Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (1976)

The Development And Implementation Of A Gas System Data Base At Illinois Power Company
Author(s): Dennis L. Anderson, John P. Obrien
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper relates the manner in which Illinois Power developed and implemented a gas system data base. Physical data on over 70,000 gas main segments and load data on over 40,000 nodes are maintained on a computer file. Gas leakage survey, surveillance, and repair information are also maintained on the data base. The data base is used in the preparation of operating reports and summaries and in engineering analysis. The paper also discusses some future expansion of the system.
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Document ID: 5EF4A8BB

Design And Construction Of Sour Gas Gathering Systems
Author(s): Richard L. Moore
Abstract/Introduction:
Exploration programs to locate new sources of natural gas have in recent years involved drillmg wells to deeper formations. A large portion of the gas discovered in deep well drilling programs is sour gas containing significant amounts of H2S and CO2. The production of sour gas reservoirs generally includes some quantities of condensate and/or formation water being produced with the gas stream. The sour gas stream, which is both corrosive to pipeline steel and highly toxic, must be collected and transported from the gas wells to a lield treating plant for processing to produce commercial pipeline quality gas. This paper describes current design and construction techniques being used to solve problems unique to the transportation of sour gas streams.
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Document ID: 78DF811E

Role Of The Laboratory In Sng Plants
Author(s): Raymond F. Hippeli, Dominic F. Cundari
Abstract/Introduction:
Many articles have been written and many papers presented outlining SNG plant design and operating experiences. Very little has been written, on the other hand, about the importance of the laboratory to SNG plant operations. It is the purpose of this paper to bring to the forefront the role the laboratory should play to help optimize SNG production. Unfortunately, the plant laboratory is too often utilized merely to analyze samples. For a laboratory to perform its proper function, it must be more than just a testing center. The laboratory must be closely involved in plant operation and, based on a review of analytical data collected, must determine if the unit is performing satisfactorily, processing feedstock properly and yielding design specification product. In other words, the plant laboratory must serve not as a testing center, but as a control center.
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Document ID: 1D3EBB3A

Hydrocarbon Potential Of The Offshore East Coast Of The United States
Author(s): Wesley Tiller
Abstract/Introduction:
The East Coast U.S. Outer Continental Sheirs potential oil and gas reservoirs are one of the few remaining chances for alleviating the nations energy problems through conventional methods. There are many methods used to obtain scientific data for petroleum exploration. One of the first reconnaissance surveys is the air magnetometer. The magnetometer shows the location of subsurface structures by magnetic attraction. The next step is the gravitymeter, which is a reconnaissance tool to locate potential areas for seismic surveys. The seismic surveys actually delineate the subsurface anomalies, Finally, drilling provides additional insight into the rock characteristics and their relationship to the mapped seismic anomaly. To date, only about 3% of the U.S. Continental Margin has been leased by federal and state governments for drilling. This small fraction accounts for almost 19% of our current domestic natural gas production.
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Document ID: 69C8D95D

Review Of LNG Spill Vapor Dispersion And Fire Hazard Estimation And Control Methods
Author(s): E. m. Drake, H. R. Wesson
Abstract/Introduction:
To assess the safety of an existing LNG facility or to design a safe new facility, one must be able to consider what potential accidents might happen, what the consequences of such accidents might be, and what steps should be taken to upgrade the level of safety, if necessary. Although this sounds straightforward in principle, there are some major problems involved. First of these is the definition of safe. No human activities are absolutely free from risk and we each may have very different ideas of the risks that we will personally accept, the risks that we may inflict on others in good conscience, or the risks others will accept on an involuntary basis. In the past, these differing personal attitudes toward safety have been considered in developing safety codes by consensus of a committee of experts with varied experiences and backgrounds. The LNG Code, NFPA 59A, has developed in this manner and is revised periodically to reflect both new knowledge and new attitudes toward acceptable levels of safely. This code, which is now also an interim federal standard for LNG facilities, assures that all facilities will be designed to meet certain basic safety criteria.
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Document ID: 824CF1B8

The Use Of Environmental Stress Crack Resistance Test In Quality Assurance Work
Author(s): Arnold m. Rader
Abstract/Introduction:
A new quality control test is needed for polyethylene pipe and fittings, as present tests do not detect all pipe or fittings that have poor long-term test or field performance. Minnegasco, working with an ASTM F17.40 Task Group, developed a modified Environmental Stress Crack Resistance test for polyethylene using rings cut from pipe or fittings. The ASTM Task Group round robin results have been satisfactory and the ESCR test is being balloted as a proposed test method at section level this month. Minnegasco repeatability on round robin samples of ALDYL A and Phillips 418 materials are remarkable no test specimen failure time varies more than 6% from the average value for the respective material.
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Document ID: 04DFD94B

LNG Flow And Density Measurements - A Progress Report
Author(s): D. B. Mann
Abstract/Introduction:
The progress of past and current LNG instrumentation programs at the National Bureau of Standards is presented. A review of cryogenic flowmetering and the application to liquefied natural gas (LNG) are described with particular emphasis on current moderate scale LNG flowmetering gas industry supported projects. Measurements of density both inferred and direct are reviewed, and the results af a gas industry supported density reference system are previewed by indicating performance of dielectric, vibrating element and displacement densimeters. The role of accurate and precise property data is shown to be pivotal to the instrumentation and measurements of LNG in respect to flow, density, temperature, pressure, and liquid level.
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Document ID: F23D7305

The Impact Of Noise Legislation On The Gas Transmission Industry
Author(s): Seymour Lascoe
Abstract/Introduction:
A few years ago it was being said that noise is the inescapable price of progress. Today it is apparent that our legislators dont think so. At the federal level we have the Occupational Safety and Health Act and the Noise Control Act of 1972. At least seven states have established regulations limiting noise emissions across property lines from stationary sources, and many states have noise emission limits for motor vehicles, motor boats and snowmobiles. At the local level, a 1975 study showed 539 cities with some kind of noise ordinance, an increase of 23% over the 1974 figure of 440 cities. In this kind of regulatory climate, it becomes necessary for all industries to determine the extent to which they comply, or fail to comply, with these regulations, and to determine what they can do so that they can continue to function.
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Document ID: C163463E

Operating Experiences With Running Film And Steam-Type Vaporizers
Author(s): Thomas J. Hanna, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The Philadelphia Gas Works is a municipal gas utility wholly owned by the City of Philadelphia and operated by the Philadelphia Facilities Management Corporation. The Company supplies pipeline natural gas supplemented with peakshaving gases from two plants, one situated on the Delaware River and one on the Schuylkill River. The gas distributed consists of a mixture of manufactured, natural and liquefied petroleum gases. Prior to the advent of natural gas availability, the gas manufacturing facilities provided year-round supply. Today, however, they are only required during cold weather when sendout requirements exceed the contracted (now curtailed) natural gas volumes. The natural gas is delivered through two metering and regulating stations owned and operated by Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation and five stations owned and operated by Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Corporation. Gas is distributed first through approximately 287 miles of high pressure mains, then through some 197 district regulator stations into a 2,675 mile system of low and intermediate pressure mams to serve approximately 600,000 individual customers.
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Document ID: C2357F81

One-Stop Service
Author(s): William T. Taylor
Abstract/Introduction:
One-Stop Service simply put is the idea that once Company personnel have gained entrance to the customers premises, either at the customers request or because of Company need, such as routine meter changes, every effort should be made to maximize the customers satisfaction and reduce Company costs by minimizing the need for a return call. Let us look at a couple of the major factors thai prompted Michigan Consolidated to develop the One-Stop Service concept. First and foremost is the condition of the nations economy. There is no one in this room that has not been adversely affected by the high annual rate of inflation that has taken place in the past few years. In addition to the adverse affects of inflation, Michigan, and Detroit in particular, ranks near the top in the national unemployment statistics.
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Document ID: 471E7650

Project Financing For Major Supplemental Natural Gas Supply Projects
Author(s): L. R. Olson
Abstract/Introduction:
In the utility industry, the costs of new projects to bring energy to the consumer have grown in mammoth proportions relative to the size of the privately owned utility. This is due both to the ravages of inflation and to the decline in traditional energy sources within the continental United States. As a result of this inflation the credit worthiness of most utility borrowers has significantly deteriorated. At the same time, capital has become more scarce, although its availability does fluctuate from time to time based on general market conditions and future expectations. To overcome these problems, utilities have had to abandon traditional financing methods and turn to project financing for new capital intensive projects.
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Document ID: BC19210D

Something For Nothing
Author(s): Raymond G. Kremer
Abstract/Introduction:
Thou Shalt not steal. We all recall having grown up with this Commandment, and nine others, as the basis for our behavior in this world. Unfortunately, there always has been, and today there is more than ever, a portion of our population that refuses to conform to anything that it feels represents the establishment. To them this Commandment has become Thou shall steal and the gas meter along with the measuring devices of other utilities have become prime targets. The concept of getting something for nothing is not new to the gas industry. I recall back when I was a fledgling in the gas meter business and one of the then old timers related this story.
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Document ID: D3E9018A

Optimum Operation Of Two Aquifer Storage Fields Through Reservoir Modeling
Author(s): Robert Ryan
Abstract/Introduction:
Central Illinois Light Company is a combination gas and electric distribution utility company headquartered in Peoria, Illinois. To give you some perspective, we employee about 1600 people have some 166,000 electric customers and 176,000 gas customers. Our service territory, both gas and electric, is comprised of two general areas. Peoria is the primary market in the northern area and the state capitol, Springfield, is the southernmost market. The State of Illinois has 37 active storage fields, making it one of the most active areas in the country in underground storage. Most of the gas storage in Illinois is in Cambrian and Ordorician aquifers. CILCO has two aquifer fields in the Silurian age Niagaran formation, a reeflike vuggy dolomite.
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Document ID: 5588D05B

Well Casing Interference And Potential Equalization Investigation
Author(s): William F. Cast
Abstract/Introduction:
Well casing cathodic protection has been the subject of many articles, but there has been comparatively little actual data published regarding mutual interference and the efforts directed toward minimizing it. The purpose of this paper is to present some interference data and to show the results of wellhead potential equalizing (or balancing) as a means of improving the spread of protective current in an interference situation. To accomplish this purpose, a detailed recounting of experiences is given for a field in which interference existed to such a degree prior to balancing that efforts at well casing cathodic protection were completely nullified. Also described is an installation that utilizes automatic balancing.
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Document ID: DC1B800D

Use Of Oil Analysis On Gas Engines As A Maintenance Tool
Author(s): Shirley Minges
Abstract/Introduction:
In any given group of maintenance men the subject of oil analysis can bring about a real verbal brawl. The believers are devout, and the non-believers are like the Tareyton smokers. Theyd rather fight than switch. Over the past few years Ive become involved in enough of these arguments to know that a logical definition of oil analysis will make switchers of the fighters. For some strange reason, engines and lubricants are considered as unpredictable as women. The truth is, manufacturers of the systems, and formulators of the lubricant know exactly how a system will react to the known factors heat, dirt, air. fuel and contamination. What makes a system seem unpredictable are the same variables that make a woman unpredictable. Operating conditions, age or time, quality of maintenance and last but not least, the amount of or lack of TLC by operators. The system and the lubricant have the monumental task of trying to survive the known factors AND the variables. Oil analysis has the equally monumental task of diagnosing ihe effect the known factors and the variables will have on the system. Hopefully, before catastrophic failure.
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Document ID: EC3C02CF

Turbulence And Noise In Flow Measurement And Control
Author(s): Allan R. Catheron
Abstract/Introduction:
During the course of investigations of various vortex shedding shapes, it was found that the T-shaped bluff body was optimum. Consequently a development program was undertaken that has resulted in the recent sales release by The Foxhoro Company of a T-shaped Vortex Shedding Flowmeter intended for metering liquids. Our intent in this paper is to give a brief history of the development of our understanding of flow noise, how that understandmg can be applied to measurement and control instrumentation and how we go about studying turbulence and applying our knowledge to todays measurement needs. We begin with a definition of flow noise. The term flow noise, as it is understood in industry today, includes turbulence noise as well as random and discrete frequency noise from other sources. The turbulence noise is an internal noise, being associated directly with the flow. It can be best understood with the help of two definitions.
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Document ID: 9238F951

Throw Away The Excedrin Tablet!
Author(s): Richard D. Hannan
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the advantages to a gas operations manager whose management career is made easier by using the 10-year, field proven concept of Magnetic Tape Recording of flow at the meter site. Revealing-sometimes startling- detailed load information stimulates customers to strive to shave peak demands, thus, raising capacity utilization. Detailed load information also leads to more profitable rates. These advantages, plus accelerated and accurate billing, make for a more pleasant life for the operations manager.
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Document ID: 73DF0D04

Purging, Cooldown, Performance Testing Of Prestressed Concrete LNG Containers
Author(s): John J. Closner, Robert H. Corvini, Tadeusz J. Marchaj
Abstract/Introduction:
During the summer and early fall of 1974, Philadelphia Gas Works began to supply LNG to two 2000 MMSCF (92,500-m) prestressed concrete tanks from its 26,000,000 SCFD Richmond liquefaction plant. (See Figure No. A1). The liquefaction plant had been operated at reduced capacity, supplying 4,866 tank truckloads of LNG to the companys 11,600- m satellite tank at the Passyunk Plant, and through processing service arrangements, to other users for several years. On December 12. 1975, the performance (boil-off) test on Philadelphia Gas Works prestressed concrete LNG tanks was completed with the impressive results 15-20% below design target. These results are presented later in this paper.
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Document ID: 7E0407B3

Stores Work Management System
Author(s): Howard L. Moll
Abstract/Introduction:
Consumers Power Company is a combination electric and gas utility serving 1,200,000 electric and 950,000 gas customers in Michigans Lower Peninsula. The Companys service area is divided into fifteen commercial operating Divisions. The Material Services Operations coiisisl of one major distribution storeroom in each Division and several satellite storerooms. The Division storeroom in our Company Headquarters city of Jackson serves as a combination wholesale and retail type distribution center. Certain materials are purchased as central stock because there is definite price advantage, availability benefit or need for incoming material quality control inspection.
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Document ID: 094DEDFA

Ultimate Life Of Fiberglass Booms
Author(s): E. W. Fogel
Abstract/Introduction:
How long will a fiberglass boom last? During a round-table discussion at an A.G.A.-EEI Meeting several years ago, a similar question was asked. It was When is an aerial device replaced? An answering comment was, We have had one in operation 12 years and at the present time there is no consideration to replace it. That broke the ice. Other comments referred to 14, 16, and 18 years. Then someone mentioned Iheir having several 20 years old and they were still going very well. By now, there must be some very old, old timers.
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Document ID: B497AF44

United States LNG Trade Potential
Author(s): P. J. Anderson, E. J. Damiels
Abstract/Introduction:
Any assessment of the potential for U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) imports made after February 26, 1976, must take into account the 1 trillion CF/yr limit on such imports proposed by President Ford in his energy message to Congress of that date. Specifically, the message called for increasing LNG imports to supplement declining supplies of domestic natural gas but also for balancing the need for supplemental supplies against the risk of becoming overly dependent on any particular source of supply. Consequently, U.S. LNG imports from foreign countries in 1985 may be restricted to as little as the 1 trillion CF/yr level, or they may reach an upper level of 3.521 trillion CF/yr, based on currently proposed projects.
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Document ID: B35F71EE

Modern Gas Sampling Methods And Techniques
Author(s): R. A. Price
Abstract/Introduction:
Today the energy shortage is an item of top priority for the gas industry. Every day one hears of potential major new projects to make available alternate gas supplies of LNG and SNG. A few have already been started and in the years to come, many more projects will hopefully go into operation. These alternate gas supphes can pose many potential measurement problems for gas transmission and distribution companies. Some of these are quite obvious and direct technical problems. Others are not so obvious and can sneak up on an unwary operating company.
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Document ID: 464CBC89

Corrosion Of Furnace Heat Exchangers
Author(s): S. W. Khoo, F. D. Williamson
Abstract/Introduction:
The premature failure of furnace heat exchangers from rapid corrosion is becoming a prominent subject for intensive study because of the need to find a lasting solution to this recurrent problem. As a result of a series of complaints, the Canadian Gas Association in 1972 conducted a country wide survey to evaluate the performance of various types of heat exchangers to establish the reasons for the deterioration of different types of units. The purpose of this survey was to investigate all factors which have a bearing on corrosion. It was felt that to obtain reliable data to determine validity of complaints and the predominant causes of corrosion, direct field observation was necessary. Visits were made to many cities to inspect the affected heat exchangers in the homes and industrial sites. Information was also obtained from utilities, manufacturers and other sources. The results of all these findings were published in the Canadian Gas Association Research Report (1) in July, 1973.
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Document ID: FDD03B67

Town Border Stations And Interruptible Services Monitoring
Author(s): Joseph Wager
Abstract/Introduction:
Our increased national awareness of the importance of our natural resources has caused a renewed emphasis on control and allocation of natural gas. Low priority service offered to customers- interruptible service-permits interruption on a short notice and requires frequent monitoring as to their status. Actual interruptions of service, unheard of a few years ago, are now a frequent occurrence. These interruptions require verification to determine that the customer has, in fact, changed to an alternate energy source in order to effectively administer and allocate attendant penalties associated with exceeding daily gas contracts.
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Document ID: B59CB0F1

The Role Of Underground Storage In The Changing Market And Supply Requirements For Natural Gas
Author(s): Robert F. Teepe
Abstract/Introduction:
Six years after the first pipeline curtailment, reasonable people would agree that there is indeed a natural gas shortage. Shortages, of course, are determined in relation to demand. If demand is greater than supply there is a shortage and elementary economics tells us that the classic way to create a shortage is to offer a premium product at a price well below its market value. This is what has been done in the case of natural gas since the Supreme Court decision in the Phillips Case in 1954 which held that the Federal Power Commission had jurisdiction over the wellhead price of gas, and as could have been expected a shortage has resulted. As though this normal market axiom could not have accomplished the result by itself, the demand for gas has been further stimulated by the introduction of air quality standards and the gap between supply and demand has further widened by the lack of sufficient incentive to explore for new natural gas supplies. Regulated prices for new gas are based on historical costs, and an inadequate allowance for risk and consequently are deficient in providing the needed incentive to bring forth new supplies. The conditions that have brought the shortage about are many and generally relate to the political-regulatory scheme, not necessarily to the physical aspects of supply. The fact is that the demand for natural gas exceeds the supply and this condition is likely to continue for some time, certainly until the price of natural gas approaches or exceeds the price of alternate forms of energy and that is likely to happen only under free market conditions.
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Document ID: 67399C93

Remotely Controlled Overland Pipelines Caravan For Energy Independence
Author(s): Albert E. Whiteside
Abstract/Introduction:
This discussion covers the general philosophy, complexity, magnitude of application and general requirements with regard to automation and telecommunication facilities for remotely controlled overland pipelines. Overall considerations are the pipeline, environment, central control, computer supervisory control and telecommunications. Specific considerations are the remote facilities such as station control, metering stations, pressure reducing stations, city gates, storage, block valves and system control. Other considerations include corrosion protection and interference from other voltage sources, such as parallel high voltage lines that may induce dangerous voltages on the line during construction and when installed, across insulated flanges or with respect to ground.
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Document ID: C7071CBE

Pulsation Effects On Turbine Meters
Author(s): Joseph A. Bonner
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas turbine meters have been accepted by the gas industry as high accuracy measurement devices in all phases of natural gas operations. Generally, gas meters are installed at locations where steady flow exists and the load changes are relatively slow. There arc some installation locations where steady flow conditions do not exist and it is desirable to determine if the turbine meter will perform accurately or have significant metering errors. The study of pulsating flow effects of gas measurement devices has been carried out over many years. The results of these studies show varying degrees of confidence in predicting the accuracy of a flow meter in pulsating flow.
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Document ID: 1B847DD7

Fusion Bonded Epoxy Coatings For Pipeline Corrosion Protection
Author(s): Rupert F. Strobel
Abstract/Introduction:
The ever increasing need for liquid and gaseous energy and the current fuel shortages has initiated a worldwide energy search unequalled in past history. Transport of these fuels from the geographically remote sources to the areas of use is economically and safely accomplished using pipelines. Pipelines are subjected to a host of hostile environmental conditions during transportation, installation and use. The pipe must be protected from these adverse conditions and this is most easily accomplished through the use of coatings. Fusion bonded epoxics are a new generation of pipeline coatings which meet the wide range construction and service needs of the pipeline industry. Technological advances m materials, manufacture and application now make it possible to apply fusion bonded epoxy to both large and small diameter pipe and to the circumferential weld in the field. Installation and performance histories dictate that pipe users seriously consider fusion bonded epoxy for pipeline corrosion control.
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Document ID: 8A1BBB1B

A Novel, Inexpensive Remote Meter Reading Device
Author(s): W. D. Munk, C. T. Kalamaris
Abstract/Introduction:
Columbia has been involved in the design, development and testing of a novel concept for remote reading of inside and hard to access gas meters. The production unit, called the E-Z Reader is a low cost, entirely mechanical device which will attach to the index of any iron or aluminum case gas meter, transferring the meter reading up to 25 feet without loss of accuracy. The output of the unit is a digital counter mounted to an accessible exterior wall of the customers residence. Use of the E-Z Reader has reduced Columbias capital expenditures for remote meter readers, while increasing the number of scheduled meter readings.
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Document ID: B25DA977

The B-109 Story
Author(s): Howard H. Holmes
Abstract/Introduction:
The American National Standards Committee B-109 was established to meet an industry need for standardization of gas meters. Although the American Gas Association had issued suggested gas meter specifications for several years (OP-58-2 1963) the industry felt that the time was right for gas meter standards to be given the status of an American National Standard. At a general conference held on January 31, 1967 at ANSI headquarters in New York a project scope was constructed which was eventually endorsed by the Mechanical Standards Board of ANSI. This scope was limited to preparation of a standard for diaphragm displacement meters with capacities less than 500 CF.H. Since 95% of the meters in service are in this capacity range, this standard received first priority. The organizational meeting of ANSI committee B-109 was held on November 30, 1967, at which time five sub-committees were established to develop various sections of the standard.
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Document ID: 60D58D2B

Mercury In Natural Gas
Author(s): L. L. Phannenstiel, C. Mckinley, J. C. Sorensen
Abstract/Introduction:
An article on Groningen natural gas reported the mercury content of the natural gas to be as high as 180 micrograms per normal cubic meter (g/nm) 10 g/nm 1.1 part per billion (ppb) by volume. Indicated mercury content of other natural gas streams reported to or measured by Air Products range to concentrations as low as 0.001 g/nm. Analyzing for mercury in such low concentrations is an extremely difficult task. Results can be subject to error from atmospheric contamination of the sample and interference of other trace compounds in the natural gas. Analytical approaches studied included direct measurement, chemical reaction techniques, and approaches involving first concentrating the mercury and then releasing it into a direct mercury measuring instrument.
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Document ID: 12FBD1BC

Improving Bell Prover Automation
Author(s): Glenn H. Chamberlain
Abstract/Introduction:
The progression from manual to automatic bell proving of gas meters improved the accuracy of the test data by relieving the operator of the responsibility of visually determining the test results. For the first time the test results were digitally displayed and automatic printers could be employed to prevent transcription errors occurring through manual tabulation. The natural transition of automatic proving evolved from electro-mechanical switching to solid state switching. Considerable changes in the state of the art and the availability of complex electronic integrated circuits at a relative low cost have given rise to another generation of improved equipment with which to automate bell provers. Specifically this improved format deals with the use of pulse generators counting into solid state digital modules.
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Document ID: F7FD2284

Relative Resistance Of Natural Gas Odorants To Soil Adsorption
Author(s): R. P. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
Loss of the warning odorant from natural gas by soil adsorption in underground leaks has been of concern to gas companies almost since gas odorization practices began about 40 years ago. Although soil type, moisture content, and other environmental conditions have been shown to be the dominant influences on adsorptive losses, inherent differences do exist in the soil-adsorption resistance of odorant compounds which could affect the margin of safety. Since few comparative data on odorant soil adsorption have been available, this study was conducted with the objective of determining which odorant components could be recommended for best resistance to soil adsorption.
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Document ID: C5C41321

Project Description Of The Transalaska Pipeline System
Author(s): Peter Demay
Abstract/Introduction:
The new 800-mile trans Alaska pipeline is being buill for one purpose to make the 9.6 billion barrel oil reserves at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, available to U.S. industry and consumers. Initially, 1.2 million barrels of oil a day will be transported through the line from Prudhoe Bay to Valdez, Alaska, for shipment by tanker to West Coast ports. At capacity, the total will reach 2 million barrels a day. This project, the largest privately funded construction effort in history, is being built by the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company, formed by eight companies-The Amerada Hess Corporation, ARCO Pipe Line Company.
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Document ID: 8166476F

Customer Curtailment Surveillance
Author(s): Arnold Olson
Abstract/Introduction:
Washington Natural Gas Company Customer Curtailment Surveillance is done in several ways. In order for our policies to be more meaningful, a brief history of the Company and its practices in the past and present would be helpful. The Company has approximately one-quarter of a million customers. Nine hundredeighty of these are curtailable. There are two rate schedules under which interruplible gas is sold, Rate 85 which is a low priority interruptible service with 139 customers which in 1976 had approximately 100 days of curtailment. A higher priority is Rate 86 which had 17.5 days of curtailment. There are 841 customers in this rale class. The Rate 86 customers pay more per therm of gas, and are generally smaller customers such as schools, apartment houses and small manufacturing companies. Six hundrednine of these interruplible customers both interruptible rates) also purchase firm gas through the same meters. This complicates surveillance.
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Document ID: 98A2BD09

Cathodic Protection Versus Pipe Line Casings
Author(s): m. D. Orton
Abstract/Introduction:
Historically there has been disagreement between pipeline operators and highway and railroad commissions regarding the need for pipeline casings at highway and railroad crossings. In the early 1960s there were several papers published which queslioned the need for casings at every crossing. Both mechanical and corrosion aspects were considered. 1.2.3.4.5. The general consensus was that pipelines could be designed to withstand mechanical stresses safely without casings and that casings could, in fact, interfere with the ability to maintain adequate corrosion control on piping within casing.
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Document ID: F1C54735

Programmable Controllers: A New Useful Tool
Author(s): William L. Busch, Franklin P. Gertson, Richard W. Stroup
Abstract/Introduction:
What is a Programmable Controller (PC)? (Figure #1). The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) Programmable Controller Committee has defined programmable controllers as digital electronic control devices with programmed memories, implemental logic and sequencing and arithmetic capabilities excluding drum and sequence controllers.-Hey its not ail that bad!
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Document ID: E990F40C

Liquefied Natural Gas Fire Control
Author(s): Vincent A. Warner
Abstract/Introduction:
When the LNG facilities design is completed, built, and passed the miriad of regulatory requirements, the automalic application of the title turn key is applied. This is as far from the truth as the distance of the sun from the earth, because emergency response manning must go on beyond the turn-key concept. The flexible, emergency response capability, in the form of people, must be alert lo the situations one step beyond Ihe automated and/or fix fire control concept. The step beyond requiring the need for fire control, which will be discussed in this paper, is postulated on the premise that an unlikely LNG spill has occurred and that all shutdown automatic and manual controls operate according to design. However, enough liquid is being continually released such that a vapor cloud is sustained in the direction of an adequate ignition source.
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Document ID: 4C642A35

Are You Sure?-Accident Prevention Committee Minitalk
Author(s): John E. Lacey
Abstract/Introduction:
Most of us have very positive opinions about those things which enter and affect our lives. Do we not, often at the slightest provocation, voice our strong opinion on many subjects ranging from such mundane matters as the relative merits (or demerits) of the automobiles we drive, or the cause of this lousy recession to the more controversial subjects of religion, politics, civil rights and sex. Among the opinions most firmly established in the mind of mortal man (and particularly those who have direction and control over the work of other mortal men) is the subject of safety. In too many cases, safety is thought of (if indeed it is thought of at all) as a necessary evil that must be considered despite the comparatively overwhelming need to be concerned with production.
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Document ID: 3707C065

Too Much And Too Little
Author(s): F. Donald Hart
Abstract/Introduction:
T have no intention of continuing in tone or tenor my remarks of 1975 . . . not that I question their pertinence. Regrettably the persistent problems of last year still stand clearly astride the path to progress in solving our many difficulties. While we continue to face those challenges which must be resolved with mind and money, changing circumstances call for fresh observations and frank judgments. In the face of this self-imposed mandate, how can I best convey the impact of the events that unfolded since we were last together? As I view it, 1975 can best be described as a year of Too much and too little. While flying from Washington, D.C, to San Francisco a week or so ago I was able to dwell a bit on some of the happenings of 1975. Weve seen conflict in Africa. Weve observed the tragedy of earthquakes and national optimism over a strengthening economy. Weve been simultaneously bewitched and bewildered by an array of presidential aspirants. But then, as the plane moved on across our great country, I had other feelings.
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Document ID: B0496261

Cathodic Protection Of Storage Wells (76-T-2) Review Questionnaire By NACE-TPC-Task Group T-lJ-2 And A.G.A. Corrosion Committee Task Group
Author(s): R. L. Steelman
Abstract/Introduction:
I would like to express my appreciation to the members of NACE, Technical Practices Committee, Task Group T-lJ-2 and the American Gas Association, Corrosion Committee for their assistance in completing the Questionnaire and compiling the information received from the Questionnaire. I would like to express a personal thanks to the chairman of NACE Task Group T-IJ-2, Jim Klein, for his assistance in completing this work. The National Association of Corrosion Engineers, Technical Practices Committee, Task Group T-lJ-2 and the American Gas Association, Corrosion Committee Task Group jointly drafted and mailed a Cathodic Protection of Storage Wells, Questionnaire to ninety (90) companies operating natural gas storage reservoirs in January 1973.
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Document ID: 439CD557

Traffic And You
Author(s): Bruce D. Whitelaw
Abstract/Introduction:
in the utility industry we go to great lengths to obtain the lowest bid prices for the highest quality materials and we verify normally to the penny, invoices vs. material prices as shown on purchase orders. Unfortunately we do not always concentrate on the costs of material movement or verify the invoice charges for them especially the smaller utihiies. This isnt intentional, but usually resultant of no one person or department having an adequate knowledge of Traffic. Traffic defined simply is: persons and property carried by transportation lines. This sounds simple but oh, what complications are involved. Have you ever tried to understand and comprehend a Tariff Rate Book or try to route a shipment? Amen to you! Just classifying the material to be shipped can be an enormous headache as will be shown later in our slide portion of the program.
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Document ID: 90BABA42

Domestic Exploration And Selfsufficiency
Author(s): George P. Mitchell
Abstract/Introduction:
My views on our energy situation can be slated simply: First, the geology of the United States can support a crash program in exploration and development that will help us achieve 85 per cent self-sufficiency in energy between 1990 and 1995-but, realistically, not before. Second, in order to meet that goal, concurrent emergency plans are needed to alleviate shortages of oil field equipment, drilling rigs, trained manpower and capital. Third, the government must take a key role, but it must be one of energy statesmanship, not political vindictiveness. All of you in the transmission industry have a vital part to play during the next decade in securing adequate supplies for your systems, You know that the situation becomes more alarming with each passing day.
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Document ID: C574AB05

Current Activities In Coal Gasification Research And Development
Author(s): B. S. Lee
Abstract/Introduction:
The warm winter of the 1975-76 season was kind to this nation in substantially reducing the projected gas shortage that would have resulted had the winter been more normal. However, natures kindness has lulled many people to conclude falsely that the ga.s shortage was exaggerated and does not really exist. Unfortunately, however, the gas shortage is real and, in a rising economy, will become aclue as the winter of 1976-77 rolls around. With gradual economic recovery will come increasing demand for additional energy, a demand which had been greatly curtailed by the recent recession. Everything, which has been said about ihe urgent need for developing a coal conversion technology method to supply the nations energy needs, at least through this century, still applies. Coal gasification is still the most eflicienl method of utilizing our most abundant resource to keep the pipelines full. This sense of urgency must be restored in the publics thinking before what little momentum we now have in coal gasification development is lost, or before we have to react to a panic situation when a cold winter or another oil embargo hil us.
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Document ID: 4A8773CF

Future Of The Gas Industry In The Overall Energy Picture
Author(s): William G. Rosenberg
Abstract/Introduction:
For the past 150 years the natural gas pipeline industry has served the country well in delivering to our homes, businesses and factories adequate supplies of natural gas, Today natural gas accounts for one-third of the nations lotal energy requirements. It heats some 40 million American homes and supplies nearly half of our industrial energy. Yet, major problems remain in setting the proper economic and regulatory climate to assure sufficient supply and equitable distribution of natural gas in the years to come. The litany of pessimistic natural gas trends has become all to familiar. --Production peaked in 1973, declined 5 percent in 1974, and an estimated 7 percent last year.
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Document ID: 45C79C83

Basic Corrosion Control Training Course
Author(s): E. H. Holland
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to provide a sort of Cook Book approach on how to train people to become Corrosion Technicians. The Florida Gas Company Basic Corrosion School that is described in this paper came about by a particular need within this Company which began in 1971 and has continued to the present time. Hopefully others may benefit by this approach and perhaps similar training courses could be patterned after this one, either in part or in full.
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Document ID: 7C687208

Pipe To Soil Readings By Other Than Cathodic Protection Personnel
Author(s): Don May
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years now cathodic protection has been recognized as an effective means of halting corrosion on underground metal gas distribution piping. Il is now used throughout the industry and is required by the Department of Transportation Regulations under many conditions. The effectiveness of this protection is dependent upon the continuous presence of a protective current to all otherwise anodic points along the buried piping system. If this current is lost or diminished to a certain point, even for short periods, corrosion may occur at varying rates. Metal which is lost from the pipe wall during corrosion is lost for good, so every day that protection is not being maintained brings closer the advent of corrosion leaks on the system.
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Document ID: 1B829340

Gas Potential Of The Outer Continental Shelf Of The Pacific Coast
Author(s): James C. Taylor
Abstract/Introduction:
The Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) of the Pacific Coast is part of a much larger Pacific continental margin, and the two areas have had a similar geologic history since middle Tertiary time. Assessment of the gas potential in this offshore area is accomplished by examining the adjacent highly explored productive coastal basins in the tectonically unstable area west of the San Andreas fault and by reviewing results of initial exploratory drilling in the offshore. Only 5.5 percent (0.54 trillion ft3) of Californias total produced and remaining dry gas reserves are in these coastal basins, and this is concentrated in the Ventura basin in reservoirs of early Miocene age or older. The source rock for generating this dry gas and responsible for the higher than normal gas-oil ratios in the Ventura basin is believed to be the thick pre- Miocene strata beneath this basin. Associated dissolved gas from onshore coastal oil and gas fields amounts to 11.5 trillion ft with 91 percent from the Los Angeles and Ventura basins. Approximately 88 percent of this type of gas from oil fields has been produced from late Miocene or younger strata.
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Document ID: FCEC72D6

Exhaust Emissions From Natural Gas Pipeline Compressor Engines
Author(s): Charles m. Urban, Karl J. Springer
Abstract/Introduction:
One activity of the Pipeline Research Committee of A.G. A., designated as Project PR-15- 61, is the study of oxides of nitrogen, or NOx, from the engines used to compress and transmil natural gas. Southwest Research Institute began work on this long range project in 1972, under the leadership of Mr. Sam Cunningham, Southern California Gas Company, who has served as Chairman of the NO2 Supervisory Committee. A paper presentedxat the 1975 Transmission Conference described the key findings of the first phase dealing with procedural development and baseline emission rates from in-use piston and turbine compressor engines. This paper describes the key findings of the second phase, which included the determination of state and national estimates of compressor engine emissions and an assessment of current emissions control technology.
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Document ID: 32B673EB

Experiences Of Dispatching Sng And LNG
Author(s): Robert L. Guidi
Abstract/Introduction:
In June of 1971, Transcontinental Pipeline Company, our primary supplier, notified Brooklyn Union that for the first time in the 20 years since natural gas began flowing north to New York City, they would be forced to curtail our firm daily volumes due to a Transco system- wide shortage. That months curtailment was small, only 7% of Transcos total firm monthly contracted quantity with us. However, it had a profound impact ai Brooklyn Union Gas because it marked the end of guaranteed continuous and increasing supplies of pipeline natural gas. By October 1974, Transco was curtailing their firm rate to us by 32% or 2.3 BCF per month and Texas Eastern Transmission Company was curtailing their firm rate to us by 17% or .2 BCF per month. Our margin of supply over customer requirement was so small heading into the 1974-75 winter that colder than normal weather or a delay in starttip of our SNG plant, scheduled for November 1, could have resulted in serious shortages, Whatever anxieties Brooklyn Union had about plant start-up vanished in that month. On October 31, 1974, our SNG plant began its first full production season. 190 days later, it had produced 9.8 BCF of synthetic gas, approximately 15% of that winters requirements, with an average heating value of 980 BTU. After 3 years of experiencing a decreasing margin of supply over requirement, Brooklyn Union began looking forward to a more secure supply position.
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Document ID: 74A9D030

Shelf Stock Versus Specials
Author(s): H. H. Norman Odle
Abstract/Introduction:
This is a discussion of the factors to be considered in determining whether shelf stock or specials should be used on special and routine work. The terms shelf slock and specials obviously require definition- There are basically four ways a company purchases material: (1) By a description based on a national standard, such as A.S.T.M., A.N.S.l., S.A.E., or A.P.I., which has a precise meaning to everyone concerned. (2) By a general description of a widely produced ilem, qualified by each vendors catalog number. (3) By an individual vendors description of his own proprietary item. (4) By a detailed description formulated by the purchasing company, which is usually accompanied by a detailed drawing or sample.
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Document ID: F50911B2

Productivity Measurement
Author(s): William Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
A brief survey of American Gas Association Customer Service Committee members produced volumes of detailed information relative to Productivity Measurement programs, the details of which arc, unfortunately, not condensable for the purposes of a Distribution Conference presentation. The following report summarizes the types of procedure used and discusses alternative approaches for data collection and processing.
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Document ID: AD0831E5

Remaining Gas Frontiers In The Tower 48 Onshore
Author(s): Kenneth H. Crandall
Abstract/Introduction:
In our intensified, almost frantic, search for new supplies of natural gas in this country, many have tended to focus their attention almost exclusively on what seem to be the less explored and environmentally hostile areas such as the offshore and Alaska. This is quite understandable since it is there that large virgin structures are easily found. These often contain thick marine sediments and generally have favorable source and reservoir strata. Furthermore, offshore seismic exploration is comparatively inexpensive and, most importantly. usually of high quality thus lowering exploration risk factors. The onshore U.S. gas potential, however, should not be ignored. The Potential Gas Committees estimates gave, as of December 1972, a total probable, possible and speculative undiscovered gas resource for the Lower 48 onshore of 550 trillion cubic feet compared with 596 trillion for Alaska and offshore.
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Document ID: 2B16B943

A Description Of The Ekofisk Computer Control/Telemetry System
Author(s): B. L. Throman, L. E. Smith, D. R. Fritsch
Abstract/Introduction:
Applied Automation, Incorporated is supplying a supervisory control and data acquisition system for Phase III of the Phillips Norway Groups Ekofisk project. This paper will describe Applied Automations design approach for the Ekofisk Computer Control/ Telemetry System. Information on hardware, software and the approach used for data acquisition and transmission is included.
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Document ID: 4B5ED7C7

Erda Demonstration Plant Program For High-Btu Gas
Author(s): Neal P. Cochran
Abstract/Introduction:
Naturally Im happy to be able to address the A.G.A. Transmission Conference, on the Fossil Energy Demonstration Plants Program of the Energy Research and Development Administration. Before discussing the program, I would like to bring to your attention three developments that will have a distinct impact on the synthetic fuels industry in general, and the Fossil Energy Demonstration Plants Program, in particular. The first of these is the Presidents Synthetic Fuels Commercialization Program the second is the ERDA National Plan for Energy Research, Development and Demonstration, and the third is the establishment of ERDAs Fossil Energy Group. Regarding the Synthetic Fuels Commercialization Program, recommended legislation establishing this program was rejected during the past session of Congress but is now before Congress, again. This legislative proposal is an outgrowth of the Presidents State of the Union recommendation, a Synfuels Interagency Task Force was set up in February 1975. Responding directly to the Presidents Energy Resources Council.
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Document ID: 76373D56

Deepwater Drilling Operations
Author(s): J. V. Langston
Abstract/Introduction:
A continuing strong position in maintaining domestic energy supplies requires that in the long term, the United States develop new sources of energy. In the immediate future it requires that we extend our search for conventional sources of oil and gas to new frontiers. The two most promising are the Arctic and the Deepwater along our shores. This discussion will review the present challenge of drilling in deepwater and outline the progress in the technology which is meeting that challenge. The incentive for pushing our exploration and drilling to deepwaters rests upon the supposition of possible reserves in deepwater. The Outer Continental shelf and water depths to 12,000 feet are shown on Figure 1. It can be seen that surrounding the United States are large areas having waters in this depth range. Several of them, in theory, have large petroleum potential. To verify the existence of commercial reserves, we must drill and produce in these areas. Some, as you notice, besides offering the challenge of deepwater, offer the additional challenge of intermittent to perennial ice coverage.
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Document ID: 9B3F8A48

Sng Plant Turnaround Planning
Author(s): Calvin J. Carter
Abstract/Introduction:
Day to day, we find a way to handle the plant maintenance more or less successfully, some way or another, with or without formalized planning and scheduling systems, and reasonably satisfy the boss. Then along comes a large turnaround which gives us the opportunity to produce a fantastic failure for our company. Having been a part of several of these I observed that the traumatic effect on individuals involved vanes greatly. Some disliked it more than others. Graver cannot afford to mar its reputation as a service contractor with a poor turnaround. Part of the service we offer is our ability to fluctuate in number of personnel rapidly without losing effectiveness and control. From the first day at a new contract, our primary effort is to install our proven maintenance planning, scheduling and control system as rapidly as is possible to fit the new plant. Even though our forces may vary from 50 to 300 people, once installed our system will handle this routinely and effectively.
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Document ID: 2F607551

Considerations For Design And Selection Of Low Temperature Piping Insulation Systems
Author(s): Bingham H. Van Dyke
Abstract/Introduction:
The Design & Construction Task Group of the LNG Committee has among its objectives the compiling of experience and suggestions from plant operators, contractors, suppliers and the technical sector leading to an awareness of problem areas and technological advancements in the slate of the art of the various segments comprising a cryogenic facility. Low temperature insulated piping is one of these areas and the subject of this presentation. From the earliest attempts to insulate piping for systems operating below ambient temperature it was recognized that problems existed which are not experienced with warm piping, and these are primarily associated with the natural tendency for water, as vapor in normal air, to seek the cold surface of the pipe, resulting in reduced effectiveness and destruction of the insulation. Improved insulation materials have been developed but unless they are properly installed into a properly designed system the results will not produce the maximum potential from the materials. This paper will deal with some of the problems and provide some guidelines. It is not intended as a substitute for a definitive specification, which in all cases should be responsibly prepared.
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Document ID: 862978F5

Changing Domestic Gas Meters Without Interruption Of Service
Author(s): John D. Barth
Abstract/Introduction:
The expense of performing routine meter changes continues to rise along with the spiraling costs of all operations in the utility business. Contributing to this increase is the excessive number of homes where both husband and wife are employed, resulting in lost travel lime by servicemen. It is often necessary to make special arrangements outside of normal service hours for these meter changes, resulting in overtime expenses. If we couid eliminate call backs, or eliminate time required to relight appliances, we could substantially reduce these operating costs. In an effort to streamline and automate our work and procedures, we have investigated various meter changing devices, and in fact, some of our own personnel have developed and patented fittings for effecting meter changes without customer service interruption. The main disadvantage of these devices lies in the necessity of installing a special meter bar or fitting in advance (10 years in Indiana) of its anticipated use.
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Document ID: 6679DC84

The Short And Long Term Effects Of Curtailment On The Gas Industry
Author(s): C. H. Mullendore, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
These remarks are not about the challenges which face the industry. Frankly, I am a little sick of hearing about challenges. On the one hand, as the person responsible for marketing for our company-with nothing to sell-and in fact-curtailing deliveries, and on the other hand, since I am also responsible for rates and having to explain why less product costs more -Ive had all the challenges I want! Moreover, these remarks do not address themselves to the myriad of demand-supply forecasts. Ill leave that to those more adept at reading and interpreting a crystal ball than I am. My remarks, hopefully, address themselves to the simple fact that almost every aspect of this industry has been changed over the last five years due to curtailment.
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Document ID: C7380905

Real Time Graphical Evaluation Of Gas Pressure Regulators
Author(s): R. J. Caruthers
Abstract/Introduction:
For the past several years the Southern California Gas Company has been using an improved method of making performance evaluations on gas regulators. This method allows a quick but thorough evaluation before a regulator is actually used in the field. Prior to the development of this new method, regulator testing was done using indicating or recording pressure gauges with an orifice meter or positive displacement meter to determine flow rates. Data was gathered by note taking or from the records made on the circular charts. The old method had the following disadvantages Tedious and time consuming manual tabulation was required steady state pressure and flow conditions were needed so that the gauges could be read accurately and the problems of time correlation could be avoided flow calculations had to be made manually and when comparisons of various flows and pressures were wanted the data sometimes required further manipulation so the results could be shown as a graph.
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Document ID: 86BD9825

LNG Tank Level Measurement
Author(s): Mason P. Wilson, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Most bulk liquid custody transfer in the world today is accomplished by using flow meters, usually a turbine or orifice meter. Unfortunately, the market demand has not been sufficient to warrant the development of these typeof meters for use with LNG. Small turbine meters rated for LNG service (1) do exist but for the most part these are for flow rates that are of the order of magnitude normally found in truck custody transfer. Consequently, ship type custody transfer of LNG must rely on tank level measurements before and after unloading of the cargo. Accurate, within 0.5% and more often 0.1 to 0.2%. inventory closures can be obtained in practice provided proper attention is given to both land based and shipboard instrumentation.(2) Errors substantially greater can occur to the unwary making one wish they had paid sufficient attention to measurement details before the first annual inventory shows a net operating loss. Good custody transfer begins when the terminal or ship is on the drawing boards and in the writing of sales contracts. Everything that occurs after this stage is patchwork, never-lhe-less, it is never too late to try to recoup actual or anticipated revenue losses, the sooner, the better.
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Document ID: DFBBE4D8

Sequencing And Loading Gas Compressor Units With A Programmable Controller
Author(s): Arthur E. Mann
Abstract/Introduction:
The programmable controller is a control machine based on solid-state digital logic. It is primarily intended to lake the place of electromechanical relay panel applications where rewiring is made necessary by periodic changes in sequence. The Datameirics No Fault Programmable Controller is a clocked logic device which compares its inputs, timers, and the previous status of its outputs with a programmed logic sequence and then up-dates all of its outputs. It utilizes an unique self-test system which annunicales any internal faults to the user. The systems self-test feature, Programmable-Read- Only-Memory (PROM) and ladder type logic make it readily adaptable for compressor station sequential control.
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Document ID: E4493BDF

Productivity Improvement Commitment At Long Island Lighting Company
Author(s): Gerald D. Oconnell, John F. Hickson
Abstract/Introduction:
I would like to review with you the Long Island Lighting Companys Productivity Improvement Commitment Program (PIC Program) and the results of that program to date. PIC is the Productivity Improvement Program that was developed and introduced into the Transmission and Distribution and Operations Departments in October of 1975. Through PIC, we established a major company objective to increase our productivity. Management and employees working together can achieve the productivity goal set in this program (a 10% increase in the productivity of all workers in the T&D and Operations Departments).
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Document ID: E11203A1

Salt Cavity Design And Performance
Author(s): Reginald Hardy, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Early in the 1920s, Holland began using salt cavities for the disposal of chemical and industrial waste materials. World War II spawned the idea of employing salt caverns for storage of gases and liquid hydrocarbons, and in 1948, propane was stored for the first time in the U.S.A. in cavities created in bedded salt deposits in Kansas. The use of such cavities for liquid propane and butane storage became extensive over the next thirteen years. In 1961, Southeastern Michigan Gas Company leased a solution-mined cavern formed by routine brine production from the Morton Salt Company, and converted it for the storage of natural gas. The cavern near Marysville, Michigan, had a working capacity of about 341 MMSCF of gas at a wellhead pressure of 1100 PSIA. The first cavern designed exclusively for natural gas storage was constructed by the Saskatchewan Power Company in Melville, Saskatchewan, in 1963. Here a 290,000 barrel cavern was solution mined in the Prarie Evaporile Salt at a depth of approximately 3700 feet.
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Document ID: C6FE10B5

Weko-Seal For Cast Iron Joint Repair
Author(s): Robert A. Harper
Abstract/Introduction:
Im very pleased to have this opportunity to tell you about a unique process weve begun to employ in Chicago for repairing leaks in cast iron bell joints from inside the pipe. Not large pipe. Twenty-four-inch-diameter pipe! Ive brought a film of a 30-second television announcement describing the technique, and Id like to show it now in order to illustrate quickly what Im talking about. May I have the lights off, please. External clamping has been the traditional means of repairing casi iron bell joints. And it has called for a street opening for every joint repaired. In recent years, increasing labor costs, underground utility congestion, and public and city objections to street openings have prompted us to find alternate ways to repair joints. One alternative Peoples Gas Light and Coke Company has employed, as I am sure some of your companies have done, is working from inside the pipe. We gain access to many pipe joints from relatively few street openings, resulting in lower unit costs per repair.
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Document ID: FC5473D4

Economics Of Liquefaction Aboard LNG Tankers
Author(s): E. E. Reed
Abstract/Introduction:
As with any other major engineering project, an ocean Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) transportation project involves a series of decisions where several options are available. These can vary all the way from the type cargo containment system to the type fabric for the upholstery in the accom modal ions. The list is almost endless. One of the decisions that must be made sooner or later is how to refrigerate the cargo. To date this has been narrowed down rather easily on how to handle ihe boil- off. In contrast with the transportation of the heavier liquefied petroleum gases (LP-gas), the decision to date has been to use the boil-off for fuel. However, this decision has often involved considerable study, for example, varying the insulation system to change the quantity of boil-off. One alternate that is often considered is the liquefaction of the boil-off.
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Document ID: 4BD31873

Application Of The Isam Transient Flow Program To Operation Problems Associated With Declining Supplies Of Natural Gas
Author(s): James Thomas Maranto
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to describe one aspect of the work performed during a minimum fuel consumption study for a portion of the gas pipeline system of Texas Easiern Transmission Corporation. The pari of the system involved was being operated by using steady state flow studies as a guide and by maintaining predetermined discharge pressures at all compressor stations. Due to certain equipment limitaiions, keen judgment had to he exerted in adjusting the system for maximum fuel efficiency. In recent years, another basic problem emerged to further complicate system operations. With declining supplies of natural gas, the mainline system was not operating at design conditions. As a result, better simulation methods were needed for analyzing increasingly more complicated problems being encountered. The ultimate goal of these new methods would be an etfieiently operated system with minimum fuel consumed during operation.
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Document ID: 5A3CFA88

Current Developments In Centrifugal Compressor Sets For Gas Transmission
Author(s): J. W. Glessner
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past twenty years gas turbine centrifugal compressor sets have become the dominant type of compressor used on gas transmission pipelines. During this period of time, economic considerations were such that centrifugal compressors were applied to every major pipeline, and they were beginning to be used extensively in gathering systems and applications where compression power was needed aboard platforms. This extensive use stimulated competition and manufacturers of these sets responded by making significant improvements in all aspects of the equipment now offered. Each new set usually involved advances in reliability and maintainability, as well as higher efficiencies and generally lower cost per horsepower.
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Document ID: 7386D45B

Designing A Central Warehouse
Author(s): Herman J. Laude
Abstract/Introduction:
If you are al the point of actual design of your new Central Warehouse, then what follows here for the next few minutes might not be relevant to you. However, for those of you who may be faced with the problein of needing or not needing a Central Warehouse, let us look at the warehouse problems from the basic beginning-
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Document ID: C149FF5E

Nitrogen Induced Stratification In LNG Storage Tanks
Author(s): N. Chatterjee, J. m. Geist
Abstract/Introduction:
The presence of large concentrations of nitrogen in LNG introduces an additional factor to the stratification and roll-over problem in LNG storage tanks. Fill induced stratification can occur as a result of an inadequate understanding of the proper filling procedures spontaneous stratification can occur in a well-mixed tank of LNG containing nitrogen and can lead to periodic, but relatively mild, roll-overs. The stratification and boil-off problem is caused by the fact that when LNG with nitrogen weathers, the residual liquid is lighter or less dense due to the preferential boil-off of the nitrogen. Therefore, fresh LNG having the original density has to be top-filled to prevent stratification. This is the opposite of the recommended procedure for adding LNG without nitrogen. Thus an inadequate understanding of the effect of nitrogen on the weathering problem can lead to roll-over. The existing guidelines for proper filling methods, i.e., top-filling of heavier liquids and bottom fiUing of less dense liquids, avoid the problem of fill-induced stratification.
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Document ID: D7CF80CF

Status Of The Development Of The ERDA/Battelle Agglomerating Burner Gasification Process
Author(s): William C. Corder
Abstract/Introduction:
The ERDA/Battelle Agglomerating Burner Process for gasification of coal wa* first described at the Fourth Synthetic Pipeline Gas Symposium in 1972. The process is a pressurized two-stage fluidized-bed system involving combustion of coal or char in one fluidized bed and (he steam gasification of coal in a separate fluidized bed. The heat for the gasification reaction is provided by circulation of ash from the burner to the gasifier, A key feature of the process is the application of the self-agglomeraling method of fluidized-bed combustion, which causes the coal ash to be pelletized during combustion. The ash, in pellet form, is a free-flowing inert solid that can be used efficiently as a direct-con tact heat-transfer medium.
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Document ID: C4BE2E84

Progress Report: A.G.A. Project, New Gas Odorants
Author(s): Frederick Sullivan
Abstract/Introduction:
In April 1975. ADL initiated for A.G.A. a projec- designed to develop a new and improved gas odorant. This report summarizes the first year of an expected 2-4 year study. At the outset, it was understood that all experiments would be conducted according to sound statistical principles. Although existing gas odorants meet most of the well-known general requirements concerning detectability, toxicity, corrosivity, and so forth, there are two major problems: (1) loss due to adsorption by soil, and (2) loss caused by pipeline fading. In this study, we have developed a method for evaluating the odor of potential gas odorants and have characterized the odor level and type of over 100 odorous chemicals. Furthermore, our chemists have synthesized 13 chemicals not commercially available, and some of these appear to be promising candidates for new odorants.
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Document ID: 28AEEA3D

Design Considerations For The Cove Point LNG Terminal
Author(s): R. C. Van Meerbeke
Abstract/Introduction:
The title design considerations is sufficiently ambiguous to allow an author to discuss whatever comes to mind, which I have taken the liberty to do, as time does not permit complete coverage of the Cove Point project. Specific design details have been treated in previously published papers and although there will be some overlap, this paper will attempt to concentrate on areas of interest not already covered. Cove Point is one of two final steps (the other being the Savannah Terminal) in what has become known as the El Paso I Project to transport natural gas from the Hassi RMel field in Algeria to east coast U.S. markets. The terminal site is located on Chesapeake Bay, 50 miles southeast of Washington, D.C., and about 4 miles south of Baltimore Gas and Electrics nuclear power plant in Calvert County, Maryland.
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Document ID: 16E46AD8

Energy Measurement Following A.G.A. Report No. 5
Author(s): Bruce J. Caldwell
Abstract/Introduction:
Current fuel gas pricing, together whh an unsated gas market, has created an awareness of the chemistry of gases heretofore unknown. Previously, at a time of plentiful gas supply at low cost, there was little inducement to examine minutely the elastic cubic foot. Seemingly the needs of the industry were served so long as the metered gas would burn, irrespective of its heat conteni in relation to cost. Now, however, both shortages and rising costs are creating demands for equity. Therefore, it becomes obvious there is no good subsiitute for a thermal energy yardstick in the custody transfer of fuel gases, Historically, the mechanics for finding the thermal energy content of a pound or cubic foot of gas have been both costly and time consuming, Otherwise, it is quite likely the cubic foot would have been long supplanted by an energy measure, even at a time when gas was cheap and plentiful. At an earlier date there was less economic justification for the purchase of calorimeters and extended effort to enable thermal energy custody transfers.
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Document ID: 0AFD5665

The Use Of Statistical Methods To Improve The Safety Of Gas Distribution Systems
Author(s): Thomas E. Doerfler
Abstract/Introduction:
Statistical methods were recently utilized in conducting a technical audit of safety-related operations of a major gas utility. The primary objectives of this audit were: 1. To study the operations and practices associated with the design, installation, protection, maintenance, surveillance and repair of a gas distribution pipeline system. 2. To evaluate the adequacy of these operations with respect to compliance with applicable federal and local regulations. 3. To recommend changes that might improve the companys safety record and would allow continued self-audit of safety performance in the future.
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Document ID: C1387A63

The Development And Field Testing Of A New Locator For Buried Plastic And Metal Pipelines
Author(s): Arthur C. Eberlk, Harlan Howe, Kenneth L. Carr
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the research and development program of an instrument to directly locate buried plastic and metal pipelines. The concept of downward-looking radar is used as the pipe location method. Also included is a summary of the operating instructions for the pipe locator and laboratory and Held test results. The paper discusses the development from computer processed laboratory measurements to a completely self-contained batterypowered portable instrument soon to be produced commercially. A major problem in the natural gas industry is the location of buried facilities. Facilities include not only gas lines but other buried utilities such as power lines, telephone and television cables. With increasing concern for the environment comes increasing requirements that all utility services be buried. Gas utilities have more buried pipelines than any other utility except water and sewer jurisdictions, and thus bear the majority of third party damage. In short, the more digging, the more third party damage wc suffer. A good way to reduce third party damage is with accurate location and marking of our pipelines.
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Document ID: BF7E0BC5

Improvements In Bell Prover Automation
Author(s): E. B. Perrine
Abstract/Introduction:
The title of this discussion indicates improvements in the operation of a bell prover to achieve a higher degree of accuracy in proving domestic or other size meters. There are changes in beli prover operation and these changes are related either to the means of operation or to the readout techniques. In order to determine if the improvements are due to technique or equipment it is often necessary to look at the basics. The most common technique (Figure 1) used in automated proving consists of starting the bell prover from a predetermined zero point and operating over the volume required to pass two cubic feet, as indicated by the meter, and then stopping the bell and reading its position to determine the actual volume it has transferred, This technique is identical to the long used manual proving technique with the exception that the meter test hand is scanned by a photoelectric system and the bell prover is read by an electronic readout system. Essentially, the operators eye has been replaced by the digital readout system. The replacement of the operators eye for a start stop position on ihe proving dial is certainly an improvement, but the question becomes how much of an improvement. The digital readout of the final bell position is also simply an easy means of readout, but how much better is it than the manual system?
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Document ID: 815D6D1D

Can You Hear Me
Author(s): J. E. Colvin
Abstract/Introduction:
Pollution: black smoke, dirty water, littered highways and noise. Yes, noise probably the last thing that comes to mind when the word pollution is mentioned. During the past decade the American public has shown increased concern over the quality of our countrys environment, concern which has been reflected in a number of local, state and federal regulations controlling pollutants. Congress passed in 1972 the Noise Control Act to attack the noise pollution problem nationwide and create uniform standards. This law stated that while primary responsibility for control of noise rests with state and local governments, Federal action is essential to deal with major noise sources in commerce, control of which requires uniformity of treatment.
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Document ID: 07558AA5

Training Of Construction Inspectors
Author(s): Thomas L. Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
As many of you know, Northern Illinois Gas Company installs all of its services with its own crews. However, about 40% of the more than two million feel of gas main laid each year by NI-Gas is installed by outside contractors. Naturally, work done by outside contractors has to be inspected to be sure the work is done according to specifications. NI-Gas has had inspectors on these jobs for years. However, three events occurred in the last decade that convinced us that we needed formal training for our inspectors.
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Document ID: 71CEA916

Mercury Contamination In Fleet Vehicles
Author(s): Robert B. Codling
Abstract/Introduction:
Mercury is among the first metals discovered by man. It is a mobile, lustrous, silvery-white liquid slightly heavier than lead and is especially dangerous because it vaporizes at temperatures as low as 10 Fahrenheit. This means that the colorless, odorless vapor may be preseni anywhere mercury is used or stored. When spilled, liquid mercury breaks up into droplets that may continue to break up when subjected to external forces until the droplets cannot be seen by the naked eye. Mercury can enter the body through the lungs, the skin and the digestive system but the breathing of the vapor is the most common cause of mercury poisoning. Chronic mercury poisoning is caused by exposure to a low concentration over an extended period. Definite symptoms may not appear until after exposure of six months or more. Persons developing chronic mercurialism may become irritable, excitable, or excessively timid. They are likely to complain of headaches, drowsiness, insomnia and weakness, and to have difficulty in getting along with other people. Many cases show sore mouths and an excessive secretion of saliva, excessive perspiration, and a great readiness to blush. Tremors also develop and will be noticed very readily by the shakey appearance of the handwriting.
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Document ID: DA8E6506

Field Experience Wiltli Sonic Nozzles
Author(s): J. T. Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
It has long been evident that a calibration standard has been needed for determining the accuracy of high pressure, large volume metering devices. With the growing acceptance of the turbine meter as a custody transfer metering device, this need has become increasingly greater. Since Natural Gas Pipeline Company, like most other transmission companies, has always been tied to orifice meter measurement, it was decided that all company turbine meters should be standardized against orifice meter measurement. For this reason, and in order to keep abreast of the changing technology and to gain operating experience and confidence in new equipment, it was decided to build a test facility. One of the requirements foi the lest site would be the installation of equipment to enable testing of orifice meters versus turbine meters ranging in size from 4 to 12.
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Document ID: 42DF5CA2

Hydrology Of Gas Storage Sites By Remote Sensing
Author(s): Wilson Fisher, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Development or expansion planning of gas storage sites should consider the hydroiogic implications of well siting. Failure to address the hydrogeologic factors (fracture traces and the water bearing character of the strata) can lead to water resource quality and quantity problems, as well as others. Site assessments by hydrogeologists using remote sensing tools and techniques can minimize these potential problems by delineating areas of concern.
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Document ID: 6BADE1D8

Modern Odorization Practices
Author(s): Seth Roberson
Abstract/Introduction:
On January 1, 1977 certain natural gas pipelines will be required to odorize their gas for the first time. Therefore, their distribution customers will have a new experience in that for the first lime they will not be in complete control of the type of odorant and the amount of odorant in their product. On the following pages we will explore all phases of this new experience and take a look at all the forces involved. This allempi at better understanding of the apphcation of odorizing agents to gas, the different types of odorant available, and the economics involved could prove beneficial to all, even those thai will have no changes in their odorization procedures.
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Document ID: 5C8F1664

Safety In LNG Semitrailer Design
Author(s): R. m. Neary
Abstract/Introduction:
Safety experience in the transportation of LNG by tank truck has been excellent, and industry is striving to keep it that way, A major contributing factor to this fine safely record has been the unselfish cooperation of interested members of AGA, National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), Compressed Gas Association (CGA) and the carriers, through NFPAs LNG Transportation Subcommittee, A key consideration in the safe transportation of LNG is designing and building a tank truck that will keep the lading in the tank during normal travel, and, within reasonable limits, following upsets and during fires. Some important tank truck design features will be reviewed herein, along with the merits of some of the proposed regulations published by CGA and U. S. Department of Transportation (DOT).
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Document ID: D13282AF

A System Of Odorization Evaluation
Author(s): Frank H. Suchomel II
Abstract/Introduction:
A general review of odorization evaluation techniques used by Washington Gas Light Company is presented. A broad overview of techniques employed is described-ranging from evaluation of odorization rate at the odorizer to review of customer leak data. Particular emphasis is given to a gas chromatographic determination of odorant concentrations and to the corresponding olfactory response relationships.
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Document ID: C2DD40C9

The International Organization Of Legal Metrology (OIML)-Its Impact Upon The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): W. E. Andrus, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The total gross energy input into the economy in 1975 was 80 quadrillion BTUs and by 1985 the figure is projected to be as high as 117 quadrillion BTUs, or, about a 30% increase over the next nine years or so. Energy obtained from natural gas represents about 31% of the total energy input. It is interesting to note the projections as to the amount of natural gas the United States will need to import over the next 25 years in order to meet energy demands. For example, in 1975 gas imports accounted for 10% of gas consumption in the U.S. That figure is projected to increase to 19% in 1985 and to 28% in Ihe year 2000. However, the gas industry is still running well behind the import projections of the petroleum industry-53% imported crude by 1985 and as much as 70% imported crude in the year 2000.
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Document ID: 29F76DBB

Research Applications To Treatment Of Liquid Wastes From A Syntlietic Natural Gas Plant
Author(s): Casimir A. Krol
Abstract/Introduction:
The Peoples Gas Light & Coke Company supplies natural gas to the City of Chicago, Prior to mid-1970, the demand for gas was relatively stable. This demand began to increase abnormally when the Chicago City Council began the process of phasing out by August, 1972, use of fossil fuel with a sulfur content of 1% by weight or greater. The intent of this action was to reduce the sulfur oxide content of the Citys ambient air to a safe level. With the implementation of this ordinance and the subsequent request by the Illinois State Environmental Protection Agency for a prohibition of all residential use of coal as fuel in Chicago by the end of 1974, the average yearly gas demand was drastically increased. Discussions with pipeline suppliers indicated that additional supplies of natural gas were not available.
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Document ID: 26AB96A9

Contractor Operated One Call System By The Garden State Underground Plant Location Service Inc.
Author(s): John E. Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
The One Number To Call System is not a new concept to the utilities industry. Many utilities throughout the country have been operating such a system either by themselves or jointly with other utilities. The geographical areas covered by these systems are generally limited to the territory serviced by the utility(s). The call system in New Jersey is unique for it is the first state-wide system managed and operated by a contractor. A non-profit corporation, Garden State Underground Plant Location Service, Inc., was formed for the planning and administration of this system. Since this project is the first state-wide system, its success or failure will be watched closely by other groups across the country as well as regulatory agencies.
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Document ID: 98493801

Differential Testing Of Dresser Rotary Meters
Author(s): Patrick H. Loughran
Abstract/Introduction:
Differential pressure testing of rotary gas meters is a long established and widely used method for determining if the operating accuracy has changed enough from the original or new condition accuracy to require cleaning, repairing, or possibly replacement of the meter to restore required accuracy. Differential testing of a rotary meter in service is normally much simpler and more practical for determining if any significant change in accuracy has occurred than any conventional proving methods. Although differential testing is basically simple and technically correct, some installation or operating conditions may cause difficulties in making tests and/or readily interpreting the test results particularly in relation to previous test results at significantly different meter pressure and flow rate.
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Document ID: 36FBEC25

Mini-Computer In Compressor Station Operation
Author(s): G. E. Moellenkamp
Abstract/Introduction:
Minicomputers are becoming popular for use in control and data acquisition in gas compressor station. Many articles and papers have been written on the subject. However, the subject was usually a discussion of the minicomputer. While this is a worthwhile and interesting topic, the system discussed in this paper has already been described in several papers and articles. After at least a cursory description of the system, this paper will describe what the minicomputer does in the station and what benefit it is to TransCanada Pipelines personnel. In determining design goals at a compressor station, consideration must be given to the overall objectives or goals of the gas transmission company. The two primary objectives are to deliver contracted volumes of gas in a continuous flow and to minimize operating expenses. These objectives may at least partially be accomplished by proper design of the pipeline, the compression facilities and its associated control schemes.
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Document ID: E2EC5A0B

The Analysis Of Sulfur Compounds In Natural Gas Using Chromatographic Techniques
Author(s): Manard Perry
Abstract/Introduction:
The analysis of sulfur compounds in natural gas has been a problem ever since natural gas has been used as a source of energy. The original purpose of measurement of these components was to prevent excessive corrosion in the transmission and distribution systems. Later, the sulfur compounds were removed and then added in minute amounts to enable gas leaks to be detected by the addition of odorants. Too low amount of odorant was dangerous due to the inability to detect leaks, too large amount resulted in a large number of false gas leak reports. The suppliers must check out each of these reports. This procedure is time consuming and expensive. As these hydrocarbon streams became used in the manufacture of chemicals such as ammonia, and plastics, the analysis of these sulfur compounds became more important. The presence of these sulfur compounds in chemical plant feed gas will poison the catalyst used in the process, resulting in rather expensive replacement of catalyst. It is for these reasons that sulfur analysis has achieved a very important position in the overall analysis of natural gas streams.
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Document ID: 759BF42C

A Microprocessor Based Gas Energy Measurement System
Author(s): David A. Prick
Abstract/Introduction:
The historical method of measuring natural gas for accounting purposes is dependent upon relatively uniform quality and energy value of the gas. The paper discusses alternate methods utilizing mass How measurement and a system for economically determining the integrated energy value of a natural gas stream. Under consideration is the use of a system containing a precise, economical microprocessor based calculator. The calculator can rapidly process a number of process inputs, specific weight, flow (differential pressure or turbine type flow meter), pressure, temperature, and specific gravity to provide volumetric and energy flow rates and totalization with a high order of precision.
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Document ID: B060AB2F

Prospects For Pipeline Delivery Of Hydrogen As A Fuel And As A Chemical Feedstock
Author(s): Derek P. Gregory, Nicholas P. Biederman, Kenneth G. Darrow, Jr., Alex J. Konopka, Jaroslav Wurm
Abstract/Introduction:
For some years, considerable research attention has been given to a long-range concept in which hydrogen gas is used as the major carrier of energy. As nonfossil energy sources such as nuclear or solar energy become more important in the national energy economy, it will also become important to devise new ways of storing and carrying energy obtained from these forms to their ultimate users. Traditionally, electricity has been considered as the way to do this, but these raw energy sources could also be used to split water apart into its elements- hydrogen and oxygen and to use the hydrogen as the storable, transportable energy form.
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Document ID: 30D35156

Changing Economics Of The Gas Industry
Author(s): Sam J. Jeffrey
Abstract/Introduction:
Many of you in the audience may not be familiar with my company, Entex. Since the basis for most of my remarks today will deal with statistics pertaining to Entex, I think it would bo appropriate to give you a little background on the company. Entex is a Houston-based company whose principal business is the distribution of natural gas in Texas, South Louisiana and Mississippi. In addition, we operate Big Chief Drilling Company, Entex Petroleum Company and Entex Coal Company. Although the name Entex may not ring a bell with you, Im sure most of you will remember the name United Gas. The name was changed from United Gas to Entex in March, 1974. United Gas has a long history dating back to 1930, the year the company was incorporated.
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Document ID: 3377175E

Fuel Gas From Landfills
Author(s): Richard T. Mandeville
Abstract/Introduction:
Decomposing garbage has always produced certain gases, including methane, which have always been considered a liability. Today, the opportunity exists to turn this liability into an asset as a marketable fuel by proper extraction and processing of the gas. The worlds first commercial landfill methane recovery facility at the Palos Verdes Landfill in Southern California, operated by Reserve Synthetic Fuels. Inc., has demonstrated the viability of landfill methane recovery and has proven that the liability can become an asset. Landfill methane recovery potential can best be determined only through an extensive and sophisticated testing program on each individual landfill, and proper interpretation and evaluation of accumulated data.
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Document ID: B97EC902

Communications Systems Leasing And Sharing
Author(s): Edward C. Ekola
Abstract/Introduction:
Probably a better title for this paper would have been Communication System Alternatives, as this implies a broader connotation. That is what the communication manager today is faced with many alternatives in providing the best communication system at the most reasonable cost. A bit of history is in order to put this paper in the proper perspective. We have not always had the wide choices that are available today. Where we came from and how we got here is as interesting a story as the one about alternate choices. Immediately after World War II, there was a rapid expansion of the natural gas transmission and distribution systems. Along with that expansion was the need for communication services.
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Document ID: 88B345D2

Microseismic Monitoring Of Storage Reservoirs
Author(s): H. Reginald Hardy, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
A research program (PR 12-43), concerned with a number of rock mechanics aspects of reservoir storage, has been underway in the Department of Mineral Engineering at The Pennsylvania Stale University during the period 1966-1974. The main object of the overall program has been the development of techniques for determining optimum pressures for underground storage reservoirs. Phase I of this study, which was completed in 1971, involved an analytical and laboratory model study of the problem. An A.G.A. Monograph presenting the results of this phase of the study was published in 1972 (Hardy, 1972a). A second phase of the study, which involved an investigation into ihc feasibility of using microseismic techniques to monitor the stability of underground gas storage reservoirs, was completed in 1974, An A.G.A. Monograph (project PR 12-43A) covering Phase II was published earlier this year (Hardy. 1976). The results of the Phase II study indicated that microseismic techniques appeared to be a feasible means of monitoring the stability of pressurized underground gas storage reservoirs. In order to perfect experimental techniques and develop additional documentation, a Phase II study (PR 12-75) was initiated in January 1975.
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Document ID: C71CCE2F

Evaluation Of Corrosion Activity On Bare Steel Transmission Lines
Author(s): B. Husock
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1973, the United Natural Gas Company (now part of the National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation) decided to expand the eorrosion control program to encompass their entire system of underground transmission pipelines, for the purpose of complying with Federal Regulations. That system consists of more than 1000 miles of bare steei lines. The Federal Regulations applicable to such pipelines say that they be cathodicaliy protected in areas in which active corrosion is found and further that the operator shall determine the areas of active corrosion by electric survey.
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Document ID: 067132A3

Design Of Landfill Gas Receiving Facilities
Author(s): Thomas L. Chemberlen
Abstract/Introduction:
In June, 1975, landfill gas began to flow into Southern California Gas Companys distribution system. The landfill gas project is a result of a contract signed in 1973 by Pacific Lighting Service Company and Southern California Gas Company (SoCal) to purchase landfill gas of pipeline quality from NRG NuFuel Company (now Reserve Synthetic Fuels, Inc.) for use in the SoCal distribution system. The landfill gas receiving facilities consist of equipment designed to meter the gas, regulate its pressure, odorize the gas, monitor certain aspects of its quality, and control flow into the SoCal system.
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Document ID: 4D84E64E

Vehicle And Equipment Utilization
Author(s): W. G. Goninan
Abstract/Introduction:
The single most difficull problem I encountered when organizing material for this paper was trying to decide which of the many possible aspects of equipment utilization could be covered within the limited time allotted. Utilization can mean many things to different people. To some it merely indicates a subjective evaluation such as utilization is poor. Others think of it in terms of very precise measurements, comparing actual usage or level of performance with some predetermined standard. In practice we find that there is almost no limit to the number of ways that utilization information is reported. Some of the most frequently encountered fleet statistics are: (a) tables showing the number of vehicles and equipment in the fleet at specified points in time (b) raw data reports showing miles driven or hours of use during specified time intervals (c) reports showing the amount of time the equipment was actually in use as a percent of total time it was available for use and (d) reports showing percent of rated capacity actually attained under different conditions of use.
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Document ID: 7F29C6B3

City Gate Price Projections: A Dynamic Pricing Model
Author(s): F. F. L. Gaertner, A. Compton
Abstract/Introduction:
The rapidly changing environment of the gas industry declining reserves, increasing demand, increasing costs, development of nontraditional supply-require rapid responses to gauge the impact on city gate prices. The pricing model described in this paper is an aid to natural gas tramsmission companies in preparing long range economic, financial and marketability analyses. It tests assumptions of partial or complete deregulation occurring ai any future point in time. Existing gas purchase contracts and potential supply addition can be priced out at discrete time intervals, based on contract provisions and projected rate schedules, which include existing area rates and area rate projections as well as projections for deregulated wellhead prices.
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Document ID: 76B9B0B3

The Why Of Warning Signs On Aerial Devices
Author(s): Forrest L. Tozer
Abstract/Introduction:
My subject is warning signs on aerial devices and digger derricks. You exhibit great courtesy and fair-mindedness in permitting me to address you on that subject. I must try to be just as fair to avoid lawyers rhetoric if I can and any sly effort to persuade you to believe less than the truth, I shall try. I think I would avoid those things in addressing this audience on this subject under any circumstances. You are men of stature in major power companies. My clients are manufacturers of aerial devices and digger derricks. They value your good will and your understanding too much for me to play games. And the subject is too important to us. Perhaps it also is important to you. Were not talking about which deodorant will keep our underarms dry, drier or driest. My clients believe we are talking about their survival and the lives of your employees, Were talking about something which you or others in your companies have said you cant or wont tolerate and which, at the same time, may be to your operators the difference between life and death, and may be to my clients the difference between corporate survival and corporate death. You wont have the signs without the signs we cant continue to produce the machines. You wont have the signs we cant live without them.
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Document ID: 3284CD98

Synthetic Oil
Author(s): Roy P. Dwyer. Terry De Rossett
Abstract/Introduction:
It makes it go easier, was a five year old boys answer to my question of why he was oiling his bike. In five uncomplicated words he explained the essence of lubrication. Prior to my appointment as Transportation Supervisor for Elizabethtown Gas, my knowledge of oils and lubricants was similar to the boy oiling his bike, that is, I knew moving parts required lubrication. For example, when I purchased my first car I soon learned that for every 1.00 of gas burned, it required one quart of oil, and the only specification the oil had to meet then was-cheap.
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Document ID: A5055F23

Noise Log Audio( Analyzer) And Radioactive Tracer Surveys As Tools For Identifying Problems In Gas Storage Reservoirs
Author(s): Herman E. Schaller
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas storage reservoirs require regular monitoring to ensure that the gas is being confined to the desired storage zone or zones. Temperature surveys are used to give indications of potential sub-surface problems. To substantiate and verify temperature and/or other indications of these potential problems, the noise log and radioactive tracer have been used. Field examples are presented to illustrate the results obtained for several different downhole conditions. These tools and techniques have been demonstrated as being useful in locating and identifying mechanical failures as well as fluid movement behind pipe.
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Document ID: 1F376D73

Fiberglass As Utilized By Utilities
Author(s): Harold Strong
Abstract/Introduction:
In these times of shortages of our natural resources and shori budgets, it is becoming more and more importani that your company receive a long and useful life from the equipment that you purchase. I am sure that we all believe that the days of built-in-obsolescencc should come to an end. All companies have depended on fiberglass reinforced plastic hoi slicks, aerial buckets, booms and oiher insulated equipment for many years. Several have enjoyed the advantages of fiberglass reinforced utility bodies for 10 to 13 years and Veterinarians have used them for 16 years.
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Document ID: 79D09F5E

Diesel Engine Use In Utility Vehicles
Author(s): Telesforte J. Filipski
Abstract/Introduction:
Only seven companies reported using diesels in vehicles under 25,000 GVW, Additional queries were made requesting their experience with diesels in these vehicles. The responses indicated that they had insutRcient comparative data to effectively evaluate performance. Experimentation was expected to continue until longitudinal comparisons could be made. Subjectively, favorable comments were made when the engine was properly matched to the vehicle and the job to be performed.
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Document ID: 9C2B6F02

Feasibility Of Internal, In-Place Coating For Corrosion Control
Author(s): W. H. Chapman, R. E. Gibbons
Abstract/Introduction:
The NACE Technical Practice recommends, Where an internal corrosion problem is anticipated, mill applied internal coatings may be considered. This application leaves the weld area bare and is not recommended without use of corrosion mitigation methods, such as chemical injection. Coatings applied in-place may also be considered. The purpose of this paper is to discuss a method of applying a coating in-place, which was developed by El Paso Natural Gas Company and is believed to be more effective in combating internal corrosion problems, at least on some lines. Internal, in-place coatings cover the weld area, and should be effective without inhibitors. Naturally, economics and feasibility for each particular line must be weighed, but the process is feasible and guidelines have been established to make this a successful method of corrosion prevention.
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Document ID: C1CE2814

The Automation Of Ngpls Gulf Coast Pipeline System
Author(s): L. A. Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
An overview of the objectives, design, implementation, and operation of the automation often compressor stations with 303,000 brake horsepower covering 800 miles of pipeline.
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Document ID: C3D243E4

NFPA-59A Storage And Handling Of Liquefied Natural Gas-1975 A Review Of Recent Changes
Author(s): W. Leonard Ball
Abstract/Introduction:
An overview of the objectives, design, implementation, and operation of the automation often compressor stations with 303,000 brake horsepower covering 800 miles of pipeline.
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Document ID: E1FCA6F3

Measuring Calorific Value-Evaluation Of A New Concept
Author(s): William H. Clingman, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
In a previous paper a new method was presented for measuring the calorific value of natural gas. The ratio of air to fuel which maximizes the adiabatic flame temperature of natural gas-air flames was shown to be proportional to calorific value. The method was based on that property. This relationship was established using the known thermodynamic properties of Ihe gases in the combustion zone. Deviations from ihe theoretical relationship for various gas compositions were derived. These results are shown in Table I. The error was calculated for measuring the calorific value of a number of mixtures of methane with a second gas. It was assumed that the measurement method was based on the above principle and that pure methane was used for cahbration. In Table 1 is given the percent of the second gas which introduces as 1 BTU/SCF error. It can be seen that the only constituents that would introduce errors of a few BTU/SCF are hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and oxygen. The effects of hydrogen and carbon monoxide are opposite to each other and will tend to cancel if both are present. There will be no error if the ratio of hydrogen to carbon monoxide is three to one.
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Document ID: 3B1C2952

Intrinsic Safety: A Proven Safety Technique
Author(s): Ernest C. Magison
Abstract/Introduction:
The objective of this paper is to place intrinsic safety in its proper perspective relative to other techniques for preventing ignition of flammable materials by electrical apparatus.
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Document ID: 5F761A1C

Development Of Gas Potential Through Mhf
Author(s): R. J. Covlin, C. R. Fast, G. B. Holman
Abstract/Introduction:
The results of a joint research and held effort to develop the gas potential from the very low permeability Muddy J Formation in the Wattenberg Field near Denver, Colorado, by the application of MHF (Massive Hydraulic Fracturing) are presented. Based on the success of this technique in Wattenberg exploitation of similar tight gas reservoirs is quite probable. The Muddy J Formation is approximately 50 ft thick and found at a depth of about 8,000 ft. The bottom-hole temperature in these wells is 260F. Initial attempts to develop the gas potential in this field were made by stimulating wells with 40,000 to 50,000 gal gelled water fracturing treatments. These efforts resulted in increased gas production however, the rapid decline of gas production rates with time indicated that the stimulations would be economic failures.
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Document ID: FC96D62A

Dot Technical Study Report On Industrys Practices Using Plastic Pipe In Gas Pipeline Facilities
Author(s): Cesar Deleon
Abstract/Introduction:
Last July 1, the Department of Transportation established the Materials Transportation Bureau (MTB) as a line organizational element reporting to the Secretary of Transportation and having responsibilities for hazardous materials and pipeline safety operational functions which were previously carried out in the Office of the Secretary. The Bureau also has a number of new responsibilities which were vested in the Secretary by the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act. Of main interest to you would be the expanded pipeline safety responsibilities for gas and hazardous liquid materials. James T. Curtis, Jr., was named the first Bureau Director.
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Document ID: E1A7A9A2


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