Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (1977)

Download collection of documents about ISHM 1977 including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, etc.


International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Industrial And District Regulators And Applications
Author(s): Frederick R. Loring
Abstract/Introduction:
Regulators employed in domestic service are generally used in standardized installations and under somewhat similar operating conditions. In contrast to these, industrial regulators cover a broad spectrum of specialized applications with respect to pressure, flow capacity, accuracy, rangeability and other requirements. The multiplicity of available types provides an awesome choice to the uninitiated, but usually a few special requirements quickly narrow the selection for a given situation.
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Document ID: ADF5D355

Technical Session, Specific Gravity Instruments Installation And Operation
Author(s): James C. Bozeman
Abstract/Introduction:
Definition - The specific weight of a gas is the number of units of weight in a unit volume. Specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of a definite volume of gas, at some convenient temperature and pressure, to the weight of an equal volume of dry air at the same temperature and pressure. Specific weight is a measurement of the relative weights of gases and varies according to the conditions under which it is determined, whereas specific gravity compares all gases to dry air as the standard. From a comparison of the above definitions, it is seen that specific gravity is the ratio of the specific weight of a gas to the specific weight of dry air, both being at the same conditions of temperature and pressure.
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Document ID: 67821BED

1u.UIUNJ.UE.: Ainu Fkuullimb
Author(s): H. C. Tilley
Abstract/Introduction:
How much? This is perhaps the question asked most often in the petroleum industry. Those in measurement may possibly owe the very existence of their occupation to these two words. Those who ask this question should receive the most accurate answers possible, since the answers are the criteria for decision making throughout the petroleum industry. The search for the most accurate answers possible has led to the advent of many types of measuring equipment.
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Document ID: 85E923B2

Papers And Discussion On The Measurement Of Gas Liquids
Author(s): R. E. Vickre
Abstract/Introduction:
Papers and discussion on the measurement of gas liquids have been presented at this and other seminars during recent years nevertheless, those directly involved in measurement are continually seeking to improve the accuracy and confidence level in the results, so again in 1977 we have this panel to exchange the results of our efforts for the benefit of all.
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Document ID: 8A63A8C5

On-Site Flow Calculators And Transducers For Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
On-site flow calculators and transducers have become a working tool in the gas measurement industry. New instruments built of compact, reliable, solid-state low power components, perform many functions not previously possible and are thus changing many concepts in measurement techniques.
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Document ID: D17AA2EC

High Accuracy LNG Tank Gauging
Author(s): Robert C. Lecrone
Abstract/Introduction:
LNG stands for liquefied natural gas. It is produced by cooling natural gas to a temperature of -260F (-160C). Liquefied, the gas requires about l/600th of the volume that it requires in the vapor state at 60F and at atmospheric pressure. This reduced volume has made possible the economic storage and transportation of LNG.
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Document ID: 030CC135

Operation And Measurement In Base Load LNG Terminals: Measurement Methods
Author(s): J. A. Brennan
Abstract/Introduction:
Presently there are no base load LNG terminals operating in the United States. Two facilities are nearing completion, however, and should start operation during late 1977 or early 1978. Some of the measurement systems included in these terminals for measuring the LNG as it moves from the ship to the transmission line are presented.
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Document ID: A3593335

Expects From The Field Group
Author(s): Kathleei L. Hughes
Abstract/Introduction:
With the shortage of gas in the industry, accurate measurement is essential. To maintain accurate measurement, the field and office groups must work together closely. The field group, through their maintenance of meters, charts and accurate records, can keep the office so informed as to allow them to calculate the information on the charts into the correct volumes.
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Document ID: 7594B1FD

Selection, Testing, Maintenance, And Operation Of Electronic Flow Computers
Author(s): N. J. Noecker
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic flow computers have been on the market for the past 12 to 14 years. These computers have made use of various solid state technologies. All the way from Germanium transistors to the present day C-MOS Large Scale Intergrated Circuits.
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Document ID: 4489234E

The Role Of Epa And Industry In Protecting Our Environment
Author(s): Edward J. Karkalik
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary purpose of this paper is the presentation of spill contingency planning guidelines for inland transportation systems. Vector analysis techniques are employed to generate spill exposure radii. Procedures for development of comprehensive contingency plans are described, using critical path methods.
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Document ID: C801911D

The Interface Between Industrial, National And International Standards
Author(s): Wallace N. Seward, James K. Walters
Abstract/Introduction:
The oil and gas industries, throughout more than 100 years of historical development, have been able to capitalize on the rationalization of sophisticated equipment and technology through industry-wide standardization efforts. The essential incentives of the original industrial standardization programs were threefold:
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Document ID: E765DB34

Mass Measurement Of Ethane Rich Streams
Author(s): David A. Mccane
Abstract/Introduction:
With the advent of increased ethane extraction, the industry has had a problem with measuring hydrocarbon mixtures containing high ethane concentrations.
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Document ID: DD8D317F

Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): J. L. Esola
Abstract/Introduction:
A Positive Displacement Meter is one in which a known volume of gas is alternately trapped and released, and the number of cycles recorded. Another term for trapping may be sealing.
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Document ID: 12A765F7

High Pressure Measuring And Regulating Station Design
Author(s): Chalmus E. Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays world of energy shortages and high prices, the efficient measurement and control of high pressure natural gas is an important job. On large volume stations, measurement errors of 1% can easily make thousands of dollars a day difference at a single station. Thoughtless design of measuring and regulating equipment can build errors of 1% and more into a station which will measure billions of dollars worth of gas during its lifetime. Careless regulator station design may be a potential bomb ready to take lives under the wrong conditions.
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Document ID: 403B165D

Recording Calorimeters - Installation And Testing
Author(s): C. L. Rousseau
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement of the heating value of gas is now of major importance to the gas industry, while at one time the cubic foot was the standard used and heating value was generally assumed to be 1000 B.T.U. per cubic foot. To determine the efficiency of gas burning equipment, heating value must be known. Prices of the cubic foot of gas also vary with its quality. Measurement of heating value must now be accurate and reliable.
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Document ID: 55FA5B7D

Techniques Of Gas Sampling
Author(s): R. K. Glass
Abstract/Introduction:
The shortage of natural gas has become a nationwide reality. With this realization has come the need to find alternate sources of natural gas. These can include liquified natural gas shipped to the lower 48 states by special tankers from Alaska and Indonesia, or compressed natural gas from Alaska and/or synthetic gas manufactured from coal and shipped via high pressure pipelines.
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Document ID: FADD97B2

Fundamental Gas Laws
Author(s): F. Mark Towsend
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement is the determination of the volume of a gas at a particular temperature and pressure. The measurement should be as accurate as possible, making use of the best data and techniques available. The gas quantity is usually expressed in cubic feet at some specific temperature and pressure.
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Document ID: FD9FB24C

The Petroleum Industrys Response To Metrication
Author(s): Loy Upp
Abstract/Introduction:
Metrication is fact of life. We will look at the traditional questions of Why?, When?, What? and How? as far as the Petroleum Industry is concerned.
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Document ID: 6C196185

Application Of Densitometers To Liquid Measurement
Author(s): E. L. Upp
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years we in the fluid metering business have been on the trail of improving our old metering equipment and moving forward with new. One of the more popular catch words has been densitometer and catch phrases has been mass measurement. Our capabilities have moved out of the talking stages into successful applications. It is this area of application of densitometers that will be discussed.
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Document ID: 691451A5

High Capacity Liquid Measurement Systems
Author(s): Carl Green
Abstract/Introduction:
How far is up? How long is a piece of string? How big is Big? The answers to these questions all have one thing in common: they are relative. In the early twentieth century, 20 miles per hour was considered a fast speed. Today, a spaceship traveling to the moon will reach speeds in excess of 20,000 miles per hour. As this same type of evolution has occurred in the size of ships (tankers), so have the flow rates increased that fill these tankers.
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Document ID: 0C545949

Basic Applications Of Telemetering Systems Flow Computers
Author(s): R.F. Schwartz
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will be a basic paper illustrating the various types of telemetering and flow computing systems as utilized in the gas industry.
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Document ID: 4535FD3A

Liquid Sampling
Author(s): James W. Dahline
Abstract/Introduction:
Crude oil production in the United States currently averages eight million BPD, and imports add an additional nine million BPD. As ownership changes and oil moves from the production field thru the pipeline to the refinery, and finally to the terminal, petroleum products are measured thousands of times.
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Document ID: E69CC832

Design Of Distribution Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Perry D. Bonner
Abstract/Introduction:
In recent years the natural gas reserves in the United States have steadily declined to the degree that the price of gas has soared. Many problems, including economical and political, have caused this shortage and resulting price increase.
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Document ID: 4C9F2E57

Relief Valves
Author(s): Don Broaddus
Abstract/Introduction:
This is going to be a short paper on relief valves. The purpose of the paper is to discuss four types of upsets - the distress that can result from them - and the proposed correction to assure that it doesnt happen again. Lets roll these upsets outandsee if we agree that they represent real problems to the operator:
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Document ID: 651B0055

Large Capacity Gas Regulators
Author(s): J. m. Kruse
Abstract/Introduction:
The definition of a large capacity regulator is often difficult to formalize. There are many types of regulators which could be classified as large capacity. This discussion will be concerned with the conventional double ported regulator. The double ported balanced valve regulator is probably the most commonly used style of regulator labeled as large capacity.
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Document ID: 267AFD8D

Gas Turbine Meter And Continuous Volume Integrators
Author(s): August Buchhalter
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the introduction of the turbine meter to the U.S. gas industry in the early 60s, the turbine meter has found wide acceptance as a large volume measurement device.
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Document ID: C16C3778

Linearized Master Meter Curve
Author(s): John P. Whittemore
Abstract/Introduction:
There are presently three methods that are used in the gas industry to field test meters: 1) Low Pressure Flow Provers, 2) Critical Flow Provers, and 3) the Transfer Prover.
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Document ID: 7025EB45

Soil Penetrabilities Of Natural Gas Odorants
Abstract/Introduction:
Loss of the warning odorant from natural gas by soil adsorption in underground leaks has been of concern to gas companies almost since gas odorization practices began about 40 years ago. Although soil type, moisture content, and other environmental conditions have been shown to be the dominant influences on adsorptive losses, inherent differences do exist in the soil-adsorption resistance of odorant compounds which could affect the margin of safety.
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Document ID: 92AB43F3

Florida Gas Transmission Company
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas analysis as a control technique for odorant injection is not a common practice. Most natural gas industry odorant injections are controlled by ratio of odorant to gas volume. Using gas volume flow rate as the control method for prorata injection of odorant is quite satisfactory if the system is properly designed, constructed, maintained, and operated however gas volume flow control may prove expensive from a first cost basis in mainline installations where valves and meters must be installed. Also it is not capable of accounting for naturally occurring odorants in the gas nor does it provide a quantitative record of odorant in the gas.
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Document ID: 9D73299A

Trouble Shooting In Metameter Telemetering Systems
Author(s): Win. T. A. Caraway
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is concerned with troubleshooting Pulse duration telemetering equipment. Initially a definition of telemetering is in order. Simple definitions simply state Telemetering is remote measurement or telemetering is measurement at a distance.
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Document ID: 17FA11C5

Automated Measurement On Loading Racks
Author(s): George Gurrola
Abstract/Introduction:
Rather than a treatise on loading rack automation, this will be a description and discussion of one automated rack in particular, the Lion Oil Company rack at its Martinez, California refinery. Hopefully, this will assist someone in a positive way, and perhaps help avoid some painful mistakes.
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Document ID: E8582458

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted For Gas
Author(s): Joseph D. Taneelhill
Abstract/Introduction:
The question is often asked what percentage of loss should we have in our pipeline system. This is a difficult question to answer with any degree of accuracy. A small leak on a gas line means a continual loss of gas for not only 24 hours a day, but for 365 days a year. This so called small leak will often supply a single customer for a like period.
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Document ID: B5AF9F68

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted-For Gas
Author(s): James W. Ray
Abstract/Introduction:
Unaccounted-for gas is the difference in the volume of gas delivered into a system and the total volume of gas delivered out of the system through customer meters during the same period of time. Or, quite simply, unaccounted-for gas is the difference between gas purchased and gas sold.
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Document ID: 6FD67F61

Leakage And Unaccounted-For Gas
Author(s): J.N. Coyle
Abstract/Introduction:
The unaccounted-for gas is the difference between the gas received into a system and the gas delivered out of a system over a given time period. Unaccounted-for is sometimes referred to as gas loss or leakage. The loss of gas in a system is very costly and deserves the attention of the office and field personnel alike.
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Document ID: C0387E4D

Effects And Control Of Pulsation In Gas Measurement
Author(s): G. G. Less
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increased cost of natural gas, it is becoming more and more important to do a better job of measurement. The reduction or elimination of pulsation errors could result in saving millions of dollars in unaccounted-for gas.
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Document ID: 8211CDC2

Installation And Operation Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): A.F. Kersey
Abstract/Introduction:
The Cutler-Hammer recording Calorimeter measures the total calorific value of combustible gas. It continuously samples, indicates, and records BTU per cubic foot of gas.
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Document ID: 32DC107A

Activities Of A.G.A. Transmission Measurement Committee And Oiml
Author(s): D. A. Tefankjian
Abstract/Introduction:
The Transmission Measurement Committee (TMC) is a standing committee in the Transmission Systems Division of the Operating Section of the American Gas Association.
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Document ID: 1B2203B8

Ugc Industries, Inc.
Author(s): William m. Moore
Abstract/Introduction:
The Calorimeter to be described is based on comparison of the BTU input of a known heat rce to that of an unknown source. The known rce is a constant-power electric heater and unknown source is a gas flame. Both heat rces transfer their heat to a stream of air. air streams are equal or in a constant ratio.
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Document ID: 0C6CB14F

Field Experience With Sonic Nozzles
Author(s): J. T. Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
It has long been evident that a calibration standard has been needed for determining the accuracy of high pressure, large volume metering devices. With the growing acceptance of the turbine meter as a custody transfer metering device, this need has become increasingly greater.
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Document ID: 458B9069

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Ray Forbes
Abstract/Introduction:
In the field of natural gas measurement, the term primary element generally refers to the orifice plate, the orifice plate holding device, and the adjacent piping or meter tube. The single most important item of the primary device is the orifice plate, since it is the orifice plate which creates the differential pressure within a flowing medium.
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Document ID: F611B2E6

Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): Bruce J. Caldwell
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic chart changers are intended to overcome the necessity of routinely retrieving circular charts from recording locations at fixed time Intervals, consistent with each 30 of chart rotation. Also, chart changers are a means of upgrading circular chart recorders to the attendance level of strip chart recorders, without sacrificing the obvious convenience of individual charts for specific segments of time, such as an nour, day or week.
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Document ID: E5453706

Thermal Energy Measurements
Author(s): Mendal L. Yoho
Abstract/Introduction:
This discussion explores thermal energy measurements in the gas industry and explains one companys approach to making those measurements. The general discussion will include reasons for energy measurements, factors to be considered in selecting methods or equipment, and brief descriptions of some methods along with significant characteristics of each method. Specific comments will follow describing Consolidateds energy measurement program and its experiences in design and construction.
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Document ID: F1A42565

Application Of The Mini-Computer To De Oil Pipeline Measurement And Line Balance
Author(s): D. L. Arrick
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of mini-computers for master superory control of pipelines has become more popuand prevalent. In addition to control of the eline, the mini-computer is capable of generng special logs and programs which can be used an aid in monitoring the line. Measurement line balance are special functions which the i-computer can generate to aid and improve the rations of the pipeline. These functions are dily adapted for use on a crude oil pipeline.
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Document ID: 48C6C3E2

Domestic Meters
Author(s): John F. Laughner
Abstract/Introduction:
Before entering into a discussion of domestic meters, it is interesting to note some of the statistics associated with these units. Today, of all the meters in the United States, 92% are of the domestic type. Through these meters pass only 32% of the total amount of gas sold, but they account for 52% of the revenue dollar received by gas utilities. Putting this in numbers, about 38 million meters are cash registers for approximately 5 billion in revenues or about 132 per year each. To say that the domestic gas meter is an important measuring device is really the understatement of the year.
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Document ID: D337BE91

Vortex Shedding Flowmeters
Author(s): D. F. White
Abstract/Introduction:
Vortex shedding meters for the measurement of the flow of a wide variety of gases and liquids have been available commercially for over seven years. To repeat a phrase from a paper on the same general subject given in 1975, these meters have become established members of the family of flowmetering devices. However, they have not at present attained widespread use in the oil and gas industries. In what is to follow, we will examine the main features of vortex shedding meters, compare them with other types of meters and describe some applications in measurement of hydrocarbon flows.
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Document ID: C46B01A4

Correcting Instruments Applied To Displacement And Turbine Gas Meters
Author(s): Stanley F. Humbert
Abstract/Introduction:
Positive displacement and turbine meters are considered basic elements in gas measurement. They measure the flow of gas passing through the pipe at line conditions and indicate the actual or uncorrected volume of gas which has passed through the meter on some type of index readout.
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Document ID: 593BD317

Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
Although the liquid turbine meter principle dates back many decads, the axial flow turbine meters presently employed for liquid measurement are quite new. The axial flow turbine meter was first used for water flow measurement where there was plenty of energy available for driving the rotor and normally importance.
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Document ID: ECDE2129

Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): Richard L. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic chart changers have been a v a i l a b l e to u s e r s of circular charts since 1958. The first commercial installations of the Dial-O-Graph automatic chart changers recorded occurred in early 1959. To d a t e , there have been over 2 3, 000, of this brand manufactured. Some t r a n s mission companies have purchased well over 2 , 0 0 0 , automatic chart c h a n g e r s.
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Document ID: 3D59E7CD

Measuring Station Inspection Program And Guide
Author(s): Clarence A. Huslig
Abstract/Introduction:
A good measuring station inspection program is a very essential part of every companys operations to insure accurate measuring facilities and safe working equipment. A successful inspection program includes training of personnel, tolerances and standards, safe installations and working conditions, and the reporting and documentation of the required inspections.
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Document ID: 8B742C66

Moisture Titrators
Author(s): Thomas L. Sheen
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas produced from deep wells is usually transmitted over long distances to the point of ultimate use. The raw gas may contain any number of contaminants, but it is almost always saturated with water vapor. If this is the case, any slight reduction in temperature will cause free water to condense in the pipeline.
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Document ID: FD627E3A

Pressure Regulation And Flow Control With Expansible Tube Type Valves
Author(s): R. R. Nal
Abstract/Introduction:
The expansible tube type regulator is an unique design in which the only moving part is the expansible tube. The expansible tube accomplishes the same function as both the diaphragm and inner valve of a diaphragm motor valve. The regulator is normally controlled by a small pilot regulator.
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Document ID: 751825D0

Operation And Maintenance Of Catalytic Heaters
Author(s): Sam Ashley, Jim Blakemore
Abstract/Introduction:
Since early in the 19 6 0 s c a t a l y t i c heaters have been available to the oil and gas industry. In the beginning only a few companies would try to apply a gas heater that operated without a flame to overcome some of the many problems encountered in the production, transmission and distribution of natural g a s .
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Document ID: C84181B9

Gas Measurement By Rotary Meters
Author(s): W. K. Ci
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1920, after many years of experience in the rotary blower field, Roots-Connersville Blower Company manufactured the first rotary positive displacement gas meter known as the ROOTS Meter. In 1966 the ROOTS Meter line was split from Roots-Connersville, and a new company was formed by the name of Dresser Measurement Division.
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Document ID: 325EA5CE

Elements Of Gas Contracts
Author(s): W. m. Mills
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many important things necessary to have at hand and to take into consideration when operating an automobile, conducting a meeting, playing a game or, yes, operating a gas company. An automobile without controls and rules of the road could be as destructive as an uncontrolled fire.
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Document ID: 8A30721F

Application Of Flow Computers For Gas Measurement And Control
Author(s): Michael J. Keady
Abstract/Introduction:
Traditionally, orifice meter signals have been recorded on-site by means of mechanical circular chart recorders. These charts have been collected weekly or monthly and integrated for volume determination. This procedure has a lengthy lag between time of actual gas flow and time of reporting. With the advent of spiraling gas prices and penalty clauses for excessive rate deliveries, both customer and supplier are looking towards quicker and more accurate methods of obtaining flow and total quantity. By use of field mounted electronic flow computers, flow information is processed on an instantaneous and continuous basis.
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Document ID: 49EF0B9C

High And Low Pressure Gas Regulators
Author(s): J. m. Kruse
Abstract/Introduction:
When discussing the subject of High and Low Pressure Regulators, some definition should be given to distinguish between the two. Actually, when classifying Regulators as to pressure rating, it is sometimes a practice to include a third division identified as Intermediate Pressure. There basically is no distinct line of demarkation, the terms being relative depending upon operating practices.
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Document ID: 03F256F1

Meter Shop Design, Equipment And Techniques
Author(s): John F. Mcdevitt
Abstract/Introduction:
The Philadelphia Electric Company began operation of a new modern central gas meter shop in 1972. The selection of a power and free conveyor system and other automated equipment has permitted a reduction in manpower requirements of nine men. Previously, three suburban division shops performed the necessary gas meter test and repair operations with a total of twenty-one men. The new central shop operates efficiently with only twelve men which includes a Shop Supervisor and a working Foreman,
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Document ID: 3349CE1C

Mass Measurement Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): R. R. Taylor
Abstract/Introduction:
Mass measurement is a highly accurate means to measure natural gas liquids, eliminating the need to compensate for the effects of temperature, pressure, and/or composition.
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Document ID: 320A57D5

Test Instruments For Pressure, Water Vapor And Supercompressibility
Abstract/Introduction:
Volume measurement of natural gas at high pressure is principally accomplised by means of orifice type flow meters. Converting orifice meter readings to low pressure volumes requires exact knowledge of pressure and supercompressibility.
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Document ID: F33D8284

Keeping Osha In Perspective
Author(s): Larry G. Herod
Abstract/Introduction:
The Occupational Safety and Health Act became effective April 28, 1971. Since that date, the Act has been under constant change. Each change was designed to clarify and strengthen portions of the Act that needed more or less stringent regulations, etc.
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Document ID: AF064921

Determination Of Water Vapor Content And Hydrocarbon Dew Point In Natural Gas
Author(s): 0. D. Calkins
Abstract/Introduction:
The proper handling of Natural Gases requires servous test of determine quality and to establish knowledge for control. Water vapor and hydrocarbon dew point is the one test that is essential to insure that water and hydrocarbons do not enter piping and control systems. Water and hydrocarbons in the right proportion mixed with pressure and temperature drops can and do shut down piping systems interfereing with an efficient, and economical operation.
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Document ID: A76EC89F

Meter Stat
Author(s): Don Day
Abstract/Introduction:
The scope of this presentation is limited to noise which originates in control valves.
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Document ID: 9E5574BA

Charts, Pens And Inks
Author(s): Donald P. Quinlan
Abstract/Introduction:
As the title Charts, Pens, and Inks implies there is an interrelationship between the three items which requires that they be discussed as a part of an overall system. During the following few minutes we will consider the three principal components of the recording system and in addition, include some suggestions on troubleshooting which may be of value to you.
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Document ID: C58F0A37

Flow Measurement By Insertion Turbine Meters
Author(s): Richard E. Zimmermann
Abstract/Introduction:
Insertion turbine meters offer a very economical means of flow measurement in large diameter pipelines. In addition to economic factors, there are a number of other desirable features which may warrant their use. They are very easy to install, sensitive to low velocities, and readily interfaced with inexpensive signal conditioning units. Also, they have wide rangeability and excellent repeatability.
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Document ID: BEF7D5F1

Guaging Testing And Running Lease Tanks
Author(s): J. C. Westbrook
Abstract/Introduction:
Gauging Testing and Running Lease Tanks are the first steps in the chain of events that lead from the well-head down the Pipe Line to the delivery points. Taking this first and very important measurement is the Gauger. The procedure that he uses must be duplicated at the end of the line.
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Document ID: BCA98512

Operation Of Electronic Orifice Meter Chart Integrator
Author(s): E. S. Messer
Abstract/Introduction:
FMCO now offers two types of Integrators to the gas companies for calculating the volumes of gas from the two recordings on the circular chart. The Series 1000 Integrator has been in use for 50 years and is well known to the industry. With the Series 1000 Integrator only a digital value was obtained that represented the integral of pressure and differential pressures.
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Document ID: DFDA59A6

What The Field Group Expects From The Office Group
Author(s): David E. Pulley
Abstract/Introduction:
The production, transmission, distribution and accounting of natural gas volumes is the combined effort of all personnel within any company. Generally, we divide the personnel into two catagories the office group, and the field group.
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Document ID: 4C613511

Use Of Video Tape (V.T.R.) In A Measurement Department
Author(s): Francis A. Kimberly
Abstract/Introduction:
T r a i n i n g of measurement p e r s o n n e l as well as a ll c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s has been a r e c o g n i z e d need at Northern and t h r o u g h o u t our i n d u s t r y from the e a r l y b e g i n n i n g . During the e a r l y y e a r s , t r a i n i n g was l a r g e l y the r e s u l t of working w i th t e c h n i c i a n s and g a i n i n g from t h o s e e x p e r i e n c e s. L a t e r , equipment s u p p l i e r s made some e f f o r ts t o t r a i n p e r s o n n e l on the equipment p u r c h a s ed by our v a r i o u s companies. These e f f o r t s were usually successful , however, they were limited because of the wide variety of equipment and by large geographic are as within organizational scopes.
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Document ID: A261FF22

Orifice Meters - Operation And Maintenance
Author(s): Robert H. Parrish
Abstract/Introduction:
History shows us that as early as 1895, Mr. T. R. Weymouth began using the orifice plate clamped between two flanges, with a water column, and later a meter to record differential pressure drops to calculate the amount of gas flowing through a line. Since that time, man has continued to improve the meter, the meter run and orifice plate in order to be as proficient as he can in measuring gas flows in and out of the system.
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Document ID: 42A3BFF5

Test Instruments And Recorders For Specific Gravity
Author(s): A. R. Kahmann
Abstract/Introduction:
Computation of natural gas flow volume, when measured by orifice meter, is made by using the formula Qb C X VHwPf where Qb is the quantity,
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Document ID: 3924E885

Rockwell International
Author(s): James A. Simpkins
Abstract/Introduction:
In the immediate post-World War II period, design improvements in large capacity meters were accelerated. One of the most significant developments was the use of synthetic material for meter diaphragms.
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Document ID: E9CFF20B

Union Carbide Corporation
Author(s): m. A. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
I am p l e a s e d to have this opportunity to s h a r e with you the experiences of a l a r g e chemical company in managing an energy c o n s e r v a t i on p r o g r a m . I will be d i s c u s s i n g in p a r t i c u l a r how the Chemicals and P l a s t i c s Division of Union C a r b i d e has organized and monitored t h e i r p r o g r a m , motivated t h e i r employees and emphasized c e r t a i n a r e a s for intensive effort.
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Document ID: 93B3A98F

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Don W. Darais
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to the almost d a i l y i n c r e a s i n g c o s t of hydrocarbon p r o d u c t s , both l l n u i d and gas, there i s a growing concern for a c c u r a t e measurement. I n many a p p l i c a t i o n s t h i s begins with a s i g n al from the primary element, c o n s i s t i n g of the O r i f i c e F i t t i n g , O r i f i c e P l a t e and Meter Tube.
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Document ID: ED803F63

Reviewing The Types Of Detectors Available
Author(s): Andre J. Massicott
Abstract/Introduction:
The second type of combustion detector is known as a Catalytic Combustible Gas Indicator. There are several manufacturers of this type of instrument, and although their individual circuitry varies, the principle is universal. The instruments operate with catalytic filaments in a balanced wheatstone bridge.
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Document ID: 4A41A96E

High Pressure Farm Taps And Service Regulators
Author(s): Bruce Grumstrup
Abstract/Introduction:
High Pressure Farm Tap Regulators and the low pressure service regulator are the most basic and numerically the most common regulators utilized in the gas industry. They are simple, reliable, low in cost, easy to install and require practically no maintenance.
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Document ID: 2B4F9095

Expansible Element Valves Are Not New To The Industry But With New Designs A More Perfect Valve Has Been Developed
Author(s): Henry A. Hubbard
Abstract/Introduction:
Expansible element valves are not new to the industry but with new designs a more perfect valve has been developed. Fast response, infinite rangeability, small size, low noise levels and minimum number of parts make the axial flow valve an excellent choice for pressure regulation or pressure relief. Refer to Figure 1.
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Document ID: D3E567F8

Operation And Maintenance Of Rubber Plug Type Control Valves
Author(s): Mack Jacobs
Abstract/Introduction:
An urgent need existed for a control valve that could meet certain criteria not available in existing valve designs, and in 1958, the JET STREAM rubber plug type control valve was introduced Because of this, some readers will find this to be a review of things already known, while others may discover a new valve.
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Document ID: E51E6D6D

Singer, American Meter Division
Author(s): W. N. Donachy
Abstract/Introduction:
The bellows type orifice meter as used by industry today is the result of continuous refinements and improvements based on field use and experience. Developed almost thirty years ago, the bellows type orifice meter has widespread application and has become an increasingly popular form of metering in all phases of industry.
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Document ID: 3F427E54

Elements Of Sound And Sound Measurement
Author(s): Gerald D. Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
The scope of this paper is limited to information about undesirable sound, that is noise. The objective of the author is to present a collection of useful information on noise and noise measurement. To be useful to you this informa- tion must concern itself with noise from hydrocarbon processing equipment. It must include both general background information and specific examples. It must deal with theories and with practical applications. And, most of all, it must communicate clearly.
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Document ID: 16861B2F

Principles, Application, And Sizing Of Monitor Regulators
Author(s): George C. Hughes
Abstract/Introduction:
Public Law 90-WJ1, The Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act, became effective August 12, 1968. This act gave the Department of Transportation, Office of Pipeline Safety, the authority to prescribe and enforce safety standards. The effect of federal safety standards upon gas companies varied a6 to the degree of previous compliance with the USAS Code B-31.8.
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Document ID: 4C6B729F

Problems In Offshore Measurement
Author(s): J. R. Cadrin
Abstract/Introduction:
Today, because of the current energy shortage, the gas industry has extended its search for natural gas from onshore to offshore locations. This has not only increased exploration and production costs, but has presented industry personnel with formidable new challenges.
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Document ID: E101ED34

Texas Eastern Gas Pipeline Company
Author(s): Donald C. Mcbride
Abstract/Introduction:
The rapid advancement of the highly accurate digital calculator, has greatly increased the use of these devices for gas flow measurement. However, when it comes to control, analog equipment still has some advantages. This discussion will describe how the advantages of both digital and analog equipment can be combined with telemetering to produce a complete control system.
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Document ID: 8CD08BDC

Diaphragm Meter Capacity Ratings At Elevated Pressures
Author(s): Howard W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
Through the y e a r s , the gas i n d u s t r y has been s t e a d i l y improving, e s p e c i a l l y f r om a t e c h n o l o g i c a l and product i m p r o v e m e n t s viewpoint. Today, the gas i n d u s t r y has s t a n d a r d i z e d on most a p p l i c a t i o n s , methods and definitions as compared t o the knowledge p o s s e s s e d just twenty short y e a r s ago.
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Document ID: 12F12728

Fundamental Principle Of Pilot Control
Author(s): Floyd J. Jury
Abstract/Introduction:
Controllers in one form or another have been around the process industries for a number of years. In fact, they are such a familiar sight in most industrial operations that they frequently suffer from being taken for granted. Yet, the quality of performance provided by a control system is determined by the performance of the controller and the other elements in the loop.
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Document ID: 36943798

Prover Accuracy & Sample Testing Relative To Meter Proof Specifications
Author(s): Howard H. Holmes
Abstract/Introduction:
The culmination of all the efforts made by both manufacturers and gas utilities to secure accurate gas measurement is represented by the final calibration put on meters prior to their installation in the field. This obviously important step can sometimes be over simplified or performed in a manner that will not take advantage of all the accuracy and repeatability that is built into displacement type gas meters.
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Document ID: DDF14FCE

Selection, Operation And Maintenance Of Regulators
Author(s): Ralph E. Kubitz
Abstract/Introduction:
Selection is essentially the tailoring of a regulator to an application. The list of things to be considered can be lengthy or brief. Often, many things are simply taken for granted. In general, the higher the pressure and the greater the capacity the more things that must be considered and specified.
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Document ID: B17CCCC6

Measured Steps For Training The Measurement Man
Author(s): Raymond J. Crawford
Abstract/Introduction:
Train used as a verb means to transform by instruction, discipline or drill - to teach, so as to make fit, qualified or proficient. This is a definition for training found in the dictionary - does it fit your definition for training?
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Document ID: C21ED36C

New Ideas In Gas Measurement And Pressure Regulation
Author(s): J. E. Gross
Abstract/Introduction:
Before I get into the subject at hand, lets think about what a new idea or new development really is. Webster defines IDEA as a product of intellectual action a way of thinking a plan a thought.
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Document ID: 57A2A0F5

Domestic Meters
Author(s): Donald H. Knapp
Abstract/Introduction:
Formerly these units were offered in a variety of case materials. Probably the most common of these were tinned steelcase commonly referred to as Tin Meters. These low pressure, handmade meters are no longer manufactured in North America. Although accurate, the high cost of manufacture and repair, pressure limitations, lack of corrosion resistance and susceptibility to pipe stress made these units obsolete.
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Document ID: A4A23469

Gas Chromatographs
Author(s): W.A. Garratt
Abstract/Introduction:
It is an obvious fact that all methods employed in the analysis of a mixed gas stream are, of necessity, based on the physical or chemical properties of the component gasses-and by the same token, for each physical or chemical property of a gas there exists, in theory at least, an analytical method.
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Document ID: 95F86C9A

Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): Donald H. Knapp
Abstract/Introduction:
Although the design of bellows type P.D. meters dates back well into the last century, it has now and will continue to have wide acceptance in our industry. Other types of measurement may appear at first glance to be more advanced, but this type is the only one that has virtually 100% rangeability, that is, the ability to measure gas from full rated capacity of the meter down to the smallest pilot load.
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Document ID: 9F5E9BF6

Maintaining An Electroscanner And Chart Analyzer
Author(s): Thomas Y. Tramel
Abstract/Introduction:
A short time after integrated circuits were available to the industrial market, we at UGCI redesigned our proven Electroscanner. Incorporating integrated circuits into our computer, in addition to other changes, has made possible a much more accurate and reliable Electroscanner system. This change in computing circuitry also eliminated much of the maintenance necessary to keep the Electroscanner functioning properly.
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Document ID: E536F04B

Manual Procedures For Chart Calculation
Author(s): Lynn K. Harkman
Abstract/Introduction:
With all the sophisticated equipment in the gas industry today, its easy for those in other phases of the industry to wonder why any measurement office needs more than two or three employees. With all the smart machines that read charts, calculate volumes and prepare statements, what else could you need? After all, how many people can gather around an electroscanner or an electronic calculator? However, many people are still required to assemble the data that feed the machines.
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Document ID: 210C8E5D

Calibration Of Open Volumetric Provers
Abstract/Introduction:
Water draw c a l i b r a t i o n of V o l u m e t r i c F i e ld S t a n d a r d s and Mechanical Displacement P r o v e r s. V o l u m e t r i c F i e l d S t a n d a r d s , commonly known as open a t m o s p h e r i c tank p r o v e r s , are used f or c a l i b r a t i n g meters as w e l l as Mechanical Displacement P r o v e r s . There are o t h e r methods o f c a l i b r a t i n g p r o v e r s . However, due to the t i m e a v a i l a b l e , they are not i n c l u d e d in t h is d i s c u s s i o n .
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Document ID: CBF21C5D

Prevention Of Freezing In Measuring And Regulating Equipment
Author(s): Lester S. Price
Abstract/Introduction:
Freezing in measurement and pressure regulating equipment is a problem faced in virtually all phases of the gas industry, from the well head to the low pressure town plant systems. The degree of the problems will depend on the amount of pressure reduction, quantity of water, and hydrocarbons in the gas being regulated or measured. The problems most frequently occur during peak winter flow operations when our systems are required to function under adverse conditions.
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Document ID: 3C6CDB91

Large Volume Measurement By Turbine And Rotary Meters
Author(s): Daniel R. Fulton
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement by turbine and rotary meters accounts for significant quantities of gas sold in distribution metering primarily to those large volume users commonly classified as industrial or commercial. In transmission measurement these same meters are used for custody transfer of gas volumes as well as for internal accounting of gas usage such as compressor fuel consumption. Production applications find turbine and rotary meters used in custody transfer, in well testing and for field accounting purposes .
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Document ID: 8BC227B0

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Robert H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
For several years gas men have been giving more thought to aerodynamic turbulence within their pipeline systems and, in particular, the turbulence that is a result of pressure regulation. Considering the noise from a measurement or regulating station, it is generally conceded that measurement facilities alone will rarely be a major source of noise, since we can design the pipe to give a desired and normally tranquil velocity.
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Document ID: C8A58394

Rotary Meters
Author(s): David m. Tunney
Abstract/Introduction:
Since this is quite a general topic, it seems wise to take time here at the beginning to outline several specific areas that will be dealt with in this particular paper. The first area of discussion will be the general aspects of rotary meters and the two basic types used in America. Second, we will examine the operation and construction of the two basic types. Third, will be a brief rundown of application information and installation requirements. Fourth, will be routine maintenance and proving. Fifth, some general comments and a short summary.
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Document ID: 75153F88

New Trends In Rubber Plug Type Control Valves
Author(s): Robert H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
The newer of the rubber plug type of regulators (i.e., control valves), like its earlier counterpart, is a pneumatic, hydraulic design that utilizes conventional instruments to operate its diaphragm motor which, in turn, manipulates the solid rubber plug type of inner valve. The power of the motor is connected to the inner valve through hydraulic linkage to provide the power needed without introducing friction. Depending on the size of the regulator, an instrument output will be required that is related to the size of the regulator and the pressures that it is working with. For example, a conventional regulator normally works with the output from the controller starting at 0 PSI and going to whatever pressure is needed to give a positive shutoff.
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Document ID: DE8B6827

Royalty Verification Of Oil And Gas Accounting
Author(s): Mary Jo Armer
Abstract/Introduction:
The preponderance of errors in oil and gas payments to the royalty owners has created the necessity of verification of royalty income. This verification is quite costly and in the past, has not been justifiable. However, with the higher prices it has become expedient for the royalty owner and/or a group of royalty owners to verify its royalty income. Let us imagine that you are employed by a large royalty owner group to do its accounting and the verification of its royalty income. A royalty owners verification is generally a manual check of royalty payments received from your companies. The word manual is most significant. In this age of computers, when manual is used, especially in connection with accounting, ones immediate reaction is that it is antiquated, uneconomical and too slow. This may not necessarily be true since other factors must be considered. Manual checking tends to be more satisfactory since it tends to adjust quickly to change. It is flexible. It does not have the built-in rigidity of a computer system that must be constantly reprogrammed because of changes in the problem.
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Document ID: 922D9169

Instruments For Automation Digital In-Line Blending
Author(s): James Holt
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays business environment of increasing costs, processes must be automated to keep pace with soaring energy prices, increased cost of feedstock, labor maintenance, and so on. By maintaining tighter control of product purity, reducing expenditures of fuel and eliminating waste, most processes can be made more profitable. Automation is usually the key to these increased profits. One area in which automation has made significant contributions is that of component blending. One obvious example of component blending is gasoline. With the advent of multiple grades of gasoline, each with a varying octane content, blending to a prescribed ratio becomes imperative. Previously, this blending was done in batch operations in which a measured amount of each component was mixed in a large tank. This necessitated rather large, expensive storage installations, as well as product waste resulting from off-specification product. Product surplus can be just as damaging to profits, since a nonmarketable surplus implies a stored inventory.
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Document ID: 498039E4

Fundamentals Of Orifice Flowmeters
Author(s): Richard R. Roseberry
Abstract/Introduction:
In ancient times, an orifice such as the hourglass was used to make different measurements and aid in control. Probably one of the oldest devices for measuring the flow rate of fluids is the orifice. The Egyptians used weir orifices for measuring the flow of water some 500 years before the time of Abraham (about 2200 BC) the Romans used it to measure water flow to homes. In the early 17th century, two Italians, Castelli and Torricelli, laid the basic foundation for orifice measurements. About 1640, one of Galileos students established the first mathematical statement of an orifice measurement principle. Approximately 100 years later, Bernoulli stated his theorem, which is the basis for our present-day hydraulic equation for orifice measurement. The original theorem is very simple in a fluid flowing through a pipeline, the energy potential at any point in the pipe is equal to the energy potential at any other point in the pipe, neglecting friction losses in the pipe, of course. The energy potential is basically elevation head, pressure head and velocity head (see Figure 1).
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Document ID: 5BC3596B

Ugc Industries, Inc.
Author(s): Carl Mcdaniel
Abstract/Introduction:
The direct measurement of gas density has many important advantages in flow measurement. The most basic form of flow measurement using density is mass flow determination. This measurement requires only the differential pressure measured across the orifice plate and the gas density. Only in the past few years has mass flow measurement of natural gas become practical. Prior to this time no accurate and inexpensive Densitometer was available. At the present time several manufacturers have developed density measuring devices or Densitometers. This paper will relate exclusively to the UGC Industries Densitometer.
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Document ID: D9FFB94E

LNG Operations And Measurement
Author(s): Carl H. Myers
Abstract/Introduction:
At the present time, there are more than 100 locations in North America where Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is utilized in some manner by a gas distribution utility. These plants range in size from small stand-by facilities assembled from shop built-up components to large import terminals capable of handling thousands of barrels of LNG daily. Because of the high vapor-to-liquid volumetric ratio of natural gas (approximately 620:1), a large quantity of energy is stored and handled in relatively small but highly specialized hardware components. Use of cryogenic technology permits us to store 1,000,000 Mcf or more in a tank which physically is no larger than a 6 MMCF low-pressure gas holder. Flows of 2,000 MCFH are handled in eight-inch lines discharging from small electricdriven pumps where the pressure is increased from near atmospheric to hundreds of pounds per square inch.
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Document ID: 7700540D

Hydrocarbon Measurement
Abstract/Introduction:
Over twenty years ago a plug valve was equipped with a pneumatic cylinder and a positioner and used as a monitor regulator. The concept was a new method of gas regulation and was the beginning of a new era. A midwestern utility used these plug valve regulators above grade with relatively good success. They believed, however, that a buried valve regulator would be more desirable than an above ground unit and would greatly reduce the cost of a station. Regulators of this nature were successful and proved to be the key to todays modern high capacity con trol stations.
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Document ID: BE080228

Magnetic Tape Recorders For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Robert L. Newsome, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
The traditional use of integrated paper charts to calculate mass flow is no longer considered sufficiently accurate for applications involving large volumes of high cost per unit volume gas. It is proposed that accuracy can be increased by using magnetic tape recorders in conjunction with electronic transducers for recording pressure, flow, and temperature data. A computer is required to translate the field data contained in the magnetic tape cassettes into engineering units and transmit this information to a data center computer for mass flow calculations.
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Document ID: 1C6D6319

Electronic Chart Scanning And Related Equipment
Author(s): Emile Farr
Abstract/Introduction:
The Electroscanner, as pictured in Figure 1, consists of two scan stations with an associated digital computer housed in one of the station cabinets. A different scan station is required for the integration of each type chart, i.e., American, Foxboro, or Rockwell. The instrument shown here will scan American or Foxboro charts. Temperature and gravity charts may also be scanned. The unit to be used at a given time may be selected by the operator. A front panel switch is provided for the selection. The optical scanner consists of a large rotating disk which contains several scan lenses, the number depending upon the geometry of the particular type chart to be read. This disk rotates above a revolving chart table, both being driven by a common synchronous motor. A small fluorescent light is used as a chart illuminator. Reflected light from the chart is collected by a scan lens and focused via a prism and mirrors onto the face of a light sensitive phototube.
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Document ID: 73C4FB97

LNG Densities For Custody Transfer
Author(s): Dwain E. Diller
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate LNG densities are required for equitable custody transfer contracts and operations. Mathematical models and direct reading densimeters for use on LNG type mixtures are being evaluated at the National Bureau of Standards. Accurate (0.1%) orthobaric liquid density data have been obtained for LNG components and their mixtures and are being used to optimize and evaluate four published mathematical models. A density reference system has been constructed and is being used to evaluate commercially available densimeters. Recent progress on these tasks is summarized and discussed.
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Document ID: 4EA8ACD1

Smith Meter Systems Division
Author(s): Philip D. Baker, Raymond J. Kalivoda
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to examine the application of Turbine Meters for liquid flow measurement. The focus will be on petroleum service but the principles can be applied to other industrial, chemical and commercial applications. To accomplish this objective the basic design and operation of Turbine Meters, and factors influencing their performance, will be discussed.
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Document ID: C83EE292

Singer-American Meter
Author(s): David m. Tunney
Abstract/Introduction:
Because of the very general nature of the topic, it is necessary to limit this relatively brief presentation to certain specific areas. Therefore, the following subjects have been chosen as pertinent to the topic: A. A short glossary of terms used commonly in discussing turbine meters. B. A review of the design that will include materials and construction. C. A discussion of the theory highlighting the basic mathematics involved. D. Some application notes which direct themselves to the basic theory. E. A brief summary which will include a list of suggested topics for additional background in gas turbine meters.
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Document ID: 9A30047B

Field Experience With Turbine Meters
Author(s): W. W, Moring
Abstract/Introduction:
Within the last few years, the in-line turbine meter has come to play a significant role in gas measurement. As turbines have come into wider use, problems have developed and solutions found as with all new equipment. This paper will present a broad view of turbine operations as practiced by our company. All areas of operation will be discussed including uses, results, testing procedures, installation, and maintenance.
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Document ID: 7397302B

Fundamentals Of Gas Pressure Regulators
Author(s): F. R. Loring
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have long been of vital mportance to the gas industry. Pressure is essenial to utilization of gas: high pressure allows conomical transportation over long distances to istribution networks operating at reduced presures, and regulators on individual services enable ccurate measurement and proper combustion. The origin of the first gas pressure regulator is ncertain in England, Samuel Clegg build a goveror in the year 1807 for controlling pressure in he gas plant at Lancashire. In America, the first atents for gas regulators were granted in 1884 to yron Reynolds and Louis Fulton. These early odels had leather diaphragms, and were of the eight-and-lever type.
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Document ID: 5A49A6F5

Fundamentals Of Bellows-Type Orifice Meters
Author(s): m. J. Sergesketter
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to control and direct the flow of :er was recognized at a very early stage in the elopment of c i v i l i z a t i o n . In Europe and Asia i be seen the relics of hydraulic works, some of at antiquity, which display a high degree of jineering accomplishment, the best known of ch are the aqueducts which the Romans b u i l t to ng water to their c i t i e s . In the c i t i e s of ipeii and Herculaneum can be s t i l l seen piping ch conveyed water to houses and gardens, and ch included o r i f i c e plates to act as flow lining devices, providing a basis on which the vice was charged to the consumer. These were i t a l l ed almost 2,000 years ago. Some of these :hniques were introduced to North America by lineers who accompanied the Spanish missionaries, i whose work can s t i l l be seen at some of the sions in California.
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Document ID: AAF35263

About Ishm 1977
Abstract/Introduction:
Collection of documents about ISHM including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, exhibitor and sponsor information, etc.
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Document ID: 7A5CECA1


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