Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (1978)

Download collection of documents about ISHM 1978 including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, etc.


International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Manual Procedures For Chart Calculations
Author(s): Gloria m. Ivey
Abstract/Introduction:
Tn the natural gas company the meter station chart is the link between the company Itself and the rpality of its product. The interpretation of the recording and the calculation of the volumes represented by the chart are the responsibility of each companys measurement or chart department. Almmt every phnne nf pnmp.inv bin ITIUI-IK In liaJ en the output of this department - the gas volume. Therefore, it is imperative in this era of dwindling gas supply that the process for recording and computing this output be efficient and accurate. Even though the final chart calculation is the product of the measurement department, its beginning does nut oiigiaate here. Other departments within the company are responsible lor the initiation of agreements and for getting the information about such agreements to the measurement department for setting up its procedures. Without contract and field information, the chart is almost meaningless. Informative and accurate contracts, gas control letters, and field paper work are a must for measurement.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: E497B1CF

Test Instruments For Pressure, Water Vapor And Supercompressibility
Author(s): A. W. Chandler
Abstract/Introduction:
Volume measurement of natural gas at high pressure is principally accomplised by means of orifice type flow meters, Converting orifice meter readings to low pressure volumes requires exact knowledge of pressure and supercompressibility. Also, it is desirable to measure and limit the water content of natural gases. Water, in free or vapor form, will cause operational difficulties at meter stations and regulators. Free water is easily disposed of, but it is necessary to measure water vapor content in order to maintain a value low enough to prevent difficulty.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 6A19FC09

Elements Of Gas Contracts
Author(s): J. K. Welchon
Abstract/Introduction:
This discussion will be a general review of the elements that make up gas contracts. It is not intended to deal with the legal aspects of contracts, but instead, will discuss in a general way the various provisions commonly found in gas contracts. A dictionary defines a contract as an agreement, especially one that is legally enforceable, between two or more persons to do or not to do something. It follows that a gas contract is an agreement between parties which involves natural gas. The gas contracts that will be discussed are those involving the purchase or sale of natural gas.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 0E162C69

The Use Of A Density Meter & Microprocessor For Energy Measurement & Control
Author(s): Joe Agar
Abstract/Introduction:
AGA 5 gives the relationship between the specific gravity of the gas (G) and calorific value in BTU/SCF or BTU/LB. AGA 3 shows that considerable improvement in accuracy is possible if an in-line density meter is used instead of P & T correction. AGA 3 and AGA 5 make it possible to use one density meter and d.p. transmitter to measure accurately both FLOW and ENERGY, with very simple solid state instruments. The advantage of the Microprocessor is that it enables the calculation to be performed quickly, reliably, and cheaply. It replaces calorimeters and gravity meters and measures and controls fuel supply to boilers, furnaces, etc. with a very wide variation in gas composition.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: D8D29908

Electronic Chart Scanning And Related Equipment
Author(s): Bill N. Pinney
Abstract/Introduction:
In the early days of gas measurement, calculation of gas volume from charts was a long tedious job. Regardless of what system or program was used, the trace records on the charts had to be converted to cubic feet of gas. The first machines made for chart reading were slow and sometimes inaccurate and, from those machines up to the present, there haw been a large improvement in both quality and quantity of charts processed. Most chart offices are now equipped with integrators, analyzers, and electroscanners.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 3D6DA5A9

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Don W. Darais
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to the almost daily increasing cost of hydrocarbon products, both liquid and gas, there is a growing concern for accurate measurement. In many applications this begins with a signal fmm the primary element, consisting of the Orifice Fitting, Orifices Plate and Meter Tube. In order to more clearly discuss each of the components which make up the primary element in orifice measurement, each will be set out and discussed separately as follows: Orifice Fitting (consisting of Senior Fitting, Junior Fitting, and Simplex Fitting), Orifice Plate, Sealing Units, and Meter Tubes.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: D72CCDEC

Thermal Energy Measurements
Author(s): Mendal L. Yoho
Abstract/Introduction:
A dekatherm is one million BTUs. The dekatherm is often replacing the cubic foot as a unit for measuring gas. This change from volume to energy allows fair exchange, since the value of gas is the amount of heat energy which it will produce. Of course, gas can be exchanged fairly using the cubic foot, if every cubic foot is alike. That is, if every cubic foot will produce the same amount of heat. New sources of gas are being used which are not alike.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 54D45222

Keeping Osha In Perspective
Author(s): W. N. Stendebach
Abstract/Introduction:
The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, Public Law 91-596, was signed into law December 29, 1970 by President Richard M. Nixon. It became effective April 29, 1971. The declared purpose of the Act is to ensure as far as possible every working man and woman in the Nation safe and healthful working conditions and to preserve our human resources. The provisions of the law apply to every employer engaged in a business affecting commerce who has employees. The law applies in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, Wake Inland, the Outer Continental Shelf Lands, Johns Lou Island and the Canal Zone. It has been estimated that the act covers approximately 55 million employees.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 757BF1CD

Field Testing Large Displacement Meters A Panel Low Pressure Proving, Critical Flow Proving And Transfer Proving
Author(s): Clyde C. Bradford
Abstract/Introduction:
Low Pressure Flow Proving was so named because it is used to test meters at pressures which die slightly above atmospheric pressure but slightly less than 15 psig. Either gas or air may be used. The low pressure prover is essentially a pipe tap or flange tap orifice meter which has been made adaptable as prover by the use of quick reference tables. These tables enable the use of elementary mathematics to make a comparative calculation of the rate of flow registered by the meter under test and the prover. Thus, the proof of the meter can be readily established. During the late 1950s, the trend had been towards the use of portable blowers in field testing large displacement meters with low pressure flow provers because of the simplicity of the procedure and because of the greater safety corresponding to this method ot testing. The drawback to tasting with blowers hao been the temperature- distortion, immediately before entering the meter, caused by the churning of air in the fan housing.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 0D16D8A6

Field Testing Large Displacement Meters A Panel : Sonic Nozzle Testing
Author(s): Joseph A. Wager
Abstract/Introduction:
In discussing meter proving with various gas companies, much concern has been generated about the vast quantities of data manipulation required for uieler proving. Everytime data is moved by humans, some errorn arinc, Other uiujur concerne for accurate measurement Is the almost daily increase in natural gas cufats, and determining the accuracy of high pressure large volume metering devices. We at Peoples Natural. Gas Division felt that a new standard should bo developed that would be permanent, compact, and capable of being correlated with other standards. In 1976, Peoples Division started to develop such a standard with the use of American Meter Divisions Sonic Flow Nozzles (Smith and Matz Design) and with Agar Instrumentation who is developing the electronic console for use with sonic nozzle testing.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 275BFCBB

Design Of Distribution Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): William R. Mcclain
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper design of metering and regulating stations is esspntial to attain accurate measurement at. minimum cost, to allow for future expansion, and to meet all standards of safety which may apply. To accomplish this, tho engineer or designer must have available to him full information as to the requirements of the facility, the system from which it is served, and the various types of meters, regulators, safety devices, and associated equipment available for use.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: B52FAF9B

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted For Gas Transmission
Author(s): H. J. Hendrix
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is one of the most valuable commodities in the world today. Every indication is that the value will increase considerably as time progresses. It is just as important to your company today, from an economic standpoint, to deliver to the ultimate consumer every cubic foot of gas possible as in the past, but it is also equally important in this day of shortages and curtailments that people have the maximum use of this natural resource. Every cubic foot of natural gas possible should be delivered to the customer out of that produced. Gas Measurement Departments normally have the responsibility to determine the difference between input and output gas quantities in a transmission system. Almost all that difference can be accounted for. The small amount of gas not accounted for can be kept to a minimum by a proper leakage surveillance program. Such a program would involve proper and periodic checks of flange joints, valve packing glands, tap connections, gate valve bonnets, check valves, relief valves, welds, etc., for leaks. The following table illustrates a surprising gas leakage rate in Mcf per day when these leaks are equated to opening diameters.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 5D6A12C7

Determination Of Water Vapor Content And Hydrocarbon Dewpoint In Natural Gas
Author(s): D. T. Lurvey
Abstract/Introduction:
To assure continuous operation of natural gas transmission lines it is necessary to control the amount of water vapor in natural gas. Continual or frequent measurement of the water vapor content is required to achieve this goal. Many reports are presented on various instruments available for monitoring water vapor content. It is the intent in this paper to study the problem as an analytical chemist in hopes that this viewpoint of the problem will enable the student to better understand the possible solutions and to make a satisfactory choice for the particular situation he faces.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 76A38502

Selection, Testing, Maintenance And Operation Of Electronic Flow Computers
Author(s): B. C. Henderson
Abstract/Introduction:
Accuracy in measurement has always been of utmost concern in the gas industry however as gas supplies have decreased and the value of the product has gone up, the need for even more accurate methods of measurement have been sought. Electronic flow computers are fast becoming widespread in the gas industry. The flow of natural gas can be calculated from the differential pressure measured across an orifice plate and the density or static pressure of the gas measured at flowing conditions. These basic measurements can then be made more precise by compensating for the specific variables listed in the AGA Report No. 3. The flow computer will take these variables of factors into consideration and display the corrected flow rate. A printer can be installed to produce a permanent record, and the data can be transmitted to a central location.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 864DBC4D

Design Of High Pressure Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): G. E. Norman
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to present some of the basic rules and information required to design high pressure measuring and regulating stations. A high pressure measuring and regulating station should consistently provide accurate measurement and dependable pressure control. Factors such as safety, flexibility, expansion and governmental laws must also be considered in the overall design of these stations.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 17140BB1

Fundamental Principles Of Regulators
Author(s): Ralph Kubitz
Abstract/Introduction:
A gas pressure regulator is a device for reducing pressure to a certain value. Figure 1 is disgrammatic of a typical regulator installation with the main external elements labeled. Figure T could represent anything from a tiny 1/8 pipe size gaslight regulator to one for a transmission line in 30 or even larger pipe size. it could be a service regulator, an industrial regulator, a district or system regulator, a city gate or town border station regulator, etc. In all cases it takes gas from the supply and reduces the pressure to the value required for the load.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 1C075ADB

Gas Chromatography
Author(s): F. D. Schwartz
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas chromatography has become the most powerful technique for the analysis of volatile materials. Analysis involves the separation, identification and measurement of the components in a sample. Gas chromatography offers the analyst good separating power and measurement. Identification by chromatography often requires the use of supplementary spectroscopic methods. Because this course has been presented for several years, and because chromatography is so well established, we shall very briefly review the essentials of the method and then consider some of the newer developments which are of interest to measurement personnel in the gas industry.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: E98F170A

Large Capacity Gas Regulators
Author(s): John L. Esola
Abstract/Introduction:
The definition of a large capacity regulator is often difficult to formalize. There are many types of regulators which could be classified as large capacity. This discussion will be concerned with the conventional double ported regulator. The double ported balanced valve regulator is probably the most commonly used style of regulator labeled as large capacity. The large capacity is also often classified as high pressure due to the function of the restriction. The restricting element is positioned by an operator to permit equal flow into and out of the downstream system. The capacity of a restrictor is a function of the pressure differential across that restriction, therefore, the higher the pressure differential across the restrictor the greater the capacity for a given size restriction. The capacity will increase until sonic flow occurs. Sonic flow is the point at which the gas velocity reaches the speed of sound, and occurs when the outlet pressure absolute is approximately half the inlet pressure absolute.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: CA5FFA66

What The Office Expects From The Field
Author(s): C. J. Calhoun
Abstract/Introduction:
Accuracy in gas measurement, although always important, is hecoming increasingly so with the escalating cost of this fuel. All of us who are involved in measuring this form of energy are aware of the demand for greater accuracy. New and better measuring equipment has been developed, improved methods and procedures have been devised, and a wider knowledge of the measuring process has been attained. Nevertheless, all these are of little benefit unless put into proper practice. For the most effective utilization of these, there must be a free flow of good, clear, and concise communication between the field and the office.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: B6E52A45

Measured Steps For Training The Measurement Man
Author(s): Charles F. Drake
Abstract/Introduction:
Although this wanted bulletin is ridiculous, many times it seems to illustrate what management would like to have in respect to employees in our technical age. Fortunately, the human being is a very adaptable creature and with good planning a company may use a combination of existing relatively unskilled employees and a well organized training program to produce technicians that may actually surpass the technical level hoped for in the wanted bulletin. Employee training is probably the one important gear in the fine works of a company machine that is most often overlooked. Many times, companies assume too much in respect to the skills and attitudes of the people who do the front line field work and who, therefore, ultimately determine the success or failure of that company.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 61616402

Relief Valves
Author(s): Gary B. Emerson
Abstract/Introduction:
There are four types of relief valve upsets which have the same cause. This paper will discuss each, their effect on the operator, and their correction. 1. In 1964 one of oui big 6 by dual 8 valves set at 900 psig rollavod In a romolo pasture near Wilburton, Oklahoma. The farmer called the pipeline and told them he could stand the noise but that it had driven all his cattle up on his front porch and could we please stop the noise so they would go back to the pasture. Noise can be a problem with customers and nowadays can eaily become a legal problem. 2. The relief valve at a gate station destroyed its internals by opening and closing at a rapid rate, tearing up the seats and galling the guiding surfaces. The upset condition probably also tore the guts out of the pressure reducing valve upstream of the relief valve. The operator probably had to go on manual bypass and may have lost the downstream load if the relief valve stuck open.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 38E046A8

Charts, Pens And Inks
Author(s): William L. Tatarski
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of people involved in Gas Measurement are very familiar with and how it is used to transmit and collect data. Unfortunately, the minority really appreciate the importance and interrelationship of charts, pens and inks to the entire system. This paper will try to give an added insight into each of these components and some steps to insure proper use of these materials.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 7AE1684F

On-Site Flow Calcuiators And Transducers For Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
On-site flow calculators and transducers have become a working tool in the gas measurement industry. New instruments built of compact, reliable, solid-state low power components, perform many functions not previously possible and are thus changing many concepts in measurement techniques. The gas industrys original interest in on-site flow calculating systems stemmed from a requirement to provide real time data for gas dispatching and control. Keeping in mind that the primary function of gas dispatching is to make decisions to insure that an adequate supply of gas ia available at minimum cost to meet the load requirements of the system. This then required that the information presented to the dispatcher be in a form that was ready to be used so that their primary function of decision making could be performed.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 81718567

Determination Of Calorific Value Of Natural Gases
Author(s): Richard L. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
A new method of determining calorific value of natural gases has been developed. It is based on the ratio of air to fuel required to maximize the adiabatic flame temperature of natural gas/air flames being proportional to calorific value. To determine calorific value by this method, it is necessary to accurately determine the air to gas ratio that maximizes flame temperature. The accuracy of the method is limited by the accuracy of this measurement.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 27309143

Fundamental Gas Laws
Author(s): F. Mark Townsend
Abstract/Introduction:
Gao measurement is the determination of the volume of a gas at a particular temperature and pressure. The measurement should be as accurate as possible, making use of the best data and techniques available. The gas quantity is usually expressed in cubic feet: at some specific temperature and pressure. The best data available are the pressure, specific volume, and temperature values given in thermodynamic tables of pure substances. Tables are available for steam, air, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, methane, ethane, propane and several other substances. The tables should always be used when working with pure substances. These tables can also be used with mixtures of gases if the chemical analysis of the gas is known. However, in many cases this analysis is not available, so other methods must be used. One of the most convenient and satisfactory methods is to make use of the Gas Laws.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: D9B836A8

The A.G.A. Transmission Measurement Committee Structure And Current Projects
Author(s): R. N. Curry
Abstract/Introduction:
What is the American Gas Associations Transmission Measurement Committee? What does it do? Where do the members come from and how do they go about issuing reports and manuals? A new employee with a gas company becomes almost framedlately aware of A.U.A., particularly if his assignment is associated with gas measurement. Instructional sessions and conversation with more experienced co-workers are frequently interlaced with references to A.G.A. More specifically, such references are to A.G.A. Report No. 3, or A.G.A. Report No. so and so. Then, after a period of time, the new employee becomes a veteran and he too begins using thoqo v.iricm rnforcnrod A C A Lcpuiio and quoting fiuiu them in much the yamu Mduufci as he become?, familiar with their content and utility. And the cycle starts again. in fact, this same person may spend an entire career as mechanic, lawyer, technician, or engineer, utilizing the data contained in those reports but void of any real knowledge as to their source and the processes through which they have been made available to him and the industry he represents.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 0118F880

Operation And Maintenance Of Catalytic Heaters
Author(s): Sam Ashley
Abstract/Introduction:
Since early in the 1960s catalytic heaters have been available to the oil and gas industry. In the beginning only a few companies would try to apply a gas heater that operated without a flame to overcome some of the many problems encountered in the production, transmission and distribution of natural gas. After nearly fifteen (15) years the flameless catalytic heater has become recognized as a standard with measurement personnel, along with the many other conventional methods of freeze-up protection.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: C5C64F2E

Plan For Transition To Metric
Author(s): W. J. Mcguire
Abstract/Introduction:
Transition of the United States, to the metric system (SI) has been and will continue to be an evolutionary process and will occur at variable speeds in different sectors of the economy. In industries, such such as the automotive off-the-road equipment, data processing and pharmaceutical, to name a few, transition is well under way and should be completed by 1982. Studies by these industries and the individual companies involved have shown that SI will furnish more efficient operations, simplified designs, and reduced inventories all of which will lead to cost reductions. The bulk of the industry making up the balance of the sectors of the economy which includes the petroleum and natural gas industries has not been able to define any economic benefits that would encourage an early transition to the metric system. This does not mean that petroleum and natural gas industries have not or are not assuming a totally passive attitude toward conversion. The petroleum industry operates internationally and will be faced with an ever increasing impact in foreign operations as the rest of the world begins to use metric units. This along with expected impact from regulatory agencies invoking metric requirements and suppliers introducing metric designed equipment precludes passivity by the industry. Since 1970, the petroleum industry has been actively pursuing metric transition and has been working toward developing a deliberate plan for converting the industry to the metric system.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 057174BA

API Evaporation- Loss Measurement Programs
Author(s): J. G. Zabaga
Abstract/Introduction:
A great deal of Interest Is currently being focused on the evaporation loss bulletins published by the American Petroleum Institute (API) over a period of years. These bulletins are the primary data source for information on hydrocarbon evaporation loss in the petroleum industry. The API defines evaporation loss as the volume decrease caused by the change of hydrocarbon liquid to hydrocarbon vapor. This volume decrease is usually expressed in barrels per year and has traditionally been used for inventory nnnt-rnl . Regulatory agencies with air quality responsibilities are properly interested in the hydrocarbon mass released from petroleum handling equipment ovor a specific time period. This hydrocarbon mass is defined as an emission and is usually expressed in pounds per day.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 0383D18A

Orifice Meter Operation And Maintenance
Author(s): Leon White
Abstract/Introduction:
Cash registers come in many styles and sizes. Some are very sophisticated, others are very plain and simple. The end result is always the same. In order to operate the cash register It is important to know the function of the machine. The orifice meter is the cash register of the oil and gas industry and like the cash registers we see from day to day, we must know how to operate and maintain the orifice meter. The orifice meter as we know it, has been around for many years. It was developed to be the simplest and most accurate device for the measurements of large volumes of gas. With this in mind, most errors are made from human failures. These fall in two categories. I. Not being familiar with the instrument and its function. II. Failure to take time to totally check the instrument for accuracy.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 9354994E

Operation Of Orifice Meter Chart Integrators
Author(s): Philip C. Morris
Abstract/Introduction:
No other area of measurement qualifies quite as well as the Integrator to be called the cash box of the Industry. If a Meter malfunctions it effects only the accuracy of one station however when an Integrator goes bad it can effect the accuracy of an entire system. The Integrator is where all of the effort for accuracy culminates. We previously used the Sight Reading or Planimeter methods to accomplish what is now performed by Integrators. The rising price of our products has virtually ended the old idea of accepting a ball park estimate. The economy and survival of our Industry dictate that we must know exactly how much we produce and sell. The Integrator can be one of our boot tools in this effort.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 3BB4DD2A

Maintaining An Electroscanner And Chart Analyzer
Author(s): Thomas Y. Tramel
Abstract/Introduction:
A short time after integrated circuits were available to the industrial market, we at UGCI redesigned our proven Electroscanner. Incorporating integrated circuits into our computer, in addition to other changes, has made possible a much more accurate and reliable Electroscanner system. This change in computing circuitry also eliminated much of the maintenance necessary to keep the Electroscanner functioning properly. The Electroscanner, as any other type of uquXpuiunt, uhould bo proporly maintained to insure the most accurate and reliable results. A strict operational and preventive maintenance schedule must be maintained to achieve ultimate Electroscanner calculations.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 2B838F9F

Moisture Titrators
Author(s): James C. Bozeman
Abstract/Introduction:
The prediction or actual determination of the amount of entrained moisture in natural gas systems is recognized to be an essential part of pipeline operations. Water in the vaporous or fluid state poses not only operation problems but also greatly aids in internal corrosion/errosion of the pipeline, the single largest investment most pipeline companies have, and it must be protected. By knowing the amount of moisture present, and where it is entering the system, various protective/preventive measures may be undertaken to negate the negative effects. In order to do this, the amount of moisture present as well as its sourcp must be Identified. This necessitates accurate means to measure the percentage of water to natural gas.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: CC723721

Installation And Operation Of A Densitometer
Author(s): E. F. Blanchard
Abstract/Introduction:
The direct measurement of gas density has many important advantages in flow measurement. The most basic form of flow measurement using density is mass flow determination. This measurement requires only the differential pressure measured across the orifice plate and the gas density. Only in the past tew years has mass flow measurement of natural gas become practical. Prior to this time no accurate and inexpensive Densitometer was available. At the present time several manufacturers have developed density measuring devices or Densitometers. This pappr will relate exclusively to the UGC Industries Densitometer.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 04BF405A

A Look At Dot Inspection Requirements
Author(s): L. W. Riall
Abstract/Introduction:
Prior to 1968, there were no Federal regulations governing the safety of transportation of natural gas by pipeline. There were, within the pipeline industry, inlormal guidelines in the form of an industry code, the United States of America Standards Institute B31.8 Code. Although the code was technically sound, compliance was voluntary. There were no provisions for pipeline safety enforcement however, most companies recognized the need, and compliance with the provisions of the B31.8 Code was made mandatory within the companies. The natural gas industry compiled an admirable safety record while operating under the B31.8 Code. The industry spent, and continues to spend, millions of dollars on research directed toward safety improvement of pipelines. Most segments of the industry were vigorously concerned with the safe design and operation of pipelines and accorded safety the highest priority. Many companies recognized that there were shortcomings of the code and took individual action by establishing higher and more comprehensive safety standards for their own operations than the code provided. For example, many companies made it standard practice to coat and cathodically protect all new pipe, although the code did not require it.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 36272CC1

Fundamental Principles Of Positive Displacement Meters
Author(s): Robert G. Burr
Abstract/Introduction:
Tn 1792 the process of manufacturing gas from coal was introduced in England. It was normal that the first gas meters were developed in England after the founding of the first gas company in London in 1808. In 1817 the first gas company was chartered in the city of Baltimore and gas was introduced commercially to the United States, in those so called good ole days, meters were unknown and gaa was sold more or less on an hourly basis by contract. Gas company inspectors would tour the city at night and rap on the walk or curbs outside of the homes to indicate to gas light customers that their contract time had expired and the lights were to be extinguished. If the customer ignored the warning the inspector would turn the service off. This practice was then changed and the gas light customers were charged for the quantity of gas used based on the number, and possibly the size of light burners in the homes. Thus, the first gas meters developed were rated as Five Light, Ten-Light, etc. A gas light burner was based on a consumption of 6 cubic foot per hour.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 52D627F2

Large Capacity Displacement Gas Meters
Author(s): James A. Simpkins
Abstract/Introduction:
The term Large Capacity Displacement Meters, as used by the gas distribution induotry, refers to those diaphragm type meters with a capacity of 500 to 10 or 11,000 cfh of 0.64 specific gravity natural gas at a maximum of 4 ounces inlet pressure with no more than two inches water column differential pressure between the meter inlet and outlet at capacity flow. It also refers to rotary meters which also operate on the positive displacement principle.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 0885BAFF

Domestic Meters
Author(s): Donald H. Knapp
Abstract/Introduction:
The definition of a domestic meter is a meter having a capacity of 500 CFH or less. Formerly these units were ottered in a variety of case materials. Probably the most common of these were tinned steelcase commonly referred to as Tin Meters. These low pressure, handmade meters are no longer manufactured in North America. Although accurate, the high cost of manufacture and repair, pressure limitations, lack of corrosion resistance and susceptibility to pipe stress made these units obsolete. For the higher pressures encountered with natural gas cast iron was used extensively. Although eliminating some of the tin meters drawbacks its great weight was less than ideal.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 6212AFA3

Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): Donald H. Knapp
Abstract/Introduction:
Although the design of bellows type P.D. meters dates back well into the last century, it has now and will continue to have wide acceptance in our industry. Other types of measurement may appear at first glance to be more advanced, but this type is the only one that has virtually 100% rangeability, that is, the ability to measure gas from full rated capacity of the meter down to the smallest pilot load.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 1442F56D

Domestic Meters
Author(s): Hershel L. Moffett
Abstract/Introduction:
Most volume measuring devices in current use utilize the Positive Displacement principle of measurement. In positive displacement measurement, an accurately known volume is alternately trapped and released, and the number of trapping cycles is recorded on a register calibrated in the desired measuring units. According to this definition, a grocer measuring a pound of jelly beans is utilizing positive displacement measurement. A dairy filling quart milk bottles is also utilizing the same basic principle. Over forty million gas meters in current use in the United States also are based on a positive displacement principle.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 0418D94C

Pipe Line Leak Detection
Author(s): Norman Estrella
Abstract/Introduction:
Since 1860 with the early discovery of oil in Pennsylvania, to its wildcat days in Texas, Oklahoma, and Louisiana, the loss of product due to leakage has been of concern to the pipeline industry. Today that concern has been taken up by the U. S. Government and Environmentalists as a great crusade. Pipelines have transported volatile and toxic materials for many years and have carried a safety record that is unmatched by any transportation method. This paper is meant to show how that record has been achieved through continuous seeking of better methods ot improving safety of operations for our employees and the public in general.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 976CDC65

Rotating Vane Type Gas Meters
Author(s): Woodford Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
Rotary meters, in general, are being used with increasing frequency in production, distribution and industrial gas measurement. Depending upon the needs of the application, rotary meters may offer advantages over other types of meters. They are lightweight and compact compared to diaphragm meters of comparable capacity. Accuracy is machined in and flow capacities are independent of the specific gravity of the gas being measured.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: F7693334

Determination Of Plant Volume Reduction
Author(s): Robert D. Venable
Abstract/Introduction:
The title Determination of Plant Volume Reduction indicates that a lesser volume of gas is being discharged from a given plant than is being measured on the suction side. To people in the gas business, this seems to be a very normal occurrence. However, with the advent of higher gas prices, depleting reserves, and the rise in LPG prices, it has become necessary to do our very best to determine what happens to the difference between the plant inlet volume and the plant discharge volume. This difference is commonly referred to as shrinkage. We hope to identify the different kinds of shrinkage and also present accurate methods to determine thu number of Mef uL attributed to each.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 59AFC8FA

Gas Measurement By Rotary Meters
Author(s): W. K. Clark
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1920, after many years of experience in the rotary blower field, Roots-Connersville Blower Company manufactured the firm rotary positive displacement gas meter known as the ROOTS Meter. In 1966 the ROOTS Meter line was split from Roots-Connarovillc and a new company was formed by the name of Dresser Measurement Division. Rockwell International entered the market in the early 1960s with a rotating vane design known as the Roto-Seal Meter and in the late 1960s, Singers American Meter Company introduced still another rotating vane design known as the CVM gas meter.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: AC2D2417

Liquid Sampling
Author(s): E. L. Graves
Abstract/Introduction:
I wish to acknowledge the help of a number of people in the preparation of this paper. Part of the information is taken from API Standards 2546, part from True Cut Products reports from experiments conducted at Puidue University, and test data from Amoco, Phillips, and other pipe line companies. Sampling of an oil stream, particularly crude oil, which carries free water, dirt, or sand in varying degrees, is reasonably difficult. Experiments are under way all of the time to determine a better way of obtaining a representative sample so that it can be analyzed fairly for all concerned.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 77EDA9BA

Correcting Instruments Applied To Displacement And Turbine Gas Meters
Author(s): Stanley F. Humbert
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine and positive displacement meters are considered basic elements of a pipeline gas flow measuring system. They measure the volume of gas passing through the meter at line conditions of pressure and temperature. This uncorrected or actual volume of gas flow is then indicated on some type of index readout. When the flowing gas volume i meaenrpd at low pressure line conditions (close to atmospheric), the meter index indicates the volume measured in cubic feet and no additional correction is needed.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: EB22175B

System Of Transfer Proving
Author(s): W. A. Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
Transfer provers are a familiar piece of test equipment throughout the natural gas industry. Portable transfer provers, in particular, have become nearly indispensable in facilitating economical periodic testing of industrial size meters. The value users attach to these units is well deserved. They are ruggedly constructed, compact and require a minimal amount of maintenance. Set up is simple and operation is straight forward. Within the limitations of the actual ambient conditions, transfer provers provide accurable, repeatable test results.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 3C2D77E6

Diaphragm Meter Capacity Ratings At Elevated Pressures
Author(s): Howard W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
Through the years, the gas industry has been steadily improving, especially from a technological and product improvements viewpoint. Today, the gas industry has standardized on most applications, methods and definitions as compared to the knowledge possessed just twenty short years ago. WIthin the measurements field, two important areas are still open for discussion and at the discretion of the individual persons or companies operating within these areas. One is the lack of an industry standard for diaphragm meter capacity ratings at elevated pressures. There are presently in use a minimum of ten different base pressures, each of which defines a standard cubic foot of natural gas. There are many different methods of gas measurement in use today - the three most common are diaphragm displacement meters, rotary displacement meters, and inferential meters.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 1DD218B7

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Howard W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject title is only one of many which could be applicable, such as: Do Your Measurement Books Balance? Does Your Sales Volume Your Purchase Volume? Are You Selling All The Volume Youre Entitled to? Do You Really Have Good Measurement? If you honestly answer No to any of the above, then it will be beneficial to explore a few basic reasons for measurement problems. When the word measurement is mentioned, the majority of the gas industry measurement personnel automatically convert their thoughts to a meter. The meter contributes only 1/2 to 1/4 toward the total science of measurement depending on the application.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: FBE5C9EB

Gas Volume Measurement By Turbine And Rotary Meters
Author(s): Daniel R. Fulton
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine and rotary type gas meters play an increasingly important role in gas measurement. Each has its own characteristics and each offers distinct advantages in the production, transmission and distribution segments of the gas industry. With the value of gas increasing significantly, more attention is being given to accurate measurement at the point of sale and quite often, depending on the flow rates, either turbine or rotary meters best fit the need. In production measurement the turbine and rotary meter is used in custody transfer, well testing, compressor fuel and in other field accounting applications. In the transmission segment these same meters are used for custody transfer of gas volumes as well as for internal accounting of gas usage such as compressor fuel consumption. In distribution measurement turbine and rotary meters are used for large volume sales to industrial and commercial type accounts.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: AFA7C271

Specific Geavity Instruments - Case And Operation
Author(s): L. W. Dunn
Abstract/Introduction:
This gravitometer is a direct weighing type instrument and is constructed to measure the difference in the weight of a column of gas and an equal column of dry air. This difference is transmitted to a chart on which is recorded the specific gravity of the gas passing thru the instrument. This instrument consists of an air bell and gas bell, both identical and suspended at equal distances from the fulcrum of the balance beam. The purpose of the air bell is to compensate for the weight of the gas bell and the surface tension of the sealing liquid in which the two bells are suspended. The interior space of the air bell is open to the atmosphere thru an air inlet and outlet which contain a drying agent. The interior space of the gas bell is open to the atmosphere thru its outlet and the gas supply is admitted thru its inlet. Two vertical tubes of adequate height to obtain the required working force on the bells are connected at their bases to the inside space of the bells. The movement of the bells is transmitted thru the balance beam of the recording mechanism.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: EE6BDF63

The Use Of Manometers In The Gas Industry
Author(s): Nick Gestrich
Abstract/Introduction:
In the Measurement Mans Corner of Gas Magazine in April, 1967, it was stated, If the gas measurement science could be represented by a corpse, upon dissection the heart would turn out to be a manometer. Accurate gas measurement depends on precise measurement of small pressures and differential pressures I arge volumes of gas are bought and sold every day. Therefore, the utmost accuracy is desired in our measurement of these volumes. For this reason, the manometer is of prime importance to the gas measurement industry. The simplicity, inherent accuracy and versatility of manometers lend them to broad application in calibration, trouble shooting, and meter maintenance leak testing. Because manometers are basically simple, they are often overshadowed by newer, more sophisticated devices or methods. However, there is more to manometry than is universally recognized. A review of manometer principles and practices is in order. Unless we know those factors affecting accuracy, we cannot utilize the manometer and its advantages to the fullest. Also, by understanding manometers more completely, wc are able to apply a manometer even though the specific application may nol have been described to us previously.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: B27E18BA

Installation And Operation Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): A.F. Kersey
Abstract/Introduction:
The Cutler-Hammer recording Calorimeter measures the total calorific value of combustible gas. It continuously samples, indicates, and records BTU per cubic. The BTU is an energy unit defined as the heat required to raise one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit from 58.5 to 59.5 degree F. under standard pressure. The International Table BTU is 1055.05585262 Joules.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 2304E459

Kinetic Type Indicating And Recording Instruments For Determining Specific Gravity
Author(s): F. B. Leslie
Abstract/Introduction:
This class offers a comprehensive presentation of the kinetic type gas gravitometer, Including: Simple explanation of operating principle Equipment set-up and operation in field Trouble shooting, repair and adjustment The kinetic type gas gravitometer is manufactured as a portable indicating type instrument illustrated in Figure 1 and as a stationary recording type instrument illustrated in Figure 2. The basic operating mechanism is identical for both types but the case, motive power and linkage are modified to adapt them to either portable use or permanent mounting.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 46C8E212

Flow Measurement With Insertion Turbine Meters
Author(s): Richard E. Zimmermann
Abstract/Introduction:
Insertion turbine meters offer most of the desirable features associated with conventional full bore turbine meters. They have wide rangeability. excellent repeatibil ity, and sensitivity, and an early interfaced pulse output which Is linear with respect to flow. They also share common features with other insertion type meters, such as negligible pressure drop, relatively low cost, and ease of installation. Their primary shortcoming is that, like all insertion meters, they measure only a sample of the flow. Therefore, the accuracy which can be obtained with them is dependent upon how well the velocity sample can be related to the total volumetric flow rate.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 769D44D3

Sonic Nozzles
Author(s): Giles m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
Recently, it has become evident that some form of secondary flow standard was required for work with natural gas flow meLeis, binuu gati meter development was being extended into areas of high flow rates and hiqh pressures. The accuracy required in testing these new designs could not be met by using orifice meters or other differential meters and the time-tested, bell prover standard was not suitable at high pressures. The new standard would have to be permanent, reasonably compact and capable of readily beiny correlated with other standards, such as volumetric provers and qravimetric devices. Any calculations required should be kept as simple as possible, since field use was intended.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 040E1495

Fundamental Principles Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): Giles m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
To many people, the Latin orifice meter has come to mean the insUuiiituiL, built into a rectangular black case, which records (or computes) the flow which occurs through the meter run and orificp plate. Strictly speaking, thin in not correct the orifice meter actually consists of the eGiiibitidtion of the meter run, orifice plate and gage lines-together with the instrument which senses the characteristics from which the flow rate is computed.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: D1647873

Betjlcws-Type Orifice Meters
Author(s): Giles m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
The bellown-type differential gauge has found widespread application and increasing popularity in orifice metering. Its operation does not require mercry nor critical leveliny for operation. The rapid response and high output torque make the bellows meter particularly rtdaplable to integrating and controlling devices. The meter is generally not affected by condensed liquid in the measuring system. The self-draining feature along with proper installation makes it very adaptable to wet gas measurement.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: F195F65F

North Sea Measurement Problems
Author(s): B.G. Grant
Abstract/Introduction:
Many hundreds of years ago the Vikings learned how to cope with voyages across the stretches of the North Sea. The taming of the elements was not without many tragic endings with boats caught up in the storms and never heard from again. Even today the sailor must be very cautious and his ship must be very seaworthy to brave the elements of the North Sea during a winter storm. Seas can run as high as sixty or seventy feet with winds up to lOO miles per hour and the temperature well below freezing. These are the elements the oil and gas men face along with operating over 200 miles from land and with production scattered over distances up to 50 miles between platforms. The problems of overcoming these conditions to obtain flow measurement and control which answers all the criteria of a modern system will be the subject of this paper.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 0E32D227

Instruments For Leakage Detection
Author(s): Andre J. Massicott
Abstract/Introduction:
Key factors involved in selecting the proper instrument for the detection of combustible gases involves several decisions. These include definition of problem areas, economic limitations, a review of principles to be used and the choice of the best instrumentation available. We must engineer, supervise and check out the instrument installation. Supervision of the use of the equipment must include the training of all personnel in their respective areas. Equally important is the establishment of routine maintenance and calibration schedules including the maintenance of a written log on these schedules. Attention to establishing the guidelines noted above will prepare us to better meet nnr industry safety objectives and at the same time help us to comply with state and federal codes.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: A6ACB601

Custody Oil Transfer Operation Op An Offshore Terminal
Author(s): R. A. m. Owens
Abstract/Introduction:
Dubai Petroleum Company operates a completely self contained production gathering centre and terminal export facility 58 miles offshore from the Emirates of Dubai in the Arabian Gulf, named Fateh Terminal. The installation consists of two SPMs utilized for export facilities together with underwater and floating storage installations which incorporates both dynamic and static measurement systems. One of these facilities is capable of exporting crude oil at a rote of 100,000 BUI and at the time of commissioning had probably the highest loading rate of any offshore installation in the world. Experience of operating this installation has proved that these high flow rates can be efficiently measured with equipment that was specifically designed for the confines of an offshore Terminal.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 9CD1AF3F

Determination Of Hydrogen Sulphide & Total Sulphur By Titration Methods
Author(s): R. R. Austin, J. R. Robison
Abstract/Introduction:
Electrolytic generation of bromine as a titrating reagent for measurement of sulfur compounds in natural gas was introduced to the industry nearly twenty years ago. Sweet gas had been delivered to the Eastern and Midwestern markets through high pressure transmission lines for a few years when the demand for gas brought more sour gas into production and treating plants for desulfurization were installed on these supplies to bring hydrogen sulfide concentration down to contract limits. A continuous record of hydrogen sulfide concentration was found to be necessary to ensure the quality of delivered gao. Photoelectric measurement of lead sulfide in impregnated paper tape was widely used as was electrolytic titration.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: B3552A82

Technical Session, Specific Gravity Instruments Installation And Operation
Author(s): Mark Warner
Abstract/Introduction:
Fundamental to understanding specific gravity instruments and their use is the definition of specific gravity. Specific gravity is formally defined as the ratio of weight of a body to the weight of another body of equal volume taken as a standard unit. For gases, the standard is generally dry air. For example: Two tanks containing equal volumes of a gas and of dry air were weighed. After accounting for the weight of the containers, the dry air weighed one pound and the gas weighed 0.6 pounds.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 63C1DFD1

Turbine Meter And Continuous Integrator
Author(s): Woodford Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
The turbine meter has a number of features which makes it a good choice for iitciny production, tranBittifcisiori, dictribution and industrial gas metering applications. It combines high capacity with light weight, compact size and wide rangeability with ease of maintenance. Turbine meters provide an accurate, economical method of measuring large volume gas loads when used in a well designed metering station.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 94C769C5

Prover Accuracy And Sample Testing Relative To Meter Proof Specification
Author(s): William Drahushak
Abstract/Introduction:
Domestic meter proof has been the subject of numerous papers and responsible for many hours of discussion. It is easily recognized as to why this particular characteristic receives so much attention. The sole purpose of any gas meter is to measure usage. The amount of the usage determines revenue and revenue allows the gas company to exist as an entity. The accuracy of this registration determines the accuracy of the billing. Over the past several years numerous improvements have been made not only to the meters themselves but also to the equipment used to measure meter accuracy.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 056D060E

Monitoring Daily Demand Of Gas Volumes
Author(s): Richard A. Manson
Abstract/Introduction:
How many times have you been involved in a discussion of the accuracy of certain daily delivery determinations? It has often been said that when you have one meter you have measurement, when you have two, you have quite a discussion. This same comment could apply to our attempts to monitor daily demand of gas volumes. For example: the calculation of a daily volume by the customer using actual daily meter index readings, recorded pressure and temperature, versus the suppliers computation from a seven day chart, may vary enough to cause real problems. From a monitoring standpoint problems can develop when the curtailed or interrupted customer determines from his interpretation of your recording gages that he is within his allotment, only to discover upon receipt of his monthly bill that his calculations were incorrect. Costly penalty situations and/or gas shortages to priority customers ran result from overrun of dally and/or hourly takes.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 32C513E8

Calibration Data For A Hew Shaped Annular Averaging Head Device
Author(s): Charles L. Britton
Abstract/Introduction:
In the mid 1960s, the Annubar was patented and put on the market, an a flow measurement device. The original design performed fairly good with liquid flows, but at the high Reynolds numbers associated with gaseous flows the performance was erratic. This paper gives the history of design changes and calibration data on a new shaped Annubar which eliminates its erratic performance.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 68B19A24

Instrument Calibration Using The Pneumatic Deadweight Tester
Author(s): H. E. Woody() Blackman
Abstract/Introduction:
Today we are going to discuss instrument calibration using the AMETER Pneumatic Deadweight Tester as our primary source. Accurate low pressure instrument calibration has long been a difficult problem for technicians. This instrument has provided the technician with the equipment needed to remove many of his age old problems such as thermal, surface tension, absorbed gas, etc.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: E7C5E249

Fundamentals Of Bellows-Type Orifice Meters
Author(s): m. J. Sergesketter
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to control and direct the flow of water was recognized at a very early stage in the development of civilization. In Europe and Asia can be seen the relics of hydraulic works, some of great antiquity, which display a high degree of engineering accomplishment, the best known of which are the aqueducts, which the Romans built to bring water to their cities. In the cities of Pompeii and llareulaneum can be still seen lead piping, which conveyed water to houses and gardens, and which Included orifice plates to act as flow limiting devices, providing a basis on which the service was charged to the consumer. These were installed almost 2,000 years ago. Some of these techniques were introduced to North America by engineers, who accompanied the Spanish missionaries and whose work can still be seen at some of the missions in California.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 2F526344

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Ray Forbes
Abstract/Introduction:
In the field of natural gas measurement, the term primary element generally refers to the orifice plate, the orifice plate holding device, and the adjacent piping or meter tube. The single most important item of the primary device is the orifice plate, since it is the orifice plate which creates the differential pressure within a flowing medium. The measurement of a pressure differential, along with certain other data, permits one to compute the rate of flow on the basis of well established physical principles. Frequent inspection of the orifice plate is necessary in some types of service to insure that it is in proper condition to meter accurately, i.e., it is flat and clean and the inlet edge of the orifice bore is still sharp, square and free from nicks or other damage,
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: DC33AD4C

Installation, Operation And Maintenance Of . Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): Richard L. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of automatic chart changers has become so widespread throughout the natural gas industry that several transmission companies have standardized on changers. Automatic changers are as accepted in station design as orifice fittings, meter tubes, and orifice meters. Such has not always been the case. Before 1958, there was no comercially available automatic chart changer. Several attempts had been made but none had been successful. In 1957 Mullins Manufacturing Company was formed for the express purpose of offering the industry an automatic chart changer. A Patent Pending was purchased, design was tested and retested, redesigned and retested. Finally a design emerged that would change charts reliably and which could be manufactured commercially. The name chosen for this automatic chart changer was Dial-O-Graph. The first commercial installation of a Dial-O-Graph was accomplished in January of 1959.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 8B27761F

Installation, Operation Amd Maintenance Of Automatic Chaet Changers
Author(s): Bruce J. Caldwell
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic chart changers are intended to overcome the neccesity of routinely retrieving circular charts from recording locations at fixed time intervale, consistent with each 36O of chart rotation. Also, chart cbangers are a means of upgrading circular chart recorders to the attendance level of strip chart recorders, without sacrificing the obvious convenience of individual charts for specific segments of time, such as an hour, day, or week. Basically, chart changers consist of a chart plate that u Lores a supply of charts equal to recording requirements for a lengthly period of time, provisions for removing each topmost, chart of the pack once it is fully recorded, then a suitable receptical to stow recorded charts to await their retrieval.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 5548164A

Installation, Operation And Maintenance Of Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): L. E. Reynolds
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic Chart Changers were developed for the specitic purpose of saving time and money by changing charts when there was no one present but by no means could they eliminate company meter technicians or their chart grabber personnel. These people will always be needed to check the calibration and performance of the meter as well as collect the charts, monitor them for any unusual record and forward them to the chart processing/accounting office at the end of the month.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 557CB4F4

Industrial And District Regulators And Applications
Author(s): Fred Loring
Abstract/Introduction:
Domestic service regulators are generally used in standardized installations and under approximately similar operating conditions. In contrast to these, industrial regulators cover a broad spectrum of specialized applications with respect to pressure, flow capacity, accuracy, rangeability, and other requirements. The multiplicity of available types furnishes an awesome choice to the uninitiated, but generally a few special requirements quickly narrow the selection for a given situation.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 02396278

Fundamental Principles Of Pilot Control
Author(s): Fred Loring
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure regulators used in the fuel gas industry are commonly classified as self-operated or pilot operated. Each type has advantages for certain applications. Pilot regulators have distinguishing characteristics, such as construction, function, or operation. Generally they offer superior performance in applications involving highly varying flow conditions requiring close control, and widely varying inlet pressures and high rates of load change. Other advantages are: easy and accurate adjustment to changing conditions, sensitive, fast response, minim.! spring effect, reduction or elimination of diaphragm effect, and easy adaptation to remote control. Some models require only a low differential pressure across the main diaphragm, allowing a large diaphragm size for better sensitivity.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 85E394D0

Expansible Element Valves For Pressure Regulation And Relief
Author(s): Fred Loring
Abstract/Introduction:
Modern control valve designs endeavor to achieve superior performance and durability, together with reduction of size, noise, and cost. Expasible element valves incorporate rugged construction in simple, compact designs. They have only one moving part - the sleeve - and are popular for pressure reduction, relief, monitor, back pressure, flow control, and check valve applications.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: EBBCB9AE

Selection, Operation And Maintenance Of Regulators
Author(s): L. E. Gelnett
Abstract/Introduction:
Extended trouble free operation of a regulator installation can only occur if initial equipment selection is properly made, and that equipment properly maintained. Proper regulator selection is a process of analysing the system requirements and then selecting the type and size of regulator or regulators to satisfy these requirements. The type of service into which a regulator is to be placed can give a good starting point for regulator selection. A broad set of requirements can be established for different categories of utilization. These requirements will indicate th fundamentals of construction to obtain the performance desired.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 9BF16652

High And Low Pressure Regulators
Author(s): B. R. Elkins
Abstract/Introduction:
This topic covers a very broad area since it includes all regulators used in the gas industry. Every regulator is either high or low pressure depending upon the definition we use to classify them. Many regulators can be both, again depending on the definition of high and low pressure. Section 192.3 ot the DOT code covers definitions. This section defines a low pressure distribution system as one in which the pressure in the main is substantailly the same as the pressure provided the user. This simply means, there is no regulator needed between the main and the user. Generally speaking this pressure ir. usually 1/4 psig, thus, for convenience of this topic we will define a low pressure regulator as one delivering an outlet pressure ot 1 psig or less.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 362B2AF9

High Pressure Farm Taps And Service Regulators
Author(s): Bill George
Abstract/Introduction:
High Pressure Farm Tap Regulators and the low pressure service regulator are the most basic and numerically the most common regulators utilized in the gas industry. They are simple, reliable, low 1n cost, easy to install and require practically no maintenance. Both the high pressure farm tap and the low pressure service regulators share many similar construction features spring and diaphragm, boost effect, single soft seat, mechanical advantage (lever arm) between valve and diaphragm. Despite the relative simplicity of this class of regulator, countless engineering hours have been spent on its development and refinement. Most of this work has been spent in the low pressure version-the service regulator.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: EE183FC7

High Pressure Farm Taps And Service Regulators
Author(s): Bill George
Abstract/Introduction:
High Pressure Farm Tap Regulators and the low pressure service regulator are the most basic aud numerically Lhe most common regulators utilized in the gas industry. They are simple, reliable, low in cost, easy to innf.nl I nnrl require practically nn maintenance. Both the high pressure farm tap and the low pressure service regulators share many similar construction features spring and diaphragm, boost effect, single soft seat, mechanical advantage (lever arm) between valve and diaphragm. Despite the relative simplicity of this class of regulator, countless engineering hours have been spent on its development and refinement. Most of this work has been ponf in fho low prnnnnrp version the service regulator.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: C0763E0B

Operation And Maintenance Of Rubber Plug Type Control Valves
Author(s): Mack Jacobs
Abstract/Introduction:
An urgent need existed for a control valve that could meet certain criteria not available in existing valve designs, and in 1958, the JET STREAM rubber plug type control valve was introduced. Because of this, some readers will find this to be a review of things alieady known, while others may discover a new valve. Its Interesting to note that since 1958 there have been a number of specialty valves developed in an attempt to meet the exacting demands of precise and careful control, but none of them have been able to match the rubber plug and the way it can be worked to provide all the same benefits.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 16B8CC4C

Application Of Flow Computers For Gas Measurement And Control
Author(s): Michael J. Keady
Abstract/Introduction:
Traditionally, orifice meter signals have been recorded on-site by means of mechanical circular chart recorders. These charts have been collected weekly or monthly and integrated for volume determination. This procedure has a lengthy lag between time of actual gas flew and time of reporting. With the advent of spiraling gas prices and penalty clauses for excessive rate deliveries, both customer and supplier are looking towards quicker and more accurate methods of obtaining flow and total quantity. By use of field mounted electronic flow computers, flow information is processed on an instantaneous and continuous basis.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 32D0E71C

Application And Operation Of Ball Valve Regulators
Author(s): Roy J. Becker
Abstract/Introduction:
OVER TWENTY YEARS AGO A PLUG VALVE WAS EQUIPPED WITH A PNEUMATIC CYLINDER AND A POSITIONER AND USED AS A MONITOR REGULATOR. THE CONCEPT WAS A NEW METHOD Ul GAR REGULATION AND WAS IMF RFC INNING OF A NEW ERA. A MIDWESTERN UTILITY USED THESE PLUG VALVE REGULATORS ABOVE GRADE WITH RELATIVELY GOOD SUCCESS. THEY BELIEVED, HOWEVER, THAT A BURIED VALVE REGULATOR WOULD BE MORE DESIRABLE THAN AN ABOVE GROUND UNIT AND WOULD GREATLY REDUCE THE COST OF A STATION. REGULATORS OF THIS NATURE WERE SUCCESSFUL AND PROVED TO BE THE KEY TO TODAYS MODERN HIGH CAPACITY CONTROL STATIONS.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: AB2F082F

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Robert H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
For several years gas men have been giving more thought to aerodynamic turbulence within their pipeline systems and, in particular, the turbulence that is a result of pressure regulation. Considering the noise from a measurement or regulating station, it is generally conceded that measurement facilities alon will rnrnly be a major source of noise, since we can design the pipe to give a desired and normally tranquil velocity. On the other hand, we must expect that in a regulator station control of the gas velocity is possible only up to the inlet side of an active regulator. At the point of regulation within the regulator body, the velocity of the gas may be expected to increase greatly, perhaps up to sonic velocity. Now the question becomes, What is the best way to handle gas when it is traveling at high velocities?
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 95ABF303

Meter Station Noise Forecasting
Author(s): Don Day
Abstract/Introduction:
The scope of this presentation Is limiLed Lo noise which originates in control valves. The generation, transmission, prevention, absorption, isolation, and prediction of control valve noise will be studied. The major problem with industrial noise is people. Society values people and their health and welfare. Federal and state governments, through legislation and through decree, determine standards and penalties which are intended to protect people. There are three elements of noise standards which are essential considerations of any industrial noise problem. People! Noise Level! and Exposure Time!
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 0C650462

Meter Station Noise Forecasting
Author(s): Don Day
Abstract/Introduction:
The scope of this presentation is limited to noise which originates in control valves. The generation, transmission, prevention, absorption, isolation, and prediction of control valve noise will be studied, The major problem with industrial noise is people. Society values people and their health and welfare. Federal and state governments, through legislation and through decree, determine standards and penalties which are intended to protect people. There are three elements of noise standards which are essential considerations of any industrial noise problem. People! Noise Level! and Exposure Time!
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 548458AA

Basic Devices Ahd Techniques For Supervisory Control Ahd Telemetry Systems
Author(s): Donald C. Mcbride
Abstract/Introduction:
Supervisory control and telemetry can be defined as any system that receives data and sends control commands, that have an effect on the data. over some distance. In practice the complete system provides the equipment necessary to send the control commands and receive the data. It may he very complex such as controlling and receiving data from a spacecraft, or it may be simple such as starting, stopping and monitoring a compressor a short distance away. In the past these systems were hard wired and as more control and telemetering functions were added could become quite cumbersome. With the advent of the mini-computer, programmable microprocessors and cathode ray tube displays the speed, accuracy quantity and flexibility of control and telemetering information has greatly increased. The latest systems use an online dedicated computer at the dispatch center and stand alone programmable microprocessors at the controlled stations. The scope of this paper will be to cover the subject as it pertains to this type of equipment for pipeline control and telemetering.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 96DEE21D

Gauging, Testing And Running Of Lease Tanks
Author(s): J. G. Upton
Abstract/Introduction:
The barrel of crude oil we buy or sell occupies a volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons at atmospheric pressure and a temperature of 60 degrees Fahrenheit and contains no impurities (BS&W). This barrel is commonly known as the standard barrel of net clean oil and is the recognized unit of measure for purchases, sales, royalty payments, taxes, and so on. However, the barrel we physically measure and test occupies a volume of 42 U.S. gallons at whatever temperature it is measured, including suspended BS&W. This barrel is commonly known as the gross barrel, and obviously cannot be employed as the net barrel. The employee who actually measures, samples, tests and runs crude oil is called the gauger, regardless of his normal job classification, Tt is the responsibility of the gauger to provide tho accurate moacursment and test data necessary to determine the net standard barrel.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: F1EE4939

Positive Displacemeht Liquid Meters
Author(s): Barrie L. Bloser
Abstract/Introduction:
The Positive Displacement (P.D.) Meters we are familiar with today are very much the same in principle as they were a quarter of a century ago. However, the demands of progress in the petroleum industry have stimulated competitive actions among manufacturers to continually make improvements in the performance of their meters. These meters play a very important role in the measurement of petroleum liquid hydrocarbons. The importance of metering has been accepted in every phase of petroleum production from the production of crude oil at the well head, to the refinery, and then on to the finished product through the pipeline to tanker or barge loading and unloading and finally to bulk terminals for distribution. From these bulk terminals the distribution Is generally made by tanker truck to bulk consumers and fuel oil dealers. The distribution is broken down even further with smaller -trucks delivering gasoline to the service stations and fuel oil to the homes. The service station is the final link between the refinery and the consumer for most gasoline.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 8636C001

A Guide To The Operation And Application Of Turbine Flowmeters For Liquid Product Measurement
Author(s): James Dalton, James W. Williams, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine type flowmeterlng devices are applied worldwide to the measurement and control of liquid product, in both the industrial and petroleum marketplace. Significant advantages associated with the use of turbine flowmeters in lieu of other metering principles make increased future usage inevitable. Newcomers to the field of flow measurement should become familiar with the fundamental characteristics and conditions surrounding the turbine meter, in order to better understand its usage. Consequently, this paper is provided as a brief guide to the operation and application of turbine flowmeters for liquid product measurement.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: F63BFD24

Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
Although the liquid turbine meter principle dates back many decades, the axial flow turbine meters presently employed for liquid measurement are quite now. The axial flow turbine meter was first used for water flow measurement where there was plenty of energy available for driving the rotor and normally where accuracy of measurement was not of prime importance. Reliability was of greater importance, so parts were made rugged and the rotor was designed more to be non-clogging than to be accurate. However through the evolution of technology, the turbine meter has maintained reliability and ruggedness while attaining a high degree of accuracy. Today, the meters used for water flow have accuracies of +0.25% over ranges of 10 to 1 or more while maintaining the same high degree of reliability and ruggedness as did their predecessors.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 6D78AB4D

Liquid Meter Proving Techniques
Author(s): Carl Green, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
No one knows for sure, but chances are it happened with the inslal1afion of the first, maybe the second, flow meter that gave rise to the measurement persons famous proverb, that meter is no good. The basis for this statement is really that, in comparing the meter to some other device, it does not agree it is not accurate. But what is accuracy? Accuracy is the ratio of indicated volume to actual volume. Indicated volume is easy to determine just look at the totalizing register for the meter in question and it will show the indicated volume. Now comes the tricky part in knowing just what the true or actual volume is. Common industry practice has been to use one or more of several types of provers to prove meters, and thereby determine a meter factor which is a function of the indicated volume/actual volume ratio. Without question, all components of a metering/proving system are assumed to be functioning properly, save the meter. The poor ole dumb meter is always the first one to be blamed if current meter factors do not agree with previous ones. The meter is showing what it can do under a given set of conditions that may or may not have been the same as they were in developing the previous meter factors. In any comparison, one must be sure to compare apples to apples, not compare apples to oranges and assume that both are equal.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: B849DA2E

Liquid Prover Calibration
Author(s): Carl Green, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Fluid measurement is uutmaliy done under flowing conditions using a meter. Since a meters output can change (from debris, mechanical wear, etc.) reverification of its readout should be checked periodically against an accepted standard. The atauddid lot veillylng meter throughput is Lo check it against a known-volume. This knownvolume check of a meter is called proving and over the years many different devices have been used as provers (master meters, weigh tanks, tank gauging, etc.). The now, or soon to be, most common device for proving which offers a faster, less troublesome, less expensive, and more accurate nipans of proving ic the Mechanical Dioplace ment Prover. A prover allows proving a meter utidei actual operating conditions (flow rate, temperature, pressure, etc.) with the actual operating fluid at the time of actual operation and eliminates any question of meter performance by using some fluid to prove a meter when it is used on another.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 1DC8AACA

Mechanical Displacement Meter Provers For Liquid Hydrocarbons
Author(s): Charles R. Groves
Abstract/Introduction:
Today, with the increasing need for energy, the decreasing supply, and the resulting higher costs involved, the need for accurate measurements of liquid hydrocarbons is of vital importance to the oil industry. Two major types of liquid meters are generally accepted by the industry for measurement of crude and refined product. These are turbine and positive displacement type meters. When new, they are generally manufactured to provide an accuracy of 0.05 percent (1/2 of 1%) by volume throughout a given flow range. However, meters have a tendency to wear, causing a drag on the moving parts, or permitting slippage of liquid through the measuring unit and as a result, liquid meters are constantly being checked in the field, in their own environment by a meter prover to determine this degree of shift in accuracy. Once the metered volume has been compared to a known certified volume (the meter prover) a meter factor can be applied to the registered output of the meter to correct for this shift in accuracy.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 8103AB61

High Capacity Liquid Measurement Systems
Author(s): John Naber, Richard L. Redilla
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to examine the design and development of High Capacity Liquid Measurement Systems. Major emphasis will be on the discussion of the current state-of-the-art in the design of these systems with regard to hardware implementation and performance capability as applied to petroleum service. However, many of the principles discussed can also be applied to other industrial and commercial applications. A brief overview of the historical evolution of high capacity liquid measurement system components will be included together with a discussion on the future projection development of these systems.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 1E950E4C

Automated Measurement On Loading Racks
Author(s): William R. Langenbahn
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays business climate.more and more petroleum product marketers are turning to computer based automation ayatcma to control and monitor their truck loading Larmiuula. The reasons for this fall into three major categories.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: EC3476B9

Mass Measurement Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): W. J. Templeton
Abstract/Introduction:
Mass measurement eliminates the need to compensate for the effects of compresslbility and non-ideal mixing of stream mixtures containing ethane. Correction factors developed from physical proper- Lies are not required to convert the measurement to standard conditions, thus improving the measurement accuracy by 4 to 9%.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: EEC205E0

Design Of Metering Systems For Tanker Offloading
Author(s): James W. Williams Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most critical problems affecting any tanker offloading facility is the removal of free all on start-up.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 4224753B

Application Of Densitometers To Liquid Measurement
Author(s): B. L. Turpen
Abstract/Introduction:
Custody transfer and control of hydrocarbon liquids is very common in industry. The accurate measurement of density can result in dollar savings and better control of hydrocarbon liquids. Pressure and temperature corrections are often very difficult to use in ethane-rich or ethylene-rich streams. Volumetric shrinkages can be as high as 5%. The density of a stream is one important process variable that can provide useful information concerning composition, concentration, and mass flow. This paper will discuss density and its application to liquid hydrocarbon measurement.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: CE60D006

Test Of Densimeters For Use In The Custody Transfer Of LNG
Author(s): J. D. Siegwarth, J. F. Labrecque, B. A. Younglove
Abstract/Introduction:
The amount of liquefied natural gas (LNG) changing ownership, i.e., custody transfer, may be determined from the total volume of the liquid transferred and the density of the liquid. The density can be calculated from the temperature and composition ur measured directly with a densimeter Direct density measurements have the advantages that composition measurements are avoided and the density can be monitored continuously. Some commercial densimeters have been adapted for low temperature use. Before these densimeters are used in custody transfer measurements, it is necessary to establish whether their performance is adequate. Furthermore, methods must be developed to check accuracy and maintain performance in field use.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 13F0A22B

U. S. Measurement Activities In ISO/OIML
Author(s): Elizabeth A. Bridgman
Abstract/Introduction:
To a casual observer of the world economic scene, the role and importance of the International Orgnmnntion fot QLaiuldidiiaillou (ISO) may go unnoticed. However, for an industry like petroleum which is heavily enjtagad in international trade, the benefits In be gdined from active involvement in ISOs international standardization process are tremendous. Perhaps the greatest of these benefits is improved communication. For example, an American petroleum company dealing with production in the Middle East, refining in the United States and marketing throughout the world needs to be sure that these widespread groups can communicate effectively, in spite of the fact that thry nrr concerned with highly technical eiibjont matter. ISO International Standards provide the mechanism for such communication. They also enable industry to achieve greater efficiency and higher product quality. Fortunately these benefits have not gone unnoticed by the U, S. petroleum and natural gas industries.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: A2D9685C

Application Of The Microprocessor To Petroleum Measurement
Author(s): R. A. Eckel
Abstract/Introduction:
Advances in electronics technology have resulted in continuing decreases in price and increases in the capabilities of electronic components. Perhaps the greatest advances have been made in the electronics for digital processing as by the proliferation and continual price reductions of such items as hand calculators, electronic games and digital watches. Microprocessor chips and interfacing circuits are now commonly available and being incorporated into all manner of consumer products as well as industrial equipment.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: DEDC991E

Calibration Of Liquid Density Meters
Author(s): Ronald E. Beaty
Abstract/Introduction:
Volumetric measurement was used almost exclusively in the liquified petroleum gas industry for many years. As ethane production in mixed liquid streams increased inacurruracies were detected in volumetric measurement. When ethane is mixed with heavier hydrocarbons, significant volumetric shrinkage results. Mass measurement utilizing density meters is used to eliminate the problem. Density meters are used in both mass and volumetric measuring stations. Density meters are used to determine the proper volumetric correction factor when traditional volumetric measurement ic used. Density meters arc in dialled in cunjunction with vulumcLiic mcLciu to measure the mass delivered. Mass measurement is most commonly accomplished by simultaneously integrating the outputs of the volumetric and density meters to yield the mass in pounds.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 1169AEB2

Instruments For Automation
Author(s): Richard Cadmus
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper, Instruments for Automation, encompasses a very broad area. I would like to narrow the subject down and discuss a particular telemetry system that has had its major applications in the Oil and Gas Industry. Telemetry equipment is far from being unfamiliar to the Oil and Gas Industry. The very nature of production, transmission, and distribution systems creates a natural application for telemetry systems. The oil, gas, and electric industries were among the first users of telemetry systems.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: F4564D52

High-Accuracy LNG Tank Gauging
Author(s): Robert C. Lecrone
Abstract/Introduction:
The transportation and storage of liquefied natural gas (LNG) require special systems and instruments generally not required when handling liquids at atmospheric temperature. These systems and devices are necessary to comply with the various safety standards, and also, to remain commercially competitive. A general discussion of LNG with a more detailed look at the unique instruments used in the cryogenic environments is presented in this paper.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 13F614B4

Skid Mounted Meter And Regulator Stations
Author(s): Melvin J. Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
In planning a meter station facility, whether it be a simple system or a more complex project, it often is prudent to consider skid-mounting or packaging, in preference to a permanent setting. A few of the advantages of skid mounted stations are: 1. Delivery - In assembly of field fabricated stations, the gathering together of various items of equipment can present many problems. Each factory or vendor has its own shipment schedule. This requires the purchaser to receive, keep records, store and protect many items from weather or theft. Assembly must await all equipment and final collation. Conversely, when packaged stations are purchased the vendor assumes the responsibility, in a better located situation. Upon completion the vendor ships a station ready for immediate tie-in, thus saving costly field labor time.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 9398A48F

Design Of The Taps Crude Oil Measurement Systems
Author(s): R. I. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the design uf the crude oil measurement systems used on the Trans Alaska Pipeline. Turbine meters are used for custody transfer measurements from the North Slope producers into the pipeline at Pump Station 1, from the pipeline into the Valdez Terminal and for custody transfer measurements from holding tankage at Valdez onto the tankers for shipment to the Lower 48 states. The 799-mile Trans Alaska Pipeline was built initially to transport 1.2 million barrels of oil a day from Prudhoe Bay to Valdez, Alaska. At docign uapauity, the flow rate could be two million barrels of oil a day.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: DF31F480

The Effects Of Liquid Properties On The Performance Of A Turbine Flowmeter
Author(s): Richard E. Zimmermann
Abstract/Introduction:
Ideally, the output of a turbine flowmeter should depend only upon the volumetric flow rate of the fluid passing through it. However, as with any instrument, there are variables other than the one which is to be measured which influence the output. In the case of a turbine meter, pressure, temperature, fluid density and fluid viscosity may all have an influence on the output. Accurate measurements cannot be made without accounting for the effects of these variables.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 7D2FCE1D

Commercial Measurement Of Ethylene
Author(s): Howard J. White, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
In the early 1970s a number of people in the United States became concerned about data for the thermophysical properties of ethylene. A quickly arranged, but well attended, informal meetinq on the subject was held during an AIChE meeting in Houston in 1971. In June of 1972 a meeting, Industrial Needs for Critically Evaluated Data on Ethylene and Related Substances, at Airlie House in Warrenton, Virginia, sponsored by the Numerical Data Advisory Board of the National Research Council drew some 50 attendees. A third meeting called by the Office of Standard Reference Data of the National Bureau of Standards was held in Houston in 1973. Furthermore, the interest was not limited to the United States, for activities concerning the thermophysical properties of ethylene began in the United Kingdom, West Germany, and the Soviet Union during this period. The project which is the subject of this discussion is an outgrowth ot the last two mentioned US meetinqs.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 32121D09

Problems Injecting Liquid Ethane Into Natural Gas Lines
Author(s): Robert J. Rau
Abstract/Introduction:
Last winters harsh weather throughout the United States and dwindling supplies of natural gas served as a reason for development of new sources of supplies for energy. Transco Companies, Inc. developed their idea of ethane injection to help meet it3 customers fuel requirements. This process increased the heat content of natural gas without much increase in volume. Transco obtained its ethane from the Enterprise Products Company and Union Texas Petroleum. On or about the last week in January, 1977, a project of installing an ethane injection and measurement facility was undertaken. Many hours of work and fabrication were completed in approximately one week and on February 6, 1977, delivery of ethane from Enterprise Products Company to Transco began at 2:00 P.M. A second facility was placed in service on March 7, 1977, utilizing ethane from Union Texas Petroleum. The Enterprise facility was located on Transcos Central Louisiana Lateral at Kaplan, Louisiana and the Union Texas Petroleum facility was located on the Central Louisiana Lateral at Mowata, Louisiana.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 1EE37056

Inline Liquid Flow Prover
Author(s): Richard E. Zimmermann
Abstract/Introduction:
The FTI Inline flow prover represents a new design concept intended to significantly reduce size and cost while equalling or exceeding the performance of conventional motor provors. This is accomplished by combining a unique, patented piston and valve arrangement as well as position sensing and data processing techniques that have been used successfully for years on Flow Technology Ballistic Flow Calibrators. Conventional meter provers operate by simply counting meter pulses as a volume of liquid is displaced. Thus, there is an uncertainty of 1 pulse in the total, and enough meter pulses must be generated so that a one pulse error is negligible i.e., 1000 meter pulses are needed for 0.1% accuracy. Also, the mechanical position sensors which are used have appreciable uncertainties which necessitate a large distance between the sensors.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 8E471105

Controlling Surges In Liquid Pipelines
Author(s): Don A
Abstract/Introduction:
Surge pressures in liquid pipelines have been recognized for some time, but until recently the methods used in the calculation of transient pressures made use of a number of assumptions which could lead to serious errors. Potential surge pressures can be predicted using the basic water hammer equations, although their use cannot deal with effects of long valve closure times, attentuation, or line packing within the piping system during the transient state. With the development of analysis procedures making use of the method of characteristics a mathematical model can be formed on a digital computer which produces values of pressure and velocity. These values are calculated for successive increments of time, and produce a, pressure/time history for the entire piping system. This method of analysis yields results showing the effects of potential surge, attenuation due to friction of line packing resulting from recovery of friction head loss with an acceptable degree of accuracy.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: AA682577

Stealing Gas-A Growing Problem
Author(s): Mario L. Gabos
Abstract/Introduction:
The theft of gas is a topical issue - one that is important to our industry as evidenced by the establishment of a Sub-Committee on Energy Thefts under the aegis of the Claims Committee of the American Gas Association. The primary objective of the sub-committee is the continued education of member companies on the problem of energy thefts through the convening of state and regional utility companies to explore and quantify the problem in depth. During September and October 1977, sub-committee members reported meetings in ten states which were attended by 102 utilities. The sub committee released on Hay 10, 1077, a resume of responses to a questionnaire relative to utility thefts. Thirty-six member companies were selected for the survey 32 responded. Most respondents notonly acknowledged they are experiencing increased incidence of gas thefts, but also conveyed a grave concern over the growing theft situation.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 104C5ACA

Effects And Control Of Pulsations In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Walter W. Von Nimitz
Abstract/Introduction:
Review of the detrimental effects of pulsations on gas flow measurement with the orifice, turbine and vortex flow meters indicates the need for effective pulsation control. The techniques for prediction and control of pulsations dlBCunnnrl and illustrated in this paper make it possible to design gas flow measurement facilities with the assurance of minimum uncertainty in flow measurement due to pulsation effects.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 433F43AC

Techniques Of Gas Sampling
Author(s): H. R. Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
The specific purpose of this paper is to discuss the various methods of sampling gnn for subsequent laboratory analysis. Both spot and continuous sampling will be considered. The types of analysis dlscussed will deal mainly with hydrocarbons and the different gases that are produced with hydrocarbons. Only one phase samples will be considered. Two phase samples will not be discussed.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: FD3A12CD

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted For Gas
Author(s): James W. Carden
Abstract/Introduction:
Unaccounted for gas loss has changed in importance over rhp past years. Government allocations and gas cost increases have caused manage-* mcnt to reopoel llm ooonomia importance of this loco, and ae a result, operating people are receiving necessary funds to effectively control this problem. Tn the past, unaccounted for gas loss was not as serious an economic factor, but it reflected on the general health of a gas system. The desire to maintain a respectable gas system encouraged management to spend nominal amounts to control these losses, but when large expenditures were required, many companies deferred further action on economic grounds. To the person who is directly responsible for carrying out the task of reducing gas losses, these changes are gratifying. Instead of being asked go go bear hunting with a stick, he is now hunting with more than adequate tools and he should make a deliberate effort to efficiently utilize all of the new resources which are made available and provide results which will earn further management support of his efforts.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 39370818

Elements Of Sound And Sound Measurement
Author(s): Robert H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Everyone these days has heard the word decibel, but hardly anyone knows what it means. It sounds like an accoustical equivalent Lo a teim like Candle tower that hay uomuthlny Lo du with Lilts auuml of bells. This is not the case, except that the. word decibel is named after Alexander Graham Bell, the inventor of the telephone. A decibel is not a unit of anything in the way that miles, pounds or volts are. A decibel is a ratio in the same way that San Francisco ia fifty timea a3 far away from San Antonio, Texas as Houston is from San Antonio, Texas. The fifty units is not of anything in particular, but merely a ratio.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 3A7FF4A4

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): J. L. Pond
Abstract/Introduction:
The 50 odd million gas meters, currently in service with the different phases of the United States gas industry, use two basic principles to measure gas volumes. The large majority, comprised of diaphragm and rotary meters, utilizes the positive displacement principle of measurement. In pooitiva displacement measurement, a barrier of some sort is inserted into the gas stream to segregate the unmetered upstream gas from the metered downstream gas. Precisely known volumes of gas are transmitted across this barrier during each cycle of the measuring device. Gear trains are employed to adjust the cycles to desired engineering units. The product or the number of cycles times the volume trapped per cycle is displayed on any of a wide variety of readmit devices as totalised volume at line conditions.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 5710384F

Test Instruments And Recorders For Specific Gravity
Author(s): A. R. Kahitiann
Abstract/Introduction:
Computation of natura gas flow volume, when measured by orifice meter, is made by using the formula Qb C X VllwPf where Qb is the quantity, Hw is the differential, and Pf the absolute static pressure, with C being a constant. The constant C 1M nnly r-nnitnnt for a cor tain specified set of conditions, and in practice is made up of numerous factors including the basic orifice factor, the Reynolds number factor, the expansion factor, the pressure base factor, temperature base factor, flowing temperature factor, specific gravity factor, super- GompreBsibility factor and manometer factor. In order to determine these factors the values of the quantities from which they are derived must either be assumed or measured. This paper will deal with those instruments measuring specific gravity. (For further details of the flow computation refer to A.G.A. Gas Measurement Report No. 3).
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 082A6CDC

About Ishm 1978
Abstract/Introduction:
Collection of documents about ISHM including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, exhibitor and sponsor information, etc.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: C153CFE9


Copyright © 2017