Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (1976)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Basic Electricity
Author(s): Paul T. Eads
Abstract/Introduction:
Electrical current is the movement of electrons through a conductor. Fluid flow is similar in that it is the movement of molecules through a pipe. All matter is made up of atoms. Atoms are composed of a nucleus having a positive electrical charge and surrounded by a number of electrons having a negative electrical charge. Atoms differ in the size of the nucleus and the number of electrons around the nucleus. Another difference between atoms is the ease with which the electrons can be moved from one atom to another when subjected to electrical energy.
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Document ID: 619FA85F

Application Of Densitometers
Author(s): m. J. Sergeskettep
Abstract/Introduction:
A densitometer is a device designed to measure the density or specific weight of a substance: solid, liquid or gas. This paper will be limited to the measurement of liquid and gas, or fluid, densities. Density is the mass of a substance per unit volume, while specific weight is the weight per unit volume. For simplicity, we will consider mass and weight as the same and use the term density throughout the paper. We must consider the difference between density and specific gravity. Density is the mass per unit volume at line conditions i.e., operating pressure and temperature. Specific gravity, or relative density, is the ratio of the density of a gas to the density of air, or the density of a liquid to the density of water, with both fluids (gas and air or liquid and water) at standard conditions of pressure and temperature.
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Document ID: 559D4053

Maintaining Data Processings Gas Measurement Master File
Author(s): Kathleen Hughes
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to show the steps and forms necessary for the completion of a gas measurement master file record. The adaptibility of the master file for different types of records (e.g., purchases, sales, transports, exchanges, etc.) is discussed. A look at the forms which maintain the file is included so that an overall view can be readily seen. In gist, this paper is a summary of the many variations needed for an accurate gas measurement system.
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Document ID: 1C5E1F48

Distribution Service Technicians Role In Measurement
Author(s): B. J. Hunsucker
Abstract/Introduction:
The role of a Service Technician is as important in measurement as the role of any other employee directly related to measurement and must be given special consideration. Considerable time, effort, and money are expended each year to develop and expand purchasing specifications, meter shop procedures, and meter and instrument repair technique, all for the specific purpose of providing a meter and instrument that have been properly prepared for accurate registration of both maximum and minimum demands and will have the endurance to make an accurate registration over an extended period of time. The Service Technician has a responsibility for the handling and installing meters and regulators, the sizing of meters, and the reading of meters. If the Service Technician does not perform these duties properly, the results are poor measurement, increased unaccounted-for gas, and a decrease in revenue to his company.
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Document ID: E6B04B0D

Natural Gas Processing Plant Operatiows And Measurement Of Gas And Liquid Streams
Author(s): G. R. Ethridge
Abstract/Introduction:
As you will note from the title of this paper, the subject that I was as signed to discuss could be rather lenghty if explained in detail. Briefly, I will attempt to familiarize you with our operation and some of the problems we have encountered.
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Document ID: FC6CF4CE

System Of Transfer Proving
Author(s): Perry D. Bonner
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays world of energy shortages and high prices many gas companies have became increasingly concerned with which is the best, most accurate, and reliable method of field testing large volume gas meters. As a result, the portable transfer prover has been brought about and is becoming increasingly popular in the gas industry due to its capabilities and proven performance. This paper will cover the transfer proving method.
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Document ID: 9807FEFD

Design Of Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Robert W. Magee
Abstract/Introduction:
The value of natural gas is skyrocketing in the face of declining known reserves in the United States. Much of the demand for gas will be satisfied in the future with still more expensive synthetic and imported gases. Because of the increased value of gas, it is most important that accurate measurement be obtained. Accurate measurement builds a solid foundation for adequate returns on expensive investments. It also helps to control the unnecessary waste of energy by establishing reliable data for unaccountedfor gas reports. These reports establish guidelines for system maintenance.
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Document ID: D75930A8

New Electronic Integrator And Strip Chart Averager
Author(s): E. S. Messer
Abstract/Introduction:
The FMCO Series 2000 Electronic Integrator consists of two major assemblies, the mechanical chart plate and pen arm drives and the electronic network which is completely digital in operation. These two assemblies are connecLed by the two encoders which,converts the mechanical movement of the pen arms to a series of digital signals from the encoder. Each pen. static and differential, have a separate encoder whose only function Is to divide the pen arc into small increments or digital segments. These signals are received by the electronic network and the square root of each determined before multiplication and accumulation. Only the accumulated pressure and integrator value are displayed as the chart process continues. These accumulated values are prlnLed either by ccmmand or automatically by the last time pulse denoting a complete chart rotation.
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Document ID: 4E7BB79A

Technical Session, Specific Gravity Instruments Installation And Operation
Author(s): E. F. Blanchard
Abstract/Introduction:
Definition - The specific weight of a gas is the number of units weight in a unit volume. Specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of a definite volume of gas, as some convenient temperature and pressure, to the weight of an equal volume of dry air at the same temperature and pressure.
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Document ID: B709FBBD

Theory And Operation Of Pilot Controls
Author(s): R. H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
It is important for gas men who work with pneumatic controllers on a day to day basis to really understand them. Not to understand the controller under these circumstances can be a continual burden to the operator in addition to presenting circumstances for an operation of lower quality than generally desired. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to try to help develop an understanding and attitude towards a device that is absolutely essential to gas control.
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Document ID: 1992EA61

Turbulence And Its Effect Upon Regulation And Measurement
Author(s): Don Day
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbulence within a pipeline occurs in headers, valves, regulators, and similar points where there is an obstruction to smooth flow. We notice the results of this turbulence as vibration or noise. Since the turbulence immediately downstream of a regulator or control valve is usually greater than the turbulence due to piping design, we will confine our interest to this area. The generation, transmission, prevention, absorption, and prediction of control valve noise will be discussed.
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Document ID: 46BCFA8E

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Don W. Griffies
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to the almost daily increasing cost of hydrocarbon products, both liquid and gas, there is a growing concern for accurate measurement. In many applications this begins with a signal from the primary element, consisting of the Orifice Fitting, Orifice Plate and Meter Tube. In order to more clearly discuss each of the components which make up the primary element in orifice measurement, each will be set out and discussed separately as follows: Orifice Fittings (consisting of Senior Fitting, Junior Fitting, and Simplex Fitting), Orifice Plate, Sealing Units, and Meter Tubes.
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Document ID: 6A0A6191

Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
Although the liquid turbine meter principle dates back many decades, the axial flow turbine meters presently employed for liquid measurement are quite new. The axial flow turbine meter was first used for water flow measurement where there was plenty of energy available for driving the rotor and normally where accuracy of measurement was not of prime importance. Reliability was of greater importance, so parts were made rugged and the rotor was designed more to be non-clogging than to be accurate. However, through the evolution of technology, the turbine meter has maintained reliability and ruggedness while attaining a high degree of accuracy. Today, the meters used for water flow have accuracies of j.25%over ranges of 10 to 1 or more while maintaining the same high degree of reliability and ruggedness as did their predecessors.
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Document ID: 9AC156C8

Measurement And Controls Used In Lpg Underground Storage Systems
Author(s): Neal E. Van Fossan
Abstract/Introduction:
There is a basic problem that faces the manufacturer of any product. When is enough enough. The never ending problem of balancing supply with demand. What can be done about production: Shut down?. Cut back? or Stock Pile? What should be done about raw materials supply: Buy at the right time in bulk quantities at minimum price? Or take the gamble they will be available in the quantity and quality needed at the time required and at a tolerable price? This decision making process becomes more complicated when required raw materials have cyclic demand but are a by-product of a system that must produce at a constant rate. Liquefied petroleum gases (LPGs) are a good illustration of the latter situation. Crude oil has a relatively constant demand because of the year around usage of motor fuel and the other derivatives from it. LPGs (ethane, propane, iso-butane, normal butane, and natural gasoline) are extracted from the gas produced with the oil but have quite wide cyclic demand.
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Document ID: 5E053415

Method Of Analysis For Natural Gas By Chromatography
Author(s): Charles R. Roberson
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas has been defined as a mixture of hydrocarbon gases and impurities. The hydrocarbon gases normally found in natural gas are methane, ethane, propane, butanes, pentanes, and smaller amounts of hexanes, heptanes, octanes, and heavier hydrocarbon gases. The impurities norma Ily found are nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and occasionaIly sulfur containing compounds such as hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans. These is no one composition or mixture that can be referred to as natural gas. Even two gas wells from the same reservoir may have different compositions. Examples of some typi ca1 natural gas streams are provided in Figure 1 to show the range of composition that is naturally produced.
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Document ID: 679A146D

Bellows Type Orifice Meters
Author(s): B. J. Robinson
Abstract/Introduction:
The Type 37 Diaphragm Meter is used to measure flow, liquid level, or differential pressure. It performs the functions of a float type manometer, but requires no mercury. The following standard ranges are available 20 inches, 50 inches, 100 inches, and 200 inches of water differential, with a maximum static pressure rating of 2,000 pounds per square inch, Other full scale ranges may be produced by adjusting the standard range springs and multiplication lever. For example, a 100-inch range instrument may in this way be converted to a 50-inch range instrument.
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Document ID: 1FD86284

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted-Pdr Gas
Author(s): William F. Reichert, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
This subject seems to appear frequently on this program, and also in the International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement, I read the papers given by others and noticed that some went into detail about methods used for determining or calculating the percent of unaccounted-for gas. Others concerned themselves with actual methods utilized for locating leaks and conducting leak surveys. I am going to talk about the latter subject, and like the others. I am going to present examples of what we do. City Public Service is a municipally owned combined gas and electric utility. Our service area is primarily Bexar County. The gas service area is mainly within the urban areas. We buy gas from LoVaca at two main city gate stations. This is distributed through 2,944 miles of main. Most of our main is welded steel, but we still have some castiron pipe remaining.
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Document ID: 8EBB4075

Problems In Offshore Measurement
Author(s): Donald G. Bitterly
Abstract/Introduction:
Prevailing energy shortages have intensified the search for and development of offshore production. Several well prepared papers have been given previously at short courses concerning the problems associated with offshore measurement, The basic problem is location. We often hear the phrase another world when describing these operations. It is another world when compared to the production of East or West Texas or even the marshlands of Louisiana. This other world can be described as a remote expanse of water which can be rough or deep blue and tranquil. It is dotted with huge platform structures, boats , barges, tankers, helicopters, and developing technology and equipment compactness. It can contain wind, fog, storms and excitement. In any order, these factors are not the problem. However, each can be associated with the problems of transportation, weather, structural design, operations and safety.
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Document ID: 02E7CDD3

Rotary And Turbine Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Wilbur W. Lints
Abstract/Introduction:
Rotary type positive displacement gas meters, utilizing two figure eight impellers, were first introduced to the gas industry during the early 1920s. This Impeller type was the only rotary meter available until the 1960s, at which time two types of rotating vane meters were developed. The first was introduced in the early 1960s and was designed with two vanes on the rotor assembly. The second was introduced in I969 and was designed with four vanes on the rotor assembly. The turbine meter, first developed and used in Europe, was introduced to the American gas industry in the early 1960s. The turbine meter, because it is capable of accurately measuring very large volumes over a wide minimum-to-maximum flow range, has become quite popular and has been used extensively in recent years.
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Document ID: 72DD1B25

What The Office Group Expects From The Field Group
Author(s): William E. Matheny
Abstract/Introduction:
All of us are very aware of the energy shortages that beset us. Non-historical sources are being investigated again, and all efforts are being made to supply the demands for energy of every type. As members of organizations that supply one form of energy -- natural gas -- it becomes necessary for us to re-examine our procedures and take another look at the common problems that face us. Costs are rising, governmental controls are tightening up, and a host of other situations combine to compound the problem.
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Document ID: BBA5528D

Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): Richard L. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic chart changers have been available to users of circular charts since 1958. The first commercial installations of the Dial-O-Graph automatic chart changers recorded occurred in early 1959. To date, there have been over 23,000 of this brand manufactured. Some transmission companies have purchased well over 2,000 automatic chart changers, At this time there are three companies manufacturing automatic chart changers. They are The Mullins Manufacturing Co., Inc., Texas Instrument Engineers, Inc., and Reynolds Equipment Company.
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Document ID: E0BA2307

A Mass Calorimeter
Author(s): William m. Moore
Abstract/Introduction:
The Calorimeter to be described is based on the comparison of the BTU input of a known heat source to that of an unknown source. The known source is a constant-power electric heater and the unknown source is a gas flame. Both heat sources transfer their heat to a stream of air. The air streams are equal or in a constant ratio. The temperatures of the two streams of air are measured before and after being heated by the electric and gas heaters. The ratio of the temperature rise of the gas heated stream to the electric heated stream is the ratio of the BTU of one to the other. Because the BTU of the electric input is known, the BTU of the gas input can be derived:
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Document ID: B698677D

Instrument Calibration Using The Pneumatic Deadweight Tester
Author(s): H. E. Blackman
Abstract/Introduction:
Today we are going to discuss instrument calibration using the AMETEK Pneumatic Deadweight Tester as our primary source. Accurate low pressure instrument calibration has long been a difficult problem for technicians. This instrument has provided the technician with the equipment needed to remove many of his age old problems, such as thermal, surface tension, absorbed gas, etc.
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Document ID: 80E6F741

Odorization
Author(s): L. E. Reynolds
Abstract/Introduction:
Distribution Systems have been odorizing gas for many years to protect lives, property and to locate leaks. Now the minimum Federal Safety Standards requires that all gas be odorized according to paragraph 192.625. This includes some Transmission gas falling under certain classifications.
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Document ID: FC3FADC4

Fundamentals Of Bellows-Type Orifice Meters
Author(s): m. J. Sergesketter
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to control and direct the flow of water was recognized at a very early stage in the development of civilization. In Europe and Asia can be seen the relics of hydraulic works, some of great antiquity, which display a high degree of engineering accomplishment, the best known of which are the aqueducts which the Romans built to bring water to their cities. In the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum can be still seen lead piping which conveyed water to houses and gardens, and which included orifice plates to act as flow limiting devices, providing a basis on which the service was charged to the consumer. These were installed almost 2,000 years ago. Some of these techniques were introduced to North America by engineers who accompanied the Spanish missionaries and whose work can still be seen at some of the missions in California.
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Document ID: 9BD7E052

How Exchange And Transportation Agreements Have Changed Gas Accounting
Author(s): James H. Coyle
Abstract/Introduction:
Transport and exchange agreements are not new to the gas industry. Gas companies have, for years, served each other by transporting volumes of gas for a minimum charge per MCF and exchanging volumes of gas on a MCF for MCF basis without charge. Due to the present gas shortage and the changes in FPC regulations, the number of transport and exchange agreements have increased, and the contract provisions are more complicated. The purpose of this report is to study the measurement provisions of the transport and exchange contracts as they are being written today and explain the accounting procedures followed when working with these agreements.
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Document ID: 09211854

Water Vapor Content And Its Effect On Gas Volume Determination
Author(s): William F. Barker
Abstract/Introduction:
It is unfortunate that reservoirs which produce natural gas normally contain water. This water can, and often does, cause severe penalties to be suffered by the gas industry due to its detrimental effects on operations beginning at the wellhead and throughout the transmission system to its final destination at the market. Water is probably the most common undesirable and detrimental impurity contained in a gas stream. There is no doubt that adequate dehydration as soon as it is economically feasible will increase the efficiency of overall gas industry operations. It is, however, still questionable by producers and transporters of natural gas as to how, where, and to what degree this water should be removed. In the case of offshore production, it may be possible, but not probable, that the dehydration process would be more economically performed on shore.
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Document ID: 96B8C9DE

Safety-Relief Valve Considerations
Author(s): Gary B. Emerson
Abstract/Introduction:
Safety-relief valves are one of the few types of equipment purchased and installed with the hope that theyll never be used. From the production viewpoint, a safety-reIief valve produces nothing, yet is very capable of disrupting a production operation or process. From a safety standpoint, a safety-relief valve must open in certain emergency conditions and also close when the emergency condition has been alleviated. Well briefly review the operation of several types of safety-relief valves and their pros and cons. recognizing that further data is readily available from the various manufacturers.
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Document ID: 4F6D0237

Control Or Distribution System Pressures And Load Distribution
Author(s): Joe L. Mitchell
Abstract/Introduction:
A gas distribution system will operate only as well as the equipment used and the knowledge of the men that operate it. Good practices in one location may not be acceptable in another. While gas distribution systems differ from one another, the basic principles are the same. Once these principles are understood and applied to a particular system the results should be good. In order to regulate distribution system pressures, one of the following types of regulators may be used lever arid weight, spring loaded or pilot loaded. The oldest type is the lever and weight type, many of which are still in use. One disadvantage of this type is that the lever guides are exposed to the elements and need to be covered in some manner.
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Document ID: 9E799CA6

From Mcf To Mmbtu
Author(s): Thomas L. Chambers
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas was initially found as an unwanted by-product in the search for and development of crude oil. Unlike crude oil, natural gas could not be stored and t ransported in centalners or tanks. Certain amounts of natural gas were always found associated with crude oil and in the early days this gas, when produced with the oil, was burned in huge flares near the field production facilities. Substantial deposits of natural gas not associated with crude oil were also discovered in the search for oil and had to be capped and not developed because there was no available market. in those early years the only markets for natural gas were towns and cities near the oil fields which for the most part were not large population centers. Some industries including oil refineries were developed as a consequence of the new oil supplies and rarely were sufficient to utilize the volumes of gas being produced with the crude oil.
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Document ID: 53E04985

Design Of High Pressure Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): J. K. Stewart
Abstract/Introduction:
Many different systems have been used in attempts to achieve the perfect design for measuring the valuable magic fuel-natural gas, Most of these designs for measuring and regulating stations have been used successfuly however it must be noted that the very smallest of details may mark the difference between a good facility and one beset with constant problems. The contents of this paper will hopefully show the designer some of the more important considerations that should help him to achieve a good design.
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Document ID: C927F866

Basic Telemetering
Author(s): Robert W. Lowell
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will be a basic paper illustrating the various types of telemetering and flow computing systems as utilized in the Gas Industry. The paper will be general in nature, as the entire subject matter represents an entire field of endeavor. Therefore, only basic fundamentals of the various types of flow computing and telemetering systems will be covered in this paper.
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Document ID: FB048AAE

Seven Pounds Of Water Per Million Cubic Feet
Author(s): William R. Barnes
Abstract/Introduction:
Im sure most of you know more about these units than Ill ever know however, I would like to present this paper with an open discussion of some of the symptoms and various checks of the unit. Also, I would like to discuss a sample system which has proven to prolong cell life in most cases. One gallon of water weighs approximately seven pounds. Try and disperse this in a room 100 ft. high, 100 ft. long and 100 ft. wide. This is a million cubic feet. This is very dry as compared with the surrounding atmosphere, usually 100% humidity. The most this analyzer will read is 1/10 of 1%.
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Document ID: CA5BF900

Field Testing Large Capacity Meters
Author(s): m. J. Graem
Abstract/Introduction:
The Meter Inspection Section at Lone Star Gas Company has the responsibility of maintaining accurate measurement of approximately 7,000 Large Capacity Meters and their related instruments In cities and towns in our Distribution System. This is accomplished by seven Meter Inspectors located in different areas throughout our System. Each Inspector has an assigned area and an alloted number of meters to test and maintain. The number of meters they have Is dependent upon the geographic size of their territory and ranges from 850 to 1,100 per Inspector.
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Document ID: 3FC9F5BB

Fundamental Gas Laws
Author(s): Joe A. Vest
Abstract/Introduction:
There are certain laws of gases which must be considered. The term, law, commonly means some rule of conduct prescribing what must or must not be done. In the case of natural laws, it is not meant that rules have been enacted by any legislative body made up, for example, of molecules, but that it has been observed that events always do take place in a certain way. A way in which natural events occur is called a law of nature.
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Document ID: 66AB5C71

Mass Measurement Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): W. J. Templeton
Abstract/Introduction:
Mass measurement eliminates the need to compensate for the effects of compressibility and non-ideal mixing of stream mixtures containing ethane. Correction factors developed from physical properties are not required to convert the measurement to standard conditions, thus improving the measurement accuracy by 4 to 9%.
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Document ID: A4E29660

Recording Calorimeters Installation And Testing
Author(s): George C. Gabel
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most important instruments in gas measurement is the recording calorimeter. The calorimeter assists every department in the gas companies from management, gas control, gas sales, gas purchases to the Chart Department for billing purposes. The calorimeter is also used in energy control into distribution systems where the heat content is specified by contract. The calorimeter is used to measure energy reduction across gasoline plants and participating parties are paid on this basis, in some instances. The major use is in gas sales to large industrial concerns to measure energy rather than volume. Because of the increase in the number of contracts requiring energy measurement, the calorimeter is becoming more important from day to day. For instance, a contract with a small user is being made on the energy rather than on the volumetric basis.
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Document ID: DFD89834

Orifice Meter Testing And Calibration
Author(s): Leroy Morris
Abstract/Introduction:
More attention is given today to the accuracy of the orifice meter due to the limited supply and escalating cost of natural gas. The value of natural gas has increased from .17/ Mcf in 1960 to .52 in 1976 on the Interstate market and is approaching 2.00/Mcf on the intrastate market. More companies a rewitnessing calibration tests on orifice meters and the auditing of charts than ever be fors. The orifice meter is the cash register of the gas industry. Its function is to indicate and record the differential and static pressure across an orifice plate. This recording becomes a permanent and legal document, to be used as a proof of purchase and in the settlement of company disputes.
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Document ID: D9DEFB34

Elements Of Gas Contracts
Author(s): James F. Babb
Abstract/Introduction:
Few areas of the natural gas industry have experienced such far-reaching changes as have occurred in natiiral gas contracts in the past three years. The increasing importance of natural gas in supplying energy for our nation and the resulting decreasing supply are reflected in the evolution of the gas purchase contract. We have gone from the day in which natural gas was a by-product of oil and was sold at a price of 2 or 3 cents per MCF or less to the day of directional drilling and highly technical searches for natural gas and the resulting increase in price from an area of 15 to 16 cents in the early 1960s to the price approaching 2 in todays market. We have seen changes from the day in which producers had difficulty in selling gas intrastate to the day of shortage in the intrastate market and from the day when a gas purchase contract was primarily concerned with the day to day sale of an unwanted product to today when a gas purchase contract is an important tool in acquiring long term supply.
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Document ID: 63BE7572

Sonic Nozzles For Gas Meter Calibration
Author(s): Henry A. Hubbard
Abstract/Introduction:
The terms sonic nozzle, critical flow nozzle, and critical flow venturi are synonymous. These are nozzles in which a well-rounded approach section blends with a small angle diverging cone. Smith and Matz in 1962 described a form of sonic nozzle. The emphasis was on a shape that permitted the nozzle calibration to be calculated from theoretical considerations. This form of construction, vd.th minor alterations, has been widely used and has been proposed as an international standard.
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Document ID: 5CC22E26

New Development In Mass Flow & Energy Metering
Author(s): Mike Batey
Abstract/Introduction:
It is a popular misconception to say that an Orifice Plate is a Volumetric Flow device, and density is required only for Mass Flow or for conversion of Actual volumetric flow to Standard Cubic Feet. This paper shows the dependence of the Orifice Plate on the Density Meter, and explains the physical meaning of the various tables given in AGA 3 and AGA 5.
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Document ID: F7A83F29

Physical Interpretation Of AGA 3 And AGA 5
Author(s): J. Agar
Abstract/Introduction:
It is a popular misconception to say that an Orifice Plate is a Volumetric Flow device, and density is required only for Mass Flow or for conversion of Actual volumetric flow to Standard Cubic Feet. This paper shows the dependence of the Orifice Plate on the Density Meter, and explains the physical meaning of the various tables given in AGA 3 and AGA 5.
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Document ID: 9467F584

Experience With Computerized Gas Measurement Systems
Author(s): John L. Strickland
Abstract/Introduction:
The flow of natural gas can be calculated from the differential pressure measured across an orifice plate and the density or static pressure of the gas measured at flowing conditions. These basic measurements can then be made more precise by compensating for the specific variables listed in the AGA Report No. 3. The electronic gas flow computer will take these variables or factors into consideration and display the corrected flow rate. This flow rate, constantly being updated every few seconds, can be integrated to obtain the total volume for a given period of time. If needed, a printer may be installed to produce a permanent record, and then this data can be transmitted toa central location. Therefore, the computer improves measurement techniques and allows the office to receive information from the field much faster and in a more readily useable form.
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Document ID: 18E2DC2B

Application And Sizing Of Rotary Meters In Distribltion Measurement
Author(s): W. K. Clark
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1920, after many years of experience in the rotary blower field, Roots-Connersville Blower Company manufactured the first rotary positive displacement gas meter known as the ROOTSMeter. In 1966 the ROOTS Meter line was split from Roots-Connersville and a new company was formed by the name of Dresser Measurement Division. Rockwell International entered the market in the early 1960s with a rotatir vane design known as the Roto- Seal Meter and in the late 1960s, Singers American Meter Company introduced still another rotating vane design known as the CVM gas meter.
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Document ID: 81BD37D3

The Electronic Chart Scanner And Analyzer
Author(s): Thomas Y. Tramel
Abstract/Introduction:
A short time after integrated circuits were available to the industrial market, we at UGCI redesigned our proven Electroscanner. Incorporating integrated circuits into our computer, in addition to other changes, has made possible a much more accurate and reliable Electroscanner system. This change in computing circuitry also eliminated much of the maintenance necessary to keep the Electroscanner functioning properly. The Electroscanner, as any other type of equipment, should be properly maintained to insure the most accurate and reliable results. A strict operational and preventive maintenance schedule must be maintained to achieve ultimate Electroscanner calculations.
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Document ID: 3950647F

Fundamental Principles Of Positive Displacement Meters
Author(s): Howard W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
I n 1792 the process of manufacturing gas from coal was introduced in England. It was normal that the first gas meters were developed in England after the founding of the first gas company in London in 1808. In 1817 the first gas company was chartered in the city of Baltimore and gas was introduced commercially to the United States. In those so called good ole days, meters were unknown and gas was sold more or less on an hourly, basis by contract. Gas company in spectors would tour the city at night and rap on the walk or curbs outside of the homes to indicate to gas light customers that their contract time had expired and the lights were to be extinguished. If the customer ignored the warning the inspector would turn the service off.
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Document ID: 8AD5D963

Effects On Entrained Liquid On Orifice Measurement
Author(s): C. V. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
In the measurement of natural gas in field operations using the conventional orifice meter all of the factors used in the calculation of flow are based on the assumption that the gas is dry. This condition Is rarely the case in field measurements. The A.G.A. Committee Report No. 3, (1), does not give any information or data regarding the effect water and/or distillate may have upon gas measurement by the orifice meter. It was in this area of gas measurement that graduatei ngineering students at Texas A&I University, Kinsville, Texas have conducted research operation in the laboratory and in the field.
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Document ID: 95489B17

Comparison Of Calculated And Measured Heating Values Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Donald C. Melrose
Abstract/Introduction:
There is an increasing need for accurate and continuous monitoring of gaseous fnels for a widening range of heating values. The impetus has developed because of the combined effects of measuring and selling gaseous fuels in terms of energy content (usually by therms) and also, because of the availability of high heating value liquefied natural gas. Many gas companies depend upon recording calorimeters for direct continuous measujrement of natural gas heating values. These calorimeters are usually calibrated with a cylinder-contained standard gas having a certified heating value. The calorimeter is periodically operated with the standard gas, and the heating value registration is adjusted, if necessary, to the certified heating value of the standard. This calibration is usually considered to be satisfactory for samples that differ by not more than about 25 Btu/SCF from the standard gas.
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Document ID: CFF682AA


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