meters. It is also much more comfortable for the employees.
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Document ID: 101F5628

Control Of Distribution System Pressures And Load Distribution
Author(s): Doy L. Lecroy
Abstract/Introduction:
This session concerns the load distribution of natural gas and various methods utilized throughout the industry of regulating the pressure for customer use. As each of you are aware, -the higher cost of natural gas has necessitated that a closer watch be maintained on all aspects of our operations to minimize losses. These losses are represented by a varied array of causes and not all are easily controlled. Among these are cycle billing of customers, inaccurate meters and gas lost through leaks. And we know that the amount lost to a leak is in proportion to the pressure which is in the system.
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Document ID: FD0F9A19

Water Vapor Determination
Author(s): William R. Barnes
Abstract/Introduction:
Im sure most .of you know more about these units than Ill ever know however, I would like to present this paper with an open discussion of some of the symptoms and various checks of the unit. Also, I would like to discuss a sample system which has proven to prolong cell life in most cases. One gallon of water weighs approximately seven pounds. Try and disperse this in a room 100 ft. high, 100 ft. long and 100 ft. wide. This is a million cubic feet. This is very dry as compared with the surrounding atmosphere, usually 1007o humidity. The most this analyzer will read is 1/10 of 1%.
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Document ID: 41206397

Techniques Of Natural Gas Sampling
Author(s): Charles F. Drake
Abstract/Introduction:
The scope of this paper is to introduce some different, but not necessarily new, ideas concerning the sampling of natural gas for the purpose of determining the heating value.
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Document ID: 1EC4D555

Gas Chromatography: A Panel Discussion
Author(s): Gary F. Gostecnik
Abstract/Introduction:
The following questions are submitted for discussion in addition to those from the other panelists and audience: Would you please describe briefly what takes place inside the gas chromatograph column? Please describe the two column backflush system where the Cg + components are eluted PRIOR to the air peak in natural gas analysis?
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Document ID: 684FC0FE

Calorimeters Operation Installation Maintenance And Testing
Author(s): Donald F. Scholtes
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Natural, Synthetic, Liquid, Manufactured, or a combination of all of these, thats Gas. As the demand for gas increases, there is a corresponding increase in the cost which is due, in part, to the exploration, transportation, and handling. This cost increase focuses a more direct attention to accurate B.T.U. measurement. A number of meters turbine, orifice, or positive meters may be used to measure the volume of gas that is marketed. Volume may be large or small, but the recording calorimeter will measure the final B.T.U. This energy unit, when multiplied by the corrected cubic unit of any or all of the various meters in a system, determines the unit price to the customer.
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Document ID: B3AE7B57

Orifice Meter Testing
Author(s): B. D. Waller
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry there is a continuous demand for greater accuracy in all phases of operations. This is emphasized by the increasing cost of gas. Therefore, it is in the best interest of all parties concerned to obtain the most accurate measurement possible. Each metering station should have an accuracy priority established. The priority level would be determined by the amount of sales or purchases going through the station. The larger the station, the more accurate the measurement should be. As the future price of gas continues to rise, you will see the accuracy priority continues to lower in order to take in lesser volumes. The orifice meter has long been an accepted standard of measurement in the gas industry and has proven to be a most reliable measuring device. The better the condition of the meter tube, orifice plate, and flow recorder, the more accurate the measurement will be.
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Document ID: 74722EE2

Instrumentation For Orifice & Electronic Turbine Meters
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
Refinements in electronic instrumentation are continually providing more reliable and better quality measurement and control devices. Improved methods of calibrating, programming and operating of these instruments have broadened their application. The great variety of measurement and control applications require many different combinations of these instruments to achieve reliability, repeatability and accuracy with the lowest capital investment. The gas industrys original interest in electronics flow calculating systems stemmed from a requirement to provide real time instantaneous data for gas dispatching and pipeline control. Keeping in mind that the primary function of dispatching is to make decisions to insure an adequate supply of gas is available at minimum cost to meet the system requirements. This, then, required that the information presented to the dispatcher be in a form that was ready to be used so that their primary function of decision making could be performed.
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Document ID: 025EDFA7

Effective Utilization Of Measurement Personnel
Author(s): P. L. Killingsworth
Abstract/Introduction:
To effectively utilize anything, whether it be a person or a tool or a machine, you must know what it is, how it works, and its capabilities. The best way to know how to utilize a particular item is to study it, glean all Its facets and possibilities. You must be open minded and ever ready for the unexpected talent or the unexpected failure. You must push almost to the breaking point to find out what you can accomplish. What you discover will surprise you, it may even surprise the person you have pushed- The person that you challenge with new responsibilities must be aware of the increased faith you are putting in his work and his ability. It is no easy job to effectively utilize your personnel, because you must also push yourself to be ever reaching for new ideas and incentives. You cannot effectively utilize your personnel without effectively utilizing your own skills as a supervisor, manager and planner. You put forth the extra effort and so will your people.
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Document ID: 632603B8

Specific Gravity Instruments Amd Recorders
Author(s): H. E. Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
Fundamental to understanding specific gravity instruments and their use is the definition of specific gravity. Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of the gas, under the observed conditions of pressure and temperature, to the density of dry air at the same pressure and temperature.
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Document ID: B6039FC1

Training Field Measurement Personnel
Author(s): Willard Sutton
Abstract/Introduction:
Most companies expect their Measurement Technicians to be proficient at installing and maintaining regulators, controllers, dehydrators, samplers, telemetering equipment, etc. Providing the technician with just the fundamental information required to perform these tasks is a never endinj problem for those responsible for training. Remember training alone can never be substituted entirely for experience. Some companies operate on the theory that job knowledge for the field employee can best be acquired thru osmosis if the new employee works closely with the experienced craftsman, a transfer of knowledge is bound to occur. In reality, this basic assumption is correct. However the chance of having two employees who cannot perform the job is a distinct possibility.
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Document ID: 7AADE2AC

Control Of Distribution System Pressures And Load Distribution
Author(s): Doy L. Lecroy
Abstract/Introduction:
This session concerns the load distribution of natural gas and various methods utilized throughout the industry of regulating the pressure for customer use. As each of you are aware, the higher cost of natural gas has necessitated that a closer watch be maintained on all aspects of our operations to minimize losses. These losses are represented by a varied array of causes and not all are easily controlled. Among these are cycle billing of customers, inaccurate meters and gas lost through leaks. And we know that the amount lost to a leak is in proportion to the pressure which is in the system.
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Document ID: CD479E80

Operation And Maintenance Of Production Separators
Author(s): E. Murray Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
There are a number of approaches to production separation, i.e., dehydrators, wet and dry process, LTX Units, stack packs but I would like to direct your attention to the mechanical separators for the removal of liquids and/or solids from a gas stream and to the controls to be considered for these separators. There are a number of different types of mechanical separators. Some of the better known types are: A. Wire Mesh Separator, B. Vane Type Separator. C. Single Cyclone Separator. D. Recycle Separator. E. Multiple Cyclone Separator. F. Filter Separator.
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Document ID: CDBDFAB2

Using Deadweight Testers
Author(s): Bob Pitre
Abstract/Introduction:
The pneumatic deadweight tester was developed 25 years ago for calibration of low pressure instruments, Through the years the tester has undergone many refinements that have increased its range capabilities. Pneumatic testers are now capable of calibrating instruments that range from 4 inches of water pressure to lOOO PSIG. For demonstration purposes, a tester with a range of 4 inches of water pressure to 30 PSIG will be later used to show how the pneumatic tester is used in instrument calibration.
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Document ID: 7A561346

Methods Of Reducing Unaccounted-For Gas
Author(s): Robert A. Smith, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The increasing cost of gas is of great concern to Management as well as other people associated with the gas business. The prevention of gas loss is more important today than ever before. Unaccounted-for gas can be defined as the difference between the volume of gas purchased or delivered into a gas system, and the volume of gas sold or used. In simple terms, it is the volume of gas which cannot be accounted for and is considered either a loss or a gain.
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Document ID: 30BCDE57

Electronic Chart Processing
Author(s): Alan T. Burr
Abstract/Introduction:
A chart from an orifice meter serves little purpose unless we have some means of transforming the graphic data recorded on it into a measure of volume. The differential and static pressure lines on the chart could be averaged visually at regular intervals to provide values for volume calculations, but this is a slow, tedious process subject to considerable error, especially for erratic charts. Mechanical planimeters make the task of chart calculation somewhat easier and more accurate than visual methods but still do not provide the speed and accuracy increasingly demanded by the gas industry. Electronic chart reading devices are being implemented more and more to satisfy this need.
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Document ID: 359DD430

Effects And Control Of Pulsations In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Walter W. Von Nimitz
Abstract/Introduction:
Review of the detrimental effects of pulsations on gas flow measurement with the orifice, turbine and vortex flow meters indicates the need for effective pulsation control. The techniques for prediction and control of pulsations discussed and illustrated in this paper make it possible to design gas flow measurement facilities with the assurance of minimum uncertainty in flow measurement due to pulsation effects.
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Document ID: 639CBD69

Basic Meter And Regulator Station Design
Author(s): William F. Reichert, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
It has been said that a gas meter is the constant representative of a gas company that remains on the customers premises all the time. Because of this, we would like the meter installation to be neat and provide an overall unobtrusive appearance. In other words, it should represent the utility in a desirable manner. The gas meter is also often referred to as the cash register of a gas utility. To a large extent this is correct because the bill or statement that the customer receives periodically is based on the gas registered by that meter.
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Document ID: 1FC09823

Problems In Offshore Measurement
Author(s): Ross Ford
Abstract/Introduction:
I would like to thank the committee for inviting me to speak about problems in offshore measurement. I will be talking about problems that we at United have encountered. One of the. first was transportation.
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Document ID: 4C53E789

Problems In Offshore Measurement
Author(s): Ross Ford
Abstract/Introduction:
I would like to thank the committee for inviting me to speak about problems in offshore measurement. I will be talking about problems that we at United have encountered. One of the. first was transportation.
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Document ID: AA9B12C1

Installation, Operation And Maintenance Of Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): Michael D. Beall
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic Chart Changers were developed for the specific purpose of saving time and money by changing charts when there was no one present but by no means should they eliminate company meter technicians or their chart grabber personnel. These people will always be needed to check the calibration and performance of the meter as well as collect the charts, monitor them for any unusual record and forward them to the chart processing/accounting office at the end of the month.
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Document ID: 2C292EF0

New Ideas In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Michael J. Keady, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Traditionally, orifice meter signals have been recorded onsite by means of mechanical circular chart recorders. These charts have been collected weekly or monthly and integrated for volume determination. This procedure has a lengthy lag time between time of actual gas flow and the time of reporting. With the advent of spiraling gas prices and penalty clauses for excessive rate deliveries, both customei? and supplier are looking for quicker and more accurate methods of obtaining precision flow measurement. By the use of field mounted microprocessor based electronic flow computers, flow information is processed on an instantaneous and accurate basis.
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Document ID: DE37BCBC

Fuhdamemtals Of Turbine Meters
Author(s): Giles m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
The continued increase in the application of turbine meters to production, transmission, distribution and industrial measurement has established gas turbine metering as an accepted, effective metering method. The turbine meters high capacity, wide rangeability and sustained accuracy combined with light weight, compact size and ease of maintenance provide an accurate, economical method of measuring large volume gas loads when used in a well designed metering station. Continuing design Improvements have and will continue to increase the turbine meters value In gas metering and expand its range of applications. Barely out of the starting gate, turbine meters are beginning to hit full stride.
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Document ID: C0C79950

Fundamental Gas Laws And Their Application
Author(s): Patricia S. Osullivan
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement would be quite simple if all that was important was the displaced volume of a gas as measured by a meter. Unfortunately, the situation is not that simple. The amount of gas that passes through a meter is influenced primarily by two factors that a meter does not measure namely, the pressure and the temperature. The roles of temperature, pressure and volume of a gas are important in every phase of gas measurement. The ways in which temperature, pressure and volume interrelate are known as the basic gas laws. These laws are formulated assuming that gases behave according to an ideal conceptualization of gases. These gas laws provide basic information. Since all gases do not behave ideally, the gas laws are appropriate in many instances or they can be modified appropriately to fit the specific need.
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Document ID: 44DC37B0

Electronic Chart Processing
Author(s): Alan T. Burr
Abstract/Introduction:
A chart from an orifice meter serves little purpose unless we have some means of transforming the graphic data recorded on it into a measure of volume. The differential and static pressure lines on the chart could be averaged visually at regular intervals to provide values for volume calculations, but this is a slow, tedious process subject to considerable error, especially for erratic charts. Mechanical planimeters make the task of chart calculation somewhat easier and more accurate than visual methods but still do not provide the speed and accuracy increasingly demanded by the gas industry. Electronic chart reading devices are being implemented more and more to satisfy this need.
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Document ID: 517E55E1

Basic Volume Calculation For The Field Man
Author(s): John D. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
Computation of gas volumes as measured by an orifice meter, requires a rather lengthy formula and the gathering of information. Using a lengthy formula in the field is impractical however, when the formula is understood it points out the requirements and information needed to determine the volume, regardless of the method used, In this paper we will discuss the flow equation, determine the information necessary to compute the volume using various methods, and determine the source of all information needed. All calculations are based on American Gas Association - Committee Report #3.
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Document ID: 797ED7D1

Fundamentals Of Gas Regulators
Author(s): Howard W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
A gas pressure regulator is a device utilizing mechanical and pneumatic ptinciples designed to reduce varying high pressure to a constant lower pressure throughout a range of flows. Originally, the regulators primary function was to reduce high pressure to a more usable lower pressure. Today, much more is required of a simple spring loaded regulator and several operating functions are being satisfied. They are no longer just pressure reducing devices but are an integral instrument of measurement and have the internal ability to satisfy the stringest modern safety codes of D. 0. T. Regulators must be selected and sized to match measurement and safety requirements. In order to understand the importance of proper regulator application, it is necessary to understand not only how they operate but why they perform as they do.
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Document ID: 53344A8B

Leakage Surveys Akd Instruments For Leak Detection
Author(s): Andre J. Massicott
Abstract/Introduction:
Leakage smrvey means safety because it provides as complete an analysis of existing conditions over a gas system as is possible its findings point to follow-up maintenance and repair as necessary. The survey under these conditions is designed to maintain and also improve conditions within an existing gas system. Where are the leaks? What kind of leaks are they? Which ones should be followed up first? Which part of the system is bad? Which is good? Is leakage general throughout the system? The small leak adjacent to a building can be as ba.d or even worse than a large leak in the middle of an empty field. From a safety,standpoint, the survey will provide an up-to-date picture of conditions within a known period of time.
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Document ID: 1F47AB59

Wet Gas Gathering Systems
Author(s): F. Todd Hickman
Abstract/Introduction:
During the 1960s the San Juan Basin and 4-Corners area experienced an accelerated drilling program to the Dakota formation. These are wells with a high shut-in pressure and produce gas with a high content of hydrocarbons. The wells flow, after the head pressure is drawn down, at 90 to 100 F. temperature. At this temperature and at a producing pressure of 450 pounds, hydrocarbons travel through the well-head production equipment in gaseous form and are not fully recovered as liquid at the well site. After leaving the well location, a cooling process takes place in the pipeline and condensates form. These condensates, or drip gasoline, collect all along the pipeline and liquid blocks form at nearly all low spots. With the rough terrain in the San Juan Basin a great number of liquid-loaded sections of the pipeline occur. Field operating pressure rises, gas production falls, surging flows occur and transmission efficiency falls drastically as a result of liquid loaded gathering and field lines.
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Document ID: C367E998

Meter Selection For Various Load Requirements
Author(s): Clyde C. Bradford
Abstract/Introduction:
Prior to making any meter selection, it is important to become familiar with the gas parameters and load conditions (temperature, pressure, specific gravity, maximum and minimum delivery, steady delivery, cyclic delivery, etc.) that the meter will be subjected to upon installation. The measurement equipment which is best suited for a specific installation may be selected only if all of the pertinent information regarding the load requirements is available and accurate. Partial or inaccurate information regarding the load requirements may result in improper meter selection resulting in early replacement of the meter and related equipment and/or costly errors in the measurement of gas volumes.
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Document ID: C0891AAB

Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): Don W. Griffies
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to the almost daily Increasing cost of hydrocarbon products, both liquid and gas, there is a growing concern for accurate measurement. In many applications, this begins with a signal from the primary element, consisting of the Orifice Fitting, Orifice Plate, and Meter Tube, In order to more clearly discuss each of the components which make up the primary element in orifice measurement, each will be set out and discussed separately as follows: Orifice Fittings (consisting of Senior Fitting, Junior Fitting, and Simplex Fitting), Orifice Plate, Sealing Units, and Meter Tubes.
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Document ID: 97ADB2B3

Regulatory Commission Evaluations
Author(s): m. L. Fegenbush, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Utilities Division of the Railroad Commission of Texas is charged with enforcement of the safety standards for intrastate gas pipeline facilities as they apply to design, construction, maintenance and operation. To this end, each gas company operating in Texas, its officers and employees shall make readily available to the Commission or its staff, any files, records, or other documents which shall be reasonably required. Likewise, the plant, property, and facilities shall be accessible. To establish guidelines a baseline of requirements), the Commission has adopted and promulgated Gas Utilities Substantive Rules 051.04.03.012, 051.04.03.013 and 051.04.03.016. These rules encompass the general minimum safety standards and specialized requirements for leak complaint procedures and odorization.
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Document ID: 4CF74D08


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