Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (1975)

Download collection of documents about ISHM 1975 including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, etc.


International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Fundamentals Of Gas Pressure Regulation
Author(s): Floyd D. Jury
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside, and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a tendency to take them for granted. Even the gas man who handles regulators every day as part of his job frequently tends to view the regulator simply as a piece of hardware which fits in the line and regulates pressure. The fact that it will do precisely that, for months on end without human intervention, makes it easy to maintain such a view. Its only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application, that we need to look more deeply into the fundamentals of the regulators operation.
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Document ID: 61112BD4

Meter Shop Design. Equipment And Techniques
Author(s): James W. Lancaster
Abstract/Introduction:
The function of a meter shop is two-fold. First, 4-t must provide the meter repair to insure a company of good measurement. Secondly, it must satisfy the accuracy requirements of the regulatory commission which protects the consumer. In fulfilling this function, a shop must be concerned with three things.
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Document ID: 09A0AA86

Liquid Sampling
Author(s): E. L. Graves
Abstract/Introduction:
I wish to acknowledge the help of many people for information and ideas for this report. Particular thanks to Mr. R. E. Boyle, Amoco Oil Company and Mr. David Luce, True-Cut Manufacturer. Sampling of an oil stream, particularly crude oil, which carries 0.2% or more of free water, dirt, or sand in varying degrees, is reasonably difficult. Most people agree that a continuous sampling procedure taking out small amounts of liquid strictly proportional to flow is the best method of sampling. To take a sample, of course, a sample probe of some type is used. A probe extending to the center of the line and beveled at a 45 angle facing upstream is generally accepted to be the best design. Others use a long radius elbow facing upstream. Still another type is a probe with a cavity so that the stream can travel through the cavity, and then it is closed and a discrete amount of liquid is taken off as a sample. Note that in all cases the probe extends to near the center of the flowing stream.
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Document ID: 54CCE6D3

High Pressure Measureing And Regulating Station Design
Author(s): R.H. Prickett
Abstract/Introduction:
Many factors must be considered when designing a high pressure measuring and regulating station. This paper will deal with some of the major factors involved without getting into the technical details.
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Document ID: 2239B0F5

Field Transfer Flow Proving Experience At Wisconsin Gas Company
Author(s): Raymond C. Jochimsen
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1960, the people responsible for meter set design at Wisconsin Gas Company standardized on constructions incorporating meter test connections. All meter sets from the 3000 cfh capacity thru the 10000 cfh capacity were rebuilt when the meters came due for routining. When our company received its first transfer flow prover in 1967, the meters due for test had by then been provided with test connections. Wisconsin has a 12 year test interval for meters rated smaller than 2400 cfh at 1/2 W.C. differential and a 4 year test interval for meters rated over 2400 cfh at 1/2 W.C. differential.
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Document ID: 2A96C762

Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
Although the liquid turbine meter principle dates back many decades, the axial flow turbine meters presently employed for liquid measurement are quite new. The axial flow turbine meter was first used for water flow measurement where there was plenty of energy available for driving the rotor and normally where accuracy of measurement was not of prime importance. Reliability was of greater importance, so parts were made rugged and the rotor was designed more to be non-clogging than to be accurate. However, through the evolution of technology, the turbine meter has maintained reliability and ruggedness while attaining a high degree of accuracy. Today, the meters used for water flow have accuracies of j.25% over ranges of 10 to 1 or more while maintaining the same high degree of reliability and ruggedness as did their predecessors. The aerospace industry has also found the turbine meter to be an excellent answer to many of their measurement problems. They were mainly interested in meters which were simple in design, having a high degree of reliability, providing an accurate result, and having an output signal that was suitable for telemetering. The few moving parts of the turbine meter meant simplicity, ease of maintenance and a high degree of reliability. The improved designs produced accurate results. The electrical frequency outputs were suitable for telemetering.
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Document ID: 0BB33351

Methods Of Field Testing Large Capacity Displacement Meters A Panel
Author(s): Joseph Wager
Abstract/Introduction:
The information presented in this paper w i l l cover a review of Low Pressure Flow Proving, Critical Flow Proving, Differential Testing and Spin Testing. It will also cover the updating on Transfer Testing and Sonic Nozzle Flow Proving.
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Document ID: 002E2F84

Specific Gravity Instruments - Installation And Operation
Author(s): James C. Bozeman
Abstract/Introduction:
Definition - The specific weight of a gas is the number of units of weight in a unit volume. Specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of a definite volume of gas, at some convenient temperature and pressure, to the weight of an equal volume of dry air at the same temperature and pressure. Specific weight is a measurement of the relative weights of gases and varies according to the conditions under which it is determined, whereas specific gravity compares all gases to dry air as the standard. From a comparison of the above definitions, it is seen that specific gravity is the ratio of the specific weight of a gas to the specific weight of dry air, both being at the same conditions of temperature and pressure.
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Document ID: 0A3DF194

Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Philip D. Baker
Abstract/Introduction:
While the basic development of the turbine meter goes back approximately 30 to 40 years, its impact on the petroleum industry has only taken place in the last 12 to 15 years. Even over this time span, the true acceptance of turbine meters has been slow to take place and, in fact, has been just getting a firm foothold in the industry the last 4 or 5 years. The official recognition of the turbine meter as an approved measurement device for the petroleum industry took place with the publication in March, 1970 of API standard 2534 covering the Measurement of Liquid Hydrocarbons by Turbine Meter Systems. Particularly since the publication of this report, the utilization of turbine meters for custody transfer of refined products and light crude oils in pipeline systems/ for tanker or barge loading and unloading and for internal process control has grown substantially. However in spite of the increased acceptance of turbine meters, a great deal of misunderstanding and misapplication still exists. This paper will explain the basic principle of operation and recommended applications for turbine meters.
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Document ID: D8BE9777

Installation And Operation Of A Densitometer
Author(s): E. F. Blanchard
Abstract/Introduction:
The direct measurement of gas density has many important advantages in flow measurement. The most basic form of flow measurement using density is mass flow determination. This measurement requires only the differential pressure measured across the orifice plate and the gas density. Only in the past few years has mass flow measurement of natural gas become practical. Prior to this time no accurate and inexpensive densitometer was available. At the present time several manufacturers have developed density measuring devices or Densitometers. This paper will relate exclusively to the UGC Industries Densitometer.
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Document ID: 20E408A2

Kinetic Type Indicating And Recording Instruments For Determining Specific Gravity
Author(s): F. B. Leslie
Abstract/Introduction:
This class offers a comprehensive presentation of the kinetic type gas gravitometer, including: Simple explanation of operating principle Equipment set-up and operation in field Trouble shooting, repair and adjustment The kinetic type gas gravitometer is manufactured as a portable indicating type instrument illustrated in Figure 1 and as a stationary recording type instrument illustrated in Figure 2. The basic operating mechanism is identical for both types but the case, motive power and linkage are modified to adapt them to either portable use or permanent mounting.
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Document ID: 2E7B7E73

Determination Of Hydrogen Sulphide & Total Sulphur By Titration Methods
Author(s): R. R. Austin, J. R. Robison
Abstract/Introduction:
Electrolytic generation of bromine as a titrating reagent for measurement of sulfur compounds in the gaseous phase was Introduced to industry nearly twenty years ago. With the development of transistor slectronics and the discovery of a prac- :ical coulometric bromine sensing slectrode system, a new, wide range lectrolytic titrator was developed and lesigned to meet the specific requireaents for continuous sulfur monitoring.
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Document ID: FA0B0E08

Liquid Measurement Volume Calculation Procedures
Author(s): Judith J. Bigby
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to remain competitive in the oil industry today, accurate metering is a necessity, especially in high volume custody transfer operations such as crude oil off-loading and product pipeline shipments. The meters used in these operations, typically a turbine or positive displacement meter, are capable of accuracies of 0.25% or better and are proven using meter provers designed for 0.02% repeatability. With these tools available to us, losses can be identified and hopefully reduced, while generating confidence in the accuracy of the measurement system. Briefly, volume calculation procedures involve correcting a meters registered volume to a standard temperature and pressure base, and determining the meters deviation from true volumes by use of a meter prover. The American Petroleum Institute has published the following standards from which most of the calculation procedures to be discussed are derived:
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Document ID: 5BB245CB

Maintenance Of Electronic Chart Scanning Equipment
Author(s): Thomas Y. Tramel
Abstract/Introduction:
A short time after integrated circuits were available to the industrial market, we at UGCI redesigned our proven Electroscanner. Incorporating integrated circuits into our computer, in addition to other changes, has made possible a much more accurate and reliable Electroscanner system. This change in computing circuitry also eliminated much of the maintenance necessary to keep the Electroscanner functioning properly. The Electroscanner, as any other type of equipment, should be properly maintained to insure the most accurate and reliable results. A strict operational and preventive maintenance schedule must be maintained to achieve ultimate Electroscanner calculations.
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Document ID: 60856F36

Some Fundamental Principles Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): L. P. Emerson
Abstract/Introduction:
It is very appropriate on this 50th Anniversary session of the meter school, that orifice meters should be one of the subjects for discussion. I believe no other piece of measurement equipment has contributed so much to the gas industry, for without some means to safely, equitably and accurately determine the amount of gas being bought and sold, the industry could not have grown as fast and as well as it has. Other types of meters such as displacement and turbine meters have come into use to be sure, but for the measurement of large volumes of gas at high pressure, the simple orifice meter is preeminent. This year we have a new name for the school - International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement - not only to recognize the worldwide aspects and growth of the gas industry and the important role these sessions play, but also to acknowledge that gas is but a part of a large field of hydrocarbons, which includes many vapors and liquids as well as fuel gases. In the handling of liquids, vaporst and gases, orifice meters have long been recognized and used.
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Document ID: B74E141D

Gauging And Running Of Lease Tanks
Author(s): Earl Pregler
Abstract/Introduction:
Throughout the years the gaugers have had a vital part in making our company one of the most efficient in the pipeline industry. Loyalty to the company and devotion to work have been great fad:ors in this achievement. The fundamentals of gauging have been handed down from the old experienced gauger to the new inexperienced gauger and from the old chief gauger to the new. Basically, the rules and practices are about the same, except for changes due to advancing technology. The gauger1s trademark in the years past has been, and still is, good service, fairness in dealing with the producers and representatives of other pipe line companies, diplomacy, firmness, pride, and a real dedication to the work.
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Document ID: 0537D48E

Instruments: Automation And Safety
Author(s): E. Newton Hayes
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays use of instruments for automation of oil and gas production, transportation, and processing applications, there are many things to be considered. These include the type of equipment to be used (mechanical, pneumatic, or electronic), the environment in which it will operate, and the physical limitations at the use location. History tells us that instrumentation has been accepted as a necessary and very essential tool in achieving profitable operations. There exists within the oil and gas industry a long tenure of operation with mechanical and pneumatic instruments. In the late 1950s, electronic instruments came into being and offered some additional solutions to a number of our automation problems. Since electronic instrumentation is being widely used for todays applications, let us consider some of the reasons for making the choice to use electronics.
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Document ID: 2AD9C139

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Robert H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
There is a reason for a regulator station being a potential source of noise. It is because potential energy is changed into kinetic energy in the regulators, resulting in high velocities on the downstream side of the regulators. Velocity, however, is only one source of noise, another being mechanical vibration in the regulator body if it is designed so that this can take place. Remember that hard mechanical parts cannot be the same size if they are to work together, that is, one piece must slide inside of the other. Considering either source, we can say that each regulator design has a certain potential for making noise both aerodynamically and mechanically. It is becoming necessary to actually rate a regulator on its noise making capacity.
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Document ID: 794C6591

Applications Of Telemetering Systems & Flow Computers
Author(s): R. W. Lowell
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will be a basic paper illustrating the various types of telemetering and flow computing systems as utilized in the Gas Industry. The paper will be general in nature, as the entire subject matter represents an entire field of endeavor. Therefore, only basic fundamentals of the various types of flow computing and telemetering systems will be covered in this paper.
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Document ID: C3344B34

A New Development In Mass Flow Measurement
Author(s): I.W. Vail
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to discuss new developments in mass flow measurements, we must first discuss old approaches to mass flow measurement, and before we talk about the many old approaches it seems we should briefly investigate just what mass flow is. We are all familiar with the simple fluid flow measurement means, including head meters and positive volume meters and the temperature, pressure, supercompressability, gravity, density, and etc. corrections neccessary for calculating standard units of flow measurement. Let us begin then with a simple problem in flow measurement and see if we can understand just what it is we are measuring and why a mass flow approach is usef11! today.
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Document ID: B5586C55

Bellows-Type Orifice Meters
Author(s): Giles m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
The bellows-type orifice meter gauge has widespread application and increasing popularity in orifice metering. Its operation does not require mercury nor critical leveling for operation. The rapid response and high output torque make the bellows meter particularly adaptable to integrating and computing devices. The meter is generally not affected by condensed liquid in the measuring system. The self-draining feature along with proper installation makes it very adaptable to wet gas systems.
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Document ID: 53F540E2

A Proposed System To Measure Ethane Rich Streams
Author(s): E. F. Blanchard
Abstract/Introduction:
The system is a fully digital calculating system designed to accept as inputs: (1) A 10-50 milliamp signal (D-r.) from a Densitometer (2) A Temperature signal (T) from a platinum resistance bulb mounted within the Densitometer barrel (3) A pulse rate frequency (Vy) from a Flow Meter (4) A Flow Meter TM factor from a four digit set of manually positioned thumbwheel switches that read directly proved pulses per barrel (5) A temperature coefficient of expansion factor A from manually positioned thumbwheel switches. The value of A will be determined from ASTM tables based on average values of Operating Density (Dx) and Temperature (T) as discussed below.
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Document ID: E3BCA89E

Advanced Applications Of Telemetering Systems And Flow Computers
Author(s): Richard H. Cadmus
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will be a discussion of digital telemetry techniques, utilizing both unidirectional and bidirectional systems. The application of gas flow computers to the systems will also be discussed. First of all, a review of analog telemetry techniques is in order before we proceed into digital telemetry. There are three basic types of analog telemetry used today. The first type is utilized over short distances, and usuallv limited to private circuits not exceeding 5000 feet. The system is utilized at such locations as compressor stations, regulator stations, etc. with telemetering of variables from the point of measurement into a central control panel. The system is called current telemetering where the variable to be telemetered is normally represented as a 4-20 m.a. d-c signal. Since the signal is two-wire transmission, power is required only at the receiving end, thus keeping the system sinple and keeping installation at a minimum. Pulse Duration Telemetry is the most common type of telemetry used in the gas industry. The output of a Pulse Dura tion type telemeter transmitter is normally a 3-12 second on time out of a 15 second cycle, with 3 seconds on representing 0% of the variable, and 12 seconds on representing 100%. The output signal is a dry contact, and this signal may be utilized to key a d-c telegraph circuit, a tone transmitter, or be utilized with time division multiplexing.
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Document ID: 6AE6B2F9

Correcting Liquid Meter Readings
Author(s): Robert H. Kolb
Abstract/Introduction:
Increasingly crude oil and other liquid hydrocarbons are being measured for sales or custody transfer by means of meters. Unfortunately the change in a meter reading that occurs when a quantity of oil is metered through it is rarely exactly equal to the number of standard barrels of net clean oil measured. This paper explains why, and outlines the kind of corrections and adjustments which must be applied to the meter reading.
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Document ID: 8AA755E1

Liquid Meter Proving Techniques
Author(s): D. J. Bush
Abstract/Introduction:
The installation of the first meter surely prompted the question, What is it for?, and the obvious answer was, A device to measure volume. The next question must have been, How accurately? This answer is not as easy. The implication was, and is today, that the meter is false, therefore it must be proved. The output of the meter is referenced to a known volume, the amount of deviation determined, and the errant ways of the meter then corrected mechanically, electrically, or arithmetically. The term meter error is harsh. The meter states what it can do with a given material, as installed, under given operating conditions. If these variables can be defined, and the meter is consistent, it is all that is needed.
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Document ID: F10F2036

Instruments To Detect And Locate Gas Leaks
Author(s): Stuart B. Eynon
Abstract/Introduction:
When the first gas systems were installed there were no instruments available for its detection. However, it must be recalled that manufactured gas contained components that were highly odoriferous and leaks, particularly on exposed piping, could readily be detected by smell. The detection and pinpointing of underground pipeline leaks presented a more difficult problem but the sense of smell was the only procedure available for many years. One refinement that was developed was a sniff pipe which could be inserted into bar holes in the soil. The top was often fitted with a nose cone to make sniffing more convenient. The major problems involved were the toxic elements contained in manufactured gases and the fact that olfactory senses become fatigued or overloaded by prolonged sniffing which made pinpointing of leaks extremely difficult.
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Document ID: 27803DC4

What I Learned At The International School Of Hydrocarbon Measurement
Author(s): V. W. Maxwell
Abstract/Introduction:
The discussions at the Forty-Ninth International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement covered a wide range of important topics that included measurement and control of all hydrocarbon transmissions whether gas or liquid. Of particular interest to me were classes on orifice meters, ball valves for control, regulators, relief valves, and gas measurement by rotary meters.
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Document ID: 5AF45578

Sonic Nozzles For Gas Meter Calibration
Author(s): Giles m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of critical flow elements was first introduced into the gas industry about 1930 as field proving apparatus for high pressure displacenent gas meters. These primary devices have basic and fundamental advantages, along with a few disadvantages. The critical flow prover is portable and offers simplicity in the field computations required to obtain the proof of a meter jnder operating conditions. The critical flow orifice prover has long been a convenient and practical method of calibrating neters at high pressure and areas where an elecirical power source is not readily available. low these critical flow provers can be fitted /ith sonic nozzles in place of orifice discs. he use and advantages of the sonic flow nozzle trover, will be discussed in detail.
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Document ID: E209090E

Manual Procedures For Calculation Of Gas Measurement Charts
Author(s): C. W. Bartlett
Abstract/Introduction:
The procedure to calculate gas measurement charts will be governed by the requirements of the contract or agreement. These conditions must be thoroughly checked and understood prior to the processing and calculating of the charts. The organization of each companys operation will control to what extent a chart office will be responsible. Although some do not pertain directly to the calculation procedure, a general working knowledge of all is recommended .
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Document ID: FD4F7086

Gas Service Reghtatops Instaljation Amd Operation
Author(s): Josenh P. Lofink
Abstract/Introduction:
dependent upon the design of the installation. Before intelligently designing a domestic regulator set, a thorough understanding of how a service type regulator operates is required. Mot only are the fundamental operating principles of a spring type regulator required, but the conditions or characteristics that are particular to a service regulator are needed. The operating conditions required for a particular installation will dictate the type of service regulator to be used. These conditions will also determine how the regulator is to be installed. Many times a standard regulator set proves unsatisfactory. This is not necessarily caused by a faulty regulator or other piece of equipment rather it is the action or outcome of trying to use one standard type set over too wide a range of operating conditions.
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Document ID: 2B0EE1EA

Determination Of Water Vapor Content And Hydrocarbon Dew Point In Natural Gas
Author(s): G. D. Turner
Abstract/Introduction:
The determination of a dew point is probably one of the most controversial subjects in the gas industry today. It has not been too many years past that the water content of natural gas was lot, for the most part, considered too great a factor in gas transmission,. During the past forty years this idea has changed since large supplies of natural gas are being transported to the northern part of the United States. Therefore it was necessary for research and Experimentation to make available a greater knowledge of the control of water vapor in latural gas. Natural gas as it comes from the wellhead is known to be saturated with water /apor. If this vapor is not controlled before :he gas enters the transmission lines, serious :rouble can result.
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Document ID: CC8E1F5D

Application Of Flow Computers For Measurement And Control
Author(s): Michael J. Keady
Abstract/Introduction:
Refinements in electronic instrumentation are continually providing better and more accurate measurement and control devices. Easy methods of calibrating, programming and operating these instruments for each application are being developed. The great variety of measurement and control applications call for many different combinations of these instruments to achieve reliable, repeatable and accurate flow response for a lower capital investment.
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Document ID: 2DEFB872

Instaliation And Operation Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): A. F. Kersey
Abstract/Introduction:
The Cutler-Hammer recording Calorimeter measures the total heating value BTU content of combustible gas. It continuously samples, indicates, and records BTU per cubic foot of gas.
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Document ID: 9D37654D

Realism In Oil Measurement
Author(s): L. m. Davis
Abstract/Introduction:
Realists in any human endeavour usually get a bad name from Idealists. That famous exponent of Realpolitik Prince Bismarck, for example, said in effect that history is not determined by Resolutions passed at democratic congresses, but by blood and iron. The idealists insist that Bismarck advocated a policy of blood and iron. Realists reply that he did not advocate it, but simply said thats how history seems to develop. Realism applied to oil measurement seeks to keep in mind the practical limits of accuracy, and to guard against excursions into fantasy to bring the whole process into perspective, so that the measurement practitioner will neither waste time pursuing the impossible nor put up with sloppiness. To paraphrase Bismarcks famous dictum, a measurement realist would say that accuracy is not achieved by High Hopes or Government Regulators, but by software and hardware.
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Document ID: 3485DB83

ANSI/ISO Codes And Standards For Hydrocarbon Measurements
Author(s): Alex A. Pena, I. Resnick
Abstract/Introduction:
The American National Standards Institute is very pleased to take part in the 1974 International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement. We welcome the opportunity to share with you some thoughts of our mutual cooperation on the subject of national and international petroleum measurement standardization. It is our hope that through this vehicle of disseminating information a better understanding of each others philosophies, expectations, and expertise will allow us to ascend a little higher on the evolutionary ladder of improved petroleum measurement practices. My remarks will center on the efforts to date which have been directed toward obtaining this goal. Let me begin by telling you something about ANSI, its structure, its purposes, and Standardization.
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Document ID: 64E1C6D6

Recording Calorimeters - Installation And Testing
Author(s): Wayne C. Mellor
Abstract/Introduction:
All personnel involved in the measurement of natural gas, the qualitative and quantitative testing, and the handling of this commodity, are painfully aware of the real and true shortage of this natural resource. With this shortage, the measurement of gas becomes increasingly more important, especially in qualitative analysis and testing. The calorimeter is one device used to indicate the heating value, or BTU, of the gas. Important as this testing is now, it becomes even more so as time goes on and natural gas becomes more scarce. The heating value of the gas indicated by the calorimeter is given in British Thermal Units (BTU) which is defined as the amount of heat required to raise one pound of water one degree farenheit, from 58.5 to 59.5 . The value of the gas, of course, increases as the BTU increases.
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Document ID: FC4C2B89

Elements Of Gas Contracts
Author(s): John W. Hague
Abstract/Introduction:
A brief look at the history of natural gas reveals that the Chinese were one of the first races to utilize natural gas. In search of salt, the Chinese produced gas from wells drilled to a depth of approximately 2,000 feet and then transported the gas through bamboo pipelines to the points of consumption. Natural gas was also known to have oeen used by the Japanese as early as 615 B.C. Dther cultures also utilized natural gas from these early beginnings until the natural gas Industry was born in 1821 in the village of ?redonia, New York. Ct is thought that the first well sunk in the Jnited States in search of natural gas was the redonia Well. That well which was one and onelalf inches in diameter and 27 feet deep produced jnough gas to fuel 30 burners. In 1858 a company /as organized to complete the earlier improvements sade in Fredonia to put the gas to greater use, )ut it was not until 1865 that the first American latural gas corporation, the Fredonia Gas Light ind Water Works Company was formed.
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Document ID: 03253C54

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Joseph L. Pond
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas turbine meters are velocity sensing devices for measuring gaseous flow volumes. The direction of flow through the meters is parallel to a turbine rotor axis and the speed of rotation is nominally proportional to the rate of flow. This design of turbine meter is called an axial flow type.
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Document ID: F02D9014

Weights And Measures Enforcement In The United States
Author(s): Richard N. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
The history of weights and measures enforcement in the United States is roughly parallel to the history of the United States as a nation. In the Articles of Confederation, ratified by the colonies in 1781, there is found the authority for Congress to fix the standard of weights and measures throughout the United States. This same authority is found in Section 8, Article 1 of the Constitution and became effective in 1789. Also found in the same section is the power to regulate commerce among the States and to regulate coinage. The power to fix the standard of weights and measures is a very broad and unrestricted authority and is known as the weights and measures clause of the Constitution. When Congress acts under this authority, it legislates for the country as a whole without regard to State boundaries. Therefore, the majority of Federal weights and measures laws is interstate rather than intrastate in their application. In order to cover intrastate commerce with the same provisions, the common expedient has been to cause enactment as State statutes of the appropriate provisions of the Federal acts.
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Document ID: A1CC3D84

Maintenance And Trouble Shooting Of Lact Units
Author(s): Arnold Tims
Abstract/Introduction:
Lease Automatic Custody Transfer (LACT) Unit used for the transfer of hydrocarbons from a producer tank battery to a pipe line. With the demand for hydrocarbons increasing each year more companies are installing LACT Units to better utilize the existing pipe lines. This has increased maintenance and trouble shooting problems proportionally. These problems are, in several instances, caused by initial installation and start up of this equipment. Therefore a need for a better understanding of LACT as a System, as well as a Mechanical/ Electrical piece of equipment exists for those contemplating its use. The following information will strive for a better understanding of LACT and its related equipment to reduce the cost of maintenance and trouble shooting of LACT installations.
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Document ID: 854E6DEC

Positive Displacement Liquid Meters
Author(s): Barrie L. Bloser
Abstract/Introduction:
The Positive Displacement (P.D.) Meters we are familiar with today are very much the same in principle as they were a quarter of a century ago. However, the demands of progress in the petroleum industry has stimulated competitive actions among manufacturers to continually make improvements in the performance of their meters. These meters employ a very important role in the measurement of petroleum liquid hydrocarbons. Meter acceptance in the petroleum industry has phased into every segment from the production well on crude oil to the refinery and then on the finished product from the pipeline, tanker or barge to bulk terminals for distribution. From these bulk terminals the distribution is generally made by tank truck loads to bulk consumers and fuel oil dealers. The distribution is broken down even further with smaller trucks delivering gasoline to the service stations and fuel oil to the homes. The service station is the final link between the refinery and the consumer for most gasoline. Many metering operations are in process throughout the production and marketing of petroleum liquid hydrocarbons. These operations include the production meter, LACT meter, pipeline meter, terminal meter, tank truck meter and dispenser meter. Of course there are many other applications where metering of petroleum products such as aviation fuels, liquified petroleum gas, lubricants and asphalt is required. This discussion will cover the theory of operation and performance, design, application and proving of the meter types most likely to be involved in these flow measurement applications.
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Document ID: B1342A4B

Mass And Energy Measurement Of Hydrocarbon Liquids
Author(s): Paul Weitz, Richard Unger And Ken Guenther
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents the basis for capacitive measurement of hydrocarbon liquids, in particular: jet fuel, liquefied natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas. First, the relationships between dielectric constant and density of these fluids and their heating values are presented. Then, the measuring principles and some typical in-tank hardware are described. Simple measuring schemes as well as a computer based measuring system are discussed. Finally, two approaches to the measurement problem are presented.
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Document ID: 9D5B8FE1

Gas Lost And Unaccounted For In Distribution Systems
Author(s): J . Fred Gresham
Abstract/Introduction:
More interest is being shown today in the figures reflected by Gas Lost and Unaccounted For reports than ever before by the managements of gas companies. More simply put, the sereportsare also known as Discrepancy reports. Greater emphasisis being placed on the search for the cause and solution to the problem. Gas Lost and Unaccounted For represents the difference between the amount purchased and the amount sold, together with certain other usages accounted for through regular bookkeeping methods. This difference represents a commodity that we cannot afford to lose and a discrepancy that must be located and eliminated as far as possible.
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Document ID: A2290AF6

Meter Proof Specification Relative To Prover Accuracy & Sample Testing Programs
Author(s): Henry E. Kwiatkowski
Abstract/Introduction:
Incoming Test Specifications for any product can vary from the ridiculous to the sublime. It is generally the type of product that dictates the test specification, however, there are many common terms and procedures regarding incoming testing regardless of the product. Test specifications can vary from those that are virtually impossible to meet to those that can be met in practically every case. The middle ground between these extremities generally becomes the point at which specifications apply. Once the specification has been written, the manner and equipment upon which the product is tested for conformance becomes of prime importance. The intent of this paper is to discuss specifications as they relate to domestic diaphragm meters and to then evaluate some of the methods used to inspect for same.
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Document ID: D30D9746

Fundamental Principles Of Pilot Controls
Author(s): Don Day
Abstract/Introduction:
Why would anyone ever buy a pilot operated regulator? Price? Simplicity? Tradition? Pilot operated regulators are installed in preference to direct operated regulators due to the inherent disadvantages of all direct operated regulators.
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Document ID: 6FE76EC4

Field Experience With Turbine Meters
Author(s): C. E. Stone
Abstract/Introduction:
mation presented here reflects opinions, conclusions, and recommendations based on actual field experience using the turbine meter to measure natural gas. Since the introduction of the turbine meter in the natural gas field, there have been many papers published relating to the theory and operation of turbines. For the purpose of this presentation, theory will be disregarded wherever possible in an attempt to concentrate on the selection, installation, and preventive maintenance of turbine meters. In some instances, the following may drift away from the central theme to state a fact or problem deemed noteworthy.
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Document ID: 7DA1FABA

Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Joseph B. Bissmeyer
Abstract/Introduction:
At the turn of the century, in the year 1906, Mikhail Tswett, a Russian botanist, took some green leaves from a plant, pulverized them and poured liquid petroleum ether over them. While this mixture of leaves and petroleum ether was reacting, Tswett took a glass tube and filled it with powdered chalk (calcium carbonate). He poured the petroleum ether extract into the top of the glass column of powdered chalk. As the solution percolated through the column, colored bands of green and yellow appeared on the chalk column. The green band represents the chlorophyl components and the yellow band represents the carotenoid components of the mixture. Carotenoids are chemicals that give carrots and butter a yellowish-orange color.
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Document ID: 730E234A

Large Volume Measurement By Turbine And Rotary Meters
Author(s): Stanley F. Humbert
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement of gas flow by gas turbine meters has only relatively recently found general acceptance by the natural gas industry in the United States. Gas turbine meters were developed in Europe during the late 1950s and introduced into use in the United States in the early 1960s. Although widely used in Europe since their development the majority of meters in use in the United States have been installed since 1970. Some of the general advantages enjoyed by turbine meters in the measurement of large volumes of natural gas include compactness lightweight high accuracy continuity of flow easy maintenance less installation expense ease of field testing simple construction long life and excellent rangeability.
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Document ID: E23A8AAB

Gas Measurement By Rotary Meters
Author(s): Gary L. Hanson
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1920, the PH & FM ROOTS Company and the Connersv i l l e Blower Company, both located in Connersville, Indiana, built the first rotary positive displacement gas meter. The two companies joined to form the ROOTS-CONNERSVILLE Blower, and in 1966 the gas meter line was formed into a new company named Dresser Measurement Division. The figure-8 lobed rotary gas meters made by this company are known as ROOTS Meters. Early in the 1960s, Rockwell International entered the market with a rotating vane design known as the ROTOSEAL Meter , and late in the 1960s, Singer American Meter Company introduced still another rotating vane design known as a CVM gas meter. The various principles of operation for these three meters are shown and described in Exhibit * 1 . Since the majority of meters in use today are the ROOTS Meter, the comments in this paper w i l l be directed toward the ROOTS Meter however, most comments are directly applicable to all types of rotary meters.
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Document ID: 4C7C05A2

Application Of Electronic Computers For Calculation Of Gas Measurement Factors
Author(s): David A. Ward
Abstract/Introduction:
In this age of advances in technology, better equipment is constantly being made available to our industry. The purpose of this paper will be to introduce a few of these devices and their use in the Measurement Office. First let us look at the basic steps a chart record follows as it passes through a gas measurement office, followed by a description of the responsibilities of each group and the equipment they use. The charts are first grouped in some definite order, usually by type of gas (purchase, sales, check meter, fuels, audits, etc.). The charts are now ready for the chart editor who will check the record for any notes or defects and write any required data on the back of the record. From this group, the chart is passed to the Integration section where the chart extension is calculated and placed on the chart. The static pressure and flow hour indexes might also be included, depending on the type of integration equipment used. The next step is keypunch, where the information now on the chart is written on a medium that can be read by a computer. After keypunch the chart is ready for the file.
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Document ID: FADF7B09

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Don W. Darais
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to the almost daily increasing cost of hydrocarbon products, both liquid and gas, there is a growing concern for accurate measurement. In many applications this begins with a signal from the primary element, consisting of the Orifice Fitting, Orifice Plate and Meter Tube. In order to more clearly discuss each of the components which make up the primary element in orifice measurement, rach will be set out and discussed separately as follows: Orifice Fittings ( consisting of Senior Fitting, Junior Fitting, and Simplex Fitting), Orifice Plate, Sealing Units, and Meter Tubes.
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Document ID: 04AA4203

Calibration Of Field Volumetric Standards
Author(s): Blayne C. Keysar
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to the increasing volumes and values of liquids (particularly petroleum products) being measured today, the need for accurate measurement has become of extreme importance. Inaccurate measurement in custody transfer of these large volumes can mean the loss of large sums of money to one of the parties involved. Accuracy of the meters used in the measurement is largely dependent on the accuracy of the field standard used to prove the meter.
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Document ID: F05D7145

What The Field Group Expects From The Office Group
Author(s): James m. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
The field and office groups, regardless of the vastly different working conditions, equipment, and skills applied, make up the Gas Measurement Department. The Gas Measurement Department is only one of many departments of the natural gas industry involved in achieving a goal -- placing a finished product on the market to make a profit. Leasing, Drilling, and Pipe Lining, to name a few, are departments that function within themselves and require little or no communication or cooperation with one another to fulfill their own objectives. The field and office groups of Gas Measurement are completely dependent upon communication, cooperation and understanding to achieve the degree of accuracy required for accurate accounting. Accurate accounting equals profit. Certainly, each of us derive a certain degree of pleasure as we observe others who benefit by the use of our product. Yet without a margin of profit, pleasure and profession soon disappear. The term Gas Measurement Department has many facets -- legal, technical, plus others -- but the scope of this paper, as dictated by the title, will be limited to the field and office personnel who are responsible for the accounting accuracy of gas measurement.
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Document ID: 7CFAB632

Problems In Offshore Gas Measurement
Author(s): J. R. Stewart
Abstract/Introduction:
The critical shortage of natural gas has caused producers to venture further into offshore waters in search of the clean magic fuel. As new gas fields are discovered in these distant waters, the problems will be compounded because of greater water depths and the ever constant problem of transportation.
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Document ID: 2C3982DF

Domestic Gas Meters
Author(s): Howard H. Holmes
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will deal with an elusive and sometimes difficult to categorize group of Positive Displacement Gas Meters known as Domestic Meters. The word domestic is defined as of or pertaining to the household or family, but in the gas industry the historical definition of a domestic meter is one that has a capacity rating of less than 500 cubic feet per hour. This latter definitionhas recently received some official sanction with the approval of a new American National Standard for gas displacement meters 500 cubic foot per hour capacity and under. This Standard has been numbered ANSI B109.1 (American National Standards Institute) and provides information regarding construction requirements, qualification tests, in-service performance, installation requirements, auxiliary devices, and test methods. This Standard will be a valuable aid to anyone that works with domestic size gas meters.
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Document ID: 2272E58A

Large Capacity Positive Displacement Meters Diaphragm And Rotary
Author(s): Howard H. Holmes
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will describe some of the techniques necessary to size and successfully operate large positive displacement gas meters. Large displacement meters are differentiated from domestic size meters on a capacity basis. Normally, any meter measuring more than 500 cfh is classified as a commercial, industrial or large displacement meter. It does not necessarily follow that the large meters will operate at higher working pressures than domestic meters however, more often than not, this is the case. Positive displacement gas meters are devices that measure volumes under pipeline conditions of pressure and temperature. If we are to accurately determine volumes at elevated pressures and varying temperatures, the volumes totalized by the gas meter must be modified to take into account Charles Law and the Deviation from Boyles Law. Large capacity displacement meters are available with atmospheric capacities up to 38,000 cfh, and meter cases are available for static working pressures up to 1,440 psi.
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Document ID: B974646E

Operation Of Orifice Meter Chart Integrator
Author(s): E. S. Messer
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Measurement by the orifice meter has four equally important areas of instrumentation, the meter run with orifice plate, the pressure recording instrument, the chart integration, and the final volume flow calculation. The simplicity and rugged construction of the meter run makes this type of volumetric measurement the most versatile for the industry. Equally important is the secondary element, the pressure recording instrument, which records on a chart the two variables of the meter run, the static and differential pressures. With the time function introduced by the chart drive, the orifice meter chart becomes a permanent record of the three basic functions for gas or liquid volume calculations. It has been truly said that the orifice meter chart is the dollar of the gas industry and the value of this dollar is not directly affected by inflation but by the accuracy and care taken in determining each basic factor in the calculation of a true volume of gas that is represented by the chart. The selling price of the commodity, be it gas, liquid, or any combination has been fixed by prior negotiations generally based on volume, therefore the more accurate the determination of this volume, the greater the true value of the chart dollar. Many papers have been written on methods to achieve greater accuracy in the various basic recorders and data necessary for the calculation of true flowing conditions.
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Document ID: BBA2E7FA

What The Office Group Expects From The Field Group
Author(s): James P. Avioli
Abstract/Introduction:
This topic has been discussed from many viewpoints for as long as any type of business or industry has existed. No matter what the business entity is, workers fall into the Office Group category or the Field Group category. Individuals in these groups usually have different backgrounds, different responsibilities and duties, and different ideas on how their tasks should be performed. Naturally people in both groups expect certain things of each other. If any business is to be successful, both groups must realize that each is made up of individuals who must work together to achieve the Companys objectives. The Natural Gas Industry is no exception to these criteria. The nature of our business demands a certain rapport between the Office Group and the Field Group. As our product becomes more and more precious, we must realize our responsibility to our Company and to our customers. Since measurement people in the Natural Gas Industry are primarily responsible for amount of product bought or sold, meter charts, reports, and all information from field personnel are vitally important to accurate measurement and resultant money transfer.
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Document ID: D688884B

Design Of Metering Systems For Tanker Offloading
Author(s): James W. Williams Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most critical problems affecting any tanker offloading facility is the removal of free air on start-up.
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Document ID: 6DCC61B6

The Use Of Manometers In The Gas Industry
Author(s): Nick Gestrich
Abstract/Introduction:
In the Measurement Mans Corner of Gas Magazine In April, 1967, it was stated, If the gas measurement science could be represented by a corpse, upon dissection the heart would turn out to be a manometer. Accurate gas measurement depends on precise measurement of small pressures and differential pressures. Large volumes of gas are bought and sold every day. Therefore, the utmost accuracy is desired in our measurement of these volumes. For this reason, the manometer is of prime importance to the gas measurement industry. The simplicity, inherent accuracy and versatility of manometers lend them to broad application in calibration, trouble shooting, and meter maintenance leak testing.
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Document ID: 718AC8C2

Fundamental Principles Of Displacement Meters
Author(s): C. Wayne Burre11
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1792 the process of manufacturing gas from coal was introduced in England. It was normal that the first gas meters were developed in England after the founding of the first gas company in London about 1808. In 1817 the first gas company was chartered in the city of Baltimore and gas was introduced commercially to the United States. In those so called good ole days, meters were unknown and gas was sold more or less on an hourly basis by contract. Gas company inspectors would tour the city at night and rap on the walk or curbs outside of the homes to indicate to gas light customers that their contract time had expired and the lights were to be extinguished. If the customer ignored the warning the inspector would turn the service off. This practice was then changed and the gas light customers were charged for the quantity of gas used based on the number, and possibly the size of light burners in the homes. Thus, the first gas meters developed were rated as Five-Light, Ten-Light, etc. A gas light burner was based on a consumption or 6 cubic feet per hour.
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Document ID: 818FF4ED

Installation, Operation And Maintenance Of Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): Richard L. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of automatic chart changers have become so widespread throughout the natural gas industry that several transmission companies have standardized on changers. Automatic changers are as accepted in station design as orifice fittings, meter tubes, and orifice meters. Such has not a l ways been the case. Before 1958, there was no commercially available automatic chart changer. Several attempts had been made but none were available to the industry. In 19 57, Mullins Manufacturing Company was formed for the express purpose of offering the industry an automatic chart changer. A Patent Pending was purchased, design was tested and retested, redesigned and retested. Finally a design emerged that would change charts reliably and which could be manufactured commercially. The name chosen for this automatic chart changer was Dial-OGraph. The first commercial installation of a Dia 1-O-Graph was accomplished in January of 1959.
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Document ID: 49D92C84

Design Of Distribution Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Richard m. Nicholson
Abstract/Introduction:
)istribution metering and regulating stations can e of any size and capacity from the small domes- :ic house meter to a large industrial plant. This aper will be concerned with medium to large sized stations. roper design and sizing is important as the value f our product has increased, and rebuilds are expensive and should be unnecessary. Therefore, :he first and most important aspect of a station esign is to obtain correct and complete inforlation. This information enables the designer to decide on the size and types of equipment needed.
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Document ID: 7ED7AE64

System Of Transfer Testing
Author(s): W. K. Clark
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for an accurate, reliable, and portable field transfer testing system has resulted from the growth of the gas industry. The growth has brought about the des i r e for better methods of field testing meters. There a r e presently available three methods for field testing meters: 1. Low-Pressure Flow Prover 2. Critical Flow Prover 3. Transfer Prover The low-pressure flow prover and the critical flow prover involve the measurement of several variables which in turn may cause the compounding of e r r o r s before the final accuracy can be calculated. The transfer prover requires only the sensing of temperature and pressure differences between the prover and the meter under test. Results obtained from a transfer prover should be more accurate and repeatable and compare more favorably to the accepted standards of the bell and piston provers. Transfer proving was initially developed to provide an easier and more accurate field proving method. Because of the capacity capabilities of transfer provers (10, 000 cfh to 80, 000 cfh), transfer provers a r e utilized in meter shops where bell proving capacity is limited and allow for shop testing of the larger capacity meters.
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Document ID: BFDB4520

Refrigerated Lp-Gas Marine Import Terminals - Operation And Measurement
Author(s): Robert A. Reid Petrolane Incorporated
Abstract/Introduction:
The United States faces an ever-widening gap between domestic demand for LP-gases and the ability of the domestic producing industry to supply the products. As a result, increasingly greater volumes will be imported from foreign sources where ample surpluses are available. Much of this imported product will be received in refrigerated LP-gas marine terminals utilizing low-pressure, insulated storage tanks. Custody transfer of the LP-gas cargo has traditionally been based on calculations of cargo on board ship. The procedures for calculating cargo quantities delivered by the ship and received at the landbased terminal are reviewed. Also noted are areas where further refinement in measurement techniques is expected.
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Document ID: 25492961

Elements Of Sound And Sound Measurement
Author(s): Chalmus E. Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
If a tree falls in the forest and there is no one to hear it, is there any sound? This often argued question might be rephrased by asking, Your company has a regulator which is passing ten million cubic feet of natural gas per hour and cutting the pressure from 600 psig to 100 psig. If the occupant of a nearby house doesnt complain, is there any noise? Unless some very good acoustical engineering has been done, you can bet there is noise and you had better do something about it before someone who isnt deaf moves into the house. You would best start out by conducting a thorough noise survey to determine the extent and nature of the problem. After the survey you can evaluate all of the conditions and plausible alternatives and arrive at a solution. If the survey and evaluation are done thoroughly, you may find the right solution the first time around. This paper will discuss some fundamentals which will aid the measurement engineer in understanding sound and how to measure it.
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Document ID: 4E667D62

Opertaion And Maintenance Of Rubber Plug Type Control Valves
Author(s): Mack Jacobs
Abstract/Introduction:
An urgent need existed for a control valve that could meet certain criteria not available in existing valve designs, and in 1958, the JET STREAM rubber plug type control valve was introduced. Because of this, some readers will find this to be a review of things already known, while others may discover a new valve. Its interesting to note that since 1958 there have been a number of specialty valves developed in an attempt to meet the exacting demands of precise and careful control, but none of them have been able to match the rubber plug and the way it can be worked to provide all the same benefits.
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Document ID: F2121F29

Flow Measurement With Insertion Turbine Meters
Author(s): Richard E. Zimmermann
Abstract/Introduction:
Insertion turbine meters are becoming increasingly popular as a means of flow measurement. Primary features contributing to their popularity are relatively low cost for large lines, ease of installation and maintenance, high sensitivity for low flow rates, and convenient sinusoidal pulse output easily processed by inexpensive signal conditioning equipment. Under ideal conditions, their performance can approach that of full bore turbine meters in both liquids and gases. Basically, an insertion turbine meter consists of a small rotor mounted at the end of a stem with a pickoff that senses the rotation of the rotor. As such, it is a sampling device, sensing fluid velocity at a discrete location in the pipe. Thus, its output does not indicate volumetric flow rate as in the case of a full bore turbine meter, but the flow velocity at a point. The velocity profile of the flow must be known before the volumetric flow rate can be determined. The greatest limitation on the accuracy of an insertion meter is the extent to which the calibration conditions duplicate the conditions of use. When it is calibrated in place in a section of the line in which it will be used, a high degree of accuracy may be obtained. With other calibration techniques, care must be taken to assure that the output of the meter represents the desired information. An insertion meter is best utilized where ease of installation and maintenance and cost are of greater importance than the extreme accuracy obtainable with a full-bore turbine meter.
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Document ID: 17068DFF

Installation, Operation And Maintenance Of Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): Bruce J. Caldwell
Abstract/Introduction:
In recognition of the age average of those attending the proceedings of this school, and the high percentage representing persons both new to this school and the hydrocarbon industry, it is timely to draw some parallel between the mysteries of automatic chart changing and the world of entertainment outside the hydrocarbon industry. Once upon a time there were no juke boxes to flip our music discs. A change in tune was occasioned by manual removal of a platter from a device popularly called a Victrola, followed by manual placement of another bearing a dissimilar label. Needless to say, the mechanics of this operation ordinarily required cranking the device to wind a spring as a means of supplying power. Mr. Edisons experiments with electricity had not progressed to the extent of overcoming the cranking chore at this point in time. Later, the demands of the hepcats and jive crowd gave birth to the automatic record player or record changer. It became no longer necessary to interrupt a romantic moment to wind a spring or flip a record. This fact offers some support to the contention that necessity is the mother of invention. In similar vein it is appropriate that attention be called to another record changer, the automatic chart changer. It follows that circular charts are also records and are round, although not necessarily associated with sound or romance. Instead, we are here confronted with the cold economics of commerce. Emphasis may be placed on three key words namely, cold, economics and commerce. In light of the current value of hydrocarbon fuels and their cost, along with rising labor cost, the significance of automated chart changing outshadows the economic importance of juke box automation. This contention, however, may be subject to challenge by music-loving youngsters.
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Document ID: D65F2CB3

Domestic Meters
Author(s): R. W. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the theoretical and operational aspect of the domestic gas meter. A domestic gas meter is one which has a capacity rating of 500 cubic feet per hour or less. The domestic meter is commonly referred to as the cash register of the industry. There are over 40 million units in service, metering approximately 5.1 trillion cubic feet of gas per year, at a value of 5.7 billion dollars.
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Document ID: 5B34B75D

Measuring Station Inspection Program And Guide
Author(s): Thomas C. Staats
Abstract/Introduction:
A good measuring station inspection program is an intricate and essential part of every companys operations to insure accurate measurement and safe working equipment. A good inspection program includes training of personnel, standards and tolerances, actual performance of the inspection and the reporting of the inspection through the proper channels. Measuring station inspection program and guide encompasses a vide spectrum. For our purposes, in this paper, we will discuss separately inspections for meters and measurement related devices and then discuss inspection of regulators and safety devices. This discussion relates more to when to test and inspect rather than how the tests and inspections are performed.
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Document ID: C393A2A0

Keeping Osha In Perspective
Author(s): F. L. Hiett
Abstract/Introduction:
I would like to discuss with you how companies may blend OSHA into their existing safety and health program. Through necessity, I will draw on the experience with the company I work for, Tennessee Gas Pipeline, and how we dealt with the OSHA law. As you all know, we are a nation of laws and in particular, the gas industry, with all the federal regulations with which we have to comply. Of course, we have lived with the Federal Power Commission for years and also the Pipeline Safety Act of 1Q68. More recently, we have the safety regulations under the Department of Transportation, the Construction Safety Act, Environmental Protection Agency, and of course, the Department of Interior and Coast Guard. Then in late 1970, the Occupational Safety and Health Act was signed into law. Like all previous federal laws, OSHA was recognized by our company as being here to stay. But, before we discuss how companies may comply with these new regulations, I would first like to briefly review how this law works, since there may be some of you who may not be too familiar with its functions. So if you will allow me, I will just briefly hit the main points.
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Document ID: 1A9D3134

Automated Measurement On Loading Racks
Author(s): Kevin m. Mcraith
Abstract/Introduction:
Petroleum truck loading terminals are becoming larger and more complex to operate. Increased equipment costs to meet new regulations have forced oil companies to reduce the number of terminals they operate. Terminals now tend to cover a wider distribution area or are shared by more than one oil company. This trend coupled with growing product costs and concern for availability of petroleum, increases the need for tighter controls at truck loading terminals. With new technological advances in electronics, many oil companies are turning toward automation to obtain this tighter control. The use of a mini-computer system at the terminal has proven to be an effective and economic tool in automating the measurement and control functions at a truck loading terminal.
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Document ID: 8BB77054

Industrial And District Regulators
Author(s): Frederick R. Loring
Abstract/Introduction:
Industrial and district regulators include such a broad range of available types and sizes as to defy classification. They are designed for stable operation, wide flow range, high capacity, accurate control, and safety. The majority of industrial regulators operate with inlet pressures below 125 psi and flows beyond the range of service regulators. Often they are used in applications involving very high or low pressure differentials, wide range control, or where capacity may be of secondary importance to measurement accuracy. In a given instance, certain requirements often far outweigh others in importance, resulting in the choice of a specialized design offering desired advantages.
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Document ID: DAF9EDB4

Prevention Of Freezing In Measuring And Regulating Equipment
Author(s): Leroy Morris
Abstract/Introduction:
The prevention of hydrate formation or freezing in the gas industry is an old problem with every company experiencing it at one time or another. The removal of all the water vapor content from the gas is the perfect solution but is not economically feasible. In gathering systems, warm saturated gas comes from the formation along with free water and condensate. Gas hydrates appear much like wet snow, therefore causing it to pack solidly in pipelines, regulators, meters and other equipment, thus causing flow stoppage. These hydrates will form at temperatures well above 32 degrees F. if the pressure and water content is high enough. Fig. 1. Since regulation and measurement is still necessary under these adverse conditions, steps must be taken to minimize the problem. The most common methods will be covered in this paper.
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Document ID: EE32CE15

Innovations In Mass Measurement At Ekofisk
Author(s): Lee Tuck
Abstract/Introduction:
The usual methods of volumetric flow measurement are inadequate at Ekofisk because of unusual operating conditions and a lack of applicable conversion factors. A computerized system which will measure directly in mass units has been selected to overcome these problems. The selected system also provides several improvements over the traditional measurement station.
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Document ID: D567D991

Relief Valves
Author(s): G . Frank Bright
Abstract/Introduction:
This review of overpressure protective devices is based on he DOT Code (ftjrt 192) and the advisory material Dublished in the ASME G u i d e . Since early in 1970 there has been an increasing a c t i v i ty in companies engaged in the transmission and distribution of natural gas in their analysis of the overpressure projection methods. This has taken place to insure that the Drovisions of Part 192, Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations Transportation of Natural and Other Gas by Pipelines: Minimum Federal Safety Standards, are being complied with - or to make plans to comply. The long used ANSI B31.8 Code has been made obsolete oy the new Federal Standards. Since the sponsoring Drganization of the ANSI B31.8 committee was the ASME, they formed the ASME Gas Piping Standards Committee in cooperation with the DOT, Office of Pipeline Safety. This new committee has published the Guide for Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems. The Guide includes the DOT Federal Gas Pipeline Safety Standards and recommended practices of the Committee. The function of the Guide is to provide how t o advisory naterial for use by the gas pipeline operators to meet Part 192, Federal Standard, referred to herein as DOT
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Document ID: 36E2CD53

Weights And Measures Enforcement In The United States
Author(s): Blayne C. Keysar
Abstract/Introduction:
The history of weights and measures enforcement in the United States is roughly parallel to the history of the United States as a nation. In the Articles of Confederation, ratified by the colonies in 1781, there is found the authority for Congress to fix the standard of weights and measures throughout the United States. this same authority is found in Section 8, Article 1 of the Constitution and became effective in 1789. Also found in the same section is the power to regulate commerce among the States and to regulate coinage. The power to fix the standard of weights and measures is a very broad and unrestricted authority and is known as the weights and measures clause of the Constitution. When Congress acts under this authority, it legislates for the country as a whole without regard to State boundaries. Therefore, the majority of Federal weights and measures laws are interstate rather than intrastate in their application. In order to cover intrastate commerce with the same provisions, the common expedient has been to cause enactment as State statutes of the appropriate provisions of the Federal acts
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Document ID: 8980DD1F

Oil Accounting
Author(s): Jack E. Kendenhall
Abstract/Introduction:
Accounting with the use of Computers is a vital part of todays world. This is especially true when accounting for lease oil and pas revenue. We shall endeavor to explore the machine program input and output data using both the Purchaser and Producer sales of crude oil. To assist in following the general flow of data from one program to another see Figure 1, Flow Chart.
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Document ID: BBE43A8A

Meter Driven Volume Integrators
Author(s): Ed L. Deters
Abstract/Introduction:
To obtain the correct volume of gas passing through a rotary, positive displacement or turbine meters it is necessary to correct this gas for its metered pressure and temperature. The correct volume of gas is affected by the natural physical laws concerning the molecular activity of gas in accordance with Boyles law for pressure and Charles law for temperature. The direct driven integrator is an instrument designed to automatically take these laws into consideration and provide a corrected volume readout. Mercury Instruments, Inc. manufactures three models of integrators.
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Document ID: ECCB57AB

Measurement Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): Ronald E. Beaty
Abstract/Introduction:
The increased world demand for energy has sharply increased the price of paid-for natural gas liquids. The average wholesale price paid for natural gas liquids has increased 269 percent from 1970 to 197A. For a common carrier pipeline, losses of significant quantities of product would be a disaster. Investments in extremely accurate pipeline and custody transfer meter systems are mandatory. The addition of check meter stations along the pipeline is advisable as a loss control and leak detection device. Accurate storage metering is also required to aid in loss control and scheduling pipelines, particularly in multiproduct service. The management of most companies is requiring the optimum, accurate, reliable performance of all measurement systems. To meet these requirement, the best measurement system should be employed.
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Document ID: 5AA02FCD

Fundamental Gas Laws
Author(s): F. Mark Townsend
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement is the determination of the volume of a gas at a particular temperature and pressure. The measurement should be as accurate as possible, making use of the best data and techniques available. The gas quantity is usually expressed in cubic feet at some specific temperature and pressure. The best data available are the pressure, specific volume, and temperature values given in thermodynamic tables of pure substances. Tables are available for steam, air, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, methane, ethane, propane and several other substances. The tables should always be used when working with pure substances. These tables can also be used with mixtures of gases if the chemical analysis of the gas is known. However, in many cases this analysis is not available, so other methods must be used. One of the most convenient and satisfactory methods is to make use of the Gas Laws.
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Document ID: 50E3B050

LNG - Operations & Measurement
Author(s): H. J. Steiner
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1957, oil was discovered in the Swanson River area of the Kenai Peninsula of Alaska. Following this discovery, extensive exploration and drilling activity led to additional discoveries of oil and gas in the area. By I963 over 4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas had been discovered and proven by the oil industry in the Kenai Peninsula - Cook Inlet Area of Alaska. The local natural gas market was quickly satisfied by those finds and additional outside markets were needed in order to produce this natural resource. However, the normal U. S. markets were distant and conventional pipeline transmission impractical and uneconomical. In March, I967, Phillips Petroleum Company and Marathon Oil Company executed a gas sales contract with Tokyo Electric Power Company, Inc., and Tokyo Gas Company, Ltd., for delivery of 140,000,000 standard cubic feet per day of this natural gas in liquified form. The contracted volume of gas to be supplied 70 by Phillips Petroleum Company from its North Cook Inlet Field and 30% by Marathon Oil Company from its share of the Kenai Gas Field.
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Document ID: B31E4256

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Howard W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject title is one of many which would have been applicable, such a s: Do Your Measurement Books Balance? Does Your Sales Volume Your Purchase Volume? Are You Selling All The Volume Youre Entitled To? Do You Really Have Good Measurement? If you can honestly answer No to the above, then it will be beneficial to explore a few basic reasons for the problems which still plague the gas industry. When the word measurement is mentioned, the majority of the gas industry measurement personnel automatically convert their thoughts to meter . The meter itself only contributes 1/2, 1/3 or 1/4 to the total measurement picture depending on the application. Measurement Metering + Regulation + Instrumentation + Rate Structure Unfortunately, natural g a s , the basic commodity being handled, is a compressible fluid, changing i ts volume with changes in temperature and pressure but not always uniformly depending on the composition of the gas and the pressure and temperature at which it is being handled. Normally, the simple gas laws can be used for correction factors but a l s o deviation factors must be applied, called supercompressibility or superexpansibility factors. These factors are based on the chemical composition of the gas and for the actual flowing temperature and pressure experienced at the meter.
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Document ID: 3833CC3C

Diaphragm Meter Capacity Ratings At Elevated Pressures
Author(s): H. W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
Through the years, the gas industry has been steadily improving, especially from a technological and product improvements viewpoint. Today, the gas industry has standardized on most applications, methods and definitions as compared to the knowledge possessed just twenty short years ago. Within the measurement field, two important areas are still open for discussion and at the discretion of the individual persons or companies operating within these areas. One is the leak of an industry standard definition for a standard cubic foot of natural gas and second is the lack of an industry standard for diaphragm meter capacity ratings at elevated pressures. There are presently in use a minimum of ten different base pressures, each of which defines a standard cubic foot of natural gas. There are many different methods of gas measurement in use today - the three most common are diaphragm displacement meters, rotary displacement meters and inferential or orifice meters. Diaphragm displacement meter cases or bodies are manufactured of various materials to accommodate their application and metering pressures which range from a few inches of water column to 1000 psig.
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Document ID: 26C7526A

Principles, Application, And Sizing Of Monitor Regulators
Author(s): George C. Hughes
Abstract/Introduction:
Public Law 90-81, The Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act, became effective August 12, 1968. This act gave the Department of Transportation, Office of Pipeline Safety, the authority to prescribe and enforce safety standards. The effect of federal safety standards upon gas companies varied as to the degree of previous compliance with the USAS Code B-31.8. The coverage of both codes most certainly included overpressure protection installations. However, the federal standards, in addition to being mandatory, are subject to interpretation by others. The interpretation of unsafe overpressuring of the customers appliances, for example. What pressure is unsafe? 10 in. w.c, 20 in. w.c, 1 psig, 2 psig or 60 psig? The B-31.8 code stated in low pressure distribution systems, 2 psig was maximum unsafe overpressure. The federal standards deleted the 2 psig and substituted the performancetype language, a pressure that will not exceed the safe operating pressure for any connected and properly adjusted gas utilization equipment. Both the B-31.8 and the federal code state, If the maximum actual operating pressure of the distribution system is under 60 psig or less and a service regulator having the following characteristics is used, no other pressure limiting device is required. The characteristics listed for the service regulator define a non-relief, non-shut off, non-monitor type 2 in. pipe size and smaller service regulator. If this regulator were to fail, pressures up to 60 psig could be applied to the customers appliances. Interpretation of the codes by the author, it is all right to blow-up a few, but not many, or if the posted speed limit is 70 M.P.H. and you have an accident going 50 M.P.H. you were going too fast.
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Document ID: 9D6E0DF0

Large Capacity Gas Regulators
Author(s): J.M. Kruse
Abstract/Introduction:
The definition of a large capacity regulator is often difficult to formalize. There are many types of regulators which could be classified as large capacity. This discussion will be concerned with the conventional double ported regulator. The double ported balanced valve regulator is probably the most commonly used style of regulator labeled as large capacity. The large capacity is also often classified as high pressure due to the function of the restriction. The restricting element is positioned by an operator to permit equal flow into and out of the downstream system. The capacity of a restrictor is a function of the pressure differential across that restriction, therefore, the higher the pressure differential across the restrictor the greater the capacity for a given size restriction. The capacity will increase until sonic flow occurs. Sonic flow is the point at which the gas velocity reaches the speed of sound, and occurs when the outlet pressure absolute is approximately half the inlet pressure absolute. The three basic elements of a gas regulator are a restricting device, measuring element, and a positioning element. The restricting element is a variable which by its position governs the amount of flow. The measuring element transmits the signal which is to be maintained and a loading element provides the power to properly position the restricting element. When properly positioned, the outlet pressure will be maintained. If the restrictor is open too far, the outlet pressure will increase and if closed too far, the outlet pressure will fall off. The large capacity high pressure regulator attempts to maintain the outlet pressure design parameters until the maximum capacity of the restrictor is obtained.
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Document ID: 380329F8

Basic Telemetering And Flow Computer Systems
Author(s): J. R. Goering
Abstract/Introduction:
The past several years have seen a minor revolution in the development of new techniques and improvements in electrical devices used in pipeline supervisory control and telemetry systems. Advancements in solid state technology have permitted improved information transmission rates, dispatcher interface, r e l i a b i l i t y , capa b i l i t y , and in many instances more economical systems. Virtually all new pipelines worldwide now include some form of computer based supervisory control and telemetry as an essential part of the overall operation.
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Document ID: 20D8C020

Large Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): J. L. Esola
Abstract/Introduction:
A Positive Displacement Meter is one in which a known volume of gas is alternately trapped and released, and the number of cycles recorded. Another term for trapping may be sealing. This principle is applied on both diaphragm type and rotary type meters. Although the operational principle is different, the fact remains that both types measure by means of sealing off a known quantity of gas, and subsequently releasing it. The bulk of the meters in use today are of the positive displacement type. Other measurement principles are applied in the case of the Turbo Meter, Orifice Meter or Swirl Meter. To illustrate the positive displacement principle, imagine a piston and cylinder with an inlet and outlet port. With the inlet port opened, the chamber will fill with gas then close at the end of the piston stroke. At this instant, we know low much gas is in the chamber. The outlet port then opens exhausting the gas. By simply counting the number of times the cylinder fills and empties, re have an effective measurement device. 3y mounting more than one cylinder, we can both increase our efficiency and the smoothness of motion contained within this device. Actually, t h is jrinciple is currently employed in certain liquid neters. For instance, when you drive to your Local service station, the meter contained within :he gasoline pump is actually a four-piston meter. The fact that there are literally thousands of :hese all over the country attests to their accuracy. However, applying this principle to gas neasurement presents some problems. These are mlsation, high operating differentials, and sealing difficulties which could cause leakage.
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Document ID: 35A623A6

Pressure Regulation And Flow Control With Expansible Tube-Type Valves
Author(s): Don Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
The Grove Flexflo is a valve of unique design. The operating member is an expansible tube. This tube is slipped over a cylindrical metal core having a series of longitudinal slots at each end, with a separating barrier between. Action of the expansible tube is determined by control of the differential pressure across it. In its operation, the Flexflo valve resembles a diaphragm motor valve with the expansible tube acting as both diaphragm and inner valve. The tube is made from a Grove formulated synthetic elastomer especially compounded to assurea high degree of tear and abrasion resistance, flexibility, and strength.
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Document ID: 2AFE95CA

New Ideas In Gas Measurement And Regulations
Author(s): Merle A. Porter
Abstract/Introduction:
Today we hear more and more that we are experiencing an energy shortage and it is rapidly becoming more evident in the natural gas industry. Everyone is looking for ways and means of preventing as much gas loss as possible, although there are times when it becomes necessary to dissipate this important fuel into the atmosphere. Transmission, production, and distribution systems alike require repairs, replacements, and expansion. It is sometimes necessary to blow these systems down to atmosphere from high pressures as well as low pressures. After completion of the work, purging or removal of all air from any line is necessary before placing the line or lines back into service. Frequently purges are made at too high a pressure and possibly for a longer period of time than is necessary. The old method of looking for color or change of temperature for the determination of the presence of air, or air-gas mixture as well, is also wasteful and not reliable. A portable recording gravitometer that measures the gravity of gas has been successfully used to record the presence of air or gas and is a most useful tool in preventing unnecessary gas loss during gas line repairs. A 1.0 reading will show on the recording gravitometer as long as air is being allowed to enter the instrument. As soon as gas reaches the instrument, the pen will record the actual gravity of the gas and, as long as there is no change in the gravity, the pen will record a straight line on the chart
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Document ID: 6871B4A7

Specific Gravity Instruments - Care And Operation
Author(s): L. W. Dunn
Abstract/Introduction:
This gravitometer is a direct weighing type instrument and is constructed to measure the difference in the weight of a column of gas and an equal column of dry air. This difference is transmitted to a chart on which is recorded the specific gravity of the gas passing thru the instrument. This instrument consists of an air bell and gas bell, both identical and suspended at equal distances from the fulcrum of the balance beam. The purpose of the air bell is to compensate for the weight of the gas bell and the surface tension of the sealing liquid in which the two bells are suspended. The interior space of the air bell is open to the atmosphere thru an air inlet and outlet which contain a drying agent. The interior space of the gas bell is open to the atmosphere thru its outlet and the gas supply is admitted thru its inlet. Two vertical tubes of adequate height to obtain the required working force on the bells are connected at their bases to the inside space of the bells. The movement of the bells is transmitted thru the balance beam of the recording mechanism.
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Document ID: 7C8D1F44

Rotating Vane Type Gas Meters
Author(s): Woodford Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
Several unique features of positive displacement rotary gas meters have lead to their increased use in production, distribution and industrial gas measurement applications. Compared to positive displacement diaphragm meters, rotary meters offer advantages of light weight, compact size, machined in accuracy and flow capacities independent of the specific gravity of the gas being measured. When properly applied, these advantages can outweigh the superior low flow characteristics of diaphragm meters.
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Document ID: 5A5CE511

Turbine Meter And Continuous Integrator
Author(s): Woodford Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas turbine meter has been gaining wide acceptance in the fuel gas industry for production, transmission, distribution and industrial measurement applications. This rise in popularity has resulted in continuing design improvements which have further enhanced the turbine meters value. Modern gas turbine meters offer high capacity, wide rangeabi1ity and sustained accuracy, in addition to their light weight, compact size and ease of maintenance. When used in well designed metering stations they provide an accurate, economical method of measuring large volume gas loads.
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Document ID: FFA0CBC3

Expansible Element Valves For Pressure Regulation And Relief
Author(s): Frederick R. Loring
Abstract/Introduction:
For several decades designers have worked to produce valves of superior performance while reducing cost, size, and noise. In the development of the expansible sleeve valve, modern technology has contributed much toward these goals.
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Document ID: AB31C592

Testing Displacement Gas Meters
Author(s): Emil Copeland
Abstract/Introduction:
a great extent dependent on the acairacy of its meters, feter testing is one of the more important functions of the meter shop, but it is important to remember the results obtained from the test is not meter accuracy alone. The final test result is a combination of meter accuracy, prover accuracy, and procedure accuracy. In this discussion we xvill cover some of the sources of error.
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Document ID: 8B40C396

Operation And Maintenance Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): Thomas B. Davis
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry, as in all other business, there is a demand for greater accuracy in every phase of operation. In this industry, there is no single place where accuracy is so much a must as it is in the measurement of gas. Basically, the orifice meter is the cash register of the gas industry. Money is made or lost depending on the time and effort devoted to the maintenance and operation of the orifice meter. To be sure, the orifice meter is not the ultimate in measuring devices but at present it is the most adaptable and flexible equipment for the purpose it serves. Both the buyer and seller are dependent upon the accuracy of orifice meter measurement. To obtain the accuracy the following policy should be adhered to: calibrated equipment must be properly installed serviced and operated. While operating and maintenance procedures are not the same with each company, the selection of meter runs and orifice plates must conform to the standards of the American Gas Association Committee reports. It is recognized that there may be exceptions to many of the statements made here in reference to maintenance and operation because of different personnel and different ways in which the job is accomplished. However, all methods are correct.
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Document ID: A5267587

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted For Gas
Author(s): Roger Sexton
Abstract/Introduction:
Because of an ever increasing squeeze on profits, we should be fully aware of the importance of an adequate profit to each of our companies. Our livelihood depends upon it. Leakage or unaccounted for gas is a problem common to all gas companies. This shrinkage may never be entirely eliminated, but now more than at any time in our past, we should endeavour to minimize this loss figure of our valuable product. This reduction can be achieved through a well-planned and continous program of determination and control.
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Document ID: F1616C6A

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted For Gas Highlights Of The Asme Gas Leakage Control Guidelines
Author(s): David A. Crawford
Abstract/Introduction:
A special task group of the ASME Gas Piping Standards Committee was charged with the responsibility to develop guideline material to support the requirements of OPS Part 192, Section 723 DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: leakage surveys and procedures in August 1972. The results were approved by ASME and published in March 1974. The ASME/GPSC has evolved from the B31.8 Standards Committee and has developed guideline material for a majority of the sections of the present OPS regulations. The purpose of these guidelines is to translate the performance language of OPS into suggestions on how to do it and pitfalls to avoid. There are probably more than 50 additions and changes to the guidelines under consideration at present. Some of these include patrolling, overpressure protection, uprating, corrosion control and offshore facilities. Guideline suggestions come from gas industry individuals, companies, National Transportation Safety Board, industry associations and public service commissions
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Document ID: 8B6CAF06

Use Of Magnetic Tape Recorders For Gas Volume Measurement
Author(s): Kenneth R. Belteau
Abstract/Introduction:
The traditional use of integrated paper charts to calculate mass flow is no longer considered sufficiently accurate for applications involving large volumes of high cost per unit volume gas. It is proposed that accuracy can be increased by using magnetic tape recorders in conjunction with electronic transducers for recording pressure, flow, and temperature data. A computer is required to translate the field data contained in the magnetic tape cassettes into engineering units and transmit this information to a data center computer for mass flow calculations.
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Document ID: D414ED34

Electronic Flow Computers-Field Testing And Maintenance
Author(s): Nick J. Noecker
Abstract/Introduction:
The development of electronic flow computers over the past ten years has paralelled to a large extent the progress in solid state devices. Previous to 1965 nearly all solid state equipment was designed around the germanium transistor. Considerable skill was required by engineers to overcome the temperature limitations inherent to these devices. The appearance on the scene of silicon transistors relieved designers of a great deal of effort previously spent on temperature compensation and allowed development of computing circuits that were capable of .5% precision. These circuits could be built with low cost devices that didnt require special matching or temperature compensation. In 1970 the first internally compensated, low cost, integrated circuit operational amplifier became readily available. The IC op-amp represented a break through in analog flow computer design and made possible the marketing of these systems at prices lower than their discrete counterparts.
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Document ID: 13C35082

Meter Station Noise Forecasting
Author(s): W. E. Monty() Mcginnis
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years the gas industry has had a reputation for supplying the nation with its cleanest source of raw energy. Its impact on the environment has been minimal with no water or air pollution. However, in more recent years there has been a growing amount of pollution of a different form around our district gate stations or metering stations. This is noise pollution and it normally occurs at pressure reducing stations where piping and controls are installed above ground. Like other forms of pollution, excessive noise was not considered a serious problem or a serious design criteria until the more recent cries of public opinion and employee concern about the potential physical damage to the human ear. Noise is not new to the gas industry, but forecasting or predicting a problem that may cause physical damage is new. Accurate prediction techniques have been developed in recent years which will save the gas engineer time and money. Also, innovative new designs developed in the last five years have provided a wide range of equipment and application guidelines that will allow the gas engineer to reduce noise to a more reasonable and legal level.
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Document ID: 17258258

Odorization
Author(s): m. Floyd Fuller
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas in the desirable marketable state is practically dry, either direct from the field or after removal of the condensable hydrocarbons. The major constituents - methane and ethane are almost odorless, so a warning agent must be added to facilitate the prompt detection of uncontrolled gas. The warning agent which is added to the gas is known as a malodorant, the process by which it is added is termed odorization and the apparatus through which it is added is called an odorizer. Odorization of natural gas was suggested as early as 1885 as a means of facilitating leak detection. Although odorization has been used for many years, it was not until 1968 when the Office of Pipeline Safety adapted the ASA B31.8 Code, and later their own codes, as a Federal Standard that it became mandatory. Prior to this date, except for 34 states having varying regulations, odorization was done for safety and economics at the option of the utilities. Gas is odorized primarily to protect life, property and for economic reasons. Sufficient odor is added to an otherwise odorless gas so that the presence of gas can be detected by the sense of smell long before the concentration of gas in the area becomes hazardous. Leaks may be detected not only on the customers premises, but also in service lines, mains and regulator stations and everywhere that gas is handled. The early detection of leaks not only contributes to a safe operation but also can help reduce the unaccounted for gas and results in saving to the company.
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Document ID: 1C7D682C

High Capacity Liquid Measurement Systems
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
Most of us are at least somewhat familiar with the size of battleships and a i r c r a f t carriers which are in the 100,000 DWT size. Perhaps you remember when the 115,000 DWT ice breaker-tanker Manhattan made i t s historic t r i p to Prudhoe Bay by way of the Northwest Passage. It didnt load much North Slope o i l on that t r i p back to the United States, but we think of the Manhattan and of the war ships as big vessels. Now, about every four to six weeks, certain oil loading terminals in the Middle East are v i s i t ed by either the London Galactic or the Tokyo Galactic: tankers in the 477,000 DWT class. These 3.5 m i l l i on barrel supertankers (proper name c l a s s i f i c a t i on being ery Large Crude Carriers-VLCC) must be loaded in as short a time as possible to make t h e i r use economical. They dont have much of a payout while tied up to a loading berth. This, then, is the incentive to use high capacity metering systems in this particular area of the world. Major pipeline systems here in the United States have been using large meter systems for some years now in both crude o i l and finished product services. Plantation Pipeline, Colonial Pipeline and Explorer Pipeline systems are examples of big product lines which use meters for measurement. Capline, Ozark, and Ranch crude systems use meters in many terminals.
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Document ID: A8B56D0D

Bellows-Type Orifice Meters
Author(s): m. J. Sergesketter
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to control and direct the flow of water was recognized at a very early stage in the development of civilization. In Europe and Asia can be seen the relics of hydraulic works, some of great antiquity, which display a high degree of engineering accomplishment, the best known of which are the aqueducts which the Romans built to bring water to their c i t i e s . In the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum can be still seen lead piping which conveyed water to houses and gardens , and which included orifice plates to act as flow limiting d e vices, providing a basis on which the service was charged to the consumer. These were installed almost 2,000 years ago. Some of these techniques were introduced to North America by engineers who accompanied the Spanish missionaries, and whose work can still be seen at some of the missions in California.
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Document ID: 3C70D614

Test Instruments And Recorders For Specific Gravity
Author(s): A. R. Kahmann
Abstract/Introduction:
Computation of natural gas flow volume, when measured by orifice meter, is made by using the formula where Qb is the quantity, Hw is the differential, and Pf the absolute static pressure, with C1 being a constant. The constant C is only constant for a certain specified set of conditions, and in practice is made up of numerous factors including the basic orifice factor, the Reynolds number factor, the expansion factor, the pressure base factor, temperature base factor, flowing temperature factor, specific gravity factor, supercompressibility factor and manometer factor. In order to determine these factors the values of the quantities from which they are derived must either be assumed or measured. This paper will deal with those instruments measuring specific gravity. (For further details of the flow computation refer to A.G.A. Gas Measurement Report No. 3).
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Document ID: 8DCC9513

Electronic Chart Scanning And Related Equipment
Author(s): James L. Corley
Abstract/Introduction:
The history of the modern Electroscanner dates back to May 1961, when the first model was delivered to the chart office of a major gas company. That particular instrument, consisting of a digital computer and two separate scan stations, carried the burden of considerable limitations. An example of this was that only 400 scans per chart were made. The chart illuminator was a straight fluorescent bulb, making even distribution of light difficult. A chart with superimposed traces could not be accurately scanned, and other problems too numerous to list existed. However, as with most new instruments, the need for improvements quickly became apparent, and steps were taken to find the answers. Today its successor, the new model digital Electroscanner, has overcome these early limitations and is a very accurate tool found in almost every major chart office.
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Document ID: 80BAA10A

Test Instruments For Pressure, Water Vapor And Supercompressibility
Author(s): A. W. Chandler
Abstract/Introduction:
Volume measurement of natural gas at high pressure is principally accomplished by means of orifice type flow meters. Converting orifice meter readings to low pressure volumes requires exact knowledge of pressure and supercompressibility. Also, it is desirable to measure and limit the water content of natural gases. Water, in free or vapor form, will cause operational difficulties at meter stations and regulators. Free water is easily disposed of, but it is necessary to measure water vapor content in order to maintain a value low enough to prevent difficulty.
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Document ID: 21E1AB53

About Ishm 1975
Abstract/Introduction:
Collection of documents about ISHM including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, exhibitor and sponsor information, etc.
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Document ID: E6A96E2C


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