Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (1978)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Water Vapor And Its Effect On Gas Volume Determination
Author(s): W. F. Barker
Abstract/Introduction:
Water in a vapor state is a gas and all natural gas contains water in one form or another. Ideally natural gas is comprised only of combustible components and exists as a family of hydrocarbons, each of which consists of matter containing so many parts of carbon and so many parts of hydrogen, thus the designation hydrocarbon. However, natural gas contains, in addition to combustible, two other types of matter: diluents and contaminants. Diluents dre exactly as the name implies. A diluent is a non-combustible gas and because it is not combustible it dilutes the total mixture, or reduces its strength per unit volume, like adding water to bourbon. The most prevalent diluents in natural gas are carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water vapor. These components are mass, do occupy space, and are normally part of the hydrocarbon environment, but contain no BTU value. Diluents will reduce the energy in a cubic foot of natural gas while the volume remains constant and this affects the gas much like cereal or filler does to hamburger meat. The undesirability of having diluents and contaminants in a natural gas stream are many and are associated with horsepower, pipeline capacity, freezing, internal corrosion, volume regulation,etc., causing flow disruptions, erroneous measurement and overall inefficient gas transmission operations.
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Document ID: 4A14BCB2

Basic Gas Contracts
Author(s): J. H. Bradshaw
Abstract/Introduction:
Our industry has evolved, as have others, based on mans ability to find new ways of utilizing those natural resources available on this, our planet, Earth. We live in a world today which has developed the technology that has enabled man to walk on the Moon, medical science to replace parts of our body with synthetic materials and provided us with a standard of living unknown to mankind previously. The natural gas industry has made possible much of what humanity enjoys as a better way of life today and will continue to be a major influence for the future.
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Document ID: 4C7A11CF

Fundamental Gas Laws And Their Application
Author(s): m. J. Sergesketter
Abstract/Introduction:
Fundamental Gas Laws to be covered in this text fall into two categories: equations of state and flow equations. Since gasses are compres sible, it is impossible to define a volume of gas without specifying the pressure and temperature conditions of the gas, the equations of state. For the same reason, equations of state must be combined with velocity equations to obtain flow volumes.
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Document ID: 3F7EAE43

What The Office Group Expects From The Field Croup
Author(s): Kathleen Moreland
Abstract/Introduction:
With the shortage of gas in the industry, accurate measurement is essential. To maintain accurate measurement, the field and office groups must work together. The field group, through their maintenance of meters, charts and accurate records, can keep the office so informed as to allow them to calculate the Information on the charts into the correct volumes. Any Information the office can gather could be beneficial even if it is of questionable importance to the person performing the work in the field. In this paper, ideas will be discussed that will show the importance of the fields input to the office.
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Document ID: 5498A1ED

Fundamentals Of Turbine Meters
Author(s): George S. Cassimus
Abstract/Introduction:
Rockwell introduced the gas turbine meter to the U.S. market in 1963. The original units were 6 flanged meters with a capacity of 30,000 CFH at 4 ounces inlet pressure and 125# working pressure cast aluminum bodies. Due to the rapid acceptance of this relatively new gas metering concept by all phases of the gas industry, development of additional sizes and working pressures of gas turbine meters has been fairly rapid. Today, Rockwell Turbo-Meters are available in the following sizes and working pressures:
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Document ID: CD4E2636

AGA Report Hi On Turbine Meters
Author(s): W. G. Birkhead
Abstract/Introduction:
Although the turbine meter principle is quite old, the axial flow turbine meter, as we know it today and which is presently employed for liquid measurement, is quite new. The modern gas turbine meter dates from about 1950. The turbine meter principle was used for gas measurement in a very crude form in Great Britain in the early 1900s. These early meters were used mainly for manufactured fuel gas. This gas was relatively dirty, causing serious difficulties with rotor bearings. The meter design was usually of the anemometer type similar to instruments employed in adjusting ventilating equipment today. They were usually constructed with a vertical turbine shaft in the meter for use in a horizontal plane, with flow in an upward direction to minimize the effect ou dirt, They were calibrated by adjusting openings in upstream flow passages and by deforming the blade angles. Measurement was generally at very low pressures and accuracy was very questionable.
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Document ID: 8B71ABA2

Specific Gravity: What Is Specific Gravity, How Is It Used, And Methods Of Determination
Author(s): Joseph W. Ryan
Abstract/Introduction:
Specific Gravity, with reference to a gas, is the ratio of gas density to that of dry air under the same conditions of pressure and temperature, and it is also frequently defined as the ratio of molecular weights, as in the instance of gas analysis. The specific gravity of a gas must be known in order to calculate a factor, F-, to apply in cases of gas flow measurement by orifice meter, Venturi, bell-mouthed orifice, choke nipple, critical flow prover, orifice well tester, and other measurement devices included in the general category referred to as Inferential metering systems.
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Document ID: 5842020D

Problems In Two-Phase Pipeline Operations
Author(s): Robert J. Rau
Abstract/Introduction:
Two-phase pipelines are becoming a common means of transportation of oil and gas from offshore both in the Continental Shelf of the United States and the North Sea, and other places all over the world. As we all know, offshore gas pipeline systems are a necessity to acitively meet the energy necessitites of our Nation and the energy crisis facing us today. Today, I wish to discuss with you some of the problems encountered in offshore two-phase pipeline operations.
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Document ID: 2470151E

Natural Gas Processing Plant Operations And Measurement Of Gas And Liquid Streams
Author(s): F. J. Bingham
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject of Natural Gas Processing and Liquid Measurement is one of great importance today in the Natural Gas Industry. Liquid product extracted from Natural Gas has become very valuable, especially since the energy shortage. It is interesting to note that at one time in the history of Natural Gas these same liquids were just a nuisance to those trying to transport Natural Gas through pipelines. The liquids referred to are generally propanes, butanes, and natural gasoline. Because of their own individual characteristic, some of these gases would condense under certain pressures and temperatures forming liquids in the pipelines. The liquids collected in low places forming excessive pressure drops in the pipeline flow. As the liquids built up and the rate of gas flow increased, the liquids moved to critical spots effecting measurement, regulators, etc.
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Document ID: E6BE019F

Odorization
Author(s): J. Ronald Pope
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas, as it is obtained from gas wells, is both odorless and colorless. It is composed , primarily of methane, but it also contains small amounts of ethane, propane, and other heavier hydrocarbons. AI though these heavier hydrocarbons have a faint sweetish smell, natural gas as a whole has no odor due to its large content of methane, which is odorless. The process of adding an odor, or odorant, to natural gas was begun in the early 1900s and was done for purely economic reasons, as it made it eas ier to locate gas leaks for repai r. Now, federal and state regulations require that an odor be added to natural gas so that it is readily detectable by someone with a normal sense of smell.
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Document ID: 86C3CD74

Water Vapor Determination
Author(s): William R. Barnes
Abstract/Introduction:
Im sure most of you know more about these units than Ill ever know however, I would like to present this paper with an open discussion of some of the symptoms and various checks of the unit. Also, I would like to discuss a sample system which has proven to prolong cell life in most cases, One gallon of water weighs approximately seven pounds. Try and disperse this in a room 100 ft. high, 100 ft. long and 100 ft. wide. This is a million cubic feet. This is very dry as compared with the surrounding atmosphere, usually 100% humidity. The most this analyzer will read is 1/10 of 1%.
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Document ID: F43006D1

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Len L. Menefee
Abstract/Introduction:
We are all keenly aware of the ever increasing price of the products which we are called upon to measure. As prices of products have increased, Management has called for reevaluation and assessment of product distribution. Any discussion on measurement must start with the primary element. The primary element being the device that initiates the signal that is later developed into measurement. The heart of the primary element is the orifice plate. Its maintenance is essential in obtaining accurate measurement. To elaborate, we will discuss in detail the Integral parts that comprise the primary element. We will start our discussion with the orifice holding device.
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Document ID: 15498DEA

Odorization Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Ik Texas
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1937, in New London, natural gas being served to the school contained:no odor, A leak occurred in the piping and gas migrated into and filled the building. An explosion occurred and hundreds were killed. The Railroad Commission promulgated rules requiring the odorization of gas and testing to verify that it was accomplished. That was Gas Utilities Docket 122. Twenty years passed and odorization of gas seemed to prove itself. In 1958, further odorization rules were passed updating the old rules, omitting some and adding new requirements. This was Gas Utilities Docket 183, which has been the guide or years and everyone is familiar with it.
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Document ID: 1FB73384

Fundamentals Of Bellows-Type Orifice Meters
Author(s): Wallace T. Peckham
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to control and direct the flow of water was recognized at the very early stage in the development of civilization. In Europe and Asia can be seen the relics of hydraulic works, some of great antiquity, which display a high degree of engineering accomplishment, the best known of which are the aqueducts, which the Romans built to bring water to their cities. In the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum can be still seen lead piping, which conveyed water to houses and gardens, and, which included orifice plates to act as flow limiting devices, providing a basis on which the service was charged to the consumer. These were installed almost 2,000 years ago. Some of these techniques were introduced to North America by engineers, who accompanied the Spanish missionaries, and whose work can still be seen at some of the missions in California.
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Document ID: 62055D58

Automated Measurement On Loading Racks
Author(s): Donald m. Campbell
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays business climate more and more petroleum product marketers are turning to computer based automation systems to control and monitor their truck loading terminals. The reasons for this fall into three major categories.
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Document ID: 91D5569C

Fundamentals Of Gas Pressure Regulation
Author(s): Paul R. Adams
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside, and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a tendency to take them for granted. Even the gas man who handles regulators every day as part of his job frequently tends to view the regulator simply as a piece of hardware which fits in the line and regulates pressure. The fact that it will do precisely that, for months on end without human intervention, makes it easy to maintain such a view. Its only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application, that we need to look more deeply into the fundamentals of the regulators operation.
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Document ID: 9B4642FF

Accounting For Unaccounted-For Gas
Author(s): W. B. Richardson, III
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is scarce, the cost is high and Is getting hlghe:r. Gas that is purchased but not sold is a money loss to a gas company. More than ever it Is necessary to keep records of unaccounted- for gas, to determine where and why it occurs, and to correct as much ofthe problem as is practical. Unaccounted-for gas is the difference between gas taken into a piping system and the known quantities of gas taken out of the system. Gas purchased, taken on exchange, or other such transaction constitute the total gas into the system. Gas out of the system consists of sales exchanges passed through company used gas for fuel, instrumentation, construction stripping plant shrinkage known losses such as blowdowns and line breaks line pack variations and any other known uses losses of gas that are specifically defined. This difference in the gas in/gas out volumes is not accounted for and it represents money spent for gas that was not sold or utilized for some necessary purpose. These losses g.re from leakage, incorrect measurement, improper record keeping, stolen gas, and other causes. This discussion will be concerned with the bookkeeping aspects of accounting for unaccounted-for gas.
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Document ID: 73F478EB

Process Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Henry A. Hubbard
Abstract/Introduction:
According to our infonoation, the use of the orifice meter for the measurement of natural gas followed the Pitot tube type of measurement which was used by Mr. B. C. Oliphant of the Iroquois Natural Gas Company at Buffalo from 1910 to 1914. This type of apparatus does not furnish a record. The invention of the recording differential gauge was also the direct result of the objectionable high upkeep of the old Pitot tube, and lack of ability to easily transport the large and cumbersome instrument from one place to another. The Recording differential gauge now does the duty formerly done by the employees working double shift, who read the water gauge every fifteen minutes throughout the twenty-four hours and nailed their hand-written reports into the head office daily.
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Document ID: 59134DAD

Process Gas Chromatography
Author(s): P. D. Martin
Abstract/Introduction:
Many outstanding developments have been made to improve the flexibility, maintainability and data handling ability of process gas chromatographs (GCs). The most recent development, an enhancement of the solid-state programmer, employs the microprocessor to control various operations and to handle the resultant data. The microprocessor improves reliability, adds flexibility to programming and simplifies peak calibration. Other chromatographic components such as sample valves, detectors, columns, and readouts have also been improved. The manufacturers covered are listed in Table I. Figure I shows the basic parts of a process gas chromatograph (GC). The sample valve, a critical process GC component, is the interface between the sample system and the analyzer. A gas sample valve transfers a measured volume of a sample in gaseous form into carrier gas which flows through the GC. The number of molecules transferred, or injected, must be reproducible. This operation must be repeated many times a day, seven days a week. A liquid saimple valve delivers a metered volume of a sample in liquid form to a vaporizer.
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Document ID: B9FFE406

From Mcf To Mmbtu
Author(s): Nancy Tyler
Abstract/Introduction:
There is no need to emphasize the expense involved when dealing with natural gas the increasing cost is common knowledge. As a result of the value being placed on this commodity, the gas industry has become interested not only in quantity, but also in quality. Increasing importance is being placed upon the ability of a gas to act as a fuel rather than the amount of space occupied. A certain property of gas determines whether one will need a given volume of gas as opposed to a smaller volume of a higher quality gas to accomplish the same task. This property is the heating value of a gas and the heating value is represented by the MMBTU. Translated, MMBTU signifies a million BTU. Therefore, one must first examine a single BTU and its origin before dealing with a million of them.
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Document ID: CEE1A741

Effects On Entrained Liquid On Orifice Measurement
Author(s): C. V. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
In the measurement of natural gas in field operations using the conventional orifice meter, all of the factors used in the calculation of flow are based on the assumption that the gas is dry. This condition is rarely the case in field measurements. The A.G.A. Coromittee Report No, 3, (l), does not give any information or data regarding the effect water and/or distillate may have upon gas measiirement by the orifice meter. It was in this area of gas measurement that graduate-engineering students at Texas A&I University, Kingsville, Texas have conducted research operation in the laboratory and in the field.
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Document ID: 4FD2DFBA

Calorimeter Installation And Testing Obtaining( Maximum Accuracy From The Recording Calorimeter)
Author(s): A. F. Kersey
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will not go into the details of the operation of the recording Calorimeter (Fig- 1) as is common on most discussions of this instrument. Instead this will deal with the use of the Calorimeter for greater accuracy. It is therefore assumed that who ever hears this discussion will have some basic understanding of the instruments operation.
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Document ID: 64AA64BF

Electronic Integrator Series 2000K With Microprocessor
Author(s): E. S. Messer
Abstract/Introduction:
The Series 2000K Electronic Integrator with the 8085 microprocessor and five EPOM in the electronic network makes possible a revolutionary type of gas chart integrator that offers unlimited variations of operation that are compatible with chart calculation requirements. Two instruments are combined in one the gas chart integrator for calculating a chart value depending on static and differential pressures and a circular chart averager for obtaining an average of one or two Independent recordings on a chart of any range or diameter. The digital values are obtained not only more rapidly and more accurately, but with an Interface, these digital values can be stored, transmitted directly to a computer for eventual calculation of gas volumes.
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Document ID: 95CCC615

Instrument Calibration Using The Pneumatic Deadweight Tester
Author(s): H. E. Blackman
Abstract/Introduction:
Today we are going to discuss instrument calibration using the AMETEK Pneumatic Deadweight Tester as our primary source. Accurate low pressure instrument calibration has long been a difficult problem for technicians. This Instrument has provided the technician with the equipment needed to remove many of his age old problems, such as thermal, surface tension, absorbed gas, etc.
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Document ID: 5C47EEAA

Control Of Distribution Pressure And Load
Author(s): Dan L. Lindsey
Abstract/Introduction:
Changing gas loads have always been a problem to pressure control personnel in the gas distribution business. The most dramatic load changes occur in the winter time when temperatures sometimes change as much as 50 degrees in a matter of a few hours, which can have a pronounced effect on the demand for natural gas. All gas men are familiar with this axiom - when demand increases, the upstream pressure has to be increased to compensate and vice versa. In a very large and diverse distribution system with 50-100 controlled stations it can be quite a problem to make all the necessary pressure changes in a timely and efficient manner. We, at Entex, have developed a Mini-Computer control system to alleviate the above problem as well as many others we encounter in providing gas service to our customers in Houston.
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Document ID: 495A6CDD

Inverted Orifice Meters
Author(s): C. E. Crawford
Abstract/Introduction:
With the concurrent increased value of natural gas and operations cost, the importance of better and more efficient measurement practices has become stringently pronounced. The use of the reverse scale orifice meter accommodates solution for achievement of rigorous standards.
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Document ID: 41C36CD7

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Robert H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
For several years gas men have been giving more thought to aerodynamic turbulence within their pipeline systems and, in particular, the turbulence that is a result of pressure regulation. Considering the noise from a measurement or regulating station, it is generally conceded that measurement facilities alone will rarely be a major source of noise, since we can design the pipe to give a desired and normally tranquil velocity. On the other hand, we must expect that in a regulator station control of the gas velocity is possible cnly up to the inlet side of an active regulator. At the point of regulation within the regulator body, the velocity of the gas may be expected to increase greatly, perhaps up to sonic velocity. Now the question becomes, What is the best way to handle gas when it is traveling at high velocities?
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Document ID: E003795D

Kinetic Type Indicating And Recording Instruments For Detebhining Specific Gravity
Author(s): H. E. Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
This class offers a comprehensive presentation of the kinetic type gas gravltometer. Including: Simple explanation of operating principle Equipment set-up and operation in field Trouble-shooting, repair and adjustment The kinetic type gas gravitometer Is manufactured as a portable Indicating type Instrument Illustrated in Figure 1 and as a stationary recording type 1nstrunent illustrated in Figure 2. The basic operating mechanism Is Identical for both types, but the case, pnotlve power and linkage are modified to adapt them to either portable use or pennanent mounting.
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Document ID: 60DC278F

Reexamination Of Orifice Meter Coefficient And Installation Requirements
Author(s): E. L. Upp
Abstract/Introduction:
A preliminary study of various tests on orifice meters on the effects of inlet eonflguration, of the types described in AGA Report #3, indicates that there is more variation in coefficient value with some of these than is generally assumed. The API results are not completed, but there is an indication that more work needs to be done before there is any knowledge of what would be better to change to in terms of installation, if a change is needed. The results state, however, that the upcoming coefficient rechecks sponsored by AGA and API must have a single definitive upstream configuration or the results may be affected by a particular piping configuration sufficient to be of concern in the work.
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Document ID: C84782DA

Fundamental Principles Of Positive Displacement Meters
Author(s): O. B. Spitler
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1792 the process of manufacturing gas from coal was introduced in England. It was normal that the first gas meters were developed in England after the founding of the first gas company in London in 1808. In 1817 the first gas corapany was chartered in the city of Baltimore and gas was introduced commercially to the United States. In those so called good ole days, meters were unknown and gas was sold more or less on an hourly basis by contract. Gas company in spectors would tour the city at night and rap on the walk or curbs outside of the homes to indicate to gas light customers that their contract time had expired and the lights were to be extinguished. If the customer ignored the warning the inspector would turn the service off.
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Document ID: 175C8470

Problems Encountered By A Small Distributing Company
Author(s): Kenneth Lott
Abstract/Introduction:
Small distribution companies have essentially the same problem as large distributors in the safe delivery of natural gas to their customers. One of the principal differences in operation is in the organizational setup of the company. The large distributor is organized by function management, supply, construction, auditing, measurement, distribution and recordkeeping. These departments are further broken down Into subgroups. At times, the small system operator fills all of these positions and thus has an overview of the system that is denied the employees of a large system that, for an example, works in measurement, or as a serviceman.
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Document ID: 7A982789

Methods Of Obtaining Gas Samples
Author(s): Harold Meschke
Abstract/Introduction:
Not too many years ago, when fuel gas cost was only several cents per thousand cubic feet, methods of measurement and sampling did not warrent the same attention that they do today. With the price of gas passing the two dollar plus mark and the push on to conserve energy, most companies are finding it necessary to update measurement and sampling techniques if they wish to remain in todays competitive market.
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Document ID: 47C7A240

Plan For Transition To Metric
Author(s): W. J. Mcguire
Abstract/Introduction:
Transition of the United States to the metric system (SI) has been and will continue to be an evolutionary process and will occur at variable speeds in different sectors of the economy. In industries, such as the automotive, off-the-road equipment, data processing, and pharmaceutical, to name a few, transition is well under way and should be completed by 1982. Studies by these industries and the individual companies involved have shown that SI will furnish more efficient operations, simplified designs, and reduced inventories all of which will lead to cost reductions. The bulk of the industry making up the balance of the sectors of the economy which includes the petroleum and natural gas industries has not been able to define any economic benefits that would encourage an early transition to the metric system. This does not mean that petroleum and natural gas industries have assumed a totally passive attitude toward conversion. The petroleum industry operates internationally and will be faced with an ever Increasing impact in foreign operations as the rest of the world begins to use metric units. This along with an expected impact from regulatory agencies invoking metric requirements and suppliers introducing metric designed equipment precludes passivity by the industry.
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Document ID: 1943A939

Design Of Distribution Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Jack P. Ashley
Abstract/Introduction:
The price of gas has soared in recent years due to the steady decline of natural gas reserves in the United States and the cost of foreign imports linked with heavier customer demands. Many problems, including economical and political, plus inflationary costs of exploration and drilling have resulted in shortages and thus increased prices. Because of the increased value of gas, it is imperative that accurate measurement be obtained. Consequently, the proper design of measurement facilities is of the utmost importance. A properly designed station must meet all safety standards as well as serve the customer accurately. It should also have a low operating maintenance and installation cost. This paper will discuss the basic steps necessary and things to consider for proper meter and regulator station design.
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Document ID: 95858B8E

Field Testing Dispucement Meters
Author(s): Henry A. Hubbard
Abstract/Introduction:
For years the accuracy of gas meter measiirement has been recognized as being important, but in recent years the shortage of gas and higher prices have renewed interest in field testing of meters. On-location testing of large meters offers a convenient and economical method of assuring measurement accuracy. This method elimirates the extra time required to replace the meter, equipment for hauling to a repair shop and stocking replacement meters. Another factor becoming increasingly important is field testing allows for customer witnessing of the meter being tested.
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Document ID: DB161DEF

Effects And Control Of Pulsations In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Walter W. Von Nimitz
Abstract/Introduction:
Review of the detrimental effects of pulsations on gas flow measurement with the orifice, turbine and vortex flow meters indicates the need for effective pulsation control. The techniques for prediction and control of pulsations discussed and illustrated in this paper make it possible to design gas flow nneasurement facilities with the assurance of minimum uncertainty in flow measurement due to pulsation effects.
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Document ID: 26545C39

Training For Measurement Office Personnel
Author(s): Linda A. Elston
Abstract/Introduction:
In March of this year. United Gas Pipe Line Companys Measurement Department offered the first class in its new office training program. After only a few days training, justification of the need for a program of this type became obvious. One employee had the impression that natural gas is sold in cubes, that this is what is meant by a cubic foot. Another did not realize that gas is transported in pipelines. This student thought gas was stored in tanks. Still another person knew there were such things as meters but did not know why. People with these misconceptions had from five months to two years chart office experience.
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Document ID: 6777AA2E

Problems In Offshore Measurement
Author(s): Leon White
Abstract/Introduction:
The search for oil and gas offshore has always presented the industry with a problem. The gas industry is not exempted in any way. About 90% of the major gas pipeline companies buy gas offshore to be transported to all sections of the United States. Lets look at some of the major problems we encounter in our daily routine, (1) LOCATION OF MEASURING STATION ON PLATFORM Since space is vital and can cost as much as 100.00 per square foot the space must be utilized to the best advantage. We must stay as close to the edge of platform as possible for accessibility of the pipeline.
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Document ID: B7DB303C

Application Of Automatic Data Entry Systems In Chart Processing Operations
Author(s): Carl Uesterlund
Abstract/Introduction:
As the price of gas continues to rise and the supply continues to decline, the importance of accurate measurement and chart processing becomes an increasingly more significant function in the gas industry. Along with the increased importance of accurate measurement we have experienced a greater work load in the chart processing area as most of our measurement has gone to 24 hour recordings as opposed to 3, 7 or 8 day recordings. The chart processing group, caught in the middle between field measurement and accounting departments, is constantly looking for more accurate and faster methods of chart calculation.
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Document ID: DF2B7E3C

Flow Computation For Field Men
Author(s): John D. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
To compute a volume of gas from an orifice meter chart accurately, requires a lengthy formula, a computer, and a good program. A field man does not have this equipment available to him so we will discuss other methods to arrive at a volume accurate enough for field use. Computation of volumes by a field man are neccessary for various reasons, some of which are: setting rates of flow to obtain allowables, reporting rates of flow to a dispatcher, and obtaining total production for a given period.
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Document ID: FC163293

Training For Field Measurement Personnel
Author(s): C. L. Rousseau
Abstract/Introduction:
Good morning, John! John, you have been with our company almost three years now and for the last year you have been on a job that gave you experience In gauging tanks, turning wells on and off, and changing charts from time to time. You have also had an opportunity to observe the meter man as he performed his duties and maybe you have worked with him from time to time. What we really want to say is that the meter man that handled this area is no longer with us and we feel that you should be able to assume his responsibilities. This will be a 50.00 per month raise for you and we hope that you will accept this promotion. However, before you do, let us tell you what we will expect of you.
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Document ID: ABBFEB76

Sizing And Application Of Rotary Meters
Author(s): Paul m. Herman
Abstract/Introduction:
The intent of this paper will be to provide an insight into the practical and technical considerations given towards proper sizing and application of rotary meters. It will hopefully share with you information published by one manufacturer of rotary meters and information used by one major distribution company located in the State of Michigan.
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Document ID: 1173A06A

Instruments For Leakage Detection
Author(s): Andre J. Massicott
Abstract/Introduction:
Selection of the most efficient type of instrument for detection of combustible gases depends on whether the leakage is on above ground or below ground systems. Other factors involved include type of combustible to be detected, sensitivity levels required to detect the leaks you want to be capable of detecting and type of sampling to be employed. Sampling may be accomplished by hand aspirator or pumps for positive sampling or by use of diffusion type detector heads. Following selection of the type of instrument to be employed, the calibration of the instrument must be tested with a known gas sample. Procedure for the use of instrument must also be established and the personnel who are to use the instruments must be thoroughly trained in the proper operation and maintenance of equipment.
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Document ID: C335F062

Wet Gas Gathering Systems
Author(s): F. Todd Hickman
Abstract/Introduction:
During the 1960s the San Juan Basin and 4-Corners area experienced an accelerated drilling program to the Dakota formation. These are wells with a high shut-in pressure and produce gas with a high content of hydrocarbons. The wells flow, after the head pressure is drawn down, at 90 to 100 F. temperature. At this temperature and at a producing pressure of 450 pounds, hydrocarbons travel through the well-head production equipment in gaseous form and are not fully recovered as liquid at the well site. After leaving the well location, a cooling process takes place in the pipeline and condensates form. These condensates or drip gasoline, collect all along the pipeline and liquid blocks form at nearly all low spots. With the rough terrain in the San Juan Basin a great number of liquid-loaded sections of the pipeline occur. Field operating pressure rises, gas production falls, surging flows occur and transmission efficiency falls drastically as a result of liquid loaded gathering and field lines.
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Document ID: EA94D2A6

Design Of High Pressure Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): R. D. Goodenough
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to present some of the basic rules and information required to design high pressure measuring and regulating stations. A high pressure measuring and regulating station should consistently provide accurate measurement and dependable pressure control. Factors such as safety, flexibility, expansion and governmental laws must also be considered in the overall design of these stations.
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Document ID: 21CD8E2A

Trouble Shooting Glycol Dehydrators
Author(s): Don Ballard
Abstract/Introduction:
Millions of dollars per year are lost unnecessarily in high glycol losses, excessive plant shutdowns and equipment replacement. However, a glycol plant, when properly designed, operated and maintained, will provide a low-cost operation, with little difficulty and attendance. This can be accomplished by thoroughly understanding the process principles and physical limitations of the equipment. With this knowledge, plus these operating and ma intenance suggestions, most plant problems can either be prevented or quickly eliminated.
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Document ID: 6F354607


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