Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (1977)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

System Of Transfer Proving
Author(s): Henry Hubbard
Abstract/Introduction:
Transfer proving as a method for determining the accuracy of meters has become accepted in the Gas Industry based on its proven performance. Its performance in turn is due to the fact that transfer prover provides a simple, straight-forward test method, it is easily set up and within the limitations of the ambient conditions provides a reproducible set of operating conditions for each test. The controlling element of any transfer proving system is the standard meter used to determine the accuracy of the meter under test. The characteristics of the standard meter must be such that it exhibits a consistent and predictable proof over the range of flow rates for which it is intended to be used. Regardless of the control techniques employed, the basic accuracy of the transfer prover as a system depends prinarily upon the accuracy and repeatability of the standard meter.
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Document ID: A6A4E2C7

Metacom II Radio Telemetering & Control System
Author(s): Robert W. Lowell
Abstract/Introduction:
Large scale process operations often require the transmission of information from distant points to a central control and monitoring station. This information, in the form of electrical signals, is usually transmitted by telemetering, in which data are coded., transformed into a particular type of signal, and sent to a receiver which demodulates the signal to recover the digital or analog data.
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Document ID: 0818643D

Odorization
Author(s): Ray Webb
Abstract/Introduction:
Most natural gas as carried by pipeline companies for consumption in our homes and factories is composed predominantly of methane and ethane hydrocarbons. These components and the other light hydrocarbons are odorless. The detection of leaks in pipelines usually depends on the human senses such as smell, sight, sound and feel. Since most pipelines are buried or under buildings, etc., leaks cannot be detected by sound, feel or sight, and if the gas is odorless, not by smell. As early as 1800, German scientists began experimenting with additives to gas streams to promote an odor along with the normally odorless gases, A large portion of the natural gas produced from wells does contain sulfur and mercaptans that have odor however, in the treating and processing of gas, most of these odor producing elements are removed. It then becomes necessary to add odorant compounds to the gas streams.
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Document ID: 6EE413E5

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Howard W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject title is one of many which would have been applicable, such as: Do Your Measurement Books Balance? Does Your Sales Volume Your Purchase Volume? Are You Selling All The Volume Youre Entitled To? Do You Really Have Good Measurement? If you can honestly answer No to the above, then it will be beneficial to explore a few basic reasons for the problems which still plague the gas industry. When the word measurement is mentioned, the majority of the gas industry measurement personnel automatically convert their thoughts to meter. The meter itself only contributes 1/2, 1/3 or 1/4 to the total measurement picture depending on the application.
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Document ID: A3C5C6CE

Specific Gravity Of Gases
Author(s): A. W. Chandler
Abstract/Introduction:
Specific Gravity of a gas is defined as the ratio of the weight of a given volume of gas at standard conditions to the weight of an equal volume of pure air at standard conditions.
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Document ID: C5A8D718

Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Wm. A. Garratt
Abstract/Introduction:
It Is an obvious fact that all methods employed in the analysis of a mixed gas stream are, of necessity, based on the physical or chemical properties of the component gases-and by the same token, for each physical or chemical property of a gas there exists, in theory at least, an analytical method. The limitations in most cases lie in our inability to measure the property chosen as the analytical basis, or its change. A few of the obvious properties are molecular weight, molecular configuration, thermal conductivity, boiling point, solubility, molecular cracking pattern, heat of combustion, chemical reaction, etc.
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Document ID: 422CC0F9

Operation Of And Troubleshooting Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): Charles J. Stallings
Abstract/Introduction:
Why were automatic chart changers developed? One of the reasons is that the remote locations of purchase and sales meter stations make it difficult and expensive to send someone every day to change charts. With the advent of automatic chart changing, a daily record can be obtained without someone visiting a station each day. This can amount to a considerable savings in labor and automotive expense which would include the conservation of gasoline. Another reason is that some customers insist on a contract day beginning at 8:00 a.m. and require all charts to be changed at that time. With several of the customers stations being In a given area, it would be expensive to hire a chart changer for each station. The alternative is automatic chart changing and utilizing a full-time employee to pick up the charts, load the changer, and perform other routine maintenance on a regular schedule.
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Document ID: 087FD447

Water Vapor Content Amd Its Effect On Gas Volume Determination
Author(s): William F. Barker
Abstract/Introduction:
It is unfortunate that reservoirs which produce natural gas normally contain water. This water can, and often does, cause severe penalties to be suffered by the gas industry due to its detrimental effects on operations beginning at the wellhead and throughout the transmission system to its final destination at the market. Water is probably the most common undesirable and detrimental impurity contained in a gas stream. There is no doubt that adequate dehydration as soon as it is economically feasible will Increase the efficiency of overall gas industry operations. It is, however, still questionable by producers and transporters of natural gas as to how, where, and to what degree this water should be removed. In the ease of offshore production, it may be possible, but not probable, that the dehydration process would be more economically performed on shore. Offshore facilities should be adequate to reduce the basic sediments and water to less than 1 in the condensate before this condensate is recombined with the gas. To my knowledge this rarely happens.
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Document ID: 655FAF6A

Fundamentals Of Diaphragm Type Positive Displacement Meters
Author(s): James A. Simpkins
Abstract/Introduction:
Diaphragm meters fall into the category of positive displacement type meters. These measure gas by means of sealing off a known quantity of gas, and subsequently releasing it. The bulk of the meters in use today are of the diaphragm positive displacement type. Over 40 million of these are employed In measuring gas volumes in the U.S. alone. Of this total the large majority are used to measure gas volumes consumed by domestic residential customers.
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Document ID: 90F5B8ED

Onshore And Offshore Meter Design For Natural Gas
Author(s): E. m. Deak, C. F. Drake
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America utilizes many forms of engineering to provide gas to 49 Midwest utilities including the two distribution companies in the system: the Peoples Gas Light and Coke Company, which serves Chicago, and North Shore Gas Company, which serves a 275 square mile area of Northeastern Illinois. We have supported domestic exploration programs designed to find and develop new reserves of gas from conventional sources. NGPL is now taking gas deliveries through the recently completed Stingray pipeline offshore Louisiana, and soon will be taking gas deliveries through the new H.I.O.S. (High Island Offshore Systems) and UTOS (U-T Offshore System) pipeline offshore Texas. The Stingray system traverses some 120,000 acres containing more than one trillion cubic feet of proven gas reserves. NGPL has joined other energy firms in plans to construct a pipeline to tap the vast natural gas reserves in Alaska and Northwest Canada.
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Document ID: 4C15B356

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Ray Forbes
Abstract/Introduction:
In the field of natural gas measurement, the term primary element generally refers to the orifice plate, the orifice plate holding device, and the adjacent piping or meter tube. The single most important item of the primary device is the orifice plate, since it is the orifice plate which creates the differential pressure within a flowing mediiim. The measurement of a pressure differential, along with certain other data, permits one to compute the rate of flow on the basis of well established physical principles. Frequent inspection of the orifice plate is necessary in some types of service to insure that it is in proper condition to meter accurately, i,e., it is flat and clean and the inlet edge of the orifice bore is still sharp, square and free from nicks or other damage,
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Document ID: 88132C6F

Impact Of Distribution System Pressure On Unaccounted For
Author(s): Curtis Irwin
Abstract/Introduction:
Increasing natural gas costs are forcing gas companies to look more closely into unaccounted for problems in the areas of measurement accuracy and leakage control. There is presently a proposal being made by regulatory agencies requiring the unaccounted for to be less than five percent. This paper will attempt to show the magnitude of unaccounted for as it is related to distribution system pressure and methods available to reduce the unaccounted for through control of distribution pressure by design, In order to achieve some idea of the magnitude of the savings that can be achieved by otimizing distribution system pressures, actual unaccounted for data for Austin will be used. Accumulative unaccounted for during the last 12 months ending March, 1977, amounted to 1,028,485 MCF or 2,088,855 approximately two percent). The bulk of this is attributable to leakage or measurement error.
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Document ID: 27909961

Seven Pounds Of Water Per Million Cubic Feet
Author(s): William R. Barnes
Abstract/Introduction:
Im sure most of you know more about these units than Ill ever know however, I would like to present this paper with an open discussion of some of the symptoms and various checks of the unit. Also, I would like to discuss a sample system which has proven to prolong cell life in most cases, One gallon of water weighs approximately seven pounds. Try and disperse this in a room 100 ft. high, 100 ft, long and 100 ft, wide. This is a million cubic feet. This is very dry as compared with the surrounding atmosphere, usually 100 humidity. The most this analyzer will read is 1/10 of 1%. The seven pounds is what most gas contracts are written around, so the moisture determination is very critical and a very good sample method must be used to get a good representative sample to the analyzer. The analyzer only reads what you deliver to the unit, Lets start with the cell, as it is the heart of the instrument.
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Document ID: DF2101B7

How Exchange And Transfer Have Changed Gas Accounting
Author(s): Robert P. Cullen
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas shortage last winter led to an increase in exchange and transfer agreements because available gas was not readily accessible to the pipeline in need. These agreements resulted in new problems in gas accounting dealing with chart control, reversing flow directions, adjustment of purchase gas for imbalances, fuel allowances, multi-party agreements, balancing on Mcf and HMBtu (saturated and dry) and acquiring F.P.C. approvals. To minimize these complications gas accountants must key their procedures to direct and timely communication with the operating, accounting, and legal departments.
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Document ID: 635366A5

The Natural Gas Industry In Your Future
Author(s): Roger Reid
Abstract/Introduction:
Though current shortages, a balky Congress, delays in developing supplemental sources of supply, and the lack of a coordinated national energy policy, are clouding the future of the natural gas industry, I none-the-less view the future with optimism because basically this is a big, strong industry, the health of which is essential to a healthy America. Natural gas is a superior fuel. We all know that. It is transported to more than 41 million homes and another 4 million industrial and commercial users by a one-million-mile network of pipelines, one of the most cost-efficient energy transportation systems yet devised. With a plant investment of more than 51 billion dollars, it is the nations sixth largest industry.
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Document ID: 217871B5

Field Testing Large Capacity Meters
Author(s): Harold Waterfield
Abstract/Introduction:
For years the accuracy of Meter Meas urement has been recognized as being important, but never so much as during the past five or six years, and continues today and tomo rrow. This has been brought about by shortage of gas, and Increased cost of gas. Since the revenues of our companies for the most part is derived by the purchase and sale of gas, the volume being determined by meter measuremen t, then a maintenance and testing program should be designed to produce the most accurate measurement at the lowest operating cost.
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Document ID: B7A9E89A

Fundamental Gas Laws And Their Application
Author(s): Donald G. Darby
Abstract/Introduction:
Of prime importance in the gas measurement industry are quantities such as temperature, pressure, volume, and specific gravity. These quantities are combined and expressed in forumlas which are vital to the measurement of gas. Formulas have been derived by great men of the past such as, Robert Boyle, Jacques Charles, Joseph Gay-Lussac, Avogadro, John Dalton, and Joule-Thompson, and these formulas are generally called FUNDAMENTAL GAS LAWS. Although some are not exact because there are no perfect gases, some portions or all of these laws are used by measurement people throughout the world.
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Document ID: F366B437

Operation And Maintenance Of Catalytic Heaters
Author(s): Sam Ashley
Abstract/Introduction:
Since early in the 1960s catalytic heaters have bn available to the oil and gas industry. In the beginning only a few carpanies would try to apply a gas heater that operated without a flame to overccnie some of the many problems encountered in the production, transmission and distribution of natural gas. After nearly fifteen (15) years the flamoless catalytic heater has beccme recognized as a standard with measurement personnel, along with the many otlier conventional methods of freeze-up protection.
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Document ID: 54FDEC72

Basic Gas Contracts
Author(s): John W. Hague
Abstract/Introduction:
Before we discuss our principle subject of Basic Gas Contracts, let us take a very brief look at the history of natural gas, Among the first people to have utilized natural gas as a fuel were the Chinese who in search of salt produced natural gas from wells drilled to a depth of approximately 2,000 feet and then transported the gas through bamboo pipelines to the places of consumption. Natural gas was also known to have been used by the Japanese as early as 615 B.C. Other cultures also utilized natural gas from these early beginnings until the natural gas industry was born in 1821 in the village of Fredonia, New York.
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Document ID: BB63383D

Correcting Devices For Large Capacity Meters
Author(s): J. E. Willett
Abstract/Introduction:
Ihe metering of fuel gases by flow measurement devices is accomplished for the end purpose of determining how much energy has been delivered. The fact that the primary measuring element registers in volumetric dimensions such as cubic feet or cubic metres is due to tradition and the convenience of the measuring devices used. In reality the gas distribution company is selling potential energy to the user in the form of gas which is converted to heat energy in a final combustion process.
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Document ID: 9F48F5BA

Fundamentals Of Gas Pressure Regulation
Author(s): Joe Hawkins
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure is vital to the utilization of gas. It is economically transported at high pressure over long distances to distribution networks operating at reduced pressures and finally brought to near-atmospheric pressure at the point of use. For each stage of reduction, the regulator provides automatic, stable pressures for accurate measurement and low pressure for safe, efficient utilization. We all have a tendency to take regulators for granted. Its only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application, that we need to look more deeply into the fundamentals of the regulators operation.
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Document ID: 5EC2B197

Orifice Meter Testing
Author(s): Harold B. Serapsrott
Abstract/Introduction:
To those of us directly involved vith Instruments and gas measurement, accurate and continuous records have always been a prime concern. With the drastic increase in energy consiimption during the past decade and the so-called Energy Crisis, more people have become interested in precise gas measurement. Because of the decrease in availability of natural gas, most companies have had to dust off almost forgotten interruptible contracts and penalty clauses in addition to curtailing deliveries. In severe weather, many companies routinely exchange gas in an effort to see that no area is left without sufficient fuel.
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Document ID: 9FFDADA0

Natural Gas Processing Plant Operations And Measurment Of Gas And Liquid Streams
Author(s): F. J. Bingham
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject of Natural Gas Processing and Liquid Measurement is one of great importance today in the Natural Gas Industry. Liquid product extracted from Natural Gas has become very valuable, especially since the energy shortage. It is interesting to note that at one time in the history of Natural Gas these same liquids were just a nuisance to those trying to transport Natural Gas through pipelines. The liquids referred to are generally propanes, butanes, and natural gasoline. Because of their own individual characteristic, some of these gases would condense under certain pressures and temperatures forming liquids in the pipelines. The liquids collected in low places forming excessive pressure drops in the pipeline flow. As the liquids built up and the rate of gas flow increased, the liquids moved to critical spots effecting measurement, regulators, etc.
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Document ID: 7E863792

The Need For Density Meters For AGA 3 And AGA 5
Author(s): Mark V. Urda
Abstract/Introduction:
It is a popular misconception to say that an Orifice Plate is a Volumetric Flow device, and density is required only for Mass Flow or for conversion of Actual volumetric flow to Standard Cubic Feet. This paper shows the dependence of the Orifice Plate on the Density Meter, and explains the physical meaning of the various tables given In AGA 3 and AGA 5.
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Document ID: C255CB30

Wet Gas Gathering Systems
Author(s): F. Todd Hickman
Abstract/Introduction:
During the 1960s the San Juan Basin and 4-Corners area experienced an accelerated drilling program to the Dakota formation. These are wells with a high shut-in pressure and produce gas with a high content of hydrocarbons. The wells flow, after the head pressure is drawn down, at 90 to 100 F. temperature. At this temperature and at a producing pressure of 450 pounds, hydrocarbons travel through the well-head production equipment in gaseous form and are not fully recovered as liquid at the well site. After leaving the well location, a cooling process takes place in the pipeline and condensates form, These condensates or drip gasoline collect all along the pipeline and liquid blocks form at nearly all low spots. With the rough terrain in the San Juan Basin a great number of liquid-loaded sections of pipeline occur. Field operating pressure rises, gas production falls, surging flows occur and transmission efficiency fails drastically as a result of liquid loaded gathering and field lines.
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Document ID: DBD921B4

Effectts On Entrained Liquid On Orifice Measurement
Author(s): C. V. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
In the measurement of natural gas in field operations using the conventional orifice meter, all of the factors used in the calculation of flow are based on the assuittion that the gas is dry. This condition is rarely the case in field measurements. The A.G.A. Committee Report No. 3, (1), does not give any information or data regarding the effect water and/or distillate may have upon gas measurement by the orifice meter. It was in this area of gas measurement that graduate- engineering students at Texas ASI University, Kingsville, Texas have conducted research operation in the laboratory and in the field.
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Document ID: 51E9CD58

Fundamentals Of Bellows-Type Orifice Meters
Author(s): m. J. Sergesketter
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to control and direct the flow of water was recognized at a very early stage in the development of civilization. In Europe and Asia can be seen the relics of hydraulic works, some of great antiquity, which display a high degree of engineering accomplishment, the best known of which are the aqueducts which the Romans built to bring water to their cities. In the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum can be still seen lead piping which conveyed water to houses and gardens, and which included orifice plates to act as flow limiting devices, providing a basis on which the service was charged to the consumer. These were installed almost 2,000 years ago. Some of these techniques were introduced to North America by engineers who accompanied the Spanish missionaries and whose work can still be seen at some of the missions in California.
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Document ID: 3C5AC7BE

Sizing And Application Of Rotary Meters
Author(s): G. L. Hanson
Abstract/Introduction:
The first rotary positive displacement gas meters were built about 1920 by the PH & FM ROOTS Company and the Connersville Blower Company, both located In Connersville, Indiana. The two companies later joined to form Roots-Connersville Blower, and in 1966 the gas meter operation was re-named Dresser Measurement Division. The rotary gas meters manufactured by Dresser Measurement are known as ROOTS Meters. Rockwell International entered the market in the early 1960s with ci rotating vane design known as the Roto-Seal Meter and in the late 1960s, Singers American Meter Company introduced still another rotating vane design known as the CVM gas meter.
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Document ID: C1D37A5C

Problems II Offshore Measurement
Author(s): J. R. Stewart
Abstract/Introduction:
The critical shortage of natural gas and the high competition for onshore supplies has forced many companies offshore to satisfy their gas supply needs. This paper will present some of the problems encountered and discuss some solutions to them.
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Document ID: A536817F

An Infrared Solution To Natural Gas Calorimetry
Author(s): V. B. Fiore, F. W. Fraim, m. L. Paquin
Abstract/Introduction:
The Southern California Gas Company (Los Angeles, California) and Thermo Electron Corporation (Waltham, Massachusetts) have been cooperatively working on a new and improved way to measure the Btu value of natural gases. This development got underway in 1974 and has led us to a more efficient, lower cost calorimeter which we are now calling the CALSENSOR. This new instrument is a specialized adaptation of the technology contained in the PROSENSOR, a process composition analyzer introduced by Thermo Electron Corporation during 1974. As a result, the many CALSENSOR components common to the PROSENSOR have three years of rugged field experience.
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Document ID: 885936B5

Electronic Chart Reading Devices
Author(s): Alan T. Burr
Abstract/Introduction:
A chart from an orifice meter serves little purpose Unless we have some means of transforming the graphic data recorded on it into a measure of volume. The differential and static pressure lines on the chart could be averaged visually at regular intervals to provide values for volume calculations, but this is a slow, tedious process subject to considerable error, especially for erratic charts. Mechanical planimeters make the task of chart calculation somewhat easier and more accurate than visual methods but still do not provide the speed and accuracy increasingly demanded by the gas industry. Electronic chart reading devices are being implemented more and more to satisfy this need.
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Document ID: 278B8DC2

Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): Robert L. Taylor
Abstract/Introduction:
Why do Gulf Coast Gas Measurement Society and other related societies sponsor seminars such as this? Why do your employers underwrite the costs for you to attend these seminars? The answer, of course, is simple economics, Consider the following example of the economics involved. Assume a situation where one is measuring 300 mcfd at some metering station. A one percent error equals 3 mcfd. If the gas being metered is valued at 2 per mcf, then a 1% error works out to almost 2,200.00 per year. If, by attending this seminar, you are able to improve metering accuracy by only 1/2% at a relatively small station, you will have more than justified your attendance.
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Document ID: 4E7D3589

Recording Calorimeters - Installation And Testing
Author(s): C. L. Rousseau
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement of the heating value of gas is now c major importance to the gas industry, while at c time the cubic foot was the standard used and heating value was generally assumed to be 1000 BTU per cubic foot. To determine the efficiency of gas burning equipment, heating value must be known. Prices of the cubic foot of gas also vary with its quality. Measurement of heating value must now be accurate and reliable. The Recording Calorimeter is a precision instrument designed to measure and record heating value in BTU per standard cubic foot. One BTU (British Thermal Unit) is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one (1) pound of pure water one (1) degree Fahrenheit (from 58,5 to 59.5 degrees). In order for the Recording Calorimeter to maintain accuracy, proper installation and subsequent inspections by qualified technicians cannot be overemphasized.
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Document ID: 0E5E3B5D

Flow Measurement By Insertion Turbine Meters
Author(s): John C. Boykin
Abstract/Introduction:
Our environment today and the economic picture have forced us to become more stringent in the use and measurement of our natural fuels. The value of hydrocarbon products today is increasing at an unprecedented rate. The importance of accuracy in measuring these products is, therefore, becoming more critical. In addition, the cost of construction and operation has increased dramatically. The demand for the products is steadily growing. The higher demand level is forcing new construction and the increase of through-put capability in existing facilities.
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Document ID: 6A84EAF7

Dry Bed Dehydration
Author(s): Robert E. Trent
Abstract/Introduction:
Dry bed dehydration is a relatively new unit operation in the Chemical Industry. For all practical purposes, it has only been used since the mid 1930s. The first major application for dry bed dehydration was in the dehydration of natural gas so that it could be transported by pipeline without the formation of hydrates. Normally natural gas must be dried to a level of approximately 7 pounds of water per million standard cubic feet to be assured that it can be transferred with no hydrate formation. Later, as the value of petrochemicals rose, it became economical to remove the heavier hydrocarbons of natural gas by refrigeration and sell these as refinery feedstocks. These ethane plus recovery processes required cryogenic applications where temperatures could reach as low as -150 F. The only way that such cryogenic operations can operate economically is to have a dry feed which eliminates ice fouling.
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Document ID: 9DB8052D

Trouble Shooting Glycol Dehydrators
Author(s): Don Ballard
Abstract/Introduction:
Millions of dollars per year are lost unnecessarily in high glycol losses, excessive plant shutdowns and equipment replacement. However, a glycol plant, when properly designed, operated and maintained, will provide a low-cost operation, with little difficulty and attendance.
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Document ID: 72313E02

Basic Applications Of Telemetering Systems 5 Flow Computers
Author(s): R. F. Schwartz
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will be a basic paper illustrating the various types of telemetering and flow computing systems as utilized in the Gas Industry. The paper will be general in nature, as the entire subject matter represents an entire field of endeavor. Therefore, only basic fundamentals of the various types of flow computing and telemetering systems will be covered in this paper.
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Document ID: 87B01AFA

Commercial Uses Of Liquid And Gas Densitometers
Author(s): m. J. Sergesketter
Abstract/Introduction:
The density of a fluid is an important physical property. A knowledge of fluid density is vital to a broad spectrum of measurements in fluid mechanics, In fluid flow measurement, an exacting knowledge of flowing density is primary to the precise metering of volume and mass flow. The mass of a combustible fluid bears a close correlation to itsintrinsic calorific content, i e. heat of combustion. Accordingly, mass measurement Is significant in current trends to therms metering. Other areas of application for densitometers are discussed.
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Document ID: 742F6A7F

Frcm Mcf To Mmbtu
Author(s): Donald A. Mcnally
Abstract/Introduction:
This discussion is intended to explore the different methods of converting From MCF to MMBTU and to explain hov Consolidated Gas Supply Corp. plans to make this conversion. The general outline for this discussion will be the following: 1. Why (Measure MMBTU) 2.. What (What Method) 3. Hov (Equipment to be Used) 4. Where (Locations) 5. When (Tariff Effective Date) 6. Evaluate (Results) 7. G.G.S.C.s System
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Document ID: A0E19190

Metrication
Author(s): Loy Upp
Abstract/Introduction:
Metrication is a fact of life. We will look at the traditional questions of Why?, When?, What? and How? as far as Industry is concerned. The metric system has been talked about in this country ever since we have had a country. Still, the founding fathers adopted the British system of measurement. At that time it was the only standard measurement system in Europe. Since we did most of our trading with Britain, it made sense.
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Document ID: FA4043ED

Service Technicians Role In Gas Measurement
Author(s): T. E. Milam
Abstract/Introduction:
Because of the energy crisis that we are now experiencing and the resulting higher cost of gas, the need for a greater degree of accuracy in the measurement of natural gas has become paramount in the gas industry. All segments of the industry have responded to the challenge. The manufacturers of meters and instruments have continued to make improvements in their products, providing more dependability and greater accuracy in their products. Gas companies, also, have spent vast sums of money and time to develop greater accuracy in gas measurement. Their engineers are continually making studies with the specific purpose of discovering areas in measurement than can be improved. As a result, new procedures and techniques are being developed in the repair of meters and instruments that will allow accurate registration of both maximum and minimum demands and still have the endurance to make accurate registration over an extended period of time.
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Document ID: 1AF37BFB

Technical Session, Specific Gravity Instruments Installation And Operation
Author(s): James C. Bozeman
Abstract/Introduction:
The specific weight of a gas Is the number of units of weight in a unit volume. Specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of a definite volume of gas, at some convenient temperature and pressure, to the weight of an equal volume of dry air at the same temperature and pressure. Specific weight is a measurement of the relative weights of gases and varies according to the conditions under which it is determined, whereas specific gravity compares all gases to dry air as the standard. From a comparison of the above definitions, it Is seen that specific gravity is the ratio of the specific weight of a gas to the specific weight of dry air, both being at the same conditions of temperature and pressure.
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Document ID: 81EA31FE

Accounting For Unaccounted-For Gas
Author(s): A. W. Stubbeman, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The term unaccounted-for gas is quite often used synonymously with gas leakage. This is incorrect. Leakage is only one of the contributing factors. For those Intent on identifying and correcting problems in all areas of operations, all factors attributing to unaccounted-for gas must be analyzed and accounted-for, A recent study at Lone Star Gas Company reveals that there are six separate areas that must be evaluated. The activities of your own company will dictate perhaps even more than those listed here which are:
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Document ID: 40FA1EFA


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