Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (1977)

1976 Gas Search Highlights
Author(s): J. R. Sanders
Abstract/Introduction:
1976 was a year best characterized as an extension of prior years in terms of the petroleum industrys effort to find new supplies of oil and gas. The good news was that 9,045 wildcats were drilled with an improving success ratio that has prevailed for several years, I believe that this increasing success is due entirely to major improvements in geological and geophysical capabilities to find the smaller, deeper and more obscure reserves that remain to be discovered, as well as improved well completion technology. Additionally, increased prices both oil and gas has encouraged completions that would not have been commercial at old price levels.
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Document ID: C3B160A4

Sonic Meter Regulator Systems Development
Author(s): Donald R. A. Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
It is an exciting thing to be associated with a project that you truly value as an advance in the stale of the art. I believe the development of the digital flowmeter-regulator to be such a project. I have been privileged to watch and encourage the growth of this flowmeter-regulator project as it has developed at Process Systems. Inc. It has also been a privilege to have the friendship and encouragement of a wonderful group of people at the Southern California Gas Company-Dick Price. Herb Clark. G. J. Sandusky, their boss, and all of their associates, whose aid, advice and assistance we value so highly.
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Document ID: B98A5BC5

Abcs Of Developing A Notification System
Author(s): John Mcisaac
Abstract/Introduction:
On January 5, 1973, representatives of the Milwaukee Construction Industry Safety Council and the Associated Public Works Contractors requested that the public utililies in Milwaukee County, along with the City of Milwaukee, consider establishing a central telephone communication system to aid contractors in notifying underground facilities operators of their plans to excavate. Recently we were pleased to announce a program called the Diggers Hothne which began operating on January 5, 1976. At the conclusion of the first meeting with the contractors, a small ad hoc commitlee was set up comprised of a representative from each of the utilities and the Department of Public Works of the City of Milwaukee. I believe that because ihe initial request came from the contractor groups, it gave us additional impetus to reaching a conclusion in this matter. For one thing, we were committed to periodically reporting progress to these two groups.
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Document ID: C8137011

Gas Conditioning Necessary For Gas Transmission Systems
Author(s): W. F. Barker
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is a commodity found in underground reservoirs which is purchased, transported and sold by those in the gas transmission business. The principal use for natural gas is heating, and transmission companies are required to supply a product of sufficient heating value to meet the defined quality contract specifications. Raw natural gas as produced from the reservoirs may be composed of nearly pure methane gas or a conglomeration of constitulents of infinite combinations. Some of these constitulents reduce the heating value and some are detrimental to efficient gas transmission operations. Gas conditioning is necessary in order to transport a product that conforms to pipeline quality specifications. Gas conditioning is an all inclusive definition. It is a term applied to numerous mechanical, chemical and/or combination of operational processes each of which a lengthy paper could be written.
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Document ID: C461FB6E

Cathodic Protection Monitoring Of A Gas Distribution System Using Electronic Data Processing
Author(s): Robert A. Russo
Abstract/Introduction:
Shortly after World War II, CG&E began a major expansion of its gas distribution facilities to meet increased customer demand. This expansion was accomplished by the installation of approximately 1,600 miles of pipe, most of which was coated steel. We now have 2,300 miles of coated pipe in our system. Magnesium anodes were routinely installed on these mains to provide cathodic protection.
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Document ID: 8A7C2183

Materials Problems In Operating Sng Plants
Author(s): R. B. Setterlund
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of a supplemental natural gas (SNG) plant is to furnish a dependable supply of SNG at a reasonable cost. Hand-in-hand with this is the need for materials of construction that are also dependable and available at a reasonable cost. This balance of reliability and cost is especially critical in the new generation of SNG plants that will employ lower cost feedstocks such as residual oil, coal, and oil shale. The SNG plants having the greatest amount of operating history employ conventional materials of construction and. to a large degree, the process conditions are identical with those of the petroleum refining industry. These plants produce SNG from various liquid hydrocarbons in the naptha, or light gas oil, boiling range. These plants have on occasion suffered material failures that have caused unexpected or prolonged shut-downs.
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Document ID: 2E4C23FB

Sonic Nozzle Testing Of Domestic Meters
Author(s): Joseph A. Wager
Abstract/Introduction:
In discussing meter proving with various gas companies, much concern has been generated about the vast quantities of data manipulation required for meter proving. Everytime data is moved by humans, some errors arise. Other major concerns are the high cost of metershop improvements necessary to assure the highest obtainable results of meter testing accuracy, improper handHng of meters enroute to and from the meter shop, which has caused some damage and alteration of meter accuracy, both on in-test and unknown altered accuracy of those placed in service. On this basis, we felt a prover of integrity capable of accomplishing the above objections should be developed for field and shop use. The sonic prover can accomplish these criterias.
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Document ID: 1CC1D249

Erda Involvement In Gas Industry Related Research Programs
Author(s): David R. Israel
Abstract/Introduction:
The government role in energy research, development and demonstration poses some new and interesting questions. Specifically, R&D for ERDA is vastly different than that for the Department of Defense or NASA. In defense of space, for example, the government sponsor of the R&D is also the customer of the products of the R&D that is, the tanks. aircraft, missies, or spacecraft- This is nor true in the energy area. Here, the government does not buy the products it will not own coal gasification plants or gas wehs or fuel cells. Thus, the success of the R&D is the achievement of commercialization and production by and in the private sector.
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Document ID: 90DD5145

Use Of The Isam Program By Lone Star Gas Company In The Analysis Of Distribution Piping Systems
Author(s): Jimmy F. Gazzola
Abstract/Introduction:
In September, 1974, Lone Star Gas Company obtained a version of ISAM (Integrated System Analysis Model) from Arkansas- Louisiana Gas Company. This ISAM program was developed by Dr. M. A. Stoner, PH.D. who at the time was with Consumer Power Company of Jackson, Michigan, now of Stoner Associates, Inc., for the purpose of modeling gas piping systems in a steady state condition. The program, as obtained from Arkla, had to be modified to fit Lone Stars distribution system analysis requirements. Basically, it was necessary to convert from the original batch system input to an on line input/output timeshare computer terminal. further modifications were necessary to convert the flow and length units from those normally associated with transmission system analysis to distribution units, i.e. SMCFD miles to SMCFH - feet. In addition, the program was expanded to handle larger systems and to mathematically calculate specific ratios for all pipe segments. The specific ratio calculations permit easy location of system bottlenecks. Also, supplementary programs were developed to permit easier editing and filing of input data and to provide computer-drawn node diagrams.
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Document ID: 38A755C3

An Update On Gain
Author(s): Philip J. Mahla
Abstract/Introduction:
If I were to use one word to describe the current status of the GAIN Program, the word would be optimistic. We at A.G.A. are very optimistic about the current operation of GAIN and ihe many benefits received to date by both participating utilities and manufacturers. Since its inception in January 1973, the Gas Appliance Improvement Network has experienced reorganizational pains familiar to all new programs. I am pleased to report. however, that many of the original problems associated with GAIN have been overcome and that GAIN is now in a much better position to make a positive contribution tothe gas industrys continuing program of providing consumers with the safest, most efficient and trouble-free appliance possible. After all, consumer satisfaction with gas and gas appliances is one of the gas industrys primary goals.
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Document ID: 2DFC6D9F

Update Ansi B109 Committee
Author(s): Raymond G. Kremer
Abstract/Introduction:
To those not closely related to industry and its technology I suppose a fair question might be why do we need standards. To them, I might say, look around you and see what standardization has done. A very familar item around most homes is the lowly light bulb. You can buy them made by some of the major names in industry, or under brand names of some ol the larger retail outlets, or even under brand names you have never heard of. Yet a lamp of a particular type from any of these sources will fit an appropriate socket made by some other manufacturer. This is standardization at work, for only because there are specific dimensional tolerances for the screw threads of the lamp base and the socket it screws into, precisely defined in a standard, can this occur.
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Document ID: B1A77A15

Carbon Monoxide Removal From Compressor Supplied Breathing Air
Author(s): Daniel m. Vale
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years we at the Philadelphia Gas Works used air stream respirators with compressor supplied breathing air. Just prior to the issuance of Federal Standards under the Occupational Safely and Health Act we experienced an incident in which two employees using the respirators were overcome by carbon monoxide in the supplied breathing air. Fortunately, neither employee was affected seriously. Investigation of the incident resulted in finding carbon monoxide entering the air intake of the compresson from the compressor exhaust system. Following this experience, changes were made in the compressor design to further separate the exhaust from the air intake- Changes were also made in our compressor inspection procedures to prevent a reoccurrence. We continued to investigate methods that would assure the delivery of pure breathing air.
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Document ID: 0875FED1

Impact Of U.S. Department Of Transportation Policy Upon NFPA/ANSI 59A
Author(s): Wilbur L. Walls
Abstract/Introduction:
The U.S. Department of Transportation proposes to abandon its current policy of adopting NFPA/ANSI 59A by reference in Federal Regulations, with a body of specific provisions covering nearly all LNG facilities in the USA. The National Fire Protection Association believes that the current policy has demonstrated an exceptionally high degree of effectiveness and that neither DOT or anyone else has demonstrated that additional benefit to public safety will be likely to accrue by the proposed change in policy. NFPA further believes that there is a real risk that public safety will be reduced if the standard, its development NFPA Technical Committee and its national concensus standard supportive machinery is thereby forced out of existence.
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Document ID: BE590C35

The Corrosion Of Underground Pipelines By Plastic Tape Pipeline Coatings
Author(s): George m. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper reports on the history of plastic pipeline coatings since 1950, Plastic tape coatings will be discussed in terms of chemical composition, inherent chemical, electrical and physical properties and application techniques. The performance characteristics of the two types of plastic tape pipeline coatings in common will be discussed and contrasted. Also, the performance of plastic tape pipeline coatings will be compared to the performance of other types of pipeline coatings, such as coal tar enamel and epoxy thin film coatings. Finally, the in-service underground performance of plastic tape pipeline coatings will be presented by means of actual case histories on pipelines which have been coated with plastic tape during the past 20 years.
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Document ID: 79CA9CCE

Cooling Of Arctic Natural Gas Pipelines
Author(s): Graeme King
Abstract/Introduction:
Proposed Arctic natural gas pipelines have gas refrigeration facilities to stabilize the frozen ice-rich right-of-way. Without some means of cooling, the gas temperature of large scale Artic pipelines would cascade from station to station and reach unacceptable levels. Cooling facilities achieve large reductions in temperature and significantly increase the flow. The increase is enhanced by high operating pressures which, because of the non) ideal behaviour of natural gas, exaggerate the increase of density when the temperature decreases. The increase in flow more than counterbalances the cost of refrigeration, aircooling, and other special designs. Low gas temperatures make good economic sense as well as providing an environmentally acceptable solution to the problems of transporting large volumes of gas from the Artic.
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Document ID: 98D794A6

Potential Thermal Radiation From Relief Stacks
Author(s): G. J. Cripps
Abstract/Introduction:
Relief devices in distribution systems are designed to discharge gas into the atmosphere. This paper describes a method of estimating potential thermal radiation to objects in the vicinity should ignition of the gas occur, and the effect of relief stack design on this radiation. Designers of regulator stations and vaults with associated relief valves should take into consideration the intensity of the thermal radiation which could result from the accidental ignition of gas discharging from these reliefs. The purpose of this report is to calculate the intensities of thermal radiation associated with some relief-stack systems and lo develop a relief-stack design and location procedure which limits the possible thermal radiation.
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Document ID: DF10DFF9

A Total Distribution Work Management System
Author(s): Kenneth W. De Pontes, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
A Total Distribution Work Management System is an interconnected framework of computer based systems as manual based systems that provide management with the information necessary to plan and control all aspects of Distribution Work from conception to completion. The goal of such a system is to provide dependable customer service on time. and at the lowest reasonable cost. The Baltimore Gas and Electric Company has incorporated the basic processes and essential features of a Total Work Management System into some existing subsystems to accomplish this goal.
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Document ID: 839927E4

Decommissioning & Entry Of A 290,000 Bbl LNG Storage Tank
Author(s): John D. Murphy
Abstract/Introduction:
The widespread use of liquefied natural gas storage tank facilities has necessitated the development of procedures for decommissioning to effect reparis and retrofit work under safe conditions. The purpose of this paper is to present our experience and involvement in such an undertaking. During the latter part of 1975 Citizens Gas & Coke Utility approached POM with an operational problem. Citizens Gas had recently experienced a large evolution of gas commonly called rollover at their peak shaving plant located in Indianapolis, Indiana. This facility, constructed by PDM and commissioned in 1972, comprises a 290.000 BBL LNG storage tank, liquefaction and sendout systems. The LNG tank (Figure 1) is a conventional double wall tank with suspended deck.
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Document ID: 4FF86BC3

A Public Safety Educational Program
Author(s): Lowell V. Read
Abstract/Introduction:
Rames and instantaneous combustion, harmless but effective, are exciting teaching aids in the gas safety and utilization program of the Columbia Gas Distribution Companies. Using a one-person, portable lab, experiments that range from a soap bubble ignited in mid-air to a noisy discharge from gas ignited in a small container demonstrate and describe the various properties of both natural gas and propane. Audiences learn about the combustibility of the gases, as well as the BTIJ value, the specific gravity and the flammable limits of each. The necessity for sufficient combustion and ventilation air for complete safe burning of gas is demonstrated.
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Document ID: ACD8AEA5

Compressed Air Storage Comparison With Natural Gas Storage
Author(s): Donald L. Katz
Abstract/Introduction:
Compressed air storage in underground reservoirs is being examined by the electric utility industry as a way of storing night time energy for use in day time. A plant using air storage in salt cavities at Huntorf, Germany is about to be completed in 1977, This paper discusses how compressed air storage would operate for peak load shaving in electric power generation. Example reservoir designs are discussed to make a comparison with natural gas storage.
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Document ID: 6903698F

Service Contracts For Central Heating
Author(s): J. Gregory Davis
Abstract/Introduction:
We at Southern Connecticut Gas, after an intensive feasibility study, went into the residential central healing contract business. We started selling contracts in May of 1974. There were three basic reasons forourgoing into the contract business: 1. To institute a program that would promote a work load over which we would have the control of its execution. 2. To promote a profitable phase of service work which would be attractive to the consumer. 3. To extend our one call complete service policy. provide greater consumer satisfaction and balance the consumers major repair costs.
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Document ID: 5288B4B5

Transient Flow Simulation As A Training Aid For Gas Dispatchers
Author(s): Howard m. Boyer
Abstract/Introduction:
Training simulators have been used effectively for quite some time by operators of certain transportation systems. Notable among these are aerospace and railroads. The analogy of the gas transportation system implies similar needs and similar solutions for dispatcher training. A transient flow simulation program is a powerful resource that can be placed at the disposal of those involved in the dispatcher training function: The ability to test a wide range of operating scenarios, not possible with the real system, is the bonus. Specific attention is devoted to overcoming problems at the man-computer interface by using an interactive foreground program.
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Document ID: 0F0571F6

Energy Conservation Of Fuels Fleet Study Of Methods For Saving Fuel
Author(s): J. m. Lane
Abstract/Introduction:
At the May. 1975, EEI-AGA Transportation Meeting in Los Angeles, California. Jr. James K. OHara, the Detroit Edison Company, presented a paper relative to what our utility industry was doing in an attempt to reduce the consumption of motor fuel. The conclusions that were developed after analyzing the responses from the fleet managers in the utility area were as follows: 1. Primary attention is being given to the individual operator in the area of trying to conserve fuel. 2. That there is a definitive increase in the use of compact cars. 3. The utility fleet managers do look to the manufacturers to determine the fuel economy devices that should be incorporated into their vehicles. 4. That little is being done in the area of changing current maintenance practices to increase mileage and fuel requirements. 5. Changing specification for reducing vehicle weight or specifying different engines for fuel economy purposes is generally not being done. 6. The use of exotic add-on devices to obtain maximum fuel economy is not being done.
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Document ID: 3893AE11

In-House And Contract Maintenance Survey Summary
Author(s): Rudy Langston
Abstract/Introduction:
When this survey went out I knew that we were opening a can of worms! What I didnt realize was how large the can was, I was aware of the different methods of cost accounting, but I didnt realize that there would be 43 different answers from the 43 replies that were received from various investor-owned gas and electric utilities. I averaged it out as best I could and listed the minimum and maximum costs that were received so that you can study it and see how your company compares with other companies.
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Document ID: A2BF2A87

Effects Of State Environmental Noise Regulations On The Natural Gas Industry In Washington State
Author(s): Jack O. Wood
Abstract/Introduction:
Most of you are probably gas engineers or technicians that have spent most of your careers designing gas distribution systems within the classical constraints of maintaining service under peak demand, optimal long term installalion and maintenance costs, and assuring adequate return on capital investment. Under these constraints, design and construction of small and large district regulator stations: industrial and commercial metering facilities town borden stations local peak shaving facilities, like propane-air and underground storage facilities, were fairly straight forward.
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Document ID: 273659E8

The Influence Of Outdoor Weathering On The Performance Of Plastic Pipe
Author(s): Michael m. Epstein
Abstract/Introduction:
Most, if not all, gas distribution companies, store plastic pipe inventory out of doors. Depending upon the protection provided, the geographic location, etc, these materials will be subjected to a wide variety of environmental stress factors, including heat, extreme cold, ultraviolet light, moisture in its varied forms, and airborne pollutants. Periods of exposure probably vary from company to company, depending upon inventory and purchasing practices, but for many companies, the period of storage has probably increased in the last few years due to the slowdown in the rate of new service installations. In addition to this period of exposure, the pipe has probably also experienced a prior period of outdoor exposure in the storage yard of the vendor. The length of this early exposure period is usually unknown, but users frequently assume that outdoor exposure was initiated on the date of manufacture.
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Document ID: B9B6F2A8

Corrosion Control Training Programs And Materials
Abstract/Introduction:
The Corrosion Committee of the Operating Section of A.G.A. formed a Task Group in September of 1975 to review and list source information available and current thai could be used in Corrosion Control Training Programs. The stated scope of the Task Group was: To assemble materials and compile a reference list of books and available publications and where such information could be obtained, The Task Group was composed of Richard Niedbala, Michigan Gas Utilities Company James Mulhern, Henkels and McCoy, Inc. Guy Spearman, Atlanta Gas Light Company Kenneth Behrens, Washington Gas Light Company. The report conveys the tabulations available to date relating to publications, training courses and schools pertinent to Corrosion Control Program formulation and training, and nims.
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Document ID: 8AE6E38D

Operator Training Who Needs It?
Author(s): E. C. Richey, II
Abstract/Introduction:
One fact that is common to every company in the industry is the high cost of equipment maintenance and replacement. Improper use and abuse of equipment is a large contributing factor to these costs with a very limited amount of control being exerted in most utilities. With an increase in the activities of OSHA in the area of operator experience and traming, it appears to be an opportune time for use in the industry to initiate our own program while we still are not under the gun to satisfy a direct order from the government safety department.
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Document ID: A0AF236A

In-House Paving Vs. Contracting Pavement Repairs
Author(s): William G. Hickle
Abstract/Introduction:
It would be presumptuous of me to relate our successes in accomplishing in-house paving work with the inference that the methods used could lead to similar results for others. Instead, my only purpose for being here is to review the circumstances leading up to getting into the act, so to speak, the approach to the objectives, the experiences involving people and equipment, and of course what is felt are the benefits. The Columbus Division of the Central District is one of twenty-one Divisions within the Columbia Distribution System which serves 1,- 840,000 accounts in a seven state area. The Columbus Division operates 2,700 miles of mains serving 275,000 accounts in a 600 square mile area encompassing the City of Columbus and numerous surrounding communities.
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Document ID: E3799164

The Impact Of Fuel Cost On Compressor Station Design And Operation
Author(s): R. J. Reid
Abstract/Introduction:
Conservation of energy has become an economic necessity. Virtually all of us have personally felt the effect of rapidly increasing energy costs in the form of unusually high utility bills and gasoline prices. However, it is not widely recognized that the effect on the natural gas industry itself has been equally dramatic. Compressor fuel costs have soared, placing renewed emphasis on overall station efficiency. This paper represents a summary of the effect of higher fuel costs on compressor station design and operating philosophies.
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Document ID: 42CAA490

The Offshore LNG Facility 1977 Status Review
Author(s): Bill Terry
Abstract/Introduction:
We of the offshore ilk have been beating our drums to send the message of the favorable aspects of an offshore LNG liquefaction facility for several years now-not too successfully, I might add-not until recently, that is. I, personally, have been proposing the use of a floating offshore LNQ liquefacationfaciliy for over five years. Had the Kalingas project accepted the idea when we first proposed it to them they would have been ready to ship LNG to Japan at this time. I might also point out that the design that was proposed to them at that time is not changed today in any significant way except to replace the wetwall insulation system that was proposed in the first version with an accepted carrier containment system.
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Document ID: D8E16090

Measuring The Effectiveness Of Damage Prevention Programs
Author(s): Patrick D. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years, the owners of underground facilities throughout the country have been troubled with damages to their facilities as a result of excavations by others. The underground utility industry, recognizing the seriousne.ss of the damage problem, has developed and implemented many programs and procedures to reduce the number of these underground contacts and the subsequent public safety hazard. The programs which have been developed and implemented have been discussed indetail on many occasions across the country. Both papers and magazine articles have been published to describe the how tos of each program. This kind of documentation will continue to be helpful in promoting damage prevention. However, many of these programs have been fully implemented for five years and longer and should now be evaluated for their effectiveness in preventing damages.
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Document ID: 50A852B0

Predicting Pipeline Response To Buried Explosive Charges
Author(s): Osborne Lucas, Joe S. Taylor
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper reviews the work of the AGA Pipeline Research Committee in its effort to make available to the gas transmission industry reliable analytical procedures for predicting pipeline response to buried explosive charges. The basic problem of blasting within 100 feet of pieplines and the presently available knowledge is discussed. The justification for and initiation of the AGA Pipeline Research Committee Project No. PR 15-76. Blasting Effects on Pipelines, with Southwest Research Institute is covered in detail.
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Document ID: E059EBF2

An In-Shop Computerized Bell Proving System
Author(s): Norman Hammersly
Abstract/Introduction:
Those utilities removing gas meters under a performance oriented program have a strong financial interest in attaining the highest possible degree of meter proving accuracy. Utilities with large change-out programs should consider the use of a digital computer as an aid in improving accuracy of their provers. The cost of modifying individual provers with controls adequate to insure accuracy of proving can be greater than that of a central computer. Additional financial benefits are also available through use of the computer.
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Document ID: 2F81CEC1

One On One Dispatcher Training For Computer Systems
Author(s): H. James Angrick
Abstract/Introduction:
Before I explain the method we use at Wisconsin Gas to train our dispatchers on our new computerized data acquisition system I would like to tell you about our Company. Wisconsin Gas is the seventh largest independent gas utility in the United States. We serve 382,000 customers throughout the State of Wisconsin with the majority of sales in the metropolitan Milwaukee area. Michigan Wisconsin Pipe Line provides roughly 93% of our gas (710,000 MCF/day), Northern Natural Gas provides roughly 6% (36,000 MCF/day), and Midwestern Gas Transmission provides 1% (6,400 MCF/day).
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Document ID: 0D5CD8FD

Selected Operations Research Tools And Typical Applications
Author(s): Merle N. Mielke, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Northern Natural Gas Company utilities a substantial number of tools, both of a mechanical and an administrative nature to improve productivity. The tools from a relatively new discipline, operations research (OR), are slowly gaining acceptance and utilization in the operational and managerial functions. OR is finding use in depicting operational situations under different sets of conditions and facilitating the planning, decision making and control activities of management. Before delving into some of the OR tools currently being used, we should briefly explain what OR is. how it fits into the energy business, and where it is in the organizational structure at Northern.
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Document ID: 9F2DA700

No Lead Gasoline - Problem?
Author(s): W. G. Goninan
Abstract/Introduction:
Report of a survey taken to determine utility fleet experience using No Lead gasoline - presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers annual meeting in Detroit. Michigan, March 2. I977and the A.G.A. EEI Automotive Conference in New Orleans. Louisiana. May 2. 1977. This survey was undertaken at the request of the Utility Committee of the Society of Automotive Engineers and the Automotive Committee of the American Gas Association and Edison Electric Institute. The objective was to determine just how much and what types of difficulty utility fleet operators had experienced as they added vehicles which required No Lead fuel lo their large fleets. Survey questionaires were sent to 87 Gas Si Electric Utilities. We received 58 responses of which 58 were complete enough to he usable.
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Document ID: 6D104318

Training Of Customer Contact Employees
Author(s): Richard J. Oneill
Abstract/Introduction:
Utilities spend millions of dollars annually on the maintenance of their equipment. Meters are constantly being checked, trucks and automobiles tuned up, and mains renewed. Many hours and great efforts are devoted to these tasks, as they should be, in order to provide safe, adequate and proper service to our public but what about those other invaluable assets that do not appear on the balance sheet? These assets if not kept in top condition can cause inefficiency, waste, and the loss of tremendous amounts of money. I am referring to the people of any organization. The success or failure of a business is usually related to the skills, abilities, and desire of its employees.
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Document ID: 795EAF85

Computers Versus Charts At The Ngpl Stingray Interchange
Author(s): Richard J. Zielinski
Abstract/Introduction:
A comparison of volumes determined by computer vs. volumes calculated from meter charts. In 1973 Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America (NGPL)entered into agreements with Trunkline and United Gas to redeliver gas received by them from Stingray Pipeline Company. The offshore gas was gathered and transported to an on shore compressor station facility operated by Stingray. It was at this point that NGPl. accepted the gas for the accounts of Trunkline and United Gas Pipeline Companies.
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Document ID: 5EC551DE

Optimization Of Sng Plant Operations
Author(s): Charles P. Buckley
Abstract/Introduction:
During this past winter SNG plants proved their worth in alleviating and in some cases preventing, gas supply disruptions to consumers. With the good weather upon us it is easy for the consumer to forget the physical hardships of the winter, the mountainous snow drifts, the biting wind and the bone-chilling cold. But alas, it is not so easy for the consumer to forget the January gas bill, a significant portion of which is attributable to supplemental gases. SNG included. One of the things which is not entirely clear to the customers, is the effort that industry expends in optimizing the resources of its supplemental gas supply operations to minimize cost. This is what this paper is about, optimizing plant operations.
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Document ID: 0ED96F42

Evolutionary Line Of Meters And New Regulator Developments
Author(s): John R. Laughner
Abstract/Introduction:
Our major engineering efforts during the past several years have been concentrated on evolving significant improvements in the design, construction and operating characteristics of our product line of domestic meters. Last year, at this convention, we introduced the R- 200 domestic meter which was the first tnodel to incorporate the improved design. We initiated full-scale production of the R- 200 meter in January of this year and have subsequently added the R-275 and R-315 models. The main objective of the development project was to evolve a simpler design which would have lower operating differentials, fewer, more rugged parts, low-friction materials which resist corrosion caused by both present and anticipated gas mixtures, and be easier to repair.
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Document ID: 1778E740

Physical Interpretation Of A.G.A. 3 And A.G.A. 5
Author(s): Joe Agar
Abstract/Introduction:
It is a popular misconception to say that an Orifice Plate is a Volumetric Klow device, and density is required only for Mass Klow or for conversion of Actual volumetric flow to Standard Cub Feet. This paper shows the dependence of the Orifice Plate on the Density Meter, and explains the physical meaning of the various tables given in A.G.A. 3 and A.G.A. 5.
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Document ID: 8019BA8D

Fire Safety Aboard LNG Vessels
Author(s): J. R. Welker, L. E. Brown, J. N. Ice, W. E. Martinsen, H. H. West
Abstract/Introduction:
Cargo spill and fire hazard potential associated with the marine handhng of liquefied natural gas (LNG) were studied. Principal empahsis was on cargo transfer operations at receiving terminals, and more specifically, on the LNG tankers cargo handling and hazard sensing and control equipment and operations. Analytical procedures included historical (statistical) analysis of failure incidents for land-based and marine LNG operations and for operations with analogous cargoes, formal fault tree analysis of a composite LNG tankers cargo and hazard control systems,calculationof magnitudes of potential hazards, estimation of on-site (shipboard and immediate environs) risk of fire fatality for a range of spill sizes, and calculation of fire control capabilities provided by( I) regulation, (2) current shipfitting practice, and (3) a most effective, practical system. Despite present high quality standards of design, construction, and materials for LNG tanker cargo handling equipment, hazard control systems are necessary.
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Document ID: 6373F7BE

Pluses And Minuses Of Hydraulic Tools
Author(s): E. K. Knouse, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
In late 1975, a task force of the DC&M Committee undertook to measure the member companies interest in hydraulic tool systems and their experience with Ihe components of such systems. At the same time, we tried to assess the state-of-the-art at the manufacturing level and to measure the interest of manufacturers in providing the gas industry with hydraulic tool systems or the componcnis thereof Questionnaires were mailed to each of these two groups, and this paper is a summary report of the results. On analysis of the answers, it appears certain conclusions are valid. Other things appear likely but would require more extensive research to determine. I will attempt to put these in the proper perspective.
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Document ID: F1E244E9

Compatibility Of Noncorrosive Material For Gas Distribution Applications
Author(s): C. T. Kutschke
Abstract/Introduction:
Through the years the natural gas distribution industry has utilized, for piping materials. the most effective product available - consistent with current technology. We have all heard of the Chinese and their bamboo piping systems. A lot of us are familiar with a much more recent development than this wooden mains used during the manufactured gas era. These two piping materials worked very well under the operating conditions prevailing during their times. Now bamboo wouldnt stand up under normal distribution pressures, and wooden mains would leak like a sieve with the very dry gas being transmitted. The high moisture content of the manufactured gas kept the wooden mains sufficiently swelled to allow limited leakage at the low operating pressure.
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Document ID: 859D165B

Update-Automatic Meter Reading
Author(s): Joseph A. Wager
Abstract/Introduction:
The installation of the Darco Automatic Meter Reading System in Ashland, Nebraska was broken into two phases. Phase I - Feasibility of remote meter reading and transmission of data to centralized computer processing facility. This phase of the project was established to determine whether Darcos remote meter reading equipment can be used to read meters from a remote location, and whether or not these meter readings can be transmitted to Peoples Omaha headquarters via some communications media such that it can be separated into files by utility for billing purposes. In other words, the completion of this phase of the project would mean that the meters can be read from a remote location in the field and that the information can be stored and transmitted in some fashion to the Omaha Central Computer Facility forfurther processing. An analysis of the economics of this phase of the project will be made in terms of investment per customer, problems related to this procedure, etc.
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Document ID: 228852EE

Interchangeability Of Natural Gas And Propane-Air Mixtures
Author(s): J. L. Lucas
Abstract/Introduction:
The shortage of natural gas has created a situation where many gas utilities are using substitute natural gas (SNG) and imported hqucfied natural gas (LNG) to augment their supplies. Indications are that this will increase because of the large number of SNG and l.NG facilities being planned. Also, there are over 400 propane-air plants in operation by gas distibulion companies for peak shaving with the possibility that some will see future use for base load applications. The trend toward fuel gases different from traditional natural gas supplies has created a renewed interest in interchangeability - the ability of a fuel gas to be substituted for the gas normally used without interfering with the proper operation of appliances.
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Document ID: CD2F88D9

Mechanic Training And Certification
Author(s): Robert H. Arnold, H. C. Slane
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes a training program for garage mechanics that has been developed and implemented at the Tampa Electric Company. This training program includes requirements for mechanic certification by the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence. As an aid to those who may be interested in establishing a similar program, a detailed list of all courses along with the name and address of companies which supply the course materials is included.
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Document ID: D3DDDDE2

Architecture And Critique Of Specifications For A Pipeline Supervisory Control System
Author(s): A. m. Randolph
Abstract/Introduction:
A decision by United Texas Transmission Company to replace an existing Gas Control supervisory control system required that a set of specifications be drawn up to describe the desired systems to vendors for bidding. This paper describes the present system, the specifications prepared, the evaluation of bids received, recommendations made to management. and estimates the effectiveness achieved. A critique based on a grading of the specifications by the bidding vendors and an equal number of the authors peers in the gas pipeline industry, is presented. The purpose of this paper is to share an experience, not to suggest that the procedure followed is either good or bad, or that anyone else should follow this procedure. The author hopes that the information and comments will be of some use, or at least of interest, to those to whom it is addressed.
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Document ID: DE8B146B

The Gas Research Institute Gri() Is A Private
Author(s): Gene Lucadamo
Abstract/Introduction:
This report summarizes the experiences Brooklyn Union Gas has had inserting large diameter plastic pipe. Although we make reference to our experiences inserting 6 in (150 mm). 8 in (200 mm). iO in (250 mm) and 12 in (.100 mm) plastic pipe the report concentrates on our largest insertion project, the Maspeth Avenue Installation. It was felt thai the insertion of 12 in (300 mm) polyethylene plastic pipe through an existing 24 in (600 mm) cast iron casing would encompass all the basic techniques of large diameter installations. The report is divided into two major sections Design and Engineering, and Field Installation. The Design and Engineering section includes topics on the pipe design, anchoring the pipe, training personnel for fusing, qualification of the pipe and details of the design of the Maspeth Avenue job. The hield Installation section concentrates on the Maspeth Avenue job. but makes reference to a recent 8 in (200 mm) plastic job inserted into a 12 in (300 mm) cast iron main, simply to point out any similarities or differences to the 12 in (.100 mm) job.
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Document ID: 1D91EBC8

Training Of Gas Controllers In The Use Of A New Computer System
Author(s): R. W. Forsythe
Abstract/Introduction:
NI-Gas has used a computer for its Gas Control operations since 1960. In 1975, the decision was made to replace the existing computer and to move the Gas Control office to a new location. This paper will describe some of the methods used to provide the training necessary for the Gas Controllers in order to facilitate a smooth transition to the new equipment and location. Since we were already using a computer to assist in the operation of our system, and we did not significantly change any operating philosophy, the transition was not as great as it might have been if we were starting from scratch. Our department consisted of eight men, each working on a rotating schedule in order to provide two men on the day shift, two men on afternoons, (five days a week, with only one man on weekends), and one man alone on the midnight shift.
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Document ID: A39A62E1

Maintaining The Gas Industrys Role In The Nations Energy Future
Author(s): Harvey A. Proctor
Abstract/Introduction:
Im delighted to be with you here in St. Louis today. This year is clearly a critical one for the future of natural gas in the United States, so I welcome this opportunity to speak to the Transmission Conference of ourindustry. Just two weeks ago, AGA President Bud Lawrence spoke before the Distribution Conference. He and I share the desire to get the same message across to both of these important meetings of the Operating Section. President Carters new energy policy is sure to have a big impact on all of us -- regardless of what form the legislation takes when Congress has given it a final shape. Therefore, in the time I have with you this morning, I thought Id give you my views on the Administrations energy proposals, and explain some of the problems the Southern California Gas Company is experiencing in its quest for adequate supplies of natural gas. I think this should prove a useful exercise, as our worries are sure to echo some of your own.
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Document ID: A22712A0

Two-Inch Merbine Industrial Turbine Meter
Author(s): Richard D. Hannan
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper descirbes the advantages of the 2 Merbine turbine meter-RT2 Merbine. Users select this extremely compact and light weight turbine meter for maximum volumes up to 1,- 800 cubic feet per hour with a maximum pressure of 275 PSIG. It is currently used to measure the flows of natural gas, nitrogen and air. The most popular applications include: inplant metering of natural gas, fuel gas measurement of compressor engines and plant air measurement, The accuracy, built-in straightening vanes, minimum maintenance and top removable element are particular features the industrial customer desires.
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Document ID: 7DF71042

Pipe-To-Soil Potential Profile An Interference Solution
Author(s): Gerald E. Cox, Edward H. Holland
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to relate some of the experience encountered when trying to locate foreign contacts on a distribution gas pipeline located in a large metropolitan area, this is, a city with wall-to-wall pavement. In applying Cathodic Protection to an underground distribution gas system many problems are encountered. These problems such as uncoated fittings, holidays in the coatings, underground contacts and uninsulated meters must be corrected one at a time before the desirable potential shift can be achieved. The problems mentioned were refmed by our aged and experienced distribution crews, designed to haunt Corrosion Engineers.
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Document ID: D61CE98C

The Gas Industrys Program To Improve The Efficiency Of Space Heating Equipment
Author(s): Rollin R. Launder, Robert F. Robb
Abstract/Introduction:
The hardest and most severe winter in decades (during 1976-1977) precipitated a natural gas energy crisis through the eastern and mid-western sections of the Limited Stales. Energy conservation has become the most expeditiousiy pursued subject for legislators and regulatory bodies in all of the political arenas. However, energy conservation is not new to the gas industry, it is a very important and integral part of our business. Through energy conservation efforts, utilities are able to maintain comfort in the customers homes while reducing consumption and subsequently gas bills are kept at a minimum. Also, conservation of natural gas extends the gas supply to new customers.
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Document ID: 67C822EC

Ultrasonic Detection Of Internal Corrosion
Author(s): Ronald C. Peterson
Abstract/Introduction:
Holosonics, Inc. has developed an Ultrasonic Imaging System which simultaneously presents multiple three-dimensional images of either the near surface or the far surface of a pipeline wall. These fully interpreted images present the length, geometry, width, and depth of anomalies in the form of three-dimensional pictures which can consistently describe corrosion, pits, erosion/ corrosion, or the loss of material from the inner surface of the pipe wall. One of the several simultaneous image presentations, which can be either a B-Scan or a Multi-Line B-Scan (See Figs. 3 through 10). provide the investigator with the depth of the corrosion or the amount of pipe wall material remaining. These electronically sectioned B-Scan views may be accompanied by a digital numerical readout in thousandths of an inch.
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Document ID: BF9241A6

Multistage Compressor Configuration Analysis Utilizing The Computer
Author(s): L. W. Wurm
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry has utilized reciprocating, double acting compressor units since the very beginning of long distance transmission of natural gas. The vast majority of the compressors were of single stage design, until recently, and were utilized to overcome pipeline friction losses between mainline transmission stations or to compress gas from relatively high pressure well gathering systems up to transmission pressures. In more recent years, the declining reservoir pressures have continued to require higher and higher compression ratios to achieve mainline transmission pressures. The net result is that recent gathering area compressor unit additions have 2, 3, and even 4 stages of compression with the numbers of cylinders per stage also variable.
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Document ID: 7C0E36BD

A Distribution Companys Experience With Pipeline Odorized Gas
Author(s): Edward A. Lehman
Abstract/Introduction:
The Philadelphia Electric Company has received pipeline odorized gas for about 30 years from two sources. One supplier odorizes with a 75% TBM formulation and the other with 70% IPM. Neither mercaptan has been found to be sufficiently stable to resist pipeline fading. DMS, added as supplemental odorant at the rate of 0.5 lb/MMCF, has satisfactory overcome the fading problem. The author suggests that distribution companies receiving pipeline odorized gas install recording instruments to monitor the odorant content. request a high DMS blend rather than an all mercaptan odorant. and maintain the old odorizers at their gate stations in event that supplemental odorization is necessary.
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Document ID: CB731E53

Sng Plant Siting Study
Author(s): J. A. Turcotte, F. S. Glessner, J. R. Nagy
Abstract/Introduction:
The objectives of a siting study may be stated as follows: To find the most economic site which also meets fundamental environmental criteria The economics include consideration of possible delays in licensing due to environmental issues. To provide documentation of the selection process in order to demonstrate that reasonable alternatives have been considered, as is required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), To provide documentation of the factors considered, and their significance in the selection process so that changes in conditions can be readily integrated into the site preference findings.
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Document ID: B7FDAF5A

Preservation Of Inactive Compressor Equipment
Author(s): Norris Mcdivitt
Abstract/Introduction:
The approach to preserving inactive compressor equipment can be as varied as there are people considering the subject. One can go from the position of doing nothing to the units except allowing them to set in place or taking elaborate measures of preserving the equipment as if it were in a permanent state of deactivily. To establish our preservation philosophy, we listen to what other users were doing, look at our own demand to determine how soon we would expect a station or engine to be in service after the call for start-up was given, and from that, developed standards that we thought would maintain compressor engine integrity and would minimize the amount of time required to restore the equipment to service. It was our position to preserve equipment to the point where we could be on line with a unit with a 24-hour notice.
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Document ID: 1EEC1F16

Procedures For Gathering Loads For Distribution Design An( Update)
Author(s): Samuel I. Hyman, Gerald L. Laatsch, Lynwood S. Valor
Abstract/Introduction:
AI the 1961 Distribution Conference a panel presented the techniques then in use, or planned, for gathering load data for distribution system studies (DMC 61-24). The panel not only discussed the procedures for assembling loads, but also discussed the procedures for determining the individual loads, in addition, one of us (S.l. Hyman), presented a paper (DMC 60-37), on the procedure for determining the individual customer load. The purpose of the following discussion is to review the decade and a half experiences and to highlight the practical aspects which have been determined to be necessary over the years. We also are broadening the discussion by adding the experiences and practices of another group of gas system operators who have been kind enough to furnish us with the information about their practices as well as be represented on the panel.
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Document ID: 737B6884

Mini-Computers: Operations Panacea Or Status Symbol
Author(s): Roddy L. Story, George Dezevallos
Abstract/Introduction:
In the late 60s when the Nashville Gas Company along with the rest of the natural gas industry became concerned with impending supply problems, we began a series of investigations into alternative sources of supply, modern measures of regulating control systems and improved dispatching or forecasting techniques. After we investigated and then discarded cavern storage, Naptha, SNG and coal gasification as either being too impractical or too expensive for our needs, we decided in 1970 to concentrate our efforts into four areas where we felt we had the best opportunities for success:
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Document ID: BDB6A876

Under Water/Buried LNG Pipelines
Author(s): Bingham H. Van Dyke, Bernard C. Hanley, Joseph T. Sparling
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for a safe, practical and economically viable large diameter under water or buried pipeline for the transfer of massive quantities of LNG has long been recognized but to date none have been built, or committed. One concept was, however, demonstrated via a 10 inch aluminum under water prestressed pipeline of 4800 feel in length at Searsport. Maine for the ship transfer of liquid ammonia (ref 2) circa 1966. Several engineering and economic studies have been made and presented in the literature (ref 1-17) several patents have been granted (ref 18-21) and various design concepts presented: some of these have been refined and tested at considerable expense.
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Document ID: 6C2D28F9

Comparisons Compact Vs. Subcompact Vehicles
Author(s): Richard C. Rose, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
I dont know who T. H. Thompson is but will take the liberty of quoting him. He said, Be kind, remember everyone you meet is fighting a hard battle. With that firmly implanted in your minds I think the best way to begin my talk today is with a bit of history of small cars in America. Compacts and subcompacts are not new to the American scene. Starting with the introduction of the first automobile in 1896, and until the present time, the automobile industry has continued to build bigger and more luxurious cars. However, during this time there have been a number of attempts to market small cars. These Cars were built by many companies that either no longer exist or have merged with or been purchased by one of the now big three. In 1927 the little Marmon8was produced. This was followed in the thirties, to name a few. by the Americar, the Whippet, the American Austin and the Bantam. Due to the great depression and World War 11 nothing new appeared on the market except one manufactured by a radio manufacturing company.
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Document ID: B9B02E96

A Medium Pressure Gas Stopping Method
Author(s): B. J. Flood
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the recent development in tlow stopping technique in the United Kingdom. The several forms of Iris Stop System are described, including those which extend its range to 60 Ibf/in for some main sizes. The economic advantages of this equipment, its method of manufacture and quality assurance are described. The work carried out by the British Gas Engineering Research Station developing and testing equipment such as bag stoppers, bag tubes and support shoes, drilling and tapping machines, and in writing specifications is explained.
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Document ID: 80853E32

Plastic Pipe Transitional Tie-In
Author(s): Robert P. Winchester
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation summaries Columbia Gas Distribution Companies tie-in philosophy. It starts by correlating and evolves it into field installation practices and material selection.
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Document ID: 3966A594

Effectiveness Of Fire Resistant Coatings Applied To Structural Steels Exposed To Direct Flames Contact, Radiant Heat Fluxes, And Mechanical And Cryogenic Thermal Shock
Author(s): Harold R. Wesson, Jerry L. Lott
Abstract/Introduction:
The rapidly growing acceptance of fire resistant coatings for thermal protection of structural steels, flammable product storage tanks, pressure vessel support structures, and other applications has placed this unique fireproofing concept in an approved position for extensive usage in the area of exposure control for structures that could be exposed to direct flames impingement, free burning plus pressure torching conditions, and/or prolonged periods of high intensity radiant heat fluxes. The inherent reliability and low maintenance costs for this passive concept of exposure protection, together with the low performance level of conventional water cooling systems under flame engulfment and/or high pressure impinging or torching-type fire conditions, have also given these fireproofing coatings a very high cost-effective, or cost-benefit, characteristic for high heat intensity applications. These type coalings are also finding applications where simultaneous low temperature (cryogenic liquid impinging conditions) and high temperature (flames contact conditions) protection is required for the structural steels in l.PG. LNG. and SNG facilities.
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Document ID: D81B2C1D

Progress Report On A.G.A. Study Of Heat Exchanger Corrosion By Air Contaminants
Author(s): Frank E. Belles, Edward Macanga, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Candidate heat-exchanger materials expected to be more resistant than the commonly used 10l0 steel to the accelerated corrosion caused by halogen-containing air contaminants were screened by laboratory tests. These tests identified fourteen materials which are ten to a hundred times more resistant. Three were selected for fabrication into heat exchangers, which will be subjected to severe cyclic furnace operation in the final phase of this project.
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Document ID: 2E7B5366

Developing And Motivating The Shift Worker In Todays Changing World Of Work
Author(s): Robert m. Frame
Abstract/Introduction:
In structuring this mornings session on training, the Gas Dispatching Committee focused on current problems associated with training and motivating employees assigned to shift work in a time of social change. Among other items of concern the committee identified were: changes in job attitudes, with an increasing interest in leisure: less tolerance of conflicts between work schedules and outside activities: young people being more inclined to switch jobs for greater fulfillment and not Just pay and problems associated with motivating employees to full capacity.
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Document ID: 02682158

Polyethylene Valves For Natural Gas Distribution Service
Author(s): Earl A. Bake, E. Frederick Schoeneweis
Abstract/Introduction:
Increasing use of polyethylene pipe in buried natural gas mains and services has had a major impact on gas distribution valve requirements. Iron and steel valves which have been used satisfactorily for decades present some new problems when used with polyethylene pipe. First, transition fittings are required to adapt metal valve to polyethylene pipe. Second, buried metal valves and adaptors may compromise the corrosion resistance of an otherwise all plastic system. Third, valve operating torque may require special attention to avoid excessive strain oii plastic pipe.
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Document ID: 32563FA2

Dispatchers View Of Computerized Custody Transfer Meter
Author(s): Robert E. Chapman, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas system pipeline Dispatcher knows well the advantages and efficiencies gained from a computerized operating system. This presentation offers additional efficiencies to be gained if computerised custody transfer billing occurred concurrently with system operation.
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Document ID: 7D33CA85

Ignition Systems - Retrofit
Author(s): George Kornienko
Abstract/Introduction:
Early in 1976 Brooklyn Union Gas and the New York State Public Service Commission submitted a proposal to the Federal Energy Administration that provided for pilot retrofitting on a random sampling of 1,700 one and two family home heating systems. The project was to be funded by a research grant of 146,500 from the FEA. In April. Brooklyn Union received approval of the proposal to conduct a program to determine the gas saving potential and cost effectiveness of replacing standing gas pilots with pilotless ignition systems in residential gas heated homes. In conjunction with the selection of customers I thought it might be interesting to take you on a brief lour of Brooklyn to familiarize you with our franchised area. You will find our territory is greatly diversified in the type of construction, population density and working conditions in the field.
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Document ID: 714BBF58

Vapor Dispersions And Risk Analysis
Author(s): J. T. Kopecek
Abstract/Introduction:
The study determines the risk to which the general public is exposed from the importation of liquefied natural gas to the receiving terminals in Los Angeles Harbor. Oxnard and Point Conception, California. Briefly, a description of the project follows. The study considered two project levels: first, a maximum potential delivery rate of 4 billion cubic feet of natural gas per day. At this level. the facility will consist of 4 LNG storage tanks each with a capacity of 550,000 barrels. To supply this rate. 565 ship deliveries per year will be required. The other levels considered were 400 (Los Angeles) and 550 (Oxnard) million cubic feet per day. For this level, only two storage tanks are required and 52 ship deliveries per year are necessary for Los Angeles and 75 for Oxnard. The ship that was considered in the study is the largest ship contemplated which will be bringing liquefied natural gas to Southern California. This ship can hold up to 165,000 cubic meters of liquefied natural gas in six separate tanks. These tanks are of a membrane design and surrounded by a secondary containment system. The six tanks are within an inner hull structure which is about seven feet inside the hull of the ship.
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Document ID: F5070D35

An Emergency Shut-Off Valve Esv() A Progress Report
Author(s): Raymond A. Day
Abstract/Introduction:
Control of gas flow is essential for the safe operation of underground gas distribution piping systems. It positive shut-off on a customer service line is required -such as during an emergency- a gas utility may currently employ one or more of a number of ways of controlling gas flow, such as: . . . Operating a curb valve (stop) or. . . . Operating a meter slop, or . . . Operating a saddle lapping tee ai the service line connection on the main, or . . . Squeezing off a plastic service line In an effort to provide another alternative method- an improvement upon current techniques-a remotely-operated multifunction emergency shut-off valve (ESV) has been designed, fabricated and tested. Models of the new design are undergoing laboratory testing, while others are being installed on a pilot basis on plastic service lines by a gas utility lo evaluate performance in the field. This is a progress report on the design and testing of prototype and production model ESVs that will provide a quick, positive shutoff on gas service lines at the main without having to excavate.
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Document ID: 2FBBBE2C

Four Years Of Gas Househeating Experience
Author(s): J. J. Drechsler
Abstract/Introduction:
This spring marks the fourth anniversary of the Baltimore Gas and Electric Companys entry into the househeating maintenance plan field. In this short span of four years, we have increased our sales from 50.000 contracts to 92,000 contracts, represently ,15% of all single family gas-heated dwellings on our system. This growth was the result of our organisations ability to expand and change in order to meet the challenges of improved customer service and satisfaction at a reasonable and fair price. Today. I would like to review some of our successes, as well as some of our failures that we experienced during this expansion, in the hope that you can avoid the same problems when you decide to increase or start your own househeating maintenance plan system. This presentation is divided into two parts. The first part deals with the history, past and present, of the systems methods how we acquire our customers, how we organize our records, and how we renew our contracts. The second part deals with the coverage itself what is and is not covered under the plan and sone of the service problems that arose because of our coverage.
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Document ID: 3DA4DE67

Corporate Dollar Savings Through Materials Management
Author(s): J. Dennis Day
Abstract/Introduction:
We shall initiate our discussion of materials management by reviewing a typical materials management cycle in the utility industry, Exhibit I indicates that the cycle is actually a closed-loop process, beginning with a request to acquire material and proceeding through the placement of the purchase order, receipt of material, storage of material and the issue of material until there is a need to reorder again. All of the activities shown in solid circles are materials management functions those in the dotted circles are interface areas. Exhibit I reflects considerable information. First, it notes the strong interface between stores activities and the purchasing function. Second, the upper right hand portion of the exhibit depicts a material requirements planning process, which generally requires interaction with and input from other organizations like engineering, operations, construction and maintenance departments and sales departments.
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Document ID: D87F0CF5

Oil Analysis
Author(s): Roy P. Dwyer
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most rapidly advancing fields in automotive and equipment technology is engine lubrication. Within the past two years. several major oil companies have introduced super premium oils formulated for 50,000 miles of service. Improved engines, lubricants, cleaner-burning fuels and electronic ignition systems are making it possible for car, truck and equipment manufacturers to increase the intervals between scheduled maintenance. Preventive or schedule maintenance is the key, the essence of fleet management. As fleet manager, most of our time is spent in establishing and monitoring the effectiveness of our fleet maintenance programs. Each of us can speak at great length on the effectiveness of our individual maintenance programs and prove much by showing a minimum of engine failures and repairs. We say it. and believe we are right, however, are we really squeezing every penny out of the maintenance dollars entrusted to us by our companies?
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Document ID: 9B714020

Legal And Audit Impact On Automated Measurement
Author(s): V. J. Blanchet, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
My report to you this morning is brief and supplemental in nature to the basic program that has been presented. I think the best place to begin is with some background. As we know, gas companies employ various telemetry and computer systems to inform the dispatcher of gas flow rates and volumes. At the same time, the official determination of gas volumes for custody transfer is made in a separate procedure involving chart integrations several days or even weeks after the fact. The two quantity determinations, disptach and custody transfer do not agree. In mid-1975 an AGA Joint Force on Automated Measurement issued a report. One of the conclusions of that report was that two different determinations of the same flow will always lead to differences and that the only way to eliminate the differences is to employ a single train of instruments and calculations to produce a single result which is used for both operations decisions and custody transfer.
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Document ID: 07A4F9CC

Cathodic Protection Vs. Pipeline Casings
Author(s): m. D. Orton
Abstract/Introduction:
Historically there has been disagreement between pipeline operators and highway and railroad commissions regarding the need for pipeline casings at highway and railroad crossings. In the early 1960s there were several papers published which questioned the need for casings at every crossing. Both mechanical and corrosion aspects were considered. 1.2.3.4.5. The general consensus was that pipelines could be designed to withstand mechanical stresses safely without casings and that casings could, in fact, interfere with the abilily to maintain adequate corrosion control on piping within casing. At about the same time, FGandE removed a transmission pipeline from a casing to repair a leak. When our investigation began we found the end seal removed and the excavation and annular space between pipe and casing filled with water. The casing was adequately insulated from the pipe but it was not known whether the casing was bare or coated or how long the casing annulus had contained water.
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Document ID: 39D277BB

Making Good Use Of Observation Wells In Gas Storage
Author(s): Donlad L. Katz
Abstract/Introduction:
Observation wells are the instruments for measuring pressures in the gas storage ?,one as well as the water bearing zones surrounding the stored gas. Suggestions are made as to the types of observation wells which should be provided to monitor the full system involved when gas is stored underground. Recommended measurements are detailed to provide data not only for operations for inventory verification of the stored gas. Uses of the data are described to prevent gas losses and to assure that all is well in an operating s reservoir. Held measurements on observations welis are basic to storage operations. The monitoring of where all injected gas moves in the earth and verifying the inventory of the storage gas both depend upon reliable day to day well pressure measurements. The location of appropriate observation wells depend upon ones concept of the complete system under consideration.
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Document ID: C053D15F

Presentation To The American Gas Association Distribution Conference
Author(s): Morris J. Turner
Abstract/Introduction:
I appreciate the opportunity to represent the Department of the Interiors Alaska Pipeline Office in addressing the American Gas Associations Distribution Conference. My address will consist primarily of a slide presentation depicting our experiences and several of the technical and ecological problems and solutions associated with the Trans-Alaska Pipeline. I hope to leave you with some thoughts and suggestions as to what the Natural Gas Industry may wish to consider when contemplating construction and operation of gas transmission lines in arctic and subarctic environment. The Prudhoe Bay crude oil and natural gas field encompasses an area of about 300 square miles which represents less than fivehundredths of a percent (.05 percent) of Alaskas 586,000 square mile land area. The trans-Alaska pipeline itself covers only 12 square miles of Alaskan terrain.
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Document ID: 585290E2

Survey Of Computerized Originated Reports For Controlling Field Operations
Author(s): Edward W. Bercofski
Abstract/Introduction:
When the Customer Service Committee members were asked to submit subjects for presentation at the 1977 Distribution Conference, my first interest was to learn how some of the other companies were using the computer to generate control reports to learn more about their field operations and performance. At a later meeting in preparation for the Conference, the Program Committee studied all the suggestions as offered by other Committee Members, and it was noted that other Committee Members had expressed an interest in computerized reports, which resulted in this subject being recommended to be a part of the program this morning. I volunteered to collect the information and present a report at this conference since it was a splendid opportunity for me to receive reports for study which would also assist me in one of my present responsibilities as the department co-ordinator for computer applications within our Customer Service Department.
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Document ID: 715FBD2C

Deep Water Pipelining Progress And Projections
Author(s): J. C. Lochridge
Abstract/Introduction:
Offshore pipelining has progressed from the 300 foot depth range to nearly 600 feet in the past four years. The capability now exists in the industry to lay pipelines in water depths in excess of 1000 feet. Pipelines are being projected for 2000 feet of water, and in at least one case. 6000 feet of water. This paper reviews some of the techniques that have been developed to bring the industry to its present capability, and discusses some of the problems and proposed solutions for work. in the greater water depths.
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Document ID: C9FDEBCF

Technical And Economic Considerations Related To Cathodically Protecting Bare Steel Mains Distribution( Systems In Non-Stray Areas)
Author(s): Norman R. Thresher
Abstract/Introduction:
Historically, decisions made by operators of distribution systems throughout the United States regarding existing bare steel pipe fall into these general formats 1. Use leak detection and repair or replace piping as corrosion takes its toll. 2. Use leak detection and install an anode with each leak repiiir to mitigate local cells and adverse effects created during installation of lamp repair. 3. When feasible and physically possible, use electrical surveys to locate areas of active corrosion and anode to mitigate corrosion attack on segments of piping. 4. Develop a program that will result in cathodically protecting bare piping which is economically feasible to protect, Formats I and 2 are referred to as maintenance programs while formats .T and 4 are called preventative maintenance. Combinations of any or all of the four formats are also possible and offer a freedom of decision which can be confusing to the uniformed man in the field.
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Document ID: 8CB2ABDD

Emergency Gas Outage Procedures
Author(s): Robert H. Regester
Abstract/Introduction:
Discussion of Federal Requirements under the Materials and Transportation Bureau, Department of Transportation, Part 192. Transportation of Natural and Other Gas by Pipeline: Minimum Federal Safety Standards Section 192.615 Emergency Plans. Compliance methods including definition of and approach to controlling emergencies field procedures and organization emergency headquarters in rental and mobile field offices and the use of the media to enlist public cooperation.
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Document ID: 37C66203

Implementing Local Computer Control Of Compressor Stations Installation, Operation And Maintenance
Author(s): F. Farmer
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper examines the criteria used in hardware and software selection for minicomputers for control of compressor stations on the TransCanada PipeLine System Also, in this paper, we examine the installation, operation and maintenance aspects of these systems. Before we examine the above, let us define what jobs these systems perform. Basically the computer systems are designed to carry out the following functions: a) Compressor station control b) Local information display c) Data gathering for Telemetry purposes
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Document ID: A3909992

Current Status Of Solar Combined Cycle Development
Author(s): C. L. Schwam
Abstract/Introduction:
As an Industrial Gas Turbine Manufacturer, Solar has been working for several years to identify viable methods of offsetting rising fuel costs and the ever increasing emphasis on energy conservation. This effort resulted in the initiation of a Combined Cycle Systems Development program for the Centaur-size (3830 horsepower ISO) gas turbine engine. Since the development program began early in 1975, cycle fluid selections has been made, a preliminary system design has been completed. and key component rig testing is in progress. An improvement in thermal efficiency from 26 to 39 percent for the combined cycle power plant over the simple cycle gas turbine is currently indicated. The program schedule provides for a prototype Centaur Combined Cycle Package available for initial field evaluation during 1979.
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Document ID: 4F70DE87

Evaluating The Physical Properties Of Salt Associated With Design Of Salt Cavities For Natural Gas Storage
Author(s): H. Reginald Hardy, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
There is little doubt that in the next twenty years, the utilization of cavities, from which salt has been extracted by conventional or solution mining techniques, will play a vital role in supporting the growing energy and environmental demands being placed on America, Unfortunately, although salt has been studied for many years by geologists and geophysicists, a review of the world literature indicates that the necessary expertise for designing, constructing and stability monitoring of engineering structures constructed in salt is extremely limited.
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Document ID: 60CDB2AA

Research On Polyolefins For Natural Gas Piping Systems
Author(s): R. V. Devore
Abstract/Introduction:
Accelerated laboratory test methods that have been employed in aging and butt fusion joint studies at Elattelles Columbus laboratories are surveyed. Initial work on the new macromolecular-physical property correlation for polyolefins to identify the distinguishing characteristics of good piping materials is reported, finally. plastic pipe research conducted under A.G.A. university grants will be described.
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Document ID: 7670460F

Equipment Replacement For Reduced Fuel Consumption
Author(s): B. L. Lloyd
Abstract/Introduction:
With the fuel shortage becoming more and more evident each year, it is making everyone more conscious of fuel conservation. With this thought in mind. Southern Natural Gas Company decided to replace one of their Cooper- Bessemer Type RT-25B 2500 BHP gas turbine drives. This unit was being operated as a base load compressor unit with a yearly operation of approximately 80%. This turbine drive unit was replaced with a more efficient reciprocating engine driving the same centrifugal compressor through a speed increaser. This paper discusses the problems associated with installing and the results of this project.
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Document ID: F3D871E3

Third Party Damage
Author(s): James. F. Ahern, Thomas J. Cusworth, Arthur T. Everham, George S. Uihlein, W. Earl Lawson
Abstract/Introduction:
Statistical data included in the annual reports published each year by the Office of Pipeline Safety show that during the past several years, of alt the pipeline failures reported, approximately 60% are a result of damage by outside forces. These statistics are not surprising to most gas company operators. they just substantiate with responsible data a major problem area of which we have long been aware.
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Document ID: D44B6D13

Georgia Coordinate Mapping Project
Author(s): G. W. Burkett
Abstract/Introduction:
A number of gas companies have taken a giant step in interactive graphics and computerized mapping. Atlanta Gas Light Company has taken a small first step to obtain a base map gridded to the geographical plane coordinate system for the State of Georgia. The production of planimetric maps from aerial photographs is perhaps elementary to many of you. However, the Georgia Coordinate Mapping Project is unique due to the fact that it is the first example of community cooperation in mapping and land data generation between utilities, city and State Department of Transportation. The Georgia Power Company, City of Atlanta, State Department of Transportation, Southern Hell Telephone Company and Atlanta Gas Light Company expressed interest in obtaining an accurate map of the Atlanta area with a common base. A committee was formed in 1973 to study such a project.
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Document ID: C31BEDB0

Mini Gate Station Design In Urban Streets
Author(s): Coby m. Hoffman
Abstract/Introduction:
Two years ago, because of upcoming changes in system operations and facility retirements. Brooklyn Union changed the design philosophy of its gate stations. The mini gate station does not include gas heating, supplementary odorization or accurate metering, but allows flow/control capabilities similar to previously constructed stations. Included are a number of unique features such as prefabricated steel regulator vauhs resulting in watertight integrity, station installation in sidewalks allowing greater flexibility in station location and the use of a hydraulic pump/motor system for station outlet pressure adjustments through a remote control telemetry system. Despite its reduced size and cost, this design incorporates maximum overpressure protection consistent with Brooklyn Unions long standing requirements.
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Document ID: 871A0555

Add-On Sectionalizing Valves For Medium-Pressure Systems
Author(s): George m. Long
Abstract/Introduction:
Demonstration models of two add-on valve devices are described with illustrations showing installation methods. As designed and built at the Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, these valve devices can be cut into existing medium-pressure gas (or other fluid) distribution systems without the use of stoppers or interruption of flow. These devices should thereby reduce costs of sectionalizing existing systems as outline in 192.181 Federal Standard.
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Document ID: CB809CA2

Dot - Opso Regulations State Of The Art
Author(s): Charles W. Salmon, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The Impact of mandated corrosion control practices fell by gas transmission and distribution companies since The National Pipeline Safety Act was passed in 1968 has been considerable, Even before the Requirements for Corrosion Control, 49 CFR Part 192 Subpart 1, were issued there was considerable activity. When Subpart I was published, in August. 1971, the rush to compliance really began. Companies who did not have corrosion control programs either established them or retained consultants or both. All of us, with few exceptions, expanded our efforts. Electronic data processing for corrosion records became a hot item. Training programs for corrosion and operating personnel were established or expanded. Corrosion control personnel became short in supply. Shortages of corrosion control materials also developed. All of this was happening at a lime of staggering escalation in costs of money, materials and labor.
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Document ID: 53D4B213

Effects Of Entrained Liquid On Orifice Meter Measurement Of Gases
Author(s): C. V. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
In the measurement of natural gas in field operations using the conventional orifice meter, all of the factors used in the calculation of flow are based on the assumption that the gas is dry. This condition is rarely the case in field measurements. The A. G, A. Committee Report No. 3, does not give any information on data regarding the effect water and/or distillate may have upon gas measurement by the orifice meter. It was in this area of gas measurement that graduate engineering students at Texas A&I University, Kingsville, Texas, have conducted research operations in the laboratory and in the field.
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Document ID: E4A95E53

Experience In Metrication Of Plastic Gas Distribution Systems In The United Kingdom
Author(s): J. T. Harrison
Abstract/Introduction:
The paper reviews the political, commercial and technical reasons behind the decision to metricate plastic gas distribution systems in the United Kingdom. Progress of metrication from 1973 to late 1975 is described, together with those developments which were a direct consequence of the decision to metricate, namely rationalisation of pipe sizes, development of new specifications for plastic pipe systems and central purchasing of same. The planning required for the successful implementation of metrication at a Regional level is related particularly to the experience gained in the Scottish Region.
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Document ID: CE9B3440

Cost Management For Construction Projects
Author(s): R. T. Ocallaghan
Abstract/Introduction:
Not a great deal has been written about Construction Cost Management, but you may have heard some say it is incomprehensible, it is highly controversial or it is not our function. Since property and plant represents the largest, most imponant asset of your Company and is of particular interest to special groups, creditors and investors, we feel there is a need for more efficient management of the extremely large expeditures required for construction projects. What do we mean by Construction Cost Management? By definition. Construction Cost Management. as it relates to project work, is the reporting, controlling and analysis of cost factors together with the compilation of other related information for the ultimate purpose of completing the project on schedule at the least cost, consistent with acceptable operating standards.
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Document ID: 4119538D

Solar Energy And Energy Conservation
Author(s): William F. Rush
Abstract/Introduction:
The supply of solar energy is practically inexhaustible and practically non-polluting. Todays collection, storage, and utilization technology is at the stage that, in the short term of the next 10 to 20 years, solar energy can be applied in the heating and cooling of buildings as well as in heating water. These applications account for about 25% of todays total energy consumption in the United States. Further, if a rational program can be adopted, reasonable projections indicate that by the year 2000, energy savings in fossil fuels can reach 170 billion kWhr while the value of such savings in 1970 dollars would be 4.5 billion/ yr, Despite the apparent desirability of achieving these goals, many factors will affect the rate at which it is achieved.
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Document ID: 0EB1C013

Update Of Utilities Service Practices And Service Charge Policies
Author(s): A. J. Morphey
Abstract/Introduction:
A summary of the results of a recently complete survey of the Service and Service Charge Policies and Practices of twenty-seven companies represented on the Customer Service and Utilization Committee. This summary reviews overally survey responses of participating companies in the areas of: Appliance Installations, Restrictions of Service, Service Availability. Scheduling of Field Service. Average Arrival Times. Scope of Services Offered, Charges to Customers and Work Load Analysis.
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Document ID: 86AF03A0

Cementing Techniques And Materials For Gas Storage Wells
Author(s): D. G. Calvert, C. F. Parks
Abstract/Introduction:
Although it has been common practice for many years to cement gas storage wells, it became evident in the early 1960s that a problem of gas leakage at the cement-pipe and cement-formation interface might be occurring. This problem was taken in consideration by the operating and cement service companies. The investigation of the problem led to use of improved cementing techniques and materials which allowed the industry to achieve much better completion of the gas storage wells. This paper discusses the latest cementing techniques and materials and relates their selection to specific well conditions. Chemical Seal Ring, a unique cementing system is also discussed.
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Document ID: 1DA056E4

Shielded Ignition
Author(s): Haskel T. Powell, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
I am delighted to have the opportunity to speak to you at this meeting of the A.G.A. 1 will be relating Gerhardts Inc..s experiences with the various shielded ignition systems offered by the different ignition manufacturers. My presentation will show.withthe use of slides from American Bosch. Bendix and Champion Spark Plug Manufacturers, shielded ignition availability. (See Figures t and 2for American Bosch, Figures 3 and 4 for Bendix and Figure 5 for Champion). There are other manufacturers of shielded equipment (Altronic and Fairbanks Morse, as well as Spark Plug Manufacturers, BG and Stitt), however, time will not permit us to examine each and every design.
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Document ID: BFA3CB73

Designing Instruments To Keep Out The Wrong People
Author(s): Daniel R. Fulton
Abstract/Introduction:
Increasing incidence of diversion of service prompts this manufacturer of gas related instruments to offer features which make tampering difficult to accomplish. If tampering in fact occurs it becomes evident to the meterman. This paper presents the features of Mercury Instruments recording gauges. volume recorders and volume correctors which discourage tampering.
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Document ID: CB4AB239

The Outer Continental Shelf - Blueprint For A Legal Armageddon?
Author(s): Hugh Garner
Abstract/Introduction:
Perhaps a word of explanation for the title to this paper is in order. In Biblical Prophecy, the Armageddon is the scene of a battle between the forces of evil and good predicted to occur at the end of the world. The battle 1 perceive is now in progress-not on the plains ol Meggido. but just off shore on the outer continental shelf and its occuring not necessarily at the end of the world but surely at the end of a way of life we in the United States have known and enjoyed for generations. The ideas that are in contention have application far beyond the outer continental shelf (OCS) rather, they can be employed in new legal forums as the contest moves to the on-shore areas.
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Document ID: DC69BD42

A New Technique To Help Field Personnel Locate The Source Of Wall Discoloration
Author(s): Ronald G. Draftz
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultraviolet light was used to examine discolored walls and locale the cause of their discoloration. This technique not only helped to locate the source of the discoloration, but was useful in demonstrating that the cause was not due to gas combustion. Several case histories are described in this paper wilh suggestions on how this technique can be developed into a useful diagnostic tool for field personnel confronted with wall soiling complaints.
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Document ID: 992D6627

Distribution Construction And MAINTENANCE/MATERIALS Management Prepackaged Fittings For Meter Set Assemblies
Author(s): Jack Holland
Abstract/Introduction:
At the Southern California Gas Company, a lot of different people representing various departments have a say in matters relating to materials and methods. Im sure that the same situation is true in your own companies. Our decision to investigate prepackaging of meter set assembly fittings was prompted by a request from the Customer Services Managers in our operating divisions. These Managers are responsible for building the bulk of our residential meter set assemblies. From their experience, they believe thai field service time could be better utilized if we in Purchasing and Stores preassembled their M.S.A. fittings. Therefore, we made a survey to determine what it would cost in both labor and materials to prepackage small meter set fittings and what the trade-off might be in field savings.
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Document ID: 3429146B

Design Of An Intergrated Coldplex For Utilization Of LNG Cold
Author(s): K. K. Ushiba, J. G. Witwer, K. T. Semrau
Abstract/Introduction:
The revaporization of LNG at a baseload receiving terminal represents a large potential source of low-temperature refrigeration. SRI has studied many of the possible uses of this cold and has evaluated them for their potential in conserving energy and reducing refrigeration costs. The applications that show the greatest collar and energy savings are air separation and liquefaction, ethylene production. and ammonia synthesis. Power production, using the LNG as a heat sink, appears feasible only if there is a free heat source such as power plant effluent. High transportation costsof these products limit the amount of cold that can be actually used by geographically restricting the market area.
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Document ID: 1B0B6B46

New Developments In Gas Metering Instrumentation And Regulation
Author(s): B. I. Csonka
Abstract/Introduction:
Rapidly escalating cost of Natural Gas demands more accurate measurement of gas flow now than in past years. These requirements and Rockwell Internationals long term commitment to meet the changing needs of our Industry resulted in the development of the new Rockwell Gas Flow Computer.
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Document ID: D2F12A8C

Dealing With People Problems Resulting From Changing Operations
Author(s): Warren K. Heckman
Abstract/Introduction:
There is no single panacea to people problems. If there were suchapanacea Iwould not be here with you today. All that would be required would be to give a douse of the remedial medicine and the problems would be cured. As you all know, people problems are not new. We have potentially as many people problems as we have people. Fortunately for we managers, the problems do not manifest themselves in that magnitude. Obviously, some of the things we are doing are acceptable to a large segment of our employees and consequently serve as problem preventive action. Under normal circumstances and normal times we expect some people problems and we solve a certain number of those problems.
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Document ID: E7B3F320

Industrial Amr Using Darcos Mark I System
Abstract/Introduction:
Darcos Mark I System provides AMR through the standard dial telephone network using a small desk top controller and field transponders. Telephone Data Access Arrangement couplers arc used lo connect to the telephone network. System transponders can transmit the accumulative readings for two meters, twenty four (24) hour accumulations, flow, tampering data, and transponder or other equipment status. The system can operate from AC power or from low voltage rechargeable battery. The system is designed so that the transponders can be easily removed for temporary installations and field surveys. The Darco system concept is remote accumulation and storage of the meter reading data. This data is then scanned as needed by central disptach over the standard dial network, eliminating the need for leased private line services.
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Document ID: 245B1F39

The Development Of Pressure Pulse Provers For Gas Meters
Author(s): Theodore A. St. Clair, Howard H. Holmes
Abstract/Introduction:
Historically, the standard for adjusting or testing the accuracy of meters has been the volumetric deplacement bell prover. We have seen many developments take place over the past several years in the programming and automation of the bell itself the sensing of the meter index (usually photoelectric devices) and the meter test result reading (digital display or printout.) All of these improvements have been automated substitutions of the old familiar manual bell proving, the sequence being: (1) filling the bell (pressure proving), (2) locating a meter index start point, (3) refilling the bell to a defined zero starting point, (4) running a check or open lest, (5) recording the bell displacement, (6) refilling the bell and zeroing, (7) running a second test at another specific flow rate and recording the results of this second test.
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Document ID: 4FD405DF

Calculations Of Thermal Radiation Hazards From LNG Fires-A Review Of The State-Of-The-Art
Author(s): Phani P. K. Raj
Abstract/Introduction:
The sequence of steps involved in estimating thermal radiation fires has been described. State-of-the-art models and correlations for calculating the size of - and radiation from - fires have been reviewed, and their applicability to LNG fires has been discussed in light of recent experimental data. Limitations of the current models and lack of understanding of the behavior of very large fires are discussed and areas of further research are identified. Curves for atmospheric absorption of radiation have been presented. Formulas and tables for obtaining view factors from skewed cylinders (useful for calculating radiation from dike fires) have been given. Currently used thermal hazard criteria for ignition of cellulosic materials and burn injury to people have been reviewed. The predictions of the damage area obtained by applying the radiation models to the Cleveland LNG fire of 1944 are discussed. Estimation of skin burn distances from an instantaneous spill and ignition of 25,000 m of LNG on water has been made.
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Document ID: 5A6DF2DD

Design Philosophy - Reliability Of Plant Operations Engineering Company Outlook
Author(s): R. T. Ellington
Abstract/Introduction:
The construction of plants to provide supplemental fuels from coal and oil shale will require that the engineering, procurement and construction firm and the owner/client work ever more closely together from the earliest phases of the project. These plants must be large to achieve economy of scale and for each plant to make a worthwhile contribution to gas supply. They must be large to merit the output of time and effort by the client company necessary to fight through the required maze of permits and approvals. As is well known, these plants will cost hundreds of millions of dollars per copy.
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Document ID: EDBBBB42

Applying Digital Data Base Technology To An Existing Gas Distribution System For Engineering Applications
Author(s): D. J. Decourcy
Abstract/Introduction:
Brooklyn Union Gas Company, working with its contractor, Raytheon Company, has developed a digital data base for its Staten Island distribution system. The Staten Island network includes 650 miles of mains feeding 70,000 services. The three-year effort, scheduled for completion in 1976, involves reconstruction of the piping in digital form on new geography and structuring of a valid network configuration. Associated data base software and interactive graphic hardware implementation are also involved. With this combination of a data base and direct access system, a wide variety of network analysis, materials inventory and management applications are being implemented.
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Document ID: AE756A25

New Methods And Developments
Author(s): James E. Gross
Abstract/Introduction:
Before I get into the subject at hand, lets thmk about what a new idea or new development really is. Webster defines Idea as a product of intellectual action a way of thinking a plan a thought. This means that someone must have time to sit back and just think. Thinking is not something that only the people in Management can do. Many, many ideas that are constructive, economical, and workable can come from the individual in the field or working at a bench. Do we ask these people for their ideas? A good idea doesnt have to be earth shaking, It can be, and many times is, something that is simple and easy to put into practice.
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Document ID: 2959289F

LNG In U. S. Ports-An Assessment
Author(s): Robert T. Luckritz, Alan L. Schneider, Fred H. Halvorsen
Abstract/Introduction:
The transportation, handling, and stowage of hazardous materials in U.S, portsandalong U.S. waterways are regulated by the U.S. Coast Guard. This regulatory authority extends over U.S. flag vessels anywhere in the world, foreign flag vessels in U.S, waters, and transfer terminals located adjacent to U.S. navigable waters. This paper will outline the regulatory philosophy of the U.S. oast Guard towards the movement and storage of hazardous materials in and or near our navigable waters, true to the impending importation of large quantities of liquefied natural gas by vessel and storage in port areas, LNG will be specifically discussed. It is important to note, however, that the Coast Guard views I.NG as only one of a number of hazardous materials moved through and stored near ports of this country, and not the most hazardous. One should keep in mind that the comments directed towards the movement and storage of LNG would apply equally to other products of similiar hazard.
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Document ID: 75EF14EC

Applications Of Retrograde Condensation In Natural Gas Pipelines, Bergamn, Tek And Katz
Author(s): Robert A. Herzog, Robert J. Bronsky
Abstract/Introduction:
The pipelines of the industry are designed so that gas can flow to meet the needs of the nation. The equipment, from wells to compressors, to regulators, to meters, to furnaces, are designed for natural gas. With record breaking cold everywhere this past winter, the demand for gas has never been greater, while supplies became severely limited in several areas. To meet the demand, all of the components comprising our pipeline network. from reservoir to distribution, must operate nearly problem free at maximum efficiency. The presence of liquids, either water or hydrocarbon, in certain components of a pipeline network can cause operational problems and in particular affect the distribution of natural gas.
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Document ID: F790358C

Pitfalls Of Fixed Factor Metering
Author(s): Paul m. Herman
Abstract/Introduction:
Fixed factor metering is a method of measuring gas at controlled elevated pressures by utilizing conventional meters and meter indexes. This method is done without automatic integrating devices to correct the gas volume for pressure. Several outstanding publications have already been made on the theoretical applications of fixed factor measurement. The intent of this publication wilt be to describe several practical and theoretical variables which need to be considered in order to avoid errors in fixed factor billing. Some descriptions and examples of useful material are discussed to assist distribution companies who are using, or intend to use, fixed factor billing.
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Document ID: 9CB9137B

Insurance Considerations - Supplemental Natural Gas Plants
Author(s): Norman L. Ellison
Abstract/Introduction:
Supplemental natural gas plants, like any other major project, present areas of loss potential. It is important that these be considered at an early date, determining the specific areas of risk that will exist, how these risks should be cared for - self-insurance, purchase of insurance or a combination - and, thirdly, who should be responsible for bearing this risk. Decisions on these points should be made at an early date, certainly prior to contracts being let, so taht all parties involved will know which of the risks will be theirs so that they can care for them in an acceptable manner. The exposure to loss can vary greatly during the design phase, the construction and testing phases, and ultimately at the final phase of commercial operation. My remarks today will outline some of the more important risks that should be considered during the various phases.
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Document ID: 9310971D

Interface Between LNG Import Terminal And Marine Transport
Author(s): Robert G. Norton
Abstract/Introduction:
As in plant design where each terminal is tailored to plant site and surroundings, the interface operations will also vary with each individual terminal. I will, therefore, address my specific remarks to the DOMAC Everett site with whatever generalizations can be made for other sites. Lets try to break down the interface areas into certain categories. First, let us consider-
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Document ID: 1CC75E42

Determination Of Water Vapor Content Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Donald T. Lurvey
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry, particularly the gathering. the processing and the transportation segments are very much interested in knowing the water vapor content of natural gas. Failure to control this content leads to decreased pipeline efficiency if not to complete blockage of the pipeline, and this usually at a time when flow demand is greatest, This paper will discuss the determination of water vapor content of natural gas streams as viewed by a nuts and bolts analytical chemist I want to stress the statement analytical chemist, I am not an instrument designer.
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Document ID: 1814FCA5

77-D-69 Learning To Make It With 91.44 58.42 91.44
Author(s): Donald m. Davis
Abstract/Introduction:
The Metric System was first developed in 1670 by the Vicar of St. Pauls Church. Lyon France. However, it was not to be given official recognition until after the Revolution of 1789 when the new government apparently faced with a number of standards and measurements in various parts of the country endorsed a report presented by the Paris Academy of Sciences in 1791 & committed France to the Metric System. In modified form it is the choice of an increasing number of countries today, mainly forced by modern communications bringing different national standards in contact with each other.
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Document ID: 632C373F

Security - The Companys Defense Against Crime
Author(s): E. L. Kelley
Abstract/Introduction:
Our purpose here is to examine current security practices in the business sector and how they may apply to the gas industry. Among these practices, we need to look specifically at controls aimed at such problems as theft, sabotage and vandalism. But to be sure we are examining the problems adequately. it seems sensible to first place our purpose in perspective, Theft, vandalism and sabotage comprise but a small segment of a vast set of threats against the economic and human welfare of the business community. Each such threat represents a potential crime
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Document ID: B9ABA699

Sfg Meter: A New Concept In Gas Measurement
Author(s): A. Takada, R. P. Buffington
Abstract/Introduction:
The Oval High Pressure SKG, Servo-Flow Gas Meter, permits precise gas flow measurement utilizing a unique positive displacement flowmeter principle. This unique gas flow measuring device provides a wide range linearity with extremely high accuracy regardless of pressure, density or viscosity of the gas being measured. This paper established the basic theory of predictable performance, describes principle of operation and presents empirical test data that varifies the exceptional performance over wide working ranges of 50:1 and greater.
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Document ID: 9E004279

Effect Of Gas Cooling On Igat Performance
Author(s): Abbas Firoozabadi
Abstract/Introduction:
In recent years the trend has been to introduce high pressure and large diameter pipelines into transmission systems. Within these systems the temperature of the gas in the pipeline might become substantially higher than the temperature of the ground where the pipeline is buried. If the thermal conductivity of the ground is not high, the temperature of the gas builds up as it moves between successive stations. This causes the capacity of the line to decrease and its horsepower requirements to increase. The high temperature of the gas could also cause some damage to the pipeline coating. Installation of gas coolers at the downstream side of the compressor stations will lower the temperature of the gas in the lines, consequently increasing the capacity of the line and decreasing horsepower requirements, In the design of the IGAT system. (Figure I), the gas cooling concept was taken into account, and gas coolers were installed at the Bid Boland. Tange Hrzal and Compressor Stations one through five. The gas cooler at Bid Boland has been running since its installation. but the remaining six have not yet been put into operation. This study was undertaken to find the effect of the gas cooling on the performance of the existing system and therefore evaluate ihe capacity of the line with and without gas cooling.
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Document ID: 10A6C316

Frontier Area Gas Development Some Practical Considerations
Author(s): J. W. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
The events of this past winter have brought home to everyone the seriousness of our energy situation, particularly with respect to supplies of natural gas. There is much interest and considerable debate at all levels of national government as well as by the man on the street about what the true gas supply situation is. In our own industry there is more than a little concern with what the future holds relative to new supplies of natural gas. The story is all too familiar. Since 1968 we have been using up our known gas reserves at a rate faster than they are being replaced with new discoveries. Of the estimated 730 TCF of natural gas reserves that have been found to date, we have used up 70%. The area of the coterminous 48 states is one of the most heavily explored regions of the world, with essentially every known area containing sedimentary basins favorable for the accumulation of oil and gas having been explored to some degree. While additional discoveries will continue to be made it must be realized from a practical viewpoint that the large easy-to-find reserves have been discovered and developed.
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Document ID: E172AE1D

New Developments Roots Integral Pctc Meters
Author(s): G. L. Hanson
Abstract/Introduction:
The Dresser Measurement Division, Dresser Industries, Inc., is proud to announce yet another new product innovation for the natural gas industry. Available as of May 1, 1976, the ROOTS Integral Pressure Compensator (PC) and Pressure and Temperature Compensator (PCTC) will fill a previous product gap by providing a compact, completely self-contained measurement device. The PC or PCTC meters accurately measure gases at varying conditions of pressure and temperature and provide a corrected volume readout to specified base conditions, The PC and PCTC units are yet another addition to our modular design concept- This concept utilized a basic meter body on which a variety of appropriate apperturances may be attached, making a completely integral measurement device.
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Document ID: 100FD403

Choosing The Medium For Your Message
Author(s): Gerald G. Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
A variety of formats can be used to disseminate technical information through a publication, an educational program or a meeting. A simple system for classifying these formats is presented. It should prove useful in selecting the best format to accomplish a specified, technical communications objective.
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Document ID: A52D9051

Gas Transmission System Pack Management & Station Horsepower Utilization
Author(s): R. L. Pargett
Abstract/Introduction:
With the gas supply availability from traditional gas reserves decreasing rapidly, and the limitations on end use in the market areas, there is no longer volume available or required to allow major transmission systems to operate on a routine basis at their peak design capacities. In addition, the loss of peaking ability from declining sources is retjuiring larger inventories of storage to supply the customers peaking needs during the winter heating season. To strive for optimization of the pipeline operation under these changing conditions, dispatchers are being forced to make significant changes in their daily operating philosophies. Close monitoring of the transmission systems line pack and compressor station operation can provide the basis for decisions which will aid dispatchers in achieving the most efficient system operation under reduced flow conditions.
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Document ID: 5F9A6046

Dot Overview Of LNG Regulations
Author(s): Cesar Deleon
Abstract/Introduction:
I appreciate your invitation to participate in this conference, ft is always a pleasure to speak before the American Gas Association, especially with regard to such an important subject as liquefied natural gas (LNG). At the present time, the Department of Transportations (DOT) Federal regulation governing LNG facilities is Section 192.12 of Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations, which incorporates National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 59A, 1972 edition. by reference. In the preamble to the amendment establishing Section 192.12. it was stated that the NFPA standard was adopted only as an interim measure while permanent Federal LNG regulations were being developed.
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Document ID: CD6BC48E

Explosion Of Unconfined Clouds Of Natural Gas
Author(s): D. C. Bull, J. A. Martin
Abstract/Introduction:
This work deals principally with explosions and detonations in unconfined natural gas clouds. It reviews the work of others and notes their conclusions that deflagration to detonation transition is unlikely. The particular systems studied and reported concern direct initiation of hydrocarbon/oxygen/nitrogen mixtures and it is noted that initiation of spherical detonation of methane/air mixtures requires about 22 kilograms of Tetryl or its equivalent. Other heavier hydrocarbons are more readily detonable and hence practical natural gases may be expected to exhibit less stable characteristics than pure methane. Nevertheless initiation by the equivalent of about 1 kilogram of Tetryl would be required for most natural gases and with this in mind it is extremely doubtful whether detonation within the confines of buildings represents a sufficiently energetic source to initiate detonation within an unconfined gas cloud.
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Document ID: 4E49B251

Gas Serviceman Training At Northern Indiana Public Service Company
Author(s): James G. Buyer
Abstract/Introduction:
Northern Indiana Public Service Company (NIPSCO), an Indiana corporation organi7.ed August 2, 1912. is a public utility operating company. It supplies gas and/or electric energy to residential, commercial and industrial customers living in the northern third of Indiana. Its corporate headquarters and executive offices are at 5265 Hohman Avenue, Hammond. Indiana, 46320.
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Document ID: F00FECF6

An Innovative Approach To Locating Water In Distribution Systems
Author(s): Bruce H. Hale, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
A technique applicable to the problem of locating areas of water intrusion in gas distribution mains has been developed at National Kuel Gas. The process involves the analysis of dew point readings at prescribed points along an affected main. This paper explains the instrument, the development of the technique, and the results of four years of experience.
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Document ID: 954AD234

A Design Procedure For Uncased Natural Gas Pipeline Crossings Of Roads And Highways
Author(s): R. N. Pierce, Pliny Rogers, C. L. Rankin, Osborne Lucas
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to present a method for designing uncased natural gas pipehne crossings of roads and highways. The procedures used are not new hut are adaptations of existing techniques which have heen thoroughly tested and validated. The method involves a combined calculation of internal hoop stress in the pipe resulting from the operating pressure of the pipeline and the external stresses resulting from dead load, live load and impact loading. Internal stress if calculated by the Barlow Formula and external stresses by the Spangler Iowa Formula. The Spangler Formula incorporates the Marston Theory for calculation of dead load and the Boussinesq Point Load Theory for live load. Design parameters in the Spangler method have a range of values.
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Document ID: 14AC28AC

Natural Gas: A Premium Fuel For Americas Future
Author(s): George H. Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
Ive been looking forward for many weeks to the prospect of being with you here in New Orleans today. Not only do I always welcome an excuse to come to this lovely city, but also, with my background as a petroleum engineer. I have long shared the interests and concerns of the Operating Section. A brief glance at the program for this conference reveals the breadth of the matters youll be dealing with during the next several days. I hope that youll have stimulating and productive sessions, for this is a critical year for the future of natural gas. All in all, Americas energy industries have been traveling a pretty rough road in recent years. Weve seen no coherent policy or direction developed at the national level, in spite of the shock we experienced during 1973 with the oil embargo. That one act revealed the fragility of our energy suppply system and the necessity for adequate energy to support our national economy. Yet, since that time, the White House and the Congress have been long on talk, and short on performance. Therefore, we were most receptive when we heard of President Carters intent to propose a truly comprehensive energy program. We thought we sensed a realization on the part of the Administration that a new approach should be taken to the problem of assuring the availability of adequate energy supplies.
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Document ID: E585CFFC

Sonic Meter Regulator Systems Operational( Experience)
Author(s): R. A. Price
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1975, Southern California Gas Company made the decision to purchase and test a unique new combination flowmeter-pressure regulator. This device utilizes a 10-bit digital control valve with sonic flow nozzles installed on each bit (Figure I). The nozzles are sizes in binary progression with the smallest being .1% of capacity, the next larger .2%, the next .4%, etc, and the largest being 50% of capacity. Upstream and downstream pressures and temperatures are sensed with precision transducers, and these signals transmitted to a microprocessor (Figure 2). which is the heart, or more precisely, the brain of the whole device.
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Document ID: D364C783

Considerations Involved In Polyethylene Pipe System Selection
Author(s): Daniel A. Marostica
Abstract/Introduction:
The factors an individual gas utility must consider when selecting a plastic pipe system depend upon that companys own market growth pattern, established operating procedures, financial resources, workforce capabilities, and purchasing philosophy. Its safe to say that no single plastic pipe supplier can provide a single system that will satisfy the needs of each and every gas utility. Especially when we define a plastic pipe system to include far more than just the pipe, but also fittings, joining methods, pressure control devices, repair couplings and fittings, tooling, and so on. This presentation focuses on the various factors and alternatives the Southern California Gas Company (SoCal) has faced, over the past three decades, in arriving at our current plastic pipe program. A discussion of these considerations, should provide a representative overview of considerations common to most gas utilities.
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Document ID: 25D8115B

Monitoring Storage Reservoir Stability Using A Three Dimensional Microseismic Array
Author(s): H. Reginald Hardy, Jr., Gary L. Mowrey, Edward J. Kimble, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Research is presently underway in The Rock Mechanics Laboratory at the Pennsylvania State University associated with the developing the stability of underground gas storage reservoirs. Such techniques, once developed, will be extremely useful in establishing realistic optimum storage pressures for existing storage facilities, and for evaluating the mechanical stability of potential storage sites. The phenomenon of microseismic activity, or acoustic emission, as it is sometimes referred to is associated with the fact that when a structure composed of materials such as rock is loaded, micro-level acoustic signals are generated within the structure, often at stresses well below the failure point. These microseismic signals are indicative of the stability of the structure, and with suitable instrumentation they may be detected at considerable distances from their source. In the general area of Geomechanics basic and applied research associated with microseismic activity has been underway for some thirty five years, although the major developments have been made during the last ten years. For further details on the general concept of the phenomenon and its range of application in the geomechanics field, the reader is referred to the recent publication by Hardy and Leighton (1977).
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Document ID: 35CF2CA1

Meter Purchasing Specifications
Author(s): James C. Devore
Abstract/Introduction:
Purchasing specifications are the means by which a user communicates to a vendor or a manufacturer the detailed description of a product or service that is required. It is very important that the purchasing specification be accurate, and be in sufficient detail to 1. Describe the product or service required, and 2. Provide a basis for judging the product or service when it is received. Purchasing specifications for gas meters can be limited to the information required by the manufacturer to designate a standard product, such as make, model number and. or size. However, it is often necessary to expand the purchasing specifications to include more detail such as performance criteria, material limitations, and otherspccial requirements as a means to insure that the meter received will meet the demands of the application in which it will be used. The following are guidelines for developing meter purchasing specifications or for reviewing those now in use.
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Document ID: E5A126E0

Why Pig A Pipeline?
Author(s): B. Vernooy
Abstract/Introduction:
Pigs are used daily in the operation and construction of pipelines. They may be used for a variety of reasons: 1) to clean and increase line efficiency 2) to gauge or survey the I.D. of the pipe: 3) to separate products and 4) to dewaler lines after hydrostatic testing or for a number of other reasons. Although these devices are widely used, little has been done to compile data pertinent to pigs and pigging techniques. The purpose of this publication is to inform the reader of general pigging practices in modern pipeline operations, is not intended to he an instructional manual, hut rather a general guide to pigs and pigging practices. In general, the practices outlined in this book will be applicable up to a point: but in the final analysis, specific programs will have to be tailored to meet line conditions and company operating policies and procedures.
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Document ID: CB481CBE

Impact Of Design Criteria On Construction Costs
Author(s): m. A. Wolnik
Abstract/Introduction:
The components affecting the total cost of conslructingadistribution piping network are: - pipe material cost - fitting and appurtenance cost - installation and labour cost - reinstatement cost The relative contribution of each component to the total cost of construction can be controlled by alternatives in design criteria. In combination with engineering judgement. the effective selection of design variables pertaining to design pressure, pipe material. installation technique, location and system layout can have a significant impact on reducing construction costs. Safety, reliability, operating and mainteance considerations must also be evaluated in the process of design selection as they are important fas in the cost of owning the system. This presentation attempts to identify the alternatives in design criteria that affect the construction cost efficiency and reliability of a distribution system.
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Document ID: 31C89BBF

Polyethylene Plastic Pipe Installation Practices
Author(s): A. G. Stephenson, H. E. Timmons
Abstract/Introduction:
Lone Star Gas Company began using polyethylene plastic pipe in 1965. Since 1968, 95% of the companys distribution projects have utilized plastic pipe. This includes 4,130 miles of mains and 904 miles of service lines, in sizes ranging from 1/2-inch IPS to 8-inch IPS. To comply with federal regulations and company procedures, strict adherence to proper construction procedures is required when installing plastic pipe. These regulations and procedures cover the handling, storage, inspection, installation, and testing of plastic pipe.
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Document ID: 1E5F88D7

Determination Of Thermal Contraction Forces Acting On Polyethylene Pipe
Abstract/Introduction:
This attachment presents two situations of temperature change and resultant longitudinal forces acting on PE (Polyethylene) pipe due to thermal contraction. In the first situation, Section V. the forces are calculated based on instantaneous temperature drops. This does not represent a normal field situation where temperature changes in the earth are usually very gradual. The second situation. Section VI. illustrates the smaller force present with gradual temperature drop. This case represents an actual field situation where the highest to lowest earth temperature change (assumed same for pipe) took place over a 5-6 month period: thus the opportunity for stress relaxation and smaller increments of temperature change (with more favorable modulus, rather than a larger, final temperature modulus) combine to reduce the stress due to thermal contraction. Except for the speed of temperature change, conditions for two situations are the same.
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Document ID: 4E685649

Mechanical Tie-Ins Need Not Be The Achilles Heel Of Plastic Piping Systems
Author(s): Eugene J. Escolas
Abstract/Introduction:
At 9:30 a.m. on January 10, 1976, the six-story Pathfinder Hotel in Fremont, Nebraska, exploded and burned. Eighteen persons died and 41 persons were hospitalized: the hotel was destroyed and glass was broken in other buildings within a one-block radius. The National Transportation Safety Boards investigation disclosed that a 2-inch plastic gas main had pulled out of its compression coupling at the intersection of Sixth and Broad Streets, about 15 feet from the northwest corner of the hotel basement. The pipe had pulled out of its 6-inch-long compression coupling after the pipe had contracted in length 2-1 /2 inches. Natural gas. leakingfrom the pipe at 13-psig pressure and capped above by frozen earth and the concrete road surface, seeped into the hotel basement.
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Document ID: 30A0E025

Awareness Program For Fire Departments
Author(s): Robert L. Webb
Abstract/Introduction:
This program all came about as a result of a request from one of the fire chiefs in a community served by Boston Gas. What the chief wanted, was a complete explanation of the operation and maintenance of the Combustible Gas Indicator. To maximize the value of such a presentation, we built into the program the opportunity to not only explain and demonstrate the use of the equipment, but to enable the firefighters to get their hands on the equipment as well, so that they could perform certain functions covered in our presentation, such as zeroing the machine. Based on this initial request from the fire chief and the strategy we planned to use in conducting the program, it seemed only logical to call it our Hands-On Program for Firefighters.
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Document ID: FD715BBB

Environmental Chamber For Testing Temperature Compensated Gas Meters
Author(s): Frederick W. Wilcox
Abstract/Introduction:
This report will describe the Long Island Lighting Companys Environmental Chamber for testing temperature compensated gas meters. Before describing this new equipment a brief history of LILCOs original test equipment for TC meters will provide the proper introduction.
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Document ID: 6CEC9697

Type II Shortstopp Fittings
Author(s): David Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
T. D. Williamson. Inc. of Tulsa. Oklahoma. has improved the design of their Shortstopp Fitting with features that offer the Natural Gas Distribution Industry savings in time and money. The new Type II Shortstopp Fitting design utilizes a reusable bolt-on valve adapter flange instead of the permanent flange used in the conventional Shortstopp Fitting design.
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Document ID: 592BBE5B

Customer Services Role In The Conservation Of Energy
Author(s): Robert F. Robb
Abstract/Introduction:
Whenever we see someone approach a podium, we think about conservation. The question usually is, How long will this speaker take? Therefore, it is safe to say that the need for conservation is certainly apparent lo everyone in this room. What strange thoughts we seem to have these days conservation, end-use priority, hydrogen from water, intermittent ignition systems and the like. We are faced with the problem of energy demands far exceeding available supplies and liltle prospect for improvement in the next few years. Many of you have been faced with restrictions on adding customers and rather drastic increases in curtailment. Not to mention curtailment of firm customers!
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Document ID: 9CE34575

Detection And Control Of Bacteria In Underground Storage
Author(s): Jack Kelley
Abstract/Introduction:
In the early 1960s, a large gas horizon was developed in eastern Oklahoma and western Arkansas. As this play progressed, it was dubbed the Arkhoma Basin. An Oklahoma Natural Gas Company subsidiary laid a medium-diameter pipeline to cooperatively transport large gas volumes to the Tulsa market area. Southern terminus with major gas input was at Red Oak, Oklahoma: a larger and final input was 20 miles northwest near Kinia, Oklahoma. Total throughput of pipeline is approximately 160 MMSCFD and line length is 90 miles - 20 miles of 18-inch to the south and remaining 70 miles of 22-inch to north from Kinta vicinity. Inlet pressure is approximately 775 psig and outlet is 625 psig.
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Document ID: DE5EBD62

Estimating Differential Pressures Of Rotary Meters At Elevated Pressures
Author(s): Glenn H. Chamberlain
Abstract/Introduction:
The variation of AP with regard to temperature is slightand is generally ignored in any calculations. Data was provided by Dresser Measurement covering differential tests made in 1972 on 1.5 MI25, 3MI25, 7 MI25, 1l MI25, 16 M125.23 M 125 and 38 M 125 rotary meters. The average test results from two meters of each size were used in this study. Each of these sets of two meters had average atmospheric differential pressures as determined from a sample of twenty meters of each size. The tests were conducted using a closed loop on 0.6 sq. gas at 10%, 25%. 60% and 100% of maximum dial rates of flow at 8 iwc, 15 psig. 45 psig. 90 psig and 120 psig. The common equation factors at these pressures would produce the following pressure multipliers:
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Document ID: 27105059

Risk Analysis Approach To Planning Annual Gas Supplies
Author(s): Joseph A. Masino, Joseph J. Assenza
Abstract/Introduction:
Two main objectives in planning an adequate gas supply are 1.) to assure availability of daily capacity to meet daily load demands, and 2.) to assure sufficient annual supplies to provide for possible variations in annual sendouts. Reliability of service is a vital consideration in the economic planning of these supply systems. Reliability evaluation using probability methods is now the conventional practice for most North American electric utilities. Some may feel that the nature of the gas utility business is such that risk should not be taken and gas systems should be planned for 100% reliability. In the absence of infinite, low cost resources this is practically impossible. In todays environment one way that a high reliability of service can be maintained is to reduce the customer base to a size that can be provided service under all adverse demand levels. The optimum benefit to society however, may dictate that more customers be served at the cost of reduced reliability.
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Document ID: 248F6AD7

Computerized Measurement For Dispatching Control And/Or Custody Exchange
Author(s): W. R. Loll
Abstract/Introduction:
The Consumers Power Company-Michigan Gas Storage Company gas transmission system has a digital telemetering system which monitors all inputs and outputs. This includes gas volume calculations, distribution and pipeline pressure monitoring, valve position and regulator position monitoring, remote valve control, closed loop and manual regulator control and unmanned compressor station control. In 1977, installation will be made to monitor the odorant rate injection at 15 major odorizer stations and to monitor a new line break detection system, to be installed on two sections of transmission line.
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Document ID: 4782269B

Training Dispatchers To Use Generation Computers - Baltimores Experiences
Author(s): Nestor J. Fabella
Abstract/Introduction:
The evolution of Baltimore Gas and Electrics Gas Control dispatching center is probably similar to that of many distribution companies. Built in 1956 to consolidate dispatching functions, the center grew over the next 15 years to many times its initial size. During this period, all calculations were done manually and system pressures were monitored visually. By 1971, our Gas System Operators were spending up to 20 minutes per hour calculating hourly sendouts. This caused obvious delays in adjusting our supply sources and optimizing daily operations. It had the further effect of diverting his attention from the prime responsibilities of operating and monitoring the system.
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Document ID: E47C47CD

When Usa And A.G.A. Go Metric
Author(s): Anthony A. Bobelis
Abstract/Introduction:
The Metric Conversion Act was signed into law on December 23, 1975. This law declares that the adoption of the International System of Units for measurement is the national policy of the United States. Therefore, the question is no longer whether to convert to SI or not, but rather when. This paper introduces the basics of the International System of Units (SI), shows how SI will apply to the Gas Industry and reviews some of the steps being taken within the A.G.A. to prepare for the coming conversion.
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Document ID: 9769EC77

Pull-Out Forces On Joints In Polyethylene Pipe Systems
Author(s): Karel G. Toll
Abstract/Introduction:
The minimum Federal Standards, Title 49. regulating natural gas distribution requires the utility to properly design and install pipeline joints as stated in paragraph 192.273 following: Subpart F - Joining of Materials Other Than by Welding 192.273 General (a) The pipeline must be designed and installed so that each joint will sustain the longitudinal pull-out or thrust forces caused by contraction or expansion of the piping or by anticipated external or internal loading. (b) Each joint must be made in accordance with written procedures that have been proven by test or experience to produce strong gas tight joints. (c) Each joint must be inspected to insure compliance with this subpart. In an effort to aid the utility gas distribution engineer in establishing meaningful company standards to comply with Federal Regulations, this write-up presents information and specific examples of practical field application concerning pull-out forces to which a typical PE (polyethylene) system is subjected. Although this report deals with the subject of pull-out, there are. of course, other considerations to be included in design and installation of a PE piping system, in particular, bending limits for pipe and pipe with fittings.
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Document ID: 8D220350

Pre-Selection Testing Program For Customer Service Mechanics
Author(s): J. F. Hickson
Abstract/Introduction:
A pre-selection training program was developed by our Company in 1972 in order to test and screen candidates applying for Customer Service Mechanic vacancies in the Customer Service Department. Our Company is a combination gas and electric utility with all the physical workers in the Company unionized and represented by one IBEW Local. The starting position in the Customer Service Mechanic series is not an entry level position in the Company and it is therefore necessary to draw candidates from other departments within the Company through a job vacancy posting system. This contractual method of selection to fill job vacancies presented a problem to the Customer Service Department until the present pre-selection testing was developed in 1972.
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Document ID: 0E45FC0B

Safety Regulations Concerning Pressure Limiting Devices
Author(s): J. C. Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
I appreciate the invitation to participate in the 1977 Transmission Conference of the American Gas Association. As you know, the regulations concerning pressure limiting devices were derived from the ANSI B3I.8 Code and became interim minimum Federal safety standards effective on December 13. 1968,OnNovember 12.1970. a new Part 192 of Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations became effective and Subparts D and M, contain the minimum regulations concerning pressure limiting devices. Since the issuance of Part 192, there has only been one rule change directly affecting pressure control. Amendment 192-9 was made effective November 4, 1972 and changed the restriction on accidental pressure build-up in transmission and high pressure distribution lines having a maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) of less than 60 psig.
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Document ID: 64B3092D

Revised A.G.A. Gas Measurement Manual - An Update
Author(s): John F. Mcdevitt
Abstract/Introduction:
At the May 1974 Distribution Conference, I presented a paper titled Revised Gas Measurement Manual - A Preview. At this time I would like to present an update on the status of the revised manual. The revised Gas Measurement Manuals a joint project of the Transmission Measurement Committee and the Distribution Measurement Committee. The original Gas Measurement Manual was prepared and published in 1963 as a project of the Transmission Measurement Committee (then known as the Transmission Metering Committee). The revised manual is being written to incorporate the new developments in gas measurement as well as being expanded to include additional information on transmission and distribution measurement and related subjects not covered in the previous publication.
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Document ID: 36A45789

Freezing Of Plastic Insert Renewals
Author(s): Albert J. Mayer
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the responsibilities of all gas operating personnel in any gas utility is to provide service to customers in a safe manner at a reasonable cost. We constantly must look for ways to cut costs for our companies. It was with these criteria in mind that we decided that a certain main replacement project should be investigated for the possibility of inserting plastic service lines in the old steel lines which were to be replaced. The old system had originally been a low pressure system served at ounces, and was to be upgraded to operate at pounds. Therefore, there would be no capacity problems in using a smaller diameter plastic service line in the existing 1 1/4 steel services.
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Document ID: D6B4C096

A Dielectric Test Program For Aerial Equipment
Author(s): Harold A. Sackett
Abstract/Introduction:
Gentlemen: I would like to discuss with you this afternoon, some of the procedures and steps that should be taken to set up a practical dielectric testing program for aerial devices. Our company has gone through some costly. time consuming dielectric testing which I believe could have been prevented if all factors related to the dielectric testing of aerial booms had been reviewed and agreed upon before any test programs were started. It is with this in mind that I would like to suggest the following items be considered before your company adopts a dielectric testing program What departments within a company will be directly involved with a dielectric testing program?
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Document ID: 9809E2B9

Underground Protection Legislation, A Review: Necessary, Optional And Unnecessary Provisions
Author(s): Sheldon B. Sepstead
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for underground protection legislation is obvious. For lack of a better reason, one can refer to the Department of Transportation regulations which provide that the enactment of such legislation obviates the need for permanent markers in class 3 and 4 population areas. 49 CFR I92,707(b)(i)(ii). However, other factors more clearly and definitely etch the need for this legislation. Headlines blaring the violence of serious, gas-related occurrences day-to-day apprehension concerning unreported damage and potentially calamitous results the pathos aroused by a family or an entire community victimized by a thoughtless, negligent act the unnecessary inconvenience and expense visited upon facility owners when damage occurs: these are reasons supporting the need for legislation to coounleract the threats and realities of negligent conduct.
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Document ID: B0ADB430

Underground Storage In Geological Formations In Canada
Author(s): J. Ivan Cuthill, Arthur E. Wootton
Abstract/Introduction:
Canada is a nation basically self-sufficient in crude oil and natural gas, with great geographical separation between its indigenous reserves and major population and manufacturing centres. Numerous long distance transmission pipelines are employed to serve the countrys oil and gas markets. supplemented where required with appropriate storage facilities. Underground storage is used extensively to improve pipeline efficiency, provide security of supply and to balance supply and product inventories in refining and petrochemical manufacturing. Fortunately, large areas of Canada are geologically favoured with natural, hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs or extensive salt formations that can be developed for the purpose of underground storage.
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Document ID: 923D9084


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