Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (1978)

Developing Long Range Facility Plans
Author(s): Richard C. Cahoon, James D. Evanoff, Danny W. Hill, Harry I. Zimmer
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended as an introduaion to the subject of Facility Planning. A planning procedure for determining excess pipeline facilities is presented in a conceptual way. References are given to more advanced texts which detail the requisiie mathematical programming procedures.
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Document ID: D0159118

Status Of United States Codes And Regulations Affecting Land Based LNG Facilities
Author(s): Frank B. Bailey
Abstract/Introduction:
Code has been defined as a systematic statement of a body of law especially one given statutory force or as a system of principle or rules. Regulation has been defined as a rule or order having the force of law issued by an executive authority of a government. Federal codes and regulations form the basis for this paper, with primary emphasis on those codes which relate to public safety. Existing safety codes have been developed through committee procedures by experts in the areas covered under the specific code. Safety codes often adopt extensive specifications and other codes to complement the specific area of concern. This mechanism provides for continual updating and improvement of the primary code.
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Document ID: B62D9589

Interchangeability - What It Means A Useful Program In Fortran And Its Development
Author(s): E. G. Rossbach, S. I. Hyman
Abstract/Introduction:
To paraphrase the adage in government that war is too important to leave to the generals, so the subject of interchangeability is too important to leave solely to the chemist and utilization people. The subject is of vital importance lo the system planning man, the distribution design man, and of course, the production and operating people throughout the whole gas company. The gas industry is replete with euphemisms designed to hide the raw truth from the laymen, even from the engineers, in other fields. Interchangeability, to the mechanical engineer, means parts or assemblies which fit into exactly the same space and perform in exactly the same way. To the electrical engineer ihey not only mean the above, but also that the electrical performance is identical.
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Document ID: 17110DBE

Measurement Of Natural Gas By Turbine Meters
Author(s): G. G. Less
Abstract/Introduction:
Although the turbine meter principal is quite old, the actual flow turbine meter, as we know it today and which is presently employed for liquid measurement, is quite new. The modern gas turbine meter dates from about 1950. The turbine meter principle was used for gas measurement in a very crude form in Great Britain in the early I900s. These early meters were used mainly for manufactured fuel gas. This gas was relatively dirty, causing serious difficulties with rotor bearings. The meter design was usually of the anemometer type similar to instruments employed in adjusting ventilating equipment today. They were usually constructed with a vertical turbine shaft in the meter for use in a horizontal plane, with flow in an upward direction to minimize the effect of dirt. They were calibrated by adjusting openings in upstream flow passages and by deforming the blade angles. Measurement was generally at very low pressures and accuracy was very questionable.
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Document ID: 5DA5F3C1

Anticipating Probiems When Estabiishing One-Cali Systems
Author(s): Patrick D. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
A one-call system has been defined as a communication system established by two or more utilities, governmental agencies or other operators of underground facilities to provide one telephone number for excavating contractors and the general public to call for notification of their intent to use equipment for excavating, tunneling, demolition or any other similar work. The one-call system provides the participating members an opportunity to identify and locate their underground facilities. One-call systems have been developed and implemented across the United States and in some foreign countries. The experience gained from the implementation and operation of these systems has been discussed in detail on many occasions. Both papers and magazine articles have been published to describe the how tos of the one-call concept. This kind of documentation will continue to be useful in promoting the development and efficient operation of existing and future systems. Consider the papers listed in Appendix A as an example of the knowledge base already accumulated.
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Document ID: 2B4E6C75

Design And Development Of A Measurement And Data Handling System For The High Island Offshore Pipeline System
Author(s): George E. Becker
Abstract/Introduction:
The High Island Offshore Pipeline System (HIOS) is a large offshore natural gas gathering, transmission and redelivery system. HIOS is a General Partnership consisting of subsidiaries of five major natural gas transmission companies, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America, Texas Gas Transmission Corporation, Transcontinental Gas Transmission Company, United Gas Transmission Company, and Michigan Wisconsin Pipe Line Company. Michigan Wisconsin Pipe Line Company has managed the design, construction and administrative phases of the project and will continue to serve HIOS as the Systems Operator.
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Document ID: D4D8B031

Sng From Coal: By-Product Considerations
Author(s): Ronald L. Dickenson, Dale R. Simbeck
Abstract/Introduction:
Several coal gasification processes are now being considered for use in poiential SNG ventures in the United States. In addition to the SNG produced, by-products will be generated in varying amounts, depending on the gasification technology and the coal used- The systems closest to commercialization in the United States are based on fixed-bed gasification thai, in addition to ammonia and sulfur, produces large amounts of liquid hydrocarbon by-products that contain sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen. For example, it is estimated that the proposed 250 MMscf/day WESCO SNG plant which would operate on low-sulfur subbiiuminous coal would produce the following by-products:
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Document ID: 86C9BFC4

Gas Distribution Flow Validation
Author(s): Daniel J. Mcguire
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation is the final report of a Task Group appointed by the Distribution Design and Development Committee of A.G.A. to investigate devices and techniques suitable for measuremenl and validation of gas flows at various locations in distribution system piping. The report includes discussion of devices and methods for companies interested in such measurements and advises dedication of specialist personnel to study requirements, review alternatives and solve operating problems.
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Document ID: 7EF1E17E

Department Of Energy Presentation
Author(s): Stephen E. Mcgregor
Abstract/Introduction:
On behalf of Secretary Schlesinger and the Department of Energy, I would like to thank the Chairman and members of the Operating Section of the American Gas Association for extending an invitation to DOE to participate in this years A.G.A, Distribution Conference. The natural gas distribution industry, which you represent, is to be applauded for its continued high standard of service to American consumers during a period of uncertainty due to the absence of an in-place national energy policy. Your monumental efforts over the past several years in seeking supplemental supplies and in fostering enduse conservation and conversion have assisted significantly in avoiding substantial nation-wide economic and social disruptions which might otherwise have occurred.
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Document ID: EF13FD7B

Meter Performance Control
Author(s): J. W. Sumnicht
Abstract/Introduction:
This is a brief review of an established program of changing meters based on group performance rather than length of time in service. The programs purpose is to detect and remove from service, at the earliest possible time, any group of meters whose performance does not meet the prescribed standard. The result of the program has been to extend in-service life of the meters at a substantial savings. During the 19 years (1960-1978) the program has been in effect, 2.5 million less meters have been changed than would have been changed under the old 10-year program.
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Document ID: 417AE940

Coping With Rising Fuel Costs
Author(s): Clifford T. Clark
Abstract/Introduction:
The cost of fuel is a major and direct expense to ttie operation of a passenger car and truck fleet. Many fleet managers in ttie coming year will have to face assessment of the capability of the new crop of small cars and light trucks in fuel economy, safety and ability to perform the necessary functions. In many fleets, the passenger cars and light trucks to be replaced are of the 1972-74 vintage, heavy in construction and costly in fuel consumption to operate. The early emission standards contributed to the poor fuel performance of these models. In our medium and heavy truck fleet, fuel economy is not just a matter of miles per gallon but must be equated to work performed. These line and bucket trucks have a low number of road miles per year but the majority of the engine hours are spent digging holes, setting poles, and performing line work from the bucket. We believe that full cooperation in a program of voluntary action provides the most appropriate approach for Using Departments to expedite the conservation of fuel.
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Document ID: 771DD821

The National Transportation Safety Boards Activities In The Field Of Pipeline Safety
Author(s): Henry m. Shepherd
Abstract/Introduction:
The pipeline industry, both natural gas and liquid petroleum, owns and operates over 1.6 million miles of pipe in the United States described approximately as follows 70,000 miles of gas gathering pipelines 265,000 miles of gas transmission pipelines 660,000 miles of gas distribution mains 440,000 miles of gas service lines 250,000 miles of liquid petroleum pipelines The natural gas industry alone serves over 45 million customers by delivering 20 trillion cubic feel of gas annually while the liquid petroleum pipeline industry transports over 1 billion tons of petroleum annually. Natural gas accounts for about 27% of the total energy requirements of the United States.
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Document ID: C0166611

LNG Custody Transfer Research At National Bureau Of Standards
Author(s): W. R. Parrish, J. A. Brennan, J. D. Siegwarth
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the current activities of the National Bureau of Standards which relate to the custody transfer of liquefied natural gas. The paper describes the results of the thermophysical properties work, including the LNG density project. The paper summarizes the results of the flowmeter and densimeter tests. It discusses briefly the results of the LNG Sampling Measurement Project. This paper briefly describes the recent activities in the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) which relate to the custody transfer of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Previously, Mann (1) reviewed the status and objectives of this program. As he pointed out, the program objectives included the characterization, instrumentation and measurement of LNG.
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Document ID: C164E484

Employee Productivity - Another View
Author(s): James m. Mcclymond
Abstract/Introduction:
I have been asked to address this august group as a representative of the Personnel Committee of the American Gas Association. This is a distinct pleasure for me because the Personnel Committee is very active, and has become a positive force for our industry in recent years. Personnel, unlike the record-keeping and recruiting function of the past, has become a major member of the management team by becoming involved in helping line management to more effectively manage the organization. Such issues as productivity, manpower planning, and dealing with social change through management styles, have become routine matters at Personnel Committee meetings. We have learned a great deal from each other and are carrying new methods and techniques back into our companies. My task today is to articulate a few ideas, within our limited time together demonstrating what we have been doing and why.
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Document ID: BFD5144D

Standardizing On A Microprocessor System
Author(s): Arthur Scesnewicz
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America (NGPL) has been involved in the automation of its compressor stations since the mid 1960s. Using minicomputer based systems, we have been successful in automating 14 stations on our Amarillo Pipeline and 13 on our Gulf Coast Pipeline. Each of these systems reports data to a master station computer located in the Gas Control center of NGPLs Chicago Office. NGPL is the transmission subsidiary of Peoples Gas Company, Chicago. The minicomputers exercise station control via gas controller directives. Some of the major functions performed are station starting and stopping, engine starting and stopping, and compressor loading and unloading. Additionally, the station is constantly monitored and controlled to achieve safe and efficient operation.
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Document ID: A8BD9D19

Gas In Perspective
Author(s): John Kean
Abstract/Introduction:
Lots of people come to Denver and talk about mountains. Its a bit difficult for me to be this close to the United Slates Mint and not talk about money. But manufacturing money is really not as exciting as forming usable amounts of it into capital to invest in useful projects. In his first annual message to Congress, Abraham Lincoln said, Capital is only the fruit of labor. From talking with many of you involved intently in your company activity, a general agreement with Lincolns definition seems evident because most every one of you certainly has been working at full speed the past few years to maintain and improve the gas industrys capability to serve American consumers. Your good results are evident throughout the nation.
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Document ID: 611AD405

Polar Gas Project
Author(s): Ollie m. Kaustinen
Abstract/Introduction:
The Polar Gas Project was formed in 1972 to find the best means of transporting the natural gas discovered in Canadas Arctic Islands to southern markets, and to do so in a manner that would be economically, environmentally and socially acceptable to Canadians. Participants in the Polar Gas Project are: TransCanada PipeLines Limited, Project Manager), Panarctic Oils Ltd., Tenneco Oil of Canada Ltd., Pacific Lighting Gas Development Company, Ontario Energy Corporation and Petro-Canada Ltd. Polar Gas Limited has filed applications to construct and operate a natural gas pipeline. These apphcations were filed with the National Energy Board and the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development on December 21, 1977. Figure 1 illustrates the proposed pipeline route.
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Document ID: 84FC23EB

Design For Noise Abatement
Author(s): Gilbert Holmstoen
Abstract/Introduction:
First, 1 would like to advise all of you that I am not an authority on noise or noise abatement. This presentation is based on a report by the task group on Design For Noise Abatement from the Distribution Design and Development Committee. It is primarily intended as a review of equipment, materials, and techniques available to the designer of noise abatement in a gas distribution facility. We will look briefly at: 1. The Characteristics of Noise 2. Extent of the Noise Problem 3. Sound Level Determination 4. Control Measures 1 think we are all aware that sound which is music to some ears is noise to others. In other words, the old definition of noise being unwanted sound is still valid. Sound is produced when vibrating bodies transfer acoustic energy to the air as pressure variations which in turn are translated to sound by our hearing mechanism.
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Document ID: 73E1F1EB

The Importance Of Upgrading The Training Of Diesel Mechanics
Author(s): Earl m. Kruger
Abstract/Introduction:
Most of us will agree that great strides have been made in the upgrading of mechanic training during the last ten years. However, there is one set of important ingredients which is missing from the overall training scope, and that is the upgrading of the mechanics attitude, enthusiasm and pride in workmanship - all of which are necessary to assure maximum productivity. A close working relationship between the school, or training organization, and company management is absolutely necessary to develop these traits in the mechanic. If proper attitude, enthusiasm and pride in workmanship are stressed in the course of training and if the company management offers sufficient encouragement and acknowledgement of accomplishments, results can be assured.
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Document ID: 471FD3DA

A.G.A. LNG Research Program
Author(s): Alan N. Stewart
Abstract/Introduction:
Im sure you are all aware that in 1977, the Gas Research Institute (GRI) accepted responsibility for planning and administering of gas industry cooperative research and development (R&D) efforts. As a result, all A.G.A. utility and coal-gasification research programs, including LNG research, were transferred to GRI. GRI was founded in 1976 as an independent organization to plan and administer an expanded research and development effort on behalf of gas consumers. The concept of GRI was based on recommendations of an ad hoc committee of members of the Boards of A.G.A. and Interstate Natural Gas Association of America (INGAA) after it became obvious that the technology base of the gas industry had to be significantly broadened to assure that the energy demands of the nation could be met. GRI has no plans for in-house R&D performing capabilities and therefore will place all R&D projects with quaUfied contractors in the energy R&D field.
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Document ID: 16F63DD8

Natural Gas Heating Value Determination Using An Infrared Calorimeter
Author(s): F. Fraim, R. Curran, m. Paquin
Abstract/Introduction:
The principles of operation of a new natural gas calorimeter, the CALSENSOR, are described. The objective of its development was to produce an accurate, low maintenance, fast response instrument with little environmental sensitivity. The insirument is based on infrared absorption techniques to determine the composition of a natural gas stream, and consequently its heating value. The specific approach applied in the instrument and its accuracy for the measurement of natural gas heating values is discussed. The principal design features incorporated into the instrument to produce its high degree of environmental stability are also described.
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Document ID: 1E9CBF37

Criteria For Repairing Pipelines In Service Using Sleeves And Deposited Weld Metal
Author(s): J. F. Kiefner
Abstract/Introduction:
From the evidence accumulated through several years of research sponsored by the Pipehne Research Committee of the American Gas Association, and by others it is clear that safe, effective repairs can be made on defective areas in pipelines without removing them from service. The two repair methods evaluated in the various research programs were full-encirclement sleeves and the direct deposition of weld metal on defects.* To insure a minimum of risk in the making and using of such repairs, the following criteria for repairing pipelines in service have been formulated. While it is recognized that the two repair methods can be applied to all steel pipelines, the criteria are intended as a guide for repairs on lines that operate at 40 percent of their specified minimum yield strength (SMYS) or more.
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Document ID: 225201CB

Heating Value And Specific Gravity Measurement Of Natural Gas For Custody Transfer Using A Computer Operated Process Chromatography System
Author(s): Frank Leisey, Gary Potter, Ray Mccoy
Abstract/Introduction:
Amoco Gas Co. became faced with the decision to replace and upgrade instrumentation to measure heating value and specific gravity of natural gas for custody transfer. The decision reached was to purchase and install a process gas chromatograph operated by a digital computer to make the measurements automatically. Use of chromatography has proven reliable and cost effective compared with conventional techniques. The chromatograph system Costs less than a system using conventional measurement units. Requires less maintenance. Reduced space requirements in the control-room building. Eliminated safety problems associated with the presence of natural gas in this building. Reduced clerical load on office personnel. Provides the composition analysis that is otherwise unavailable.
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Document ID: 94D2C0D5

Fire Safety Systems Analysis An Engineering Approach To Sng Fire Protection Systems
Author(s): Harry West, L. Edward Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
The trend toward larger chemical processing plants and larger transportation units has placed ever increasing demands on fire safety systems. The economics of scale normally dictate larger processing units in order to reduce unit costs. The potential hazard of a massive accidental chemical release has placed strains on the ability of fire safety engineers to provide adequate hazard fire control systems. While the accident frequency has not indicated hazardous material operations are increasing in proportion with expanded process capacity (1), the total number of significant incidents is increasing. Modern communications has spotlighted the few serious accidents and increased the publics awareness of the potential consequences of such incidents. In response to this awareness regulatory bodies are requiring that industry increase its ability to avoid these accidents.
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Document ID: FA9CB89E

Preventive Maintenance In Rotating Machinery Using Vibration Analysis
Author(s): George A. Colby
Abstract/Introduction:
Many companies and machinery manufacturers are using a simple technique to detect hidden rotating machinery trouble before failure can occur and in time to schedule necessary repairs. Mechanalysis, a registered trademark, is the name given this technique by IRD Mechanalysis, Inc. It works this way. Each kind of trouble - unbalance, misalignment, bad gears, worn bearings, defective spindles and mechanical looseness - produces vibration in a unique way. Mechanalysis uses a machines vibration and noise to determine what is wrong while the machine operates. This paper describes the portable vibration analysis instrumentation, guidelines and preventive maintenance procedures developed by IRD that are being utilized throughout industry to insure quality products and uninterrupted machinery operation. In addition, a new quick diagnostic technique utilizing the machines pulse or vibration signature to pinpoint mechanical defects is discussed.
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Document ID: 486EEA09

Meter Selection
Author(s): Richard A. Sutton
Abstract/Introduction:
The greatest problem confronting me while writing this paper was the fine line between meter selection and measurement station design. Normally, both functions would be performed by the same person, and rightly so. since the type and size meter selected would influence the number of meter runs and related equipment, the length of the meter runs, the length and size of the header and thus the overall space requirements. In effect, once the meter or meters have been selected for a particular application, a major portion of the station design has been completed. The purpose of this paper is to present a compilation of information that will familiarize the user with the particular operating characteristics of the various types of meters that have been found acceptable by the gas industry and subsequently approved for revenue metering by the respective state regulatory agencies.
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Document ID: 937553A8

Live Insertion Of Plastic Gas Mains
Author(s): L. W. Martin, R. L. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Live Insertion is a method of main replacement where by a smaller diameter plastic main is inserted into an existing gas main while the latter remains in service under pressure. This new cost-saving technique, developed by two Illinois Power Company employees, has yielded savings in excess of 45 percent in Commercial Areas as compared to conventional replacement. Another important feature of this technique is the gas service is interrupted only once when the new main is tied into the customers service line. Since no interruption of service is required for the main insertion work, unforseen delays in inserting the new main (e.g., line offsets, inclement weather) do not disrupt scheduling as the procedure can be safely stopped at any point. This is a considerable convenience factor, and it allows scheduling service work on an individual basis.
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Document ID: 33844612

Materials Management: Can It Help In Sng Planning?
Author(s): Donald C. Kowske
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation today is based on the experiences of Nl-Gas as il integrated a new SNG plant into its materials management operations. This presentation is divided into three parts. First - Materials Mdnagement, What Is It? Second - How Did NI-Gas Accomplish This Integralion? Third - What Were And Are The Results Of An Integrated Program? Due to the cross section of individual interest in attendance here I will give you a laymans view of materials management rather than a highly technical approach. Since this term materials management has already been used three or four times its probably best at this time to explain just what it is. Years ago most companies including NI-Gas had separate departmental identities, i.e., purchasing, inventory control, storeroom and traffic with each reporting to separate department heads.
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Document ID: EF499FAE

Monitoring Cathodic Protection By Aircraft
Author(s): John Gutierrez, D. L. Love
Abstract/Introduction:
Houston Pipe Line Company has presently in operation 164 rectifier monitors that are read by the patrol pilot as he passes over the rectifier, and one pipe to soil potential monitor that is read in a like manner. The first rectifier aerial monitor was installed by this company five years ago on an experimental basis and within six months proved to be such a worthy tool that ten more were installed at critical locations. When the companys 36 pipeline was installed from Katy, Texas, to Pecos, Texas, a few months later, the monitors were unquestionably a part of the Original cathodic protection installation. Since then, the other monitors have been added as the need for them arises. The solar powered pipe to soil potential monitor, a modification of the rectifier monitor is designed to be installed at critical locations on pipelines where no power is available. This monitor was installed a little over a year ago on an experimental basis and is still being scrutinized diligently. It is proving itself as useful a tool as the rectifier monitor.
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Document ID: 602DA817

Therm-Titrator Round-Robbin Testing And Evaluation
Author(s): William H. Clingman, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes a joint project with four gas utilities to test and evaluate the Therm- Titrator. This is a new instrument for measuring the calorific value of natural gas. The instrument was developed by Precision Machine Products with the participation and assistance of four utilities. These were Consumers Power in Jackson, Michigan, Consolidated Natural Gas in Cleveland, Ohio, Columbia Gas Transmission in Columbus, Ohio and Lone Star Gas in Dallas, Texas. The instrument implements a method for measuring calorific value that was first reported in 1972 at the A.G.A. Distribution Conference in Atlanta. In the latter paper it is shown that the calorific value is proportional to the ratio of air to fuel that maximizes the adiabatic flame temperature of a mixture of the two. This relation holds within 1 BTU/SCF for most natural gas mixtures.
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Document ID: 6464EE1F

New Ideas And Methods
Author(s): A. F. Kenney
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation focuses on a vital part of our industry: New Ideas and Methods. During the past decade, there has been a tremendous increase in all areas of business research. Knowledge of facis and figures, of course, is basically important. Bui there is a limit 10 what you can do with facts and statislics. You can assemble them, do all sorts of mathematical operations - run them through computers, yei, in the end, youre up against something a robot cant do, but a human being can - create a new idea or devise a new method. It is traditional in our industry to live and work with the idea of finding better ways to do things. New methods are discovered by locating the strategic key factor or the unexpected new pattern. The business world is full of examples of various types of creative thinking. This may mean simply the realization that there is no particular virtue in doing things the way theyve always been done.
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Document ID: 2A70C3CA

Update On Meter Tampering
Author(s): Earl E. Mercer
Abstract/Introduction:
The problem of gas theft is an ever increasing one. Utilities throughout the United States, as well as all over the world, are finding their losses accelerating. Tampering - with the idea of getting something for nothing - has greatly increased unaccounted for gas problems in the 70s. The causes and possible solutions to gas theft will be the subject matter of this paper. Inflation, increased utility rates, and the energy crisis have all ted to enlarging the problem of gas theft. The cost of utilities has become increasingly a major part of the family budget- The public outrage at these increased costs to their budget has made the gas meter a renewed target for customer ingenuity and revenge. Many individuals and organized groups have rationalized that meter tampering and gas theft is a legitimate way to fight the establishment.
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Document ID: 330A766A

Living With The National Environmental Policy Act
Author(s): Merle W. Arr
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1965, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America, a unit of Chicago-based Peoples Gas Company, built the first segment of our 30-inch Louisiana Line to bring large volumes of offshore natural gas into our transmission system for the first time. This first segment extended 108 miles from our mainline compressor station near Conroe, Texas through Montgomery, Harris, Liberty and Jefferson Counties, Texas and across Sabine Pass, terminating just south of Port Arthur, Texas in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. In 1967, the Louisiana Line was extended 98 miles through Cameron and Vermilion Parishes, Louisiana to its current termination point near Abbeville, Louisiana.
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Document ID: A30A4E9E

Contoured Compressor Valves
Author(s): Gerald W. Ganderlin
Abstract/Introduction:
A vital part of every reciprocating compressor is the spring-loaded check valves. When these valves fail, the compressor must be shut down for repairs. In the majority of cases, the compressor valves operate for thousands of hours without failure. Operators tend to forget the important role that valves play in efficient and uninterrupted reciprocating compressor operation. Traditionally, compressor valves have utilized metallic flat plates, flat rings, flat strip, or flat channels. My contribution to this panel session is to discuss the state of the art of contoured ring compressor valves and their potential contribution to your compressor requirements.
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Document ID: 9AA69993

Methods For Connecting And Repairing Subsea Pipelines
Author(s): H. O. Mohr
Abstract/Introduction:
The progression of subsea pipelines into deeper waters has required many areas of technological advancements. One very important, and sometimes overlooked, area is that of subsea pipeline connections and repair. There are two basic approaches to connections and repair: subsea welding and the use of mechanical connectors. There are at least eight subsea welding contractors and seven mechanical connector manufacturers applicable to subsea pipeline connection and/or repair. The general applications of the various technique and the required subsea and surface support equipment are discussed.
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Document ID: 978B1ED3

Another Look At Fleet Maintenance Manpower
Author(s): Robert Lee Monti
Abstract/Introduction:
The question often arises as to why we need so many people to maintain our fleet. A tough question to answer as we have established no real criteria from which any conclusions can be made. However, since the computer has been developed as a tool to accumulate and assimilate the large volume of data conneaed with the maintenance of a fleet, it has now become possible for us to develop accurate criteria which when used with other influencing factors, such as travel time, assistance to another garage, etc., will indicate the number of mechanics and associated rates necessary to maintain a given fleet in a given area.
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Document ID: 81FB1499

Compressor Valve Efficiency & Durability
Author(s): Richard m. Denimski
Abstract/Introduction:
Valve efficiency and durability are influenced by the factors of environment, design, manufacturing, material selections and maintenance. This paper will discuss, at least briefly, the influence of each of these on the considerations of valve efficiency and durability. The interrelationship of these factors and the responsibility for their control is presented. The various valve designs which are reviewed, indicate the difficulty in producing a single universally acceptable valve design. While valve efficiency may mean conservation, it also relates to durability through economics. The reader may evaluate these factors as they relate to his specific application.
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Document ID: 04BBC4DF

Automatic Data Entry In A Chart Processing Operation
Author(s): Janet L. Droppo, Shirley A. Uptigrove
Abstract/Introduction:
Through a Sperry-Univac CADE (Computer Assisted Data Entry) System, The Alberta Gas Trunk Line, Measurement Department, handles their own computer data entry. Keypunching is done during the time required to process a chart through the U.G.C. Electroscanner. The system is also used in conjunction with a U.G.C. Electronic Chart Processor. On-line editing at the time of entry allows for faster turnaround on error pick-up. Time is also gained by the elimination of the need to send the charts to Computer Services for keypunching. Since the CADE System works independently of the main IBM process, month end peaks and priorities are accommodated more easily by Computer Services, while Measurement remains capable of independent data preparation when the main processor is unavailable.
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Document ID: 8FAB24B3

Si Standards Review
Author(s): Keith A. Chen
Abstract/Introduction:
Standards significant in the operations of the gas industry were reviewed for status in respect to the use of SI units. Their initial and increasing use are discussed in the Hght of their effect on present and future operations and what needs to be done to facilitate the metrication process. The Task Group on Standards and Codes is comprised of six members of the A.G.A. Metrication Task Committee. This Task Group has listed the standards and codes most likely to be pertinent to the gas industry in its shift to the metric system. The listings are attached and titled
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Document ID: D6507855

Use Of Fire Retardant Clothing By Distribution Empioyees
Author(s): David L. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
In late 1959 the Gas Operations Department of Philadelphia Electric Company had an incident where leaking gas caught fire in an excavation. Three men were injured, one fatally. This caused us to take a more serious look at protecting our employees from such an incident. The result of a study led us to adopt the use of the chrome leather welders coal - already in use by our welders, a chrome leather hood, leather work gloves, and a fresh air mask. This garb would be worn under the following conditions: 1. Inserting or removing cylinder bags or stoppers. 2. Inserting or removing service connections or plugs of over one and onequarter (IW) inch pipe size in low pressure mains. 3. Whenever gas is escaping or might escape in an appreciable quantity, such as cleaning the bottom of a main prior to cylinder bag insertion, or when working on a leaking gas main. 4. Working on medium pressure and high pressure taps that are not no-blow. 5. At such other times as deemed necessary by the foreman or supervisor.
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Document ID: 4E9AAC9D

Wind Tunnel Modeling Of LNG Spills
Author(s): R. N. Meroney, D. E. Neff, J. E. Cermak
Abstract/Introduction:
Motion in the atmospheric boundary layer can be simulated with sufficient accuracy to make laboratory studies of the dispersal of cold methane plumes resulting from LNG spills useful for planning measures. Performance envelopes have been prepared to identify LNG spill scenarios which may be simulated in meteorological wind tunnels. Satisfactory agreement between diffusion characteristics in the simulated and real atmosphere has been found whenever field data have been available for making comparisons.
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Document ID: 49EF9504

Low Cost Cathodic Protection Potential Readings
Author(s): Dennis J. Martell
Abstract/Introduction:
The development of a simple digital meter allows meter readers to obtain accurate corrosion readings. This paper describes the evolution of this concept and its implementation. The system allows meter readers to obtain most of the annual corrosion readings for a very nominal cost. Cathodic Protection has been recognized for many years as an effective means of halting corrosion on underground metal gas distribution piping. As early as 1945, NI-Gas was involved in a program to install anodes and other materials to protect its transmission and distribution systems. Even at that time, it was known that if the piping was kept at a -.85 volts or more, there would not be any corrosion.
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Document ID: 7A48822C

Laredo Gas Play
Author(s): Robert E. Hilty
Abstract/Introduction:
The Laredo Gas Play represents a recent discovery of significant gas reserves. Begun in 1973, the play now covers about 350 square miles. This area has been penetrated by 343 wells resulting in 262 gas wells. Production is from the Lobo Sands occurring in a clastic sequence at the base of the Wilcox formation. The Lobo section is characterized by intense faulting, severe erosion, abnormally high reservoir pressure, and reservoir sands of low permeability. In spite of these complexities, a 2 per Mcf gas price has allowed the play to be commercial. Estimated recoverable reserves could be as high as 5 1/2 trillion cubic feet of gas.
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Document ID: 1BFDE39D

Development Of A Gas Distribution Workforce Management System
Author(s): Anton Loewy, Thomas J. Heku, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Orange and Rockland Utilities Gas Distribution Workforce Management System wa designed as a systematic way to reduce labor costs, identify unproductive work practices and control departmental staffing levels. It achieves this through proper planning, scheduling and assigning of work and timely follow up by supervision when problems are uncovered. This paper will outline the steps used to develop the system from the identification and targeting of activities to a discussion of the controls designed to evaluate and improve performance.
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Document ID: 1F4EFAC4

The Field Determination Of Ihydrogen Sulfide In Natural Gas Using Length-Of-Stain Tubes, G. P. A. Tentative Method
Author(s): H. G. Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper endeavors to outline the Gas Processors Association Publication 2377-77, a tentative method for hydrogen sulfide analysis in the field. The method offers an easy, economical analysis that can be accurately performed by operating personnel when properly trained. Length-of-stain detector tubes and detector tube apparatus have been available to the industry for a number of years. The principle is certainly not new. However, only until recently, has there been industry acceptance of the method and the results generated from the use of detector tubes. The recognition has been brought about by improved apparatus and good quality control in the manufacture of the stain tubes. NIOSH certification of many of the tube types for environmental application has also made the use of stain tubes very popular.
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Document ID: 3691A061

Metrication On The Move
Author(s): Earl G. Mills
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will concern itself with adaptibility and psychological impact that the International Metric System (Systems Internationale DUnits, commonly known as the SI Marie System) will have on the Natural Gas and Petroleum Industry. It will point out current general metrication activities that may already or will soon affect Gas Industry companies.
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Document ID: 47FB8207

Tripl-Dek - A New Gas Service Material
Author(s): J. W. Lynch
Abstract/Introduction:
The item Ill talk about today is commercially known as Tripl-Dek, a 5/8 O.D. service material composed of plastic, aluminum, and a copolymer lining on the aluminum hence the trade name. At N!-Gas we refer to it as P/AC, which stands for Plastic- Aluminum Composite. Ill talk about its development and why we at NI-Gas feh the need for it, the success weve had in several years of using it as our primary service material, and what we feel are its most significant advantages. To be more specific, P/AC is a polyethylene plastic 2306, TR418 material, 74 mils thick extruded over a copolymer coated aluminum strip that has been formed into a lap joint tube, manufactured in accordance with ASTM 2513. The aluminum has a thickness of 12 mils and the copolymer coating is 2.5 mils thick. Tests run at Samuel Moore & Company, its producer and by the NI-Gas Research & Development Department reveal that P/AC is a much stronger material than plastic.
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Document ID: 61FAF56C

Continuous Gas Sampling A Survey - State-Of-The-Art
Author(s): Jack Kelley
Abstract/Introduction:
Continuous gas sampling is prerequisite to energy unit measurement. Sampling provides data at a fraction of the capital cost for calorimetering. Increased value of gas has caused requirement for sampling installations to accelerate. How have we met this demand? What are these installations like? To determine the state-of-the-art, your Chemical Services Committee conducted a survey. We polled our member companies and some associates. Eighteen replies were tabulated. Survey questions were designed to elicit a description of a gas sampling system representing current practice. The line tap where sample leaves the pipeline or meter run is point of beginning for the survey (Figure I). Majority choice indicates the lop of line is prime location - 15 of 18 replies - 83 percent.
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Document ID: AA5AC78D

An Introduction To Basic Properties Of Polymers
Author(s): George W. Davis
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas engineers, already proficient in the applications engineering of plastic pipe, will find this paper useful in explaining certain basic concepts of polymer science. Famiharization with this basic theory will bolster your understanding and, therefore, your confidence in the design formulas, empirical solutions and installation techniques for plastic pipe that have been developed by the gas industry. Equally important, a basic understanding of polymer science will aid the gas engineer in establishing and evaluating laboratory (and field) tests, recognized as essential for prediaing the long-term performance of plastic pipe systems.
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Document ID: 0D7FAE88

Save Our Soil
Author(s): Fred I. Nelson
Abstract/Introduction:
The Operations personnel at Washington Natural Gas Company feel they have the answer to a major problem facing any operator of an underground distribution system be it gas, water, telephone or electricity. The problem is unsuitable excavated soil. The answer is treatment of unsuitable excavated material, on the job site, by the use of chemical soil stabilization so the soil can be effectively used for backfill, To better understand the lotal problem and the potential cost benefit of the soil stabilizer, it is necessary to look at the current practices of most companies. Crews who perform maintenance and construction work in the field are usually required to excavate a hole and, when the work is completed, restore the surface to its original condition. Whether or not the excavated material can be reused as backfill depends upon the type of soil, its moisture content and/or the prevaihng weather conditions. These factors determine if the soil can be recompacted to match the original sub-grade conditions.
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Document ID: D116A938

The Department Of Transportations Role In LNG Safety Regulations
Author(s): L. D. Santman
Abstract/Introduction:
I am pleased to have the opportunity to speak today on the U.S. Department of Transportations role in LNG safety regulation. The Department of Transportation, through the United States Coast Guard and the Materials Transportation Bureau in the Research and Special Programs Administration, currently carries out safety regulatory programs which touch in varying ways on every aspect of the transportation of LNG. Our regulatory efforts are aimed at ensuring safety and preserving the environment, and at the same time enabling efficient movement of LNG by vessel, pipeline, and surface vehicle.
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Document ID: 8EB4565D

An Approach To LNG Safety And Environmental Control Research
Author(s): William E. Mott, John m. Cece
Abstract/Introduction:
The Assistant Secretary for Environment, U.S. Department of Energy, has responsibility for identifying, characterizing, and ameliorating the environmental, health, and safety issues and public concerns associated with commercial operation of specific energy systems. The need for a clarification of LNG safety and environmental control issues was identified by the Division of Environmental Control Technology as a result of discussions with various persons from Government, industry, and academia having expertise in LNG safety. This paper reviews the results of an assessment of LNG safety and environmental control research issues. Taking into consideration past and present research, the assessment identifies additional research required for an adequate understanding of the major safety concerns associated with transport, handling, and storage of LNG.
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Document ID: E9EFBFBA

Comprehensive Load Balancing Analysis
Author(s): Dean P. Johnson, John W. Hotzeu Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Load balancing is a necessary and vital part of the natural gas industry. Since the beginnings of the industry, gas has been stored in the low demand time periods for later use in the peak demand time periods. Load balancing is a service component of the industry. It is required to complement the product component of selling volumes of gas. The union of these two components is one of Ihe key items in strength and growth of the industry. This paper presents a mathematical technique for use in analyzing load balancing. This technique streamlines and simplifies the analysis so thai the adequacy of the load balancing supply to meet the demand for load balancing can be easily determined.
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Document ID: 82EECA6A

Installation Considerations For Plastic Piping Systems
Author(s): William A. Fox
Abstract/Introduction:
A 1977 Gas Digest survey projected that by Jiuiuary 1, 1978, there would be more than 120,000 miles of plastic pipe in service in gas systems in the United States, and that the use of plastic pipe would continue to increase. In Hope Natural Gas Company, a Division of Consolidated Gas Supply Corporation, 90% of gas distribution main replacements and extensions in 1977 in sizes 4 diameter and under were made with plastic pipe. Because of this trend, Hope Natural Gas Company endeavors to insure that its plastic pipe installation standards are proper and thorough, reflecting any new developments in plastic pipe, and that its personnel are trained to install plastic pipe to provide a sound distribution system. This must be, and is, an ongoing process.
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Document ID: 8467DF36

Lets Take A Positive Approach In The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): J. T. Laboon
Abstract/Introduction:
I do not subscribe to the philosophy that the world is coming to an end, that we are running out of space, running out of resources, running oui of ways to meet ihe needs of mankind. In my opinion, the earth and the universe are inexhaustible, because God made mans mind inexhaustible. To imagine that God would build an earth with a shortage of resources is unthinkable. So said Walter J. Hickel in a recent address in Atlanta, Georgia. This, to me, describes the type of philosophy we in the natural gas industry should adopt. Mr. Hickel continues, Whal America faces today is not a shortage of resources but a shortage of imagination. We have let ourselves become dangerously exposed not by trickery of an insidious foreign power, but by our own domestic fears and ignorance. We have been sold a bill of goods. We have become our own worst enemy.
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Document ID: AA6729F9

Mobile Data Transmission Interfaced With The Computer Computer( Aided Dispatching)
Author(s): Brian J. Otoole
Abstract/Introduction:
Brooklyn Union provides free appliance adjustment service in addition to performing leak investigations, mandated inspection work and meter related activities. In 1976, a total of 1,128,000 jobs of all descriptions were completed in the field. Of this total, approximately 257,000 or 23% were radio dispatched as same day orders. Orders in this category include reported leaks, appliances which wont shut down, no gas reports and meter work which requires priority attention. In the winter months, reports of no heat by gas heating customers are dispatched on a same day basis. On a cold day, as many as 120 radio equipped vehicles may be assigned to the field during the day shift to complete these priority orders.
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Document ID: 5CF5A900

A Look At Shallow Gas Development In Southeastern Alberta
Author(s): T. m. Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
The development of shallow, low pressure gas reserves in Western Canada has received considerable interest in the last decade. The focal point of this activity lies in Southeastern Alberta, as outlined in Figure 1, and encompasses an area of some 7,000 square miles. Although the large scale development of these reserves is relatively new compared to other areas of activity within the petroleum industry, their presence has been known and acknowledged since the beginning of this century. The somewhat famous Medicine Hat field was discovered in 1904 and remains to this day an area of high activity.
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Document ID: 5332F267

Instruments For Locating Underground Facilities
Author(s): E. Hugh Erwin
Abstract/Introduction:
Many utilities today are asking the same question. What are we going to do when old Ben retires? Everyone knows old Ben, Hes been with your company for over forty years and was around when the old Gas Company office was replaced by the New Metropolitan Centre. He supervised all the relocations of the old gas plant on the outskirts of the city as the expressways developed and he can probably tell you where every old main and service is located. Everyone respects old Ben because hes the only record left for the old plant where records have not kept pace with the citys progress. He can even tell you who constructed the mains and how deep they are. Ben keeps telling you that these new electronic contraptions cant locate a main like he can.
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Document ID: B68C39D0

Potential Gas Sources For Canadian Export To The U.S.
Author(s): James W. Kerr
Abstract/Introduction:
1 was asked by your Association to comment on Potential Gas Sources for Export from Canada to the United States. Under current conditions this is not an easy assignment because the situation is rapidly changing and new developments are rapidly evolving. The export of natural gas from Canada must be authorized by the National Energy Board but can only be carried out with the consent of the Federal Cabinet. The National Energy Board is the Canadian equivalent of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the United States, which we all know followed the Federal Power Commission.
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Document ID: 821E6E52

Codes, Standards, Regulations, And Legislation In The Energy Conservation Picture
Author(s): Ray E. Stewart
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is the result of opinions expressed by members of the A.G.A. Customer Service and Utilization Committee, when polled, regarding subjects believed to be of general interest to persons attending the Distribution Conference. There has been a growing interest in codes, standards, regulations and legislation affecting gas utilization as gas has come to fill a larger and larger share of the nations energy needs as gas equipment became increasingly complex and sophisticated and as the emphasis on safely increased. This growing interest in codes, standards, regulations and legislation took a dramatic upturn as the gravity of the gas supply situation was impressed on our consciousness and as the Federal government entered the picture as an interested and active party in energy conservainn.
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Document ID: 5E0F3B44

Recent Activity In Plastic Pipe Regulations
Author(s): Cesar De Leon
Abstract/Introduction:
It is always a pleasure to speak before the Distribution Conference of the American Gas Association and bring all of you up to date on the Department of Transportations (DOT) gas pipeline safety regulations regarding plastic pipe. 1 welcome the opportunity to discuss and exchange views on a personal basis with industry personnel at meetings such as this one with regard to pipeline safety regulations. Before beginning my discussion on regulatory matters, I think it would be of interest to briefly discuss recent organization changes within the Materials Transportation Bureau (MTB). We have recently reorganized and formed four offices in the MTB. Those offices are the Offices of Program Support, Operations and Enforcement, Hazardous Materials Regulation, and Pipeline Safety Regulation. This reorganization is now in effect and an announcement will be made in this regard very soon.
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Document ID: DEFEB234

Classification Of Gas Utility Areas And Nec And Osha Code Requirements Involving Electrical Facilities
Author(s): William L. Busch
Abstract/Introduction:
Individuals responsible for design/operation of electrical facilities in classified areas have concerns that are common. 1. The equipment must assure safe operation for both personnel and property protection. 2. The equipment must meet applicable codes and standards i.e., NEC, OSHA, etc. 3. The equipment must perform satisfactory at the lowest cost that provides acceptable service.
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Document ID: B5BCD242

Physical And Mechanical Properties Of Polyethylene Gas Pipe
Author(s): H. W. Kuhlmann
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is one of a four-part presentation to provide the gas company plastic pipe user with a better understanding of plastic gas piping. This portion of the presentation is concerned with the physical properties of polyethylene resins and their relationship to the mechanical properties of the resulting piping. Included are descriptions of qualification, Quality Control, and Quality Assurance or Acceptance Tests. The paper concludes with the authors recommendation of the minimum level of Acceptance Testing that the user should consider. The physical properties of polyethylene piping materials that directly affect the mechanical behavior of piping made from PE materials are listed in Table 1. The discussion of mechanical properties will include both short- and long-term behavior. Table 2 lists those properties that will be reviewed.
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Document ID: 2CE4B02C

Planning And Training For Sng Plant Startup
Author(s): Robert Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
Through the successful startups of the several naphtha gasification plants during the past few years, the gas industry has had some valuable initial experiences with modern hydrocarbon processing facilities. !t has gotten its feet wet. Additional experience is being acquired, or soon will be acquired, in the course of the startup of the several pilot and demonstration coal gasification units. However, as the gigantic full-scale coal, oil shale, and heavy oil gasification plants finally come along, they will bring startup and initial operations problems an order of magnitude greater than will have been experienced to that point.
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Document ID: F0A65B96

Open Forum On Design Criteria - Part 6
Author(s): N. Dwight Stevenson, Bill E. Hunt, A. W. Amurgis, Theodore Spar
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of the Open Forum on Design Criteria is to cover those subjects that do not lend themselves to lengthy discussion or preparation of a paper. These subjects or questions lend themselves to quick, informal answers or the display of hands as lo what various companies practices are. During the past year the members of the Distribution Design and Development Committee have assembled questions relative to the gas industry. These questions were submitted to each member of the committee for their answers.
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Document ID: BB6052DB

Discussion Of Over The Line Potential Survey Tecliniques For Cross Country Pipelines
Author(s): James A. Mulhern
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this presentation is not so much to justify this type of survey or the analysis of the data taken, but rather to discuss the considerations in setting up and physically conducting a close interval pipe to soil survey. Lets start with defining a close interval survey. For the purposes of this talk we are referring to an over the line pipe to soil potential survey to a copper-copper sulfate reference electrode and a physical pipe connection with data being taken at some specified interval of 100-feet or less. What is the purpose of such a survey? Why expend manpower and money on such a survey? What will the volumes of data tell us? These are the questions that the operating company should ask and answer to their own satisfaction before anything else is done.
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Document ID: BEFD4CDE

Crew Training: An Equipment Operator Training Program
Author(s): John H. Nielson
Abstract/Introduction:
Let me now switch to my topic which is: Crew Training and an Equipment Operator Training Program at Utah Power and Light Company. Todays training dollars in the utilities have been subjea to public scrutiny, i.e., the notorious Public Service Commissions, special interest groups delineating reasons for thwarting rate increases, government agencies, etc. Therefore, for this and other reasons, management is compelled to measure most of todays training in terms of dollars spent rather than SENSE incurred. In our crew training, we attempt to maximize on the SENSE, and on the dollars spent. I believe this presentation about crew training in our Equipment Operator Training Program will demonstrate that we are doing precisely that.
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Document ID: 2FF582A5

Oil And Gas Regulation In Louisiana A History Of Success
Author(s): R. T. Sutton
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper briefly reviews the basic principles historically considered by the Office of Conservation in the development and administration of regulations which control oil and gas operations in the State of Louisiana, Type examples and comments provide special insight into Louisianas past and present methodology which has resulted in the ordered growth of the oil and gas industry without causing serious injury to the coastal environment or to the competitive interests of the other multi-users of this area.
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Document ID: C74F75BD

Review Of Gas Industry Plastic Pipe Research
Author(s): Michael m. Epstein
Abstract/Introduction:
Plastic is now the number one material of choice for the construction of fuel gas distribution systems. The use of plastic by the gas utilities had increased slowly but steadily for more than a decade so that by 1976 plastic piping accounted for about S2 percent of the footage of all services and mains instaUed in that year. In 1977, the penetration of plastic into this application increased dramatically, jumping to 72 percent of the total footage installed. There are now more than 100,000 miles of plastic pipe buried and in service in the U.S. today, and the amount is expeaed to increase substantially every year.
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Document ID: 290DEC68

Use Of And Need For Technical Computing Facilities Independent Of In-House Facilities
Author(s): Rainer Otto
Abstract/Introduction:
A review of the benefits and drawbacks to using outside computing services in addition to in-house facilities at the Southern California Gas Company for scientific and technical studies.
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Document ID: 0A1AF725

Education Of The Public To Recognize Natural Gas Emergencies
Author(s): V. R. Wasson
Abstract/Introduction:
Safety and well being of our customers and the public requires prompt identification and corrective action of gas emergencies. The paper shows and discusses results of a broadbased survey on how utilities are educating the public to recognize and act in case of natural gas emergencies.
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Document ID: B2ADC70C

Report Of The Joint Task Group On Unaccounted For Gas
Author(s): Samuel I. Hyman
Abstract/Introduction:
The Engineering and Operations Analysis Committee, was charged by the Managing Committee with assembling a joint task group to prepare a report on unaccounted for gas. The task group was formed. Following is the report of the task group, which was submitted by it, and accepted by the Managing Committee. Subsequent to the completion of the task are the remarks of the chairman of the task group who was involved, with others, in an interna unaccounted for review. As an appendix to the report of the committee, are some of the points which the author wishes to make. They are not to be taken as being part of the report of the committee.
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Document ID: 8FB4E230

An Electronic Approach To Literature Retrieval Computerized Literature Search Systems
Author(s): Anne S. Wise
Abstract/Introduction:
There are two fundamental approaches to literature retrieval. The manual system has been in existence in some form since man began shelving books. Electronic methods have become important to librarians only during the current decade. The following is an overview of the history and development of electronic literature searching. More than 30 years ago, Vannevar Bush, in his well-known article, As We May Think, isolated an underlying problem which has long confronted those who must acquire, organize, retrieve, and disseminate information. Selection or retrieval from human memory is not oriented to alphabetical or numerical sequences, and yet many catalogs and indices are arranged in that manner. Vannevar Bush could not envision that anyone could ever hope to duplicate electronically the intellectual associations which permit man to conceptualize.
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Document ID: F240E5B3

The Economic Justification For Specifying Diesel Over Gasoline Engines
Author(s): Robert E. Mindheim
Abstract/Introduction:
The method selected for justifying diesel engines over gasoline, (or any other technological innovation) should be made based on the management desires of the Company. Many firms will base the acceptance or rejection on a simple payout calculation of dollars saved versus additional cost. For example, a diesel engine may involve 3,000 additional investment in the vehicle and result in a full cost savings of 800 per year. The payout, or the length of time necessary to recover this investment is 3.75 years and assuming this is less than the life of the vehicle, provides an acceptable additional investment.
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Document ID: 4FF54628

Shop And Field Testing Of Domestic Meters With Sonic Nozzles
Author(s): Joseph A. Wager
Abstract/Introduction:
After conducting tests in the field using the transfer test method with a domestic diaphragm meter as the reference meter, then to the small rotary meter as the reference meter then with the advent of sonic nozzles and using the available technology, it was definitely established that this was the answer to field testing domestic meters. Because Peoples Natural Gas Division is spread over a multi-state area, the concept of moving the test equipment to the meter for testing would be much more economical and would result in establishing the true as found meter accuracy results.
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Document ID: 82DC9F10

Overview Of The Production Of Polyethylene Pipe
Author(s): R. L. Ayres
Abstract/Introduction:
Polyethylene is basically defined and characterized in ASTM D1248, Standard Specification for Polyethylene Plastics Molding and Extraction Materials. In this document polyethylene is defined as being prepared by the polymerization of no less than 85% ethylene and no less than 95% total olefins. Polyethylenes are separated in ASTM D1248 by their densities. Densities of from 0.910 gm/cc to 0.925 gm/cc are classified as Type 1, low density polyethylene. The range of 0.926 to 0.940 is Type II, medium density polyethylene, 0.941 to 0.959 as Type III and 0.960 up as Type IV, both being called high density polyethylene. This rather arbitrary classification by density has become fundamental in the industry and is reflected in the basic nomenclature of gas distribution piping with medium and high density pipe compounds common terms familiar with the industry.
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Document ID: 5D8FADCC

Survey Summary - Rebuilding Derrick And Aerial Devices
Author(s): Karl H. Kittelberger
Abstract/Introduction:
Report of a survey taken to determine electric utility fleet experience with the Rebuilding of Derricks and Aerial Devices - presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers annual meeting in Detroit, Michigan, February, 1978. and the A.G.A./EEI Automotive Conference in Denver, Colorado, May, 1978. This survey was undertaken as part of the program entitled Rebuilds-Derrick and Aerial Devices Technical and Financial Considerations requested by the Utility Committee of the Society of Automotive Engineers and the Automotive and Transportation Committee of the American Gas Association and Edison Electric Institute.
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Document ID: 437FECFC

One Transmission Companys Approach To System Protection
Author(s): Thomas J. Cusworth
Abstract/Introduction:
Pacific Gas Transmission Company has experienced only one significant incident of third party damages since the pipeline system was placed in operation in 196). This low rate of incident is partially because the most remote areas practical were selected for the pipeline route, and it was installed for the most part with a minimum of three feet of cover. However, through an extensive program of employee training, keeping abreast of outside activities near the pipeline, continual surveillance of the pipeline, extensive followthrough in all areas of activity, and all employees doing their utmost to protect the facilities, we have been able to increase our odds against the occurrence of third party damages.
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Document ID: 2A8E632B

Computer Industry Metrication How Far Have American Companies Gone To Adopt It As Engineering?
Author(s): Peter G. Smee
Abstract/Introduction:
Perhaps one of the most significant reasons for going metric is that virtually ail the rest of the world is either already using metric units and standards, or has committed lo convert within the next few years. In case anyone should wish to challenge that statement, I would have to admit thai there are (or were at last count) five other countries who remain un-committed. The significance of their impact on engineering, manufacturing and commerce throughout the world is something you must judge for yourselves. But I will give you their names (if you promise not lo ask me where they are): BRUNEI BURMA LIBERIA YEMAN ARAB REPUBLIC YEMAN PEOPLES DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC
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Document ID: 6B664284

Gas Filter Separators As A Method Of Maintaining Storage Well Deliverability
Author(s): Howard D. Griffith, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
A common problem associated with natural gas injection into underground gas storage reservoirs is the potential coating of the well bore with liquids or solids foreign to the formation. This problem is severe in areas where there are excessive amounts of lube oil or condensate in the pipeline. This paper describes how Texas Gas Transmission Corporation evaluated and ultimately installed an economical and workable system for the removal of foreign liquids and solids from the gas stream prior to storage injection.
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Document ID: B1CE8559

State Of The Art Of Hydraulic Fracturing
Author(s): R. E. Steanson
Abstract/Introduction:
The hydraulic fracturing process has been responsible for the recovery of large quantities of oil and gas during the past three decades that might not otherwise have been produced. Even with present technology, extremely large reserves of natural gas are trapped in reservoirs of low permeability and cannot be economically recovered. This paper presents a status of the art report of hydraulic fracturing as it applies to these natural gas reservoirs. Information that must be developed to successfully apply the process efficiently and economically to lowpermeability reservoirs is discussed.
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Document ID: D9319FBE

Recent Developments In The Oil And Gas Industry Of Mexico
Author(s): Jesus Chavarria Garcia
Abstract/Introduction:
The discovery of oil in the Panuco-Ebano fields of Tampico immediately after the turn of the century put Mexico in the oil business. Frequent and important discoveries during the first two decades, particularly in the old Golden Lane trend, built Mexicos production to 530,000 barrels per day in 1921. Thereafter, production declined rapidly and in 1931 fell below 100,000 barrels per day. In March 1938, when all the petroleum companies were expropriated by the Mexican Government, the oil reserves of the country amounted to only 1.24 billion barrels with daily production of approximately 115,000 barrels.
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Document ID: 90991A54

Corrosion Monitoring Techniques
Author(s): Thomas W. Mcspadden
Abstract/Introduction:
Various components of processing plants are subject to corrosion to some degree. The control and mitigation of corrosion is essential to economical operation and the protection of life and property. In order lo be able to conirol corrosion, we must be able to determine where corrosion is occurring. There are many methods which may be used singly or in combination to provide information on corrosion rates. A number of the methods will be discussed in this paper. Other publications dealing with corrosion detection are referenced for those who may wish lo dig deeper into the subject. Some of the corrosion monitoring instruments which will be discussed require the installation of suitable access fittings into piping and vessels. When new plants are being designed, the designers should consult with corrosion and process engineers regarding the number and location of corrosion test points and inhibitor injection points.
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Document ID: CE917C4F

Sample Kits For The Sampling And Transporting Of Atmospheric Samples For Gas Chromatographic Analysis
Author(s): John E. Flory
Abstract/Introduction:
Herein is demonstrated a practical gas sampling method developed specifically for the transportation of atmosphere samples for chromatographic analysis. Samples of low concentrations of combustibles found during routine leak surveys, or because of complaint, are mailed to the laboratory from all points in the statewide distribution system. Chromatography was first introduced into the American Natural Service Companys Laboratory in 1957. The acceptance of chromatography and its phenomenal growth as an analytical tool has since put additional demands on gas sampling techniques and sample handling procedures.
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Document ID: DAD83BBF

Probability Of Design Peak() Day Occurrence
Author(s): Robert W. Juskus, Albert m. Liebetrau
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the basic functions of a gas distribution company is to develop criteria for sizing the gas distribution system as well as for ensuring gas supply deiiverability on a daily basis. One of these criteria manifests itself in the selection of a design day, which is usually defined in terms of one or more extreme weather parameter occurrences. Most gas utilities define their design day in terms of a very low average daily temperature -5, OF. +-5F, etc.) the magnitude of which is a function of local prevailing weather conditions which in turn will dictate the probabihty of design day occurrence. Once a design day definition has been established, statistical regression techniques may then be used to estimate the gas sendout associated with design day.
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Document ID: 6DCEAF5A

The Ugc Industries Gas Calorimeter
Author(s): W. m. Moore
Abstract/Introduction:
This instrument is designed to produce several outputs. They are: BTU per cubic foot, BTU per pound, Wobbe Index, and specific gravity. The energy values can be derived both on a net or gross basis as well as metric units. The output can be digital print, analog chart, and visual. Telemetry union is simple. Environmental requirements are not strict. Service needs are 115 vac, 100 watts, and the gas sample of interest. BTU ranges are from 500 to 1500 BTU per cubic foot and corresponding amounts in BTU per pound and energy indexes. Specific gravity range is from .57 to .75. Special lower or higher ranges can be produced by special calibration. The output is in terms applying to the state of the sample gas, as the sample is not saturated with water prior to processing. Purchase costs are competitive with competition but installation costs are much less due to less environmental control, air conditioning or heating not being needed.
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Document ID: 122DA235

Highlights Of The Sixth Plastic Pipe Symposium
Author(s): Eugene J. Escolas
Abstract/Introduction:
Some 308 persons - including an estimated 50 from outside the U.S.A. - gathered in Columbus. Ohio last month (April 4-6) to participate in the Sixth Plastic Pipe Symposium. The theme of the Sixth Plastic Pipe Symposium was appropriately enough entitled, Expanding Horizons for Plastic Distribution Systems. The American Gas Association, Gas Research Institute and Battelle Columbus Laboratories were cosponsors of the Symposium. The Symposium consisted of five half-day sessions - four for the presentation of formal papers and the fifth for workshops.
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Document ID: 247EEC73

Battery Pack Equipment User Experience
Author(s): H. E. Stratton
Abstract/Introduction:
During the past several years much has been written and said about costs - costs of new vehicles and equipment, costs to maintain and repair, costs of fuel, costs of labor, and costs of money. Much has also been written and said about pollution - in our segment. of the business, we are concerned mostly with air and noise pollution. I am sure some of your major objectives as transportation managers over the past few years have been and continue to be closely related to these problems of costs, pollution, and the related problem of energy conservation.
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Document ID: D3AF4091

The Role Of Synthetics In Future Gas Supply
Author(s): Frank C. Schora
Abstract/Introduction:
Several years after the hard realization that an escalating gas shortage exists, little of a concrete nature has been accomplished in the U.S. to establish a domestic synthetic gaseous fuels industry. Although there have been several attempts to build Lurgi gasification plants in the U.S., none have reached the construction phase this is the result of multiple problems involving regulation, financing, environmental, and other institutional questions. Some of these problems have been solved others remain, as yet without solutions, New technology - termed second-generation technology - is at present emerging through rapid development of several processes. Some processes appear to be reasonable technical and economic contenders for early development of a synthetic gasification industry.
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Document ID: 93BBEE6E

Alternating Current Effects On Underground Pipelines
Author(s): J. S. Dorsey
Abstract/Introduction:
Some pipelines and overhead a-c transmission systems have exisied close together in the same righl-of way for decades wiihoui significant problems. There have been only a few cases where electrical interference effects on the pipelines are known to have resulted in damage to the pipelines, or hazardous condilions for personnel working on them. And yet, in recent years, this has become a matter of increasing concern to pipeline operators. The question is: Why should this excite inieresl now, when not much attention was paid to it in earlier years? There are several reasons for this. The ever-increasing demands for energy have resulted in a proliferation of both pipelines and a-c transmission systems, and the limiied space available for these has forced them into common corridors. Obviously, this provides more opportunity for cases of electrical interference to develop.
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Document ID: A236F285

Remote Index - Experience And Need
Author(s): H. P. Tillewein
Abstract/Introduction:
Remote meter reading refers to the method employed to mechanically or electrically transmit the meter reading from the meter itself to another location in the general area. This technique of using an outside reader is to obtain a reading from a meter that is located in an inaccessible or inconvenient location.
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Document ID: 66CA0FFB

An Operating Plan To Maximize Supply
Author(s): Frank J. Hollewa
Abstract/Introduction:
How many times have you heard someone say - You cant change the weather, or If you use hindsight, youll always have 20/20 vision, or You cant predict the unpredictable. All of these statements are true, but have no meaning or place in the gas supply business. They happen because too often individuals are in awe of trying to cope with weather except on a day-to-day basis.
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Document ID: 30D2C1EF

Thermal Energy Measurement
Author(s): Mendal L. Yoho
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper states the current methods and practices for measuring the thermal energy content of fuel gases. The information included here has been collected by surveys of A.G.A. members, and reports or studies of A.G.A. Committees. The scope of the paper includes developmental work and the use of heating value information, as well as methodology, equipment, and calculations. Principally, this paper will address combustion calorimetry and gas chromatography with a few comments on flame temperature sensing.
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Document ID: E79D5DA6

Absenteeism: Lets Take A New Look
Author(s): Richard J. Oneill
Abstract/Introduction:
Take This Job and Shove It. These six words from the popular tune by Johnny Paycheck which sold over a million copies, probably best describe how millions of Americans feel about their jobs and as I will explain in my speech today, this attitude about ones work is probably the main cause of absenteeism. For the purposes of this discussion, wt: shall define absenteeism as the failure of workers to report on the job when they are scheduled to work. One would think that with the improved medical facilities and medical insurance available to almost all of our work force and with the lessening of excessive, heavy labor together with the removal of sweat shops, that attendance would be improving. Yet, it has been estimated that absenteeism is costing our economy over 10 billion dollars a year. In fact, a major New York utility observed that over one third of our nations work force has tendencies to be chronically absent from work.
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Document ID: 259E5369

Gas Theft: Detection & Deterrence
Author(s): Mario L. Gabos
Abstract/Introduction:
The theft of gas is a topical issue - one that is important to our industry as evidenced by the establishment of a Sub-Committee on Energy Thefts under the aegis of the Claims Committee of the American Gas Association. The primary objective of the subcommittee is the continued education of member companies on the problem of energy thefts through the convening of state and regional utility companies to explore and quantify the problem in depth. During September and October 1977, sub-committee members reported meetings in ten states which were attended by 102 utilities. The sub-committee released on May 10, 1977, a resume of responses to a questionnaire relative to utility thefts. Thirty-six member companies were selected for the survey 32 responded. Most respondents not only acknowledged they are experiencing increased incidence of gas thefts, but also conveyed a grave concern over the growing theft situation.
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Document ID: 877DC517

Air Or Natural Gas For Compressor Engine Starting And Auxilliary Service
Author(s): K. Frederick Wrenn, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
High pressure natural gas is widely used in the gas transmission industry as a medium for starting reciprocating engines and gas turbines, powering various pumps and motors and supplying pneumatic instrument systems. In most instances, the decision to use natural gas instead of compressed air is based upon economics. Primary concern for conservation of natural gas and secondary concern for optimum energy utilization requires a reassessment of the alternatives. This paper will stress the thermodynamic implications and offer examples of the types of analyses which should be used in selecting such systems.
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Document ID: 5671CDC1

Formulas And Graphs For Representing The Interchangeability Of Fuel Gases
Author(s): Elmer R. Weaver
Abstract/Introduction:
When gas-burning appliances have been adjusted to give satisfaction with a gas of one composition, and are theft Supplied with gas of a different composition, changes are usually noted in the characteristics of the flames produced. When no change can be seen or measured, the gases are said to be exactly interchangeable. When undesirable changes do not occur to a greater extent than the person using the term thinks permissible, the gases are usually still called interchangeable with the omission of the adverb. No entirely satisfactory method has ever been found for predicting or representing the extent to which different gases depart from exact interchangeablility. In this paper a set of six indexes is given for specifying and predicting from the composition of any two fUel gases the extent of the effects that occur when one is substituted for another. Four of these indexes are new. Their derivation is given, and their application is shown by comparison with the results of extensive experimentation of the American Gas Association. They are shown to represent the results of observation somewhat better than any method previously proposed.
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Document ID: A78F5BBA

Commonwealth Edison Company Aerial Lift And Derrick Transplant Program
Author(s): Glenn R. Frostholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the early 60s Commonwealth Edison started purchasing aerial lifts for use as overhead trouble and maintenance trucks, moving away from mechanical ladder trucks to elbow lift trucks. As the first elbow trucks were nearing the end of their normal life cycle in about 1969, we noted that while the chassis and bodies were pretty well worn out as would be expected, the lifts were still in good, serviceable condition, Since the lifts were in good condition, we decided lo investigate the possibility of transplanting them onto new chassis. The results of the investigation were promising, so we initiated a program to transplant elbows. This program has since been expanded to include nearly every type of aerial lift we operate, as well as some of our heavy duty derricks.
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Document ID: A4675E74

Maintaining Preparedness For Large Scale Emergencies
Author(s): Walter T. Johnson, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Preparation for large scale emergencies in the Southern California Gas Compaoy had its beginning in the early 1950s with the establishment of a Disaster and Civil Defense Plan. The plan was changed significantly after the 1971 San Fernando earthquake and now calls for a full time Emergency Planning Coordinator to administer the major emergency plan and coordinate emergency activities with governmental and public agencies. Periodic emergency exercises are held with several Company organizations participating to train their members, keep them proficient in their emergency assignments and to verify validity and currency of the major emergency plans.
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Document ID: 3F21BE66

Maintenance Experiences At The Peoples Gas Light & Coke Company Synthetic Natural Gas Plant Joliet, Illinois
Author(s): A. A. Plonka
Abstract/Introduction:
Peoples Gas Light and Coke Companys Synthetic Natural Gas Plant (Figure 1) is located approximately 35 miles southwest of Chicago. Plant design capacity is 160 MMCF per day and construction cost, including land and pipelines, was approximately 100 million. The process used is the British Gas Corporation Catalytic Rich Gas Process. Initial design for the plant was begun in the summer of 1972, with construction starling in April, 1973. In November, 1975, the initial attempt at plant startup was made. When negotiations with a new union broke down this startup was aborted. The ensuing labor dispute lasted almost three weeks during which time plant management personnel attempted to keep critical systems in a hot condition during very cold weather.
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Document ID: AEB35EA7

Financial & Design Considerations For Rebuilt Aerial & Derrick Equipment
Author(s): Clifford T. Clark
Abstract/Introduction:
Utilities are a capital intensive industry and the finaricial picture for the 1980s is clear from the corporate posture and the business sector we serve. We must reduce capital requirements for new equipment and control the size and maintenance cost of our fleet operations. The economic slowdown in the business sector along with the fuel shortage brought with it our first zero Equipment Budget at PP&L in 1975. This slowdown was at first a shock to our industry with cutbacks in capital construction, equipment and manpower. Pondering the situation now makes one feel the pause was long overdue and has allowed us to take a long hard look at new equipment cost, maintenance expense, and field performance of our aerial lifts and digger derricks.
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Document ID: 8A00BB62

Osha Regulations - Maintenance Shops
Author(s): J. m. Lane
Abstract/Introduction:
In April, 1971. the Occupational Safety and Health Administration began EO adopt existing Federal and National consensus standards and initiated their workplace inspection program. During the initial three year period, 164,852 inspections were performed, 110,058 citations were issued, and penalties of 14,203,458 were levied. Subsequently, the volume and scope of OSHAs activities have increased considerably due to expanded manpower, adoption of additional standards, and the results of investigations conducted by NIOSH relative to industrial health hazards. These health hazards to date include asbestos, lead, benzene, silica, metallic dusts, occupational noise levels, and numerous chemical compounds.
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Document ID: 1ECF347D

Appliance Performance And Changes In Gas Composition
Author(s): Kenneth Kelton
Abstract/Introduction:
The principal use of gas is as a fuel, a source of heat. To qualify as a satisfactory fuel and to provide trouble-free service, it must have a number of important burning properties, as follows: 1. Flames must liberate heat at a fast enough rate to efficiently transfer the heat of the flame into the substance being heated. 2. Flames must not lift or blow from the burner ports. They must readily ignite and travel quickly from port to port, 3. Flames must not flash back. They must be stable under various degrees of turndown. Ignition and extinction must not be accompanied by undue noise. 4. Flames must not burn with yellow tips, unless specifically designed for such operation. 5. Flames must not be hazardous in normal use and must not give off carbon monoxide.
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Document ID: E737F789

Major Overhauling Of The Utility Digger Derrick Truck
Author(s): Terry Loodier
Abstract/Introduction:
Some truck equipment manufacturers now offer a Major Overhaul Program to the users of digger derrick trucks. This program involves a complete tear down of the existing equipment and body the rebuilding and remounting of the unit on a new truck chassis. This is followed by complete testing and finish work. The results produce a digger derrick truck in mint condition, under warranty, at a considerable savings when compared to a new unit. The purpose of this paper is to outline the reasons for, procedures and final results of the digger derrick truck Major Overhaul Program. The reason for the Major Overhaul Program is primarily economic. When this program is properly administered, it provides users with a digger derrick truck in mint condition on a new chassis with an additional life expectancy of 9 to 12 years. During the Major Overhaul Program, the old unit is completely disassembled, all the structural components are checked the worn parts replaced and the hydraulic components rebuilt. The unit is then reassembled and mounted on a new truck chassis. The equipment is completely tested to the manufacturers current specifications. The final result is a digger derrick truck with a new faaory warranty and a considerable savings to the user when compared with a new unit.
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Document ID: 7B32620A

Whats New In Measurement And Control Devices
Author(s): John L. Esola
Abstract/Introduction:
1 would like to first discuss with you Rockwells current capabilities regarding conversion to the metric system. As the United States and the gas industry gradually convert to the metric system, certain minor changes to domestic meters are necessary. We now have a hne of domestic meters that we call fully metric. We have for years provided a standard cubic foot domestic meter with a metric index where the conversion from the English system to the metric system was made in the gear ratio within the index itself. This gave a reading in metric units, but created some problems for the proving process. The output shaft of the meter represented cubic foot volumes, and lo prove the meter, the metric index had to be removed and a cubic fool index put on (he meter. This then allowed you to prove the meter on a prover with a cubic foot scale. This created some problems because certain public utility commissions do not allow you to prove the meter with an index other than the one that is actually going to be on that meter in the field.
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Document ID: 5557A5BB

Portable Field Instrument Instantaneously Determines Rate Of Leak
Author(s): Walter F. Dydak
Abstract/Introduction:
When investigating incidents, which may not be caused or related to the escape of gas from distribution piping, minor leaks may be detected on such piping. The need existed to prove that minor leaks encountered in the course of an investigation neither cause, nor contributed to the incident. Recent incidents involving the Philadelphia Gas Works led to the development of this portable device, which performed this task in an excellent manner. A Portable Suitcase incorporating a Variable Area Rate of Flow Indicator, a Calibration Curve, a Pressure Gauge, a Water Manometer, a Temperature Sensor and a Regulator, permits service pipes to be checked quickly for leak rates.
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Document ID: 4EAF52CD

Repair Methods For Damaged Polyethylene Piping A State Of The Art
Author(s): C. Frank Rodick, George Green, John L. Husted
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper reviews the technology of repairing polyethylene piping systems used for the distribution of natural gas. Current methods are dealing with holes, cuts, kinks, scratches, and gouges are discussed. Government regulations and industry guidelines pertaining to pipeline repair are summarized, and combined with utility standards, are the basis for safe and efficient repair practices. New developments like the self-gripping fitting, plastic crimp fitting, telescope fitting, and electrofusion fitting are described. Some observations are made regarding present and future needs to further improve techniques and devices for polyethylene piping systems.
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Document ID: E57F367C

Arctic Pilot Project Petro-Canada
Author(s): William Bidjak
Abstract/Introduction:
The development of remote and consequently high cost hydrocarbon resources generally requires very large projects to obtain the economics of scale and thus reduce the delivered cost of energy to a competitive figure. Because of their inherent large size, some of these projects have suffered long delays in obtaining regulatory approvals and in completing construction with consequent large cost over-runs. Such problems could affect large projects in the remote areas of the Canadian Arctic, unless they are preceded by reduced scale pilot projects of a similar nature. By the end of 1982, the worlds most northerly LNG plant will go into production on a pilot project basis.
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Document ID: 9BC63D2B

Arctic Islands LNG
Author(s): Walter Hindle
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of the LNG icebreaking carrier to transport natural gas reserves from the high Arctic Islands to markets in Quebec and the Atlantic provinces of Canada could provide a feasible means of recovering substantial reserves of natural gas in the Arctic which, because of their location, may not be large enough to support pipeline construction. These Arctic reserves delivered into the eastern terminus of the TransCanada system could provide a valuable source of new gas for existing eastern Canadian markets and may also provide the most economic means of meeting the long term natural gas requirements of areas of Canada not now served by natural gas.
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Document ID: 19F29114

Energy Conservation In The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): Robert B. Rosenberg
Abstract/Introduction:
Two technologies will be of vital importance to the future of the gas industry. One of these is the development of increased sources of supply of gaseous fuels, and the other is the development of new equipment for the more effective utilization of these fuels. In the area of gaseous fuel supply, the industry has a large number of options available to it, all of which are being actively pursued. Included among the new developments are the gasification of coal, of peat, of biomass (organic material that is grown specifically for conversion to a gaseous fuel), of shale, and of waste and garbage. Other potential supply options for which technology is being developed include so-called unconventional natural gas sources such as gas from geopressured zones and from coal mine seams, and the truly synthetic gaseous fuels such as hydrogen produced from water. The prospects are that a number of these alternative fuel supplies will be brought to commercial fruition beginning in the mid 80s. Throughout the post-1985 period supplies of gas could expand very rapidly, providing a long-term source of gaseous energy for consumers.
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Document ID: CE0BB8C9

High Frequency Tangent Sensor Improves Meter Testing
Author(s): Walter F. Dydak
Abstract/Introduction:
Traditionally gas meters have been proved by visual observation of the number of revolutions of the tangent arm that is directly coupled to the volumetric chambers of the meter. Further developments led to semiautomated proving which detected the revolutions of the tangent arm by micro-switch or photo-electric eye. The development of the open top tin meter and the aluminum meter required the use of vacuum proving to utilize Ihe tangent for determining the revolutions of the meter. When open top meters were proved on positive pressure it was necessary to use the index to determine the revolutions of the meter. There were inherent errors in the use of vacuum proving and the use of the index required longer proving runs. This led Philadelphia Gas to the development of the high frequency sensor probe that detects the movement of the tangent arm to determine the revolutions of the meter. This device now permits positive pressure proving and allows for shorter proving runs, thus reducing proving time and costs.
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Document ID: 5176D8D5

Infill Drilling To Increase Reserves And Deliverability From Blanco Mesaverde Reservoir
Author(s): A.M. Derrick
Abstract/Introduction:
A promising technique for increasing deliverability and recoverable reserves to help minimize the gas shortage is infill drilling, particularly in tight reservoirs where present wells are not efficiently draining the reserves. Operators in the Blanco Mesaverde Field in the San Juan Basin area of New Mexico are drilling infill wells which have become economically feasible recently through enhanced completion technology and price incentives for new gas. The program began in early 1975 and through 1977 approximately 450 infill wells have been drilled with deliverability of nearly 250 MMcf/d, or 34% of the reservoirs productions. The program may increase recoverable reserves by 6 Tcf when some 2,000 infill wells are drilled.
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Document ID: 4374F787

Sewer Trench Excavation Impact On Gas Main And Service Facilities
Author(s): Jack R. Sandman
Abstract/Introduction:
The CG&E Company is confronted with many problems related to the federally funded program of new construction and improvement of sanitary and storm sewer systems. At the present time there are over 50 separate major projects in various stages of design through construction, having a possible impact on some 100 miles of gas mains and more than 10,000 customers gas service laterals. This paper presents CG&Es general approach to assure the safety of its gas system while cooperating to assure efficient completion of the sewer projects in the best interests of all parties involved. The related paper* presents geotechnical considerations with respect to the influence of trench excavations and backfilling practices as they may affect other underground utility installations or structures, with particular reference to gas mains and customer service laterals.
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Document ID: 8D8EA4B9

Reevaluation Of Flow Disturbances In Orifice Meter Tubes
Author(s): E. L. Upp
Abstract/Introduction:
A preliminary study of various tests on orifice meters on the effects of inlet configuration, of the types described in A.G.A. Report #3, indicates that there is more variation in coefficient value with some of these than is generally assumed. The API results are not completed, but there is an indication that more work needs to be done before there is any Itnowledge of what would be better to change to in terms of installation, if a change is needed. The results state however, that the upcoming coefficient rechecks sponsored by A.G.A. and API must have a single definitive upstream configuration or the results may be affected by a particular piping configuration sufficient to be of concern in the work.
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Document ID: A34DE1EC

Design Considerations For LNG Production Facilities In Arctic Regions
Author(s): C. E. Feierabeno
Abstract/Introduction:
Increasing interest and activity in the arctic regions of North America have contributed new intensity and scope to the challenge of construction in an arctic environment- The engineer must know his territory. The engineer, in addition to his ustial expertise, must possess a keen appreciation of arctic and subarctic weather and the consequent ramifications to his engineering design and construction activities. An LNG facility in (he arctic must be designed for a specific site with its associated arctic environment dictating the design considerations. Reliability, operabiliiy and safely are primary design objectives in the arctic. A discussion of a few arctic techniques to accomplish these objectives are presented.
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Document ID: 4C8100F5

Approaches To Literature Retrieval: Manual And Mechanical
Author(s): Annie S. Wise, Steven J. Dorner
Abstract/Introduction:
Most appropriately the question of Why literature retrieval? should be addressed EO an audience of engineers and technically oriented people. The answer might be obvious, but the implications to it deserve serious attention. Engineering projects have become extraordinarily complex for a variety of reasons including heightened government controls, high capital requirements, foreign competition, to name a few. The technical study has become the foundation for most major corporate project decisions. Departments involved in engineering undertake the greatest number of technical studies. A poorly researched study not only can cost large sums of monies but can be the genesis of shaky corporate decisions which contribute to leading a company astray, down the path to financial insolvency.
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Document ID: 3F113C6B

Containment Of Gas In Storage Fields
Author(s): Donald L. Katz
Abstract/Introduction:
A review is given of the storage technology which has been developed to assure that injected natural gas remains in the storage reservoir. Our understanding has grown for the part that confining water plays in the storage cycle, and how it moves in response to changes in gas pressure. With this larger view of the storage system, monitoring systems are designed to follow possible underground gas movement. New topics under study include threshold pressure at permeability pinch-outs, pressure sinks in aquifers adjacent to storage reservoirs and diffusion of gas into underlying water bearing strata.
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Document ID: 270842FA

Corrosion Aspects Of Arctic Pipelines
Author(s): A. W. Peabody
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper concerns the engineering aspects of controlling external corrosion on pipeline systems constructed in arctic areas. Emphasis is on the particular problems associated with corrosion control in permafrost regions. The two general categories of pipeline treated are (1) cold pipelines which are operated at temperatures below those of surrounding permafrost areas and (2) warm pipelines which, when buried in permafrost, can create a zone of thawed earth surrounding the pipeline. The genera! approach to external corrosion control can be quite different for each category these differences are discussed. The corrosion control methods discussed include cathodic protection, coatings, and measures used to mitigate the effect of telluric currents which can be particularly pronounced in arctic areas.
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Document ID: DA524A2E

An Energy Utilitys View Of The Di-Seasonal Coal Gasification/Liquefaction Process Concept
Author(s): C. R. Guerra
Abstract/Introduction:
The concept of a coal conversion facility producing either gas or liquid hydrocarbons for utility use, on a six-monih oul-of-phase seasonal basis, is presented. This plant with a dual fuel capability, operating intrastaie. is thought to offer operational and economic advantages over plants dedicated exclusively to either coal gasification or liquefaction. Results from evaluation of a coal hydrogenation process producing high-BTU gas and light oil with the flexibility to operate on an all-gas or an all-liquid mode are summarized.
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Document ID: 97EBCB35

Glycol Analysis: Current Problems In The Analysis Of Dehydrator Fluids And Some Solutions
Author(s): Bilvano Grosso, P. D. Hall, R. L. Pearce
Abstract/Introduction:
The dehydration of natural gas with glycol solutions is attractive because of the reliability of operation, sitnplicity of the equipment, and low cost for both chemicals and utiHties. Maintenance of the glycol solution, however, is an important aspect of glycol dehydration to insure that the advantages of the process are fully reahzed. A recent survey by the A.G.A. Chemical Services Commit lee indicates that the operators are aware of the field problems encountered with glycol in these systems and of the need for glycol maintenance. The survey also revealed that widely differing approaches are taken to combat the problems, with great variation in test methods, control points, and frequency of testing. This paper will describe the major problems encountered with glycol dehydraiors and the approach taken in one laboratory to identify and solve them with the assistance of modern techniques of analytical chemistry.
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Document ID: 64B00615

Effect Of Barometric Pressure Changes On Rate Of Boil-Off In A Storage Tank Of Saturated Liquids
Author(s): H. T. Hashemi, J. L. Lott, W. D. Wesson, H. R. Wesson
Abstract/Introduction:
Changes in atmospheric pressure significantly affect the rate of boii-off from a saturated liquid contained in an atmospheric storage tank. The examples presented in this paper deal with liquefied natural gas storage tanks, but the solution method is applicable for other types of saturated liquids stored in atmospheric tanks, such as liquid propane and ammonia. This paper presents a simple, analytical solution of the model presented in the paper by H.T. Hashemi and H.R. Wesson titled Effect of Barometric Pressure Changes on BoilOff in an LNG Storage Tank. (1) This analytical solution provides a simple, straightforward method of calculating a reliable estimate of the effect of changes in barometric pressure on the boil-off rate of cryogenic liquid stored in an atmospheric container.
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Document ID: F304E35F

The Ugc Industries Gas Calorimeter
Author(s): W. m. Moore
Abstract/Introduction:
This instrument is designed to produce several outputs. They are: BTU per cubic foot, BTU per pound, Wobbe Index, and specific gravity. The energy values can be derived both on a net or gross basis as well as metric units. The output can be digital print, analog chart, and visual. Telemetry union is simple. Environmental requirements are not strict. Service needs are 115 vac, 100 watts, and the gas sample of interest. BTU ranges are from 500 to 1500 BTU per cubic foot and corresponding amounts in BTU per pound and energy indexes. Specific gravity range is from .57 to .75. Special lower or higher ranges can be produced by special calibration. The output is in terms applying to the state of the sample gas, as the sample is not saturated with water prior to processing. Purchase costs are competitive with competition but installation costs are much less due to less environmental control, air conditioning or heating not being needed.
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Document ID: D03A75A0

Value Analysis - A Purchasing Technique For The Gas Industry
Author(s): Hugo Schriewer, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Oftentimes when we read or hear about value analysis it is in conjunction with manufacturing - for those of us in the gas industry, if we are not careful, we can soon be led to believe that this technique has no application to us. Hopefully, today I can help dispel this thinking, if it prevails, for Value Analysis can and does work for our industry. My purpose is to also cause an awareness of Value Analysis, and what it can do, and its value to you as managers of materials organizations. Value Analysis is a purchasing technique, fostered by the purchasing profession, that has been in our midst for some thirty years.
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Document ID: F7BBB700

Dot Class Location Changes And Their Effect On Pipeline Operations And Economics
Author(s): K. W. Yoder
Abstract/Introduction:
A class location change, as defined in the Minimum Federal Safety Standards for Gas Lines creates problems for a natural gas transmission company. Capacities of pipelines must be reduced or effective action taken to insure that overpressure at a given location will not occur, Pressure gradient control can be an effective means of complying with the rules and regulations imposed by a class location change. The economics of hydrostatic testing, replacement, reduction in capacity or pressure gradient control must be compared with each, before decisions can be made for action should class location changes occur. These points are discussed in this paper as well as descriptions and examples of pressure gradient control.
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Document ID: 9CC7CD8B

The Federal Triangle An Energy Soap Opera Of Tragic Scope
Author(s): George H. Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
Ladies and Gentlemen: Your good decision to hold our transmission conference here in Montreal this year is a winner. This beautiful city, though more than a thousand miles up the St. Lawrence from the sea, is one of the great ocean ports of our hemisphere. Canadas commercial and maritime heritage is, of course, very similar to our own. That heritage is just one of many characteristics our nations have in common. Another theme which unites us is the deep interest Canadians and Americans share in the wise and efficient development and use of North American energy resources. It is this subject which I wish to address today. You may have noticed in your program, Ive entitled this speech The Federal Triangle: An Energy Soap Opera of Tragic Scope. Indeed, the action in Washington this past year has been very much like a soap opera: too many people have seemed to suffer from amnesia and bhndness to reality. Formation of a national energy policy has bounced the interests of consumers from the White House to Congress and back through the Department of Energy. Its a new version of the eternal triangle with everybody trying to win the love of the American energy user.
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Document ID: E3313ABE

Geotechnical Considerations For Evaluating Trench Excavation Influence On Existing Gas Mains
Author(s): Merle F. Nethero
Abstract/Introduction:
The immediate and long-term support of existing buried gas facilities can be detrimentally affected by trench excavations for construction of adjacent new services. This paper presents the geotechnical considerations for evaluating the Zone of Influence caused by trench excavations and ihe critical importance of the construction and backfill procedures.
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Document ID: BA5BEDCB

The Rebuilding Of An Aerial Lift And Body With Financial Considerations
Author(s): David B. Seymour
Abstract/Introduction:
The rising cost of new equipment has forced the user lo consider methods of maintaining an updated fleet. The rebuilding of existing aerial device equipment has been performed with great success at substantial savings. The purpose of this report is to outline the concept of rebuilding an aerial lift and body for a new full term of operation. There are certain questions concerning the design of the aerial lift which must be answered before entering into any rebuild program. It must be determined by the manufacturer of the specific piece of equipment being considered for rebuilding, through their engineering and experience, if the aerial lift can be rebuilt and given an extended life for a full term of operation. The manufacturers decision to rebuild can only be made after making a number of determinations, for example, a thorough review of the design and safety factors. Through the engineering staff and use of the design factors, the guideiines of rebuilding can be established. Certain components with lower safety factors or highly stressed items are automatically replaced as they may have reached their finite life and should not be used for an extended period of time.
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Document ID: 2229E16E

The Greatest Hazard
Author(s): John E. Lacey
Abstract/Introduction:
As operating supervisors and managers, who have to get things done through other people, Im sure you must have experienced those frustrating occasions when you are just unable to gel through to your people. Those painfully memorable occasions which proved (generally through some resulting foul up in your operation) that there is a vast difference between intent and result. How many times have you been amazed that the clear, concise and reasonable instructions you thought you had given were received as simply additional examples of the unreasonable, unclear and inept way you have of communicating. Frustrating, isnt it? We may draw some solace in knowing that the apparent inability to communicate properly is not a new problem. As a matter of fact, we can trace one such problem back to the days of Atilla the Hun when he was the scourge of the Eurasian continent, pillaging and ravaging city after city and terrorizing the entire population.
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Document ID: B5D13458

Compressor Station Optimization And Monitoring
Author(s): H. E. Strecker
Abstract/Introduction:
How efficiently are your compressor stations operating? If you know, you are fortunate. Many of us in the natural gas industry have no direct means available to determine if we four (4) pipelines individually on our main line system. These are operated independently at three (3) pressure levels with horsepKjwer dedicated to each line.
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Document ID: 3BE0A3D3

Metric Conversion In The Canadian & U.S. Gas Industries
Author(s): T. E. Geruszczak
Abstract/Introduction:
Dick Price of Southern California Gas Company contacted me last August regarding a speaker from one of the Canadian gas utilities to speak on Canadas metric conversion program and the status of planning for metric conversion by the Canadian Gas Industry, Dick had been referred to me by Jim Kemp of his Company. Kim and I are both members of the American Gas Association Metrication Task Committee (AGA MTC). I promised Dick I would find him a speaker, little realizing at the time that I would end up speaking before you on the topic. However, several candidates I had in mind, who, I felt would be more qualified to speak to you, were forced by circumstances beyond their control to decline my invitation and here 1 am fulfilling my commitment to Dick.
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Document ID: 33A03AEB

Energy Conservation Programs Residential - Commercial - Industrial
Author(s): Paul C. Herold
Abstract/Introduction:
With the advent of the energy crisis era, the gas utilities in this country had to modify the basic thrust of their business to not only market a useful product but to also encourage prudent, non-wasteful use of the countrys natural gas. Aided by consumer pressure due to rising fuel costs and governmental emphasis on conservation rather than improving conditions to generate new supplies, the gas companies have responded to encourage their customers to take steps to conserve natural gas.
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Document ID: ABDD407F

An Electronic Point Marking System
Author(s): Stephen G. Chandler
Abstract/Introduction:
An electronic marking system (EMS) can be used to simplify location of points of interest on a distribution system. The EMS consists of an electronic marker which must be buried over the facility of interest. At a later date, a locator is used to pinpoint the buried marker. The locator is a transceiver that sends out a signal and then listens for the reflection from the marker. Marker and locator must operate on the same frequency. Other buried utilities, AC power and nearby metallic objects will not interfere with the locating process.
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Document ID: 13A33DC7

Evaluation Of LNG Sampling-Measurement Systems For Custody Transfer
Author(s): W.R. Parrish, J. m. Arvidson, J.F. Labrechue
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the results of a systematic evaluation of equipment and procedures for sampling and determining composition of liquefied natural gas (LNG) from flowing streams. Laboratory and field test results show that the precision of the computed heating values of samples taken with the recommended sampling-measurement system could be within 0.30 percent of this, 0.06 percent is due to the random error in the composition analysis by gas chromatography. The accuracy of the composition measurement depends upon the accuracy of the gas analysis. The paper describes the recommended system and the proper operating conditions.
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Document ID: F297B7B8

The Gas T&D Distribution Group Productivity Control System At Public Service Electric & Gas Company
Author(s): Henry F. Henderson, Roberto Hill
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents the conceptual framework and implementation of a computer based, management oriented information system dealing with the incurrence and application of labor resources in the Distribution Group of the Gas Transmission and Distribution Department. The Distribution Group is functionally responsible for the construction, operation and maintenance of the gas transmission and distribution pipeline network, including district pressure regulation and service lines to customer facilities.
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Document ID: CE2B4CF6

The Value Of System Safety As A Design Criteria
Author(s): J.N. Oung
Abstract/Introduction:
The System Safety Society, an organization of professionals dedicated to safety of products and services, sponsors an International System Safety Conference periodically. The third such conference was held in Washington, D. C. in October of 1977. The National Transportation Safety Board coordinated one 3-hour session on System Safety as applied to Pipelines at this conference. The following paper was presented as part of the pipeline session and represents one utilitys view of System Safety within the gas distribution industry. A condensation of this paper was presented at the A.G.A. Operation Section Distribution Conference of 1978.
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Document ID: EEB514CE

A Utility Program For Derating Residential Furnaces
Author(s): David J. Whitlock
Abstract/Introduction:
A residential central space healing gas furnace retrofit procedure, which involves reducing thermal inpul rate, was tried in Rochester, New York on the homes of qualifying Rochester Gas and Electric Corporalion (RG&E) employees. After four months of winter and spring testing, the program was taken to the public on a limited basis via trained local heating contractors. Twentyseven local healing contractors have been trained and more than 100 homeowners in Rochester have paid an average of 142.00 u0 have their central space heating appliance derated to better match the actual heat loss of the house, resulting in average 15% less cubic feet of gas consumption per degree day day.
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Document ID: 4BC80433

Trouble Shooting Of Valve Failure
Author(s): Earl Mitchell
Abstract/Introduction:
The type of valve units are named after the nomenclature of the moving/sealing member of the complete valve. There are six (6) basic compressor valve types in use today which have withstood the exacting test of time in use. They are: a) Plate b) Ring c) Poppet d) Channel e) Feather and f) Reed. Each of these valve types have acceptable records of uses in our gas industry with only limited use of the Reed type. However, in all valve designs it is necessary to make compromises and it is in this area we must concentrate our powers of observations when we are determining reasons for valve failure.
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Document ID: 0F92C0B7

Telesat Communication Systems In The Arctic
Author(s): Allan R. Smalley
Abstract/Introduction:
The Canadian Domestic Satellite System has been providing television and telephone message distribution throughout Canada for over five years. The system comprises 3 inorbit satellites and about 100 earth stations of which all but 4 are unmanned. This paper is a review of the services currently available in the Arctic with particular emphasis on those using small fixed and transportable earth stations. The paper also describes a variety of new services of interest to resource industries operating in the Arctic. Applications include mining camps, exploration and survey camps, temporary drilling sites, pipeline communications, remote monitoring and data collection, offshore drilling operations and tanker communications. The paper provides general service descriptions leaving the technical detail to the literature.
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Document ID: DD2DB864

The Badak LNG Plant
Author(s): D. J. Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
The Badak LNG Plant is a major part of a project to provide Indonesian gas to Japan, and perhaps one day to the U.S.A. Badak was a joint project of PERTAMINA, the state oil and gas enterprise of the Republic of Indonesia and the Huffco Group, which consists of Roy M. Huffington, Incorporated, operator for the group, and Austral Petroleum Gas Corporation, Golden Eagle Indonesia Ltd., Union Texas Far Ea.st Corporation, Virginia International Company, and Universe Tankships, Inc. The other portion of this gas supply project is in the Arun Gas Field and LNG Plant in North Sumatra, a project of PERTAMINA and Mobil Oil Indonesia. This paper gives a general description and history of the Badak LNG Project, and will discuss the overall project schedule and the liquefaction plant startup.
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Document ID: 3CF36DE5

Simulation Of The Alden Gas Storage Reservoir
Author(s): Carlos m. Royo
Abstract/Introduction:
A two-dimensional single-phase gas model thai combines the reservoir model with the surface gathering system was used to, simulate the Alden Gas Storage Field. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the reservoir deliverability including the present pipeline capacity, to determine where the bottlenecks are located, and to investigate ways of increasing the Tield deliverability. A rehable representation of the reservoir behavior was obtained by using injection and production volumes to history-match the wellhead pressures of two observation wells. Although the rock and reservoir definition data were limited, the reservoir pore volume was known from the gas volume produced during original depletion of the reservoir. The best fit of the data was obtained when the permeability of the south half of the reservoir (where all of the active wells are located) was significantly higher than the north. In addition, the study showed that the reservoir boundaries indicated in the original net sand isopach required adjustments.
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Document ID: B22D0DBE

United States Codes And Regulations Affecting The Marine Aspects Of LNG Movement
Author(s): Lee R. Jamison
Abstract/Introduction:
The control and supervision of the interface between LNG ship and shore facilities hes with the U.S. Coast Guard. The Coast Guard was given statutory authority to regulate and control port safety initially under 50 U.S.C. 191, (the Magnuson Bill), and Executive Order 10173. These authorities were granted primarily to provide security to piers, docks, wharves and similar structures to which vessels could be moored and areas of land or land and water in the immediate vicinity, as well as buildings on any such structures. The Coast Guard responsibility to these authorities was primarily based upon a declaration of national emergency.
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Document ID: 243E1931

An Automated LNG Blending Facility
Author(s): Steve A. Martin
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the use of a microprocessor for flow calculation, BTU control, and telemetering of data. The design considers the injection of large volumes of gasified LNG into several pipelines while controlling the BTU level of the mixed gas. New sources of natural gas such as LNG and SNG have brought about design problems not previously encountered in the pipeline transmission industry. One major problem being, gasified LNG quite often has a much higher BTU value than that of ordinary natural gas. While mainline transmission gas normally contains slightly more than 1000 BTUs per standard cubic foot, vaporized LNG may contain better than 1100 BTUs per standard cubic foot.
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Document ID: 263886A7

Work Force Planning
Author(s): Lazelle Speegle
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the importance, benefits and mechanics of a work force planning program, and displays forms and reports supporting the work force planning process. In 1974, Southern Cahfornia Gas Company developed and established a work force planning program related to work load forecasts. The purpose of the program is to provide the capability for each of the 13 divisions to staff its field organization with a properly sized Company work force. It further provides the capability to properly balance the work load between Company and contractor crews. The balance is based on the type and volume of work planned, economics, and work load continuity.
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Document ID: 0E9B8806

Management Audits Of Customer Service Operations
Author(s): Arthur G. Yaeger, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The object of this paper, with special emphasis on customer service operations, is to provide a look at management audits of utilities, how to prepare for such audits, and what the audits will examine. It will differentiate between mandated and voluntary audits the reporting mechanisms utilized and the need for effective work force management. It will also point out the necessity for effective communications and a congenial atmosphere, both of which are conducive to a good audit.
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Document ID: 1B20E79A

On-Line Control Of Customer Service Orders
Author(s): Frank J. Dawson
Abstract/Introduction:
The Peoples Gas Light and Coke Company is a natural gas distribution company serving approximately 905,000 customers within the city limits of Chicago. In addition, we have an affiliate. North Shore Gas Company which supplies gas to approximately 93,000 customers, located in the suburban area north of Chicago.
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Document ID: 4001719D

Sulphate Reducing Bacteria Corrosion Control
Author(s): Michael D. Orton
Abstract/Introduction:
Pacific Gas and Electric Company distributes gas produced in Canada, Texas and Northern California, In the PG and E operating area there are over 70 producing fields with approximately 1,200 gas wells. In addition, the Company has three underground gas storage fields with close to an additional 100 gas wells. With the exception of the gas storage field wells, PG and E does not own or operate any producing gas wells.
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Document ID: 99CA37DE

The Triangle: Canada - United States - Natural Gas
Author(s): Jaques Farmer
Abstract/Introduction:
I want to express my appreciation to the organizers of this Conference for their invitation to be with you this morning, i was pleased to accept for more than one reason: first I became interested instantly in the general theme Governmental Control of Gas Flow - The Other Dispatcher, Then there is the pleasure of addressing the American Gas Association and as a Canadian and a Member of our National Energy Board to talk about the other Dispatcher. To cap all this, as a former Montrealer, I always welcome the opportunity to be back in my home town and, as one of those lifetime natural gas addicts, to communicate with fellow gas addicts.
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Document ID: EB72CD3B

Three Phase Inhibition - A New Means Of Controlling Internal Corrosion In Gas Handling Systems
Author(s): J.R. Stanford, G.C. Chapell, A. Robertson, J.D. Hawsey
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas shortages, inflated pipeline replacement costs, and gas losses caused by interna! corrosion have caused gas gathering and storage companies to become very concerned about iniernat corrosion in gas handling systems. Gathering systems take gas of lower quality now more than ever before. Storage systems are pulled harder and longer, thus, more corrosive liquids are produced on withdrawal. The need exists for a specialized internal corrosion control program for gas handling systems, A program has been developed that includes detection of internal corrosion, treatment, and monitoring of treatment results.
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Document ID: 7421DB25

A Self Powered Pneumatic And Battery-Operated Counter-Printer
Author(s): Ivan H. Gulick, P.E.
Abstract/Introduction:
The Daily Demand Counter-Printer is a combination pneumatic and battery powered counter-printer mechanism for use with a meter mounted index or volume correcting instrument. It is designed to indicate on a mechanical counter-printer mechanism a volume pulse from an electrical switch closure and to print out at specific demand intervals on a paper tape the totalized number of pulses indicated on the counter. The counter is then reset to zero for the beginning of the next time demand interval.
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Document ID: E0F9CD61

A New Method For Determining Flow Characteristics Of Fractured Wells - Application To Gas Wells In Tight Formations
Author(s): J.O. Scott
Abstract/Introduction:
An analytical method is developed which describes transient flow and pressure buildup behavior of fractured wells by means of a time power function. The method is shown to fit type curves derived for limited flowcapacity fractures. Equations developed allow superposition of production and buildup transients using the time power function in a manner similar to a Horner buildup analysis. The pre-radial transient behavior is linearized by the method. A correlation is made with the determined power of time and a dimensionless fracture fiow capacity function which allows determination of fracture flow capacity and fracture length when formation permeability and effective well radius is known. An example is shown of applying the method to a fractured gas well in a tight formation, A summary of a large number of analyses of other gas wells in tight formations is also presented which indicate a range of fracture flow capacities and fracture lengths much lower than expected from fracture treatment designs.
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Document ID: 601F68D6

Open Hole Gravel Pack Of A Gas Storage Well
Author(s): George E. Blake
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose for gravel pack completing of Transcos H. E. Disc. D-2 RA GSA Hester Gas Storage Well #6, Hester Field, St. James Parish, Louisiana was to increase ihe deliverability of gas and prevent the migration of formation sand into the bore hole during the high rates required during the withdrawal cycle. The prognosis called for bottoming out the well 650 from the surface location, entering the sand section vertically, and open hole gravel pack below 7 5/8 casing.
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Document ID: 71E26476

The Cutler-Hammer Calorimeter Principles And Operations
Author(s): A.F. Kersey
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents a brief history of Cutler- Hammer in the gas industry including the invention of the Calorimeter, and a historical review of Cutler-Hammer experience with the Calorimeter with the many gases it has been used with. Also this paper outlines specific installation and maintenance requirements to achieve attainable accuracy. A brief description of operation and fundamental accuracy tests is also included.
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Document ID: 225552BF

Evaluating The Total Cost Of In-House And Commercial Vehicle Maintenance With Considerations For Adjusting In-House Capabilities
Author(s): E.L. Anderson, E.W. Koeber
Abstract/Introduction:
Fleet maintenance is generally performed by commercial repair facilities, by in-house repair shops with company personnel, or by some combination of these two. The natural question that arises is whether commercial or in-house maintenance is more economical. The first portion of this paper attempts to determine the total cost of any single repair and includes frequently overlooked factors such as down-time, pickup and delivery costs, and local taxes. These costs are incorporated in a general equation that allows computation of the comparative costs of any single repair.
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Document ID: F4E6F3C4

Deterioration Of Fiberglass Booms Causes And Effects
Author(s): John G. Keck
Abstract/Introduction:
The title of this presentation is Deterioration of Fiberglass Booms - Causes and Effects. This subject has generated growing interest and concern since the introduction of the first fiberglass boom on an aerial device in 1958. It is the intent of this paper to objectively review some of the more important facts about fiberglass deterioration over a 20 year period. The information contained in this paper primarily applies to filament wound fiberglass booms and is not intended to pertain to booms made by other methods such as extrusion, pulltrusion or hand lay-up.
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Document ID: 48DCCA2F

Metrication Training Aids And Guidelines For Use By Metric Coordinators
Author(s): Costas Continos
Abstract/Introduction:
Metrication is coming to America . . . it is a fact of life and we may as well accept it! It is no longer a question whether our country will go metric, but rather when, and we in the gas industry may have very little choice about the timing! Conversion to the metric system will not be easy. When total conversion has been achieved every phase of our modern society will have been affected.
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Document ID: 8B729135

Economics Of Programmed Iviaintenance For Diesel And Gasoline Engines
Author(s): Ian m. Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
Those of us involved in the field of vehicles and equipment maintenance, are responsible for ensuring that our fieets perform their function in the most reliable and economical way possible. Every power unit, whether gasoline or diesel, whether in an automobile, a truck or a piece of equipment, requires periodic maintenance to assure its continuing efficient operation. 1 would like to review the various systems, whether gasoline or diesel which require some form of inspection or service in order to continue to perform effectively. Because of regional differences in the costs of fuel, parts, labour and capital investment, 1 dont propose to make cost comparisons. Those comparisons will have to be made by you - the user. Before we do that however, there are several factors we should be aware of, which affect the operation of our vehicles, so thai a program designed for one unii may not be suitable for another.
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Document ID: 6901B9A4

Compressibility Factors For Gas Measurement In Europe
Author(s): Joseph A. Bonner, R. Snijder
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents a summary of the methods of calculating compressibility factors for gas metering utilized by a number of European Gas Companies. The use of compressibility factors applies to all types of gas measurement when the pressure is above the typical low pressure distribution measiuement. Compressibility factors are used more frequently than supercompressibility factors or supercompressibility ratio factors since compressibility at base or normal conditions is applied in the calculation of base or normal volumes.
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Document ID: BB962B38

The Evolution Of Fair Employment Practices And Affirmative Action
Author(s): John C. Tucker
Abstract/Introduction:
The planning, acquisition, administration, and utilization of human resources are among the most troublesome concerns facing your organizations and the natural gas industry today. Recruiting, hiring and supervising employees is second in importance only to gas supply and pricing. This is because there is presently and has been for the last 15 years an evolution of fair employment practices, socio-economic regulations. Executive Orders, and legislation that continuously affects human resource planning and utilization in organizations such as yours. This total movement, including but not limited to equal employment opportunity and affirmative action programs, was activated in recent history during the early 1940s - the World War II period. Fair employment practices legislation and regulations were first directed at those organizations whose activities supported and profited by the war efforts. This legislation encouraged these organizations to utilize all available labor resources including women and minority group persons. It was not difficult to attain some degree of success during that period because a majority of able-bodied men was involved in the military effort. These circumstances forced companies to rely heavily on the utilization of women and of minorities not previously included in the work force of many organizations. However, nothing of earthshaking proportion happened from about the end of World War II until the early 1960s when we started to receive a rash of Executive Orders and legislation relating to social change.
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Document ID: C6630089

Centralized Maintenance Of Field Compressors
Author(s): Charles B. Amick
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1973 Panhandle Eastern Pipe Line Company realized a need for a centrally located maintenance shop to overhaul well pumping units and some portable booster engines. Early in 1974 a part of the pipeline facilities in Liberal, Kansas was converted to a maintenance shop and then on March 4, 1974 they started overhauling. It was apparent from the start that this facility was too small and inadequately equipped to meet the demand of scheduled overhauls and emergency engine outages so plans were started for a large overhaul shop. Construction began in May, 1975 and ihey moved into the new facility in March 1976.
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Document ID: C7825769

Thermal Performance Of A Fire Resistant Coating Applied To Prestressed Concrete
Author(s): Harold R. Wesson, Jerry L. Lott, Rubin Feldman, Jack L. Closner
Abstract/Introduction:
Prestressed concrete has been used in the construction of hydrocarbon and LNG storage tanks for a number of years. The prestressed tanks are wrapped with a wire which is stressed to about 150,000 psi to achieve a prestressed tank design with the desired structural properties. However, in the wire temperature range of 500 to 600 F, the prestressing wire begins to relax. As the temperature of the prestressing steel wire continues to increase, its relaxation continues until the structural integrity of the concrete storage tank is jeopardized. If such prestressed storage tanks could be exposed to the heating effects from a fire in the tank environs for a sufficiently long exposure period, it would be necessary to provide some measure of exposure control for the tank structure.
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Document ID: FAB8906C

Material Requirements Planning In The Utility Environment
Author(s): Terence L. Young
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation is intended to cover the scope of materials management as it is now being practiced in several large and mediumsized utilities. The reasons for and objectives of sophisticated approach to materials management will be covered briefly, along with economic considerations. The basic management and policy questions to be considered will then be presented, followed by a detailed discussion of the functions and features to be found in the more advanced approaches to computer-based materials management. Special emphasis will be given to the planning requirements for effective materials management.
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Document ID: 5C8753FD

Metrication-Its Here
Author(s): Louis F. Sokol
Abstract/Introduction:
The United States is the last major nation to undertake metrication. A background and rationale for metrication is presented with examples of changes already taking place in the U.S. economy. Also discussed are metric changes which will impact on the gas industry. The need for sound planning is emphasized as is the need to use metric units correctly.
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Document ID: 831E8212

Hydraulic Tools For Gas System Construction And Maintenance
Author(s): Paul V. Archer
Abstract/Introduction:
The Cincinnati Gas & Electric Company, after more than two years of study and testing, has committed to replace existing pneumatic construction tools with hydraulic powered tools. This decision was made on the basis of anticipated reductions in downtime and maintenance costs as well as greatly improved performance. Other considerations were the ability of the hydraulic system to meet noise limitations specified by the Environmental Protection Agency, less truck space requirements, lighter weight and reduced input power requirements of the hydraulic system.
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Document ID: 90C17F4C

Magnuson-Moss Warranty - Federal Trade Commission Improvement Act - An Overview And Recent Developments
Author(s): John m. Geaghan
Abstract/Introduction:
Suppliers of consumer products and others who give or offer to give written warranties on such products. Each is a warrantor. Suppliers are any persons engaged in the business of making a consumer product directly or indirectly available to consumers. A consumer is defined as a buyer of any consumer product but not a purchaser for resale) or any person receiving such a product during the duration of the warranty or service contract. The consumer obtains clear, simple, and accurate information to assist in understanding the terms and conditions of the written warranty, thereby enabling the consumer to: a. Comparison shop and intelligently buy and b. Obtain warranty performance.
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Document ID: E50F2557

The Road To LNG Importation
Author(s): Peter A. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
It is a pleasure to be able lo present my views to you on the subject - The Road to LNG Importation. You all have a good appreciation of the technical and financial difficulties along that road. The view 1 have lo offer is that of an advisor to congressional policy-makers. Policy is a very elusive thing. In a way, policy is like natural gas - you cant see it or taste it or smell it - but its a good idea to keep track of it because - if it gets out of hand, it can cause a lot of trouble. The U.S. Congress, which represents a variety of segments of public interest, also has a variety of interests in LNG. That interest may be very broad - and often includes the consideration of new national policy the development of legislation to regulate or control aspects which effect the general public reviewing the activities and accomplishments of various Federal agencies and funding Federal programs. There is increasing public interest in LNG importation as Im sure youre aware of.
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Document ID: 2961A2ED

Protecting The Gas System In A Metropolitan Area
Author(s): Bernard F. Rogan
Abstract/Introduction:
Every year many of our gas lines are needlessly daged by contractors in the performance of excavation type operations. Obviously, a great deal of time and money is lost. More importantly, it constitutes a direct threat to properly damage and loss of life. Governmental interest, at all levels, has increased to the point where various laws are being legislated in an effort to minimize the damage caused by third party excavators. However, laws alone will not stop damage. A constant line of communication must be kept open between the underground facilities operator and the excavator in an effort to prevent such damage. At Brooklyn Union, damage prevention is a cooperative effort.
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Document ID: 2A4BCF49

Regulatory Restraints On Gas Dispatching And 1976-77 Winter Versus 1977-78 Winter
Author(s): Robert W. Withers
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation is divided into two parts because, although they are related, the topics are really independent, First are general comments pertaining to Regulatory Restraints on Gas Dispatching which follow our dispatching program theme for this year of The Other Dispatcher. Whether some people realize it or not, there are many outside sources which at times preclude the dispatcher from making, the decision which he would prefer to make, on a day to day basis. Second is a comparison of the 1976-77 winter and the 1977-78 winter. This comparison became of interest when preparation for this presentation began several weeks ago. The 1976-77 winter has gone down in history as one of the coldest in over one hundred (100) years.
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Document ID: 9B95B772


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