Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (1975)

A Practical Look At The Compatibility Of Polyethylene Piping Systems
Author(s): R. O. Riedl
Abstract/Introduction:
The information available on compatibility of various polyethylene resins deals mostly with problems related to fusing different polyethylenes together. Although this approach provides essential data for any compatibility study, the availability of the fusion technique alone may not be sufficient for a utility to decide whether using PE piping with two or more sources is practical. This paper attempts to examine the compatibility problem from a utilitys point of view, describing The Consumers Gas Co. philosophy on using two or more polyethylene systems. The results of the tests performed confirm that reliable fusion joints between two different medium density polyethylenes can be made provided that a proper technique is used. It is shown however that equal importance should be attached to the compatibility of fittings and fusion tools.
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Document ID: 94F4754F

Noise Prediction In Valves And Regulators
Author(s): Ronald Lietzow
Abstract/Introduction:
Aerodynamic noise generated by control valves in the control or regulation of compressible fluid is a major source of indtistrial noise. Valves are often required to pass large mass flows and/or affect substantial pressure reductions with the result that fluid velocities at one or more points in the flow stream often approach or equal the speed of sound. As a result of these requirements noise levels are generated that can dominate the acoustic environment of a particular facility.
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Document ID: 31E92E80

Sonic Nozzles In Distribution Metering
Author(s): H. R. Schroeyer
Abstract/Introduction:
A number of publications have pointed out the utility of sonic nozzles in gas transmission work and in the design and evaluation of gas metering devices, especially when large flows and high pressures are involved. It is the purpose of this article to detail uses for sonic nozzles in distribution metering. In working, for example, with domestic or household gas meters and the smaller sizes of industrial meters.
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Document ID: 228E4A82

Northern Illinois Gas Company Supplemental Natural Gas Plant Startup
Author(s): Norman W. Merriam, Richard J. White
Abstract/Introduction:
Northern Illinois Gas Companys (NI-Gas) SNG Plant, located in Northeastern Illinois, consists of two identical units. Each is designed to produce 92 million cubic feet per day of Supplemental Natural Gas, using feedstock comprised of ethane, propane, butane, natural gasoline, and light naphtha. The normal plant capacity is 184 million cubic feet per day. The plant uses British Gas Corporations CRG process. Process design was done by Woodall-Duckham, with American Bechtel responsible for mechanical design and construction. The plant was brought on-stream in late 1974. It has been run at more than designed capacity and has demonstrated a thermal efRciency as high as 96 percent. The main process units were brought on line within two weeks after turnover from the contractor, and were brought to full capacity within a few days. The plant has had a good initial on-stream factor for a new plant.
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Document ID: A2FB830C

Gas Flow Formulas-Strengths, Weaknesses And Practical Applications
Author(s): Samuel I. Hyman, Michael A. Stone, Michael A Karnitz
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents a method by which the optimum operation of a natural gas pipeline can be calculated. The objective of the optimization is to find the operation of an unloaded pipeline system which minimizes the fuel consumed in transporting the given supply to market. This optimum operation is stated in terms of station set point pressures and the associated pipeline pressures. In addition, the calculation specifies the operation of each compressor unit giving data such as required horsepower, fuel consumption, compressor speed, efficiency, pocket settings, etc.
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Document ID: FAD88744

Polar Gas Project-Progress Report
Author(s): Walter Hindle
Abstract/Introduction:
The Polar Gas Project is one of the most challenging and fascinating undertakings being contemplated in the world today. It was formed in late 1972 with the mandate to plan the research and engineering for the transportation of large volumes of frontier natural gas from the Canadian Arctic Islands to markets in Canada and the United States.
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Document ID: 13460111

Startup Of Gascos Sng Plant
Author(s): Bruce David Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
Hawaii, the 50th state, is rich in those natural elements that scientists say may eventually provide alternatives to the worlds finite supplies of fossil fuels-sunshine, wave action, strong tradewinds, and the thermal clout that lurks in the lava boiling beneath the Hawaiian Islands, Although Hawaii is rich in environmental qualities, it is completely deficient in supplies of fossil fuels, being of volcanic origin. Oil is basic to Hawaiis modem existence. No jet flies no ship sails no stove heats no refrigerator cools not a single engine turns without the power of oil.
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Document ID: AFA8679D

Energy Conservation Through Underground Gas Storage
Author(s): J. Philip Sherwood
Abstract/Introduction:
Storage always has been an extremely important facet of the gas industry and with the supply shortages and resultant pipeline curtailments that we in the industry are experiencing in these troubled times, effective storage becomes the essential element in the preservation of already short supplies of our premium fuel for the most desirable end use. The topic of this paper has been announced as Energy Conservation Through Underground Gas Storage. I would like to expand my remarks to comment on the efforts of the Federal Power Commission to encourage conservation through the design of rates of natural gas pipeline companies subject to its jurisdiction, particularly the proposal for end use rates now under consideration in Rule Making Docket No. RM75-19. These proposals, if effectuated, could have a serious detrimental impact on the economic value of storage service.
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Document ID: 955F00D9

Supplemental Natural Gas Sng Supply And Demand
Author(s): Edwin F. Hardy
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper reviews the overall U.S. gas supply situation within which SNG fits as one part, summarizes the abbreviated history of this once promising supplemental supply and briefly analyzes specific weaknesses in the federal governments evaluation of SNG projects.
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Document ID: 10C998ED

Proceedings Of The Task Group By Joint Task Group For Automated Measurement
Author(s): D. A. Schafersman
Abstract/Introduction:
The purposes of the paper are to summarize for the industry the activity of the Joint Task Group for Automated Measurement and to present their interim conclusions and recommendations- The following narration will develop the considerations of 1. Use of single determination of measurement to all involved parties, 2. Use of digital computation and telemetering techniques, 3. The philosophy of mutual agreement between buyer/seller as a condition of acceptable practice of doing business.
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Document ID: 106C7F41

Controlling A 25,000 H.P. Gas Compressor Station With A Mini-Computer
Author(s): P. R. Montgomery
Abstract/Introduction:
Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Corporations Compressor Station No, 62 is located near Houma, Louisiana and is the automated facility described in this paper. The 25,000 h.p. station consists of three each Cooper GMVC- 8, one each Ingersoll-Rand 410-KVT, two each Ingersoll-Rand 512-KVT, one each Worthington MLV, and two each Ingersoll- Rand 41ft-KVR compressor units. The station is in service on Transcos Southeast Louisiana Lateral pipeline and provides the first Transco compression of natural gas from offshore Louisiana toward Transcos mainline pipeline traversing Southern Louisiana. The station was initially put into service in 1962 with three compressor units, and was manned eight hours a day. Provisions were made at this time to remotely start and stop the units from the companys main line station No. 65 approximately 100 miles to the north - this being the closest company facility
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Document ID: E168CF32

Leak Survey Quality Index
Author(s): Roger m. Fisher
Abstract/Introduction:
An adequate leakage survey program has always been an important part of the gas industry, particularly as a prime factor in hazard prevention. Today, the importance of a thorough leakage survey program is increasing, not only from the hazard standpoint, but economically it is more important to control leakage loss as the cost of gas rises. The Southern California Gas Company has had a comprehensive leakage survey program for many years and we have not encountered any alarming statistics which might indicate that our procedures are not producing adequate results.
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Document ID: 08B11444

Customer SERVICE/UTILIZATION Residential Heating Repair Program
Author(s): Terrence J. Brennan
Abstract/Introduction:
Before we discuss Northern Illinois Gas Companys Residential Heating Repair Program, let me refresh your memory on a few statistics about Northern Illinois Gas Company. NI-Gas, which was formed from predecessor companies, began operation in 1954 and now serves a territory with a population of 4.8 mil- Hon people in 527 communities within the 17,- 000 square mile northern part of Illinois outside Chicago. NI-Gas is the fifth largest gas distributor in the United States, based on customers served. Our customers now total 1.280,000 meters, of which 1,150,000 are residential. We have approximately 2,800 employees. Our service territory is the growth area of the Middle West. For many years, the area served has grown in population at more than twice the National rate.
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Document ID: 8A2272BB

Emissions Controls-Clear Gains And A Clouded Future
Author(s): Harry B. Weaver
Abstract/Introduction:
A report on the past, present, and future of the automobile industry efforts to control emissions should, ideally, be a record of technological advances to solve persistent engineering problems. Unfortunately, the record cannot be that simple, Efforts to control automobile emissions are hopelessly entwined with problems of increasing costs, government regulations, real and politically induced energy-source problems, and vehicle fuel economy considerations. Im, sure that youve all heard stories about big, bad Detroits unquenchable thirst for profits, or their utter disregard for the health of the people and the preservation of all thats good in our ecological balance. Other myths include the belief that Detroit can do anything immediately-if a law or regulation is adopted and somebody holds Detroits feet to the fire.
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Document ID: 1C3F6D56

Application Of Noise Abatement Techniques
Author(s): Robert Schwab
Abstract/Introduction:
Noise in a gas distribution system may be generated and transmitted by a number of sources. The single largest generator of noise, however, is the regulator or control valve that is reducing pressure and flowing large amounts of gas. It is this device that, when improperly selected or applied, can cause the noise level to be at an intolerably high level. Analyzing the system parameters prior to the selection of a regulator becomes extremely important, therefore, in that cost savings are generally realized when choosing the correct device during the station design rather than replacement at a later date to meet noise legislation.
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Document ID: 40B8CE01

Startup And Initial Operating Experience Of Public Service Electric And Gas Company Linden Sng Plant
Author(s): George W. Stubblebine
Abstract/Introduction:
The Linden SNG Plant is the second plant built and started up by Public Service Electric and Gas Company, the first being at Harrison, N.J. which was started in March 1973. Both plants are based on the British Gas Councils Hydrogasification Method Catalytic Rich Gas Process. The design was engineered by Woodall Duckham Ltd. and Foster Wheeler Corporation with Foster Wheeler being the prime construction contractor. Site preparation was begun in mid 1972 which consisted of filling in 40 acres of meadow land adjacent to the Arthur Kill to 10 feet above mean high tide level. Pile driving commenced in October and steel erection and equipment placement in December. Mechanical completion of the plant was spread over a four month period. Turnover was by completed subsections of the plant as requested by PSE&G to conform with a specified precommissioning and startup sequence.
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Document ID: 71F0A491

LNG From Indonesia-Prospects And Problems
Author(s): Raymond W. Todd
Abstract/Introduction:
As I approach the end of almost 40 years in the natural gas industry, I take pleasure in reflecting on the many friendships that have developed from my various A.G.A. activities, including several years on the Pipeline Research Committee. As I am sure most of you recognize, the work of that committee has contributed greatly to the improvement of our gas transmission systems. Over these years our industry has faced many challenges. Those challenges seemed monumental at the time. But I dont believe any of them were as vital as the gas supply situation that we are confronted with presently. I neednt describe the current gas shortage to you. Most of you are facing serious supply curtailments in the near future. Many of you already have experienced them. Even worse, I understand that some of you have been ordered not to accept new customers.
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Document ID: 7D6D4FE0

Avonseal For Bell Joint Repair
Author(s): C. Larry Schmidt
Abstract/Introduction:
When gas distribution companies in the United States convertoi from manufactured to natural gas they experienced a significant leakage problem at bell and spigot joints. This was caused by natural gas drying out the yam/lead joint seal. The most commonly used repair procedure for these leaks has been the mechanical bell joint clamp. When Great Britain was recently confronted with conversion to natural gas, the British Gas Council researched other possible repair methods. The Avonseal method is a product of this research and the British Gas Council has adopted this bell and spigot joint repair technique as a standard. Today, over 200,000 joints have been successfully repaired by the Avonseal method in Great Britain and tens of thousands more in Austria, Belgium, Germany, Holland, Switzerland and even Hong Kong.
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Document ID: F3E55A25

A Brief Review Of Brooklyn Unions Sng Plant Operation
Author(s): Ray F. Hippeli
Abstract/Introduction:
Substitute natural gas (SNG) was introduced to Brooklyn Unions customers for the first time on April 14, 1974. This date marked the Stan of initial operations of our new SNG plant. The BUG plant is designed to produce 60 million cubic feet of gas daily with the product having a heating value not lower than 970 Btu/ cu. ft. (wet). Feedstock to the plant is naphtha having a final boiling point less than 365F and a sulfur content below 200 ppm. The plant utilizes the Catalytic Rich Gas, or CRG, process with two stages of methanation for making gas. This process was developed in England by the British Gas Council, now known as the British Gas Corp. Engineering contractor for this project was the Lummus Co., headquartered in Bloomfield, N.J, They, in turn, designed the plant based on information supplied by the Gas Council through the British firm of Humphries and Glascow.
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Document ID: 17264E9D

Digital Computers For Gas Measuring Systems
Author(s): Thomas E. Jacobs
Abstract/Introduction:
As early as 1966, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company was investigating a telemetering and control system to benefit our Gas Control Facilities at Hockley, Texas. Field hardware suitable for such a system was not available at the time. As suitable components became available, the components were evaluated by company personnel and in 1971 steps toward actual installation of a Data Acquisition and Control System (DAC) were begun. The primary purpose of the DAC System is to give the dispatcher the latest up-to-date information about Pipeline operating conditions. Until this time, dispatchers obtained line pressures at set intervals by telephone and calculated volumes of gas bought and sold during the previous day for dispatching purposes. This meant that the dispatcher was using historical data to operate the pipeline system now.
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Document ID: A100BBF5

Start-Up And Operating Experience Of An Sng Plant-Commonwealth Natural Gas
Author(s): Daniel C. Wimer
Abstract/Introduction:
Commonwealth Natural Gas Corp. owns and operates a pipeline system which transports and sells natural gas to six customers within the southeastern part of Virginia. All of the gas purchased by these customers since 1950 has been supplied by Columbia Gas Transmission Corp. and Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Corporation. Faced with the ever increasing shortage of natural gas resulting from curtailed deliveries by the suppliers, Commonwealth recognized the need for a supply of substitute natural gas, A source of imported butane was secured and a contract negotiated in May 1972 to build a plant at Chesapeake, Va.. adjacent to an import and storage terminal venture in which Commonwealth was participating.
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Document ID: 9AB4BD11

Evaluating Vendors: Bid Prices Vs Real Price
Author(s): William P. Strider
Abstract/Introduction:
How can we best allocate our purchase dollars among the suppliers after they have tendered their bids? The lowest price may not be the best price. The lowest price may buy the wrong quality for the intended purpose, or it may buy poor delivery or poor service. The problem, when we analyze bids, is the classic one of determining how to get the most for the money. A method to evaluate purchases on more than price can be termed a Supplier Evaluation Program. It enables a purchaser to weigh other factors besides price alone. It evaluates a supplier and his product in the area of product quahty, R&D, delivery and service. It considers the total economic impact of a supplier upon the purchaser. PG&E has been using such an evaluation program for several years. It was used to analyze bids for our 1975 domestic gas meter requirements.
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Document ID: 52E263E5

Survey Of Recent Experience With Subcompacts Of Member Companies
Author(s): Richard C. Rose, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The members of the Planning Committee must feel that I am the conservative type. Last year my topic was the conservation of vehicular fuels. Some of you may remember how I explained the many phone calls I received from numerous companies trying to save us money. How the ideas ran from the additives, to screens, to removing the emission control equipment, to removing the muffler and the air cleaner to last, but not least, the pill. Our company researched and tested just about everything we could but have yet to find the magic solution. If anyone present has the answer please let me know.
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Document ID: D60BA94F

Gas Quality Control And Analysis
Author(s): H. Gary Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
The paper endeavors to correlate the relationship between gas quality control and the mitigation of internal corrosion in gas pipeline systems. It sets out to define gas quality in terms of acceptable standards for internal corrosion control and briefly describes guidelines for enforcement and methods of analysis of the various components which contribute to the corrosiveness of gaseous mixtures.
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Document ID: 6DAF5F5B

The Effective Use Of A Computer Application By A Utility Transportation Department
Author(s): Owen J. Furman
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to maintain a high level of efficiency and to meet increasing demands for accountability, the Transportation Department embarked on a program to utilize Electronic Data Processing in 1964. Through constant updating and re-evaluation of our needs, the Computer Application has evolved into its present form. It is my intent to describe the Computer Ap plication from an operations point of view as distinct from a systems viewpoint. The text and diagrams used herein, therefore, will focus on the benefits derived by Transportation and the inputs required on the part of Transportation to maintain this system.
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Document ID: D1D50ABE

Wed Rather Give Out Materials Than Excuses-Economical Purchasing And Sensible Inventory Control
Author(s): John S. Woods
Abstract/Introduction:
Yes, we at Pubhc Service would rather hand out materials than excuses, but Im not going to say we never run out of materials. Realistically, everyone runs out of something sometime- if we dont, we either have an exceptionally efficient stores system, an awfully lucky one, or we have a very large and expensive inventory. What Id hke to discuss today arc a few ideas and suggestions that may at first appear contrary to accepted management principles and philosophies but if used can result in the ability to provide materials not excuses, and to do it economically.
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Document ID: 298B7B21

Upgrading LNG Plant Safety
Author(s): Norman H. Brock, Ronald m. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
In December of 1974 there were approximately 55 peakshaving LNG facilities either operating or under construction in the United States and Canada. Additionally, 27 LNG satellite facilities are in operation for storage and vaporization. This is quite a record considering that while the first LNG pilot peakshaving plant was built in 1939, the eighty-two present generation facilities mentioned above have all been brought on stream since 1965. Thus the present year marks the 10th year of continuing operating experience from these facilities.
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Document ID: 96BC2528

Condensate Formation In Natural Gas Pipelines
Author(s): Donald L. Katz, David F. Bergman
Abstract/Introduction:
Condensate formation in natural gas pipelines has been shown to be due to the presence of small but significant amounts of hydrocarbons C, 0 or heavier. Methods of obtaining extended gas analyses to include these heavier hydrocarbons have been devised which permit the use of phase behavior calculations for predicting condensation conditions. These extended analyses also permit design calculations for absorption plants which will predict the gas compositions found in pipeline systems. Final correlations of experimental data are in progress and will be included in a monograph covering the project.
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Document ID: 48D4647C

Gas Main And Service Lateral Record System
Author(s): Henry R. Meyers
Abstract/Introduction:
The first gas mains were installed in Cincinnati during the 1840s. Location records were prepared on the job site and consisted of a simple sketch on sheet paper. Later, this sketch was plotted on card stock. The overall system was maintained by plotting directly on 4 foot X 4 foot wing maps. A color and graphical code was used to differentiate pipe size and pressure level. This system, though very unwieldy, was maintained with minor variations into the 1960s.
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Document ID: DF67B49B

Synthetic Motor Oils-Use, Experience And Economics
Author(s): Roy P. Dwyer
Abstract/Introduction:
The dictionary definition of a synthetic is something that is, artificial, not real, not genuine, not of natural origin. The meaning of the word implies a cheap or shoddy substitute, which may be the reason why most people turn a deaf ear when the word synthetic is mentioned. Actually, hundreds of items and products that we come into contact with and use each day are synthetics. The truth is, we ask for and demand synthetic products each day because of their superiority over so-called real or genuine items.
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Document ID: 079DCD47

Insulating Requirements To Protect Existing Coated Distribution Systems
Author(s): James W. Mcamis
Abstract/Introduction:
I have been requested to discuss Insulating Requirements to Protect Existing Coated Distribution Systems. As background, I will briefly discuss the problems of insulation and some of the solutions that have been developed in Washington Gas Light, since it is the company with which I am most familiar. At the end of 1974 the company served approximately 543,000 customer meters through approximately 6,000 miles of distribution mains. The system was composed of 920 miles of bare steel, 870 miles of cast iron, 271 miles of plastic and the balance coated steel mains. Services are bare steel, coated steel, copper and plastic.
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Document ID: 2542E475

Centrifugal Separation With 2-inch Diameter Cyclones
Author(s): A. J. Cioffi
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the common methods used to remove suspended particles from gas streams is centrifugal force. Many centrifugal devices of various shapes, sizes and design are used by the natural gas industry to protect compressors and regulating equipment. A familiar sight at many compressor stations is the Dry Centrifugal Scrubber which utilizes small diameter cyclones to remove contaminents by centrifugal action. Although most versatile and adaptable to a wide range of applications and pressures, this design is still limited in capacity. Beyond 72 diameter, it becomes more and more difficult to distribute the gas to all points in a uniform manner. Maintaining desired velocities with a horizontal design is more feasible since the flow pattern is essentially front to back. By sectionalizing the discharge areas to avoid recirculation, this configuration can handle flows up to 2 billion SCFD or more.
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Document ID: 099A4FDD

How Are Gas Main Locations Established?
Author(s): Hertel C. Missimer
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper does not represent the official position of the A.G.A. Managing Committee. You may wonder how locations of utilities have been, and are, decided and why some super agency doesnt standardize them. When a big city intersection is exposed, it appears from the maze of manholes, ducts, and pipelines that it grew like Topsy and should, somehow, be straightened out or at least be prevented in new, undeveloped areas. It would be better if all intersections had a well-planned, standardized took. Organizations such as the American Society of Civil Engineers have been working on such ideas dating back to the 1930s. The American Society of Civil Engineers adopted on July 18, 1937, a Manual of Engineering Practice No. 14 - subject: Location of Underground Utilities. The oldest bibliography listed in the manual dales back to August 26, 1916, so standardization of utility locations is not new.
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Document ID: AF2E4349

Gas Flow Formulas-Strengths, Weaknesses And Practical Applications
Author(s): Samuel I. Hyman, Michael A. Stoner, Michael A. Karnitz
Abstract/Introduction:
Ever since the first fuel gas pipeline was laid in England in the early 19th century gas engineers have needed and developed practical equations to express the relationships between flow, pressure drop, diameter and length of pipes. We speak here of pipes in the most general sense, ranging from gathering lines, transmission pipelines, distribution mains, services and house piping. The variety of flow equations range from the earliest known one by Clegg, the father of British gas engineering to the sophisticated ones of the modem day made practical by a better understanding of fluid mechanics and the availability of time sharing systems.
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Document ID: 261649E4

The Impact Of Motor Vehicle Safety Standard #121 On Operators Of Over-The-Road Utility And Construction Vehicles
Author(s): Ray Pitman
Abstract/Introduction:
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard # 121, set to go into effect on March 1, 1975, will have far-reaching implications on the practices, policies and options of the corporations which operate over-the-road and off-road construction vehicles. Chief among those affected are construction companies and power utihties because their vehicles pose special engineering problems stemming from the combination of short wheelbase and high center of gravity typical of their vehicles. Impact of the statute will be felt in areas including safety, legal, purchasing, labor relations, financial and corporate planning as well as in operations and transportation.
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Document ID: EC7B1493

Assembly Line Vs Individual Repair
Author(s): Phillip E. Opp, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
As originally planned in the design of the Central Meter Shop of the Consolidated Natural Gas Service Company, Inc., repair of hard case domestic meters was accomplished using conveyors and assembly line methods. Recently those conveyors were removed and repairmen were provided individual work stations. This presentation discusses reasons for the change and results experienced since rearrangement of the work area.
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Document ID: EE45D2A0

Gas Production From Coalbeds-Accomplishments And Prospects
Author(s): Maurice Deul
Abstract/Introduction:
Bureau of Mines research projects on coalbed degasification have already produced more than one and a quarter billion cubic feet of pipeline quality natural gas. At a time when the nations future needs are projected at tens of trillions of cubic feet annually, this level of production appears trivial. But, if we consider that this gas was recovered as a byproduct of research to develop techniques for removing gas from coalbeds to improve safety in underground coal mines, and not initially to supply pipeline quality gas in commercial quantities, we must re-examine the potential for gas production from coalbeds.
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Document ID: C67DB904

Exhaust Emissions From Piston And Gas Turbine Engines Used In Natural Gas Transmission
Author(s): Karl J. Springer, Harry E. Dietzmann
Abstract/Introduction:
One activity of the Pipeline Research Committee of A.G.A. is the study of oxides of nitrogen, or NO, from the engines used to compress and transmit natural gas. Southwest Research Institute began work on this long range project in 1972, under the leadership of Sam Cunningham, Southern California Gas Co., who has served as Chairman of the NO, Supervisory Committee. This paper describes the key findings of the first phase dealing with procedural development and baseline emission rates from in-use piston and turbine compressor engines. The second phase, recently completed, included the determination of state and national estimates of compressor engine emissions and a review of current emissions control technology and will be presented in a future conference.
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Document ID: 2AA1A72D

Update-Dot, Osha, Ansi And Fmvss
Author(s): Cliff Gallup
Abstract/Introduction:
During the past few years, particularly since the enactment of the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Act and OSHA, there has been a proliferation of regulations from Federal, State and local governmental agencies which affect utility fleet vehicles, mobile equipment and maintenance shop operations. These regulations are issued or enforced by a new list of alphabet soup organizations which include the following regulations and organizations: DOT-Department of Transportation OSHA-Occupational Safety & Health Act ANSI-American National Standards Institute FMVSS-Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards NHTSA--National Highway Traffic Safety Administration BMCS-Bureau of Motor Carrier Safety EPA-Environmental Protection Agency NFPA-National Fire Protection Association -(plus many more).
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Document ID: 31AE5EDA

Gas Dispatch Minicomputer Nine Years After
Author(s): Carl H. Myers, William E. Witwer
Abstract/Introduction:
Back in 1965, it was decided to install a minicomputer at UGI Corporation to acquire data, compute and totalize gas flows, generate a data base for gas supply decisions, and assist the gas controller. The installation, completed in late 1966, has been eminently successful in five areas: 1. Penalties for excess daily, seasonal, and annual take have been avoided. 2. Improved (precise) utilization of available gas supplies has resulted. A reduction in the safety margin from more than three percent (3%) in 1963-64 to less than one percent (1%), translates into a cost savings of 100,000 per year. 3. Expansion of the system, including remote control, has been accomplished inexpensively. 4. Consolidation of functions, equipment, and personnel has resulted in savings of approximately 100,000 per year. 5. The historic repeatability of system accuracy (vs. invoiced volumes) has formed the basis for numerous audits of supplier charts resulting in further net savings.
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Document ID: 2A515EF3

Metrication-Gas Utility Viewpoint Of Impact On Distribution Measurement
Author(s): Patrick H. Loughran
Abstract/Introduction:
Metrication is defined in the American National Standards Metric Practice Guide, ANSI Z210.1-1973, as any act tending to increase use of the metric system (SI). This is a broad and correct definition of metrication that is important for proper discussion of metrication.
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Document ID: 2A516934

One-Call Systems For Damage Prevention-Call Miss Dig
Author(s): Patrick D. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Damages to buried gas facilities as a result of excavation is a problem which has intensified with the increase in underground construction activity. The gas industry has experienced both an increase in the amount of plant subject to the risk of excavation damage and an increase in the amount of excavation being conducted. This trend has posed a challenge to the industry and has required a balanced approach to achieve control, and to achieve a reduction in damages from year to year. This approach involves: Heavy emphasis on Engineering Preplanning to eliminate conflicts in advance of construction. Establishment of formal programs to emphasize the damage problem and to promote cooperation in finding a solution. Establish communication systems for the effective exchange of information between the excavator and the utility.
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Document ID: 45313C4B

Possible Efficiency Improvements Related To Integral Angle Compressors
Author(s): m. J. Hemich, W. F. Hartwick
Abstract/Introduction:
It is certainly a pleasure to have the opportunity to talk with you today about the possible improvements in efficiency related to the integral angle reciprocating compressor. The meaning of efficiency as defined by Webster is certainly as applicable today as it was when it was first derived. Efficiency: Effective operation as measured by a comparison of production with cost in energy, time, money, etc. This statement is certainly prophetic what with the cost of money, the availability of energy and the value of time all of these factors relate to the cost of pumping gas our subject in this session. When one stops and looks at an integral Veeangle engine-compressor, it is extremely difficult to visualize a new or improved concept to accomplish the purpose for which it was intended. Compactness is truly evident and the interrelationship between the primary ingredients of the modem compressor engine obvious.
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Document ID: 5490929F

Meter Repair: Individual Versus Assembly Line Repair
Author(s): D. J. Spence
Abstract/Introduction:
An appropriate theme for this presentation would be Job Enrichment Through Sense of Achievement. It is a review of the experience of one company, which for reasons detailed later in the paper, switched from the assembly line to the individual repair method, or as we have chosen to call it, total repair method. This was done with the purpose of attempting to create more employee interest in the job and thus relieve monotony and improve morale.
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Document ID: 615D13FD

Status Of International Standards For LNG Water Transportation-The Imco Code For Liquefied Gas Tankers
Author(s): Robert J. Lakey
Abstract/Introduction:
In November of this year the Assembly of the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) will be asked to adopt the Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk and recommend its implementation into national standards. This will culminate three years of intense work by the Organization. This new Code provides comprehensive stand ards for the design, construction, and equipment for LNG ships as well as ships which will transport other liquefied gases.
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Document ID: 92EE7FFF

Plastic Pipe-Where We Stand And Where We Need To Go
Author(s): H. W. Kuhlman
Abstract/Introduction:
Plastic pipe for gas distribution has enjoyed phenomenal growth since it was first used after World War II. The greatest growth rate followed the initial acceptance of ASTM D2513 - Thermoplastic Pipe and Fittings for Gas Distribution in 1966. This standard has since had three industry accepted revisions and more are in process. It has long been recognized by those closely associated with the various technical committees concerned with plastic piping for gas distribution, that D2513 is seriously inadequate in a number of basic areas. These include both identitication and quality assurance requirements. However, in order to obtain a broad picture of the overall status of plastic pipe performance and needs of the gas distribution industry, a survey was authorized as part of the 1974 Plastic Pipe Research Program.
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Document ID: 766E30D7

Effects Of Electric Faulting On Plastic Gas Pipe In Joint Trench
Author(s): William Ross
Abstract/Introduction:
Before getting into the details of P, G. and E.s test program on this subject it is perhaps best to give some historical data on our Companys decision to permit the installation of plastic pipe in joint trench. In 1965 our Company started using polyethylene plastic pipe on a regular basis. Its use was started mainly because of the complete plastic gas systems becoming available to the industry and the generally favorable economics from easier handling and installation over steel pipe. Usage was gradually increased via project type work until by 1970 we were using it on a fairly large scale. During this period, although steel pipe was used in joint trench application, plastic was not because of the possibility of plastic pipe temperatures exceeding 100 F from electric cable loading. The 100 F limit was placed upon plastic by the State of California General Order 112, and there was a similar restriction in the A.S.A. B31.8 Code. Subsequent Federal Safety Standards also adopted the same limitations.
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Document ID: 7E1B1A81

Cathodic Protection Of Existing Coated Systems
Author(s): Robert E. Rudman
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the procedures required to cathodically protect systems which are coated but not protected. The various problems encountered in this type of work are discussed in detail. Emphasis is placed on the planning and engineering which must precede field work. Field data acquisition and testing procedures are also listed. Several approaches and possible solutions are suggested.
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Document ID: D6B5818B

The Edison Automotive Equipment System As A Management Tool In Fleet Administration
Author(s): D. R. Ashton
Abstract/Introduction:
The Equipment Information System currently used at the Edison Company, went online approximately three years ago. Although, as with any complex system, it is under constant review and minor change, the initial objectives of the system have been met-mainly, to provide timely information to involved individuals in order to provide a viable tool for utilization in the decision process necessary for effective management.
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Document ID: 37258A3D

Use Of Customer Odor Complaints In Determining Adequacy Of Odorization
Author(s): Tesue L. Dickson
Abstract/Introduction:
Public Service Co. of Colorado has in use an economical and effective computer program for monitoring the effectiveness of the odorant in our gas. This system produces a thorough and sophisticated test of odorant quality that originates in pubhc noses on a voluntary basis. This is cheaper than periodic tests made by company experts with instrumentation difficult for juries to understand and which procedures can be accused of being loaded with conflict of interest.
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Document ID: 847F84E6

Evaluating Mechanics Effectiveness
Author(s): T. J. Upski
Abstract/Introduction:
The objective of any fleet manager is to operate, maintain and manage the vehicular fleet in a manner which will maximize unit availability at a minimum cost. This certainly can be cited as the objective of every garage supervisor of every utility fleet- and today Id like to share with you some of our experience relative to meeting this objective at The Illuminating Company. Specifically, I will cover some of the features of the program we have embarked upon which will lead toward the evaluation of mechanics effectiveness in our garage operations.
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Document ID: 5DA7554E

Consumer Legislation
Author(s): Harry A. Payner
Abstract/Introduction:
When I was asked to prepare a paper on consumer legislation with primary emphasis on the federal level, the wheels started turning-- slowly of course-and I came face to face with the questions, Consumer legislation, what is it? What makes consumer legislation different from other legislation? Why is it a timely subject?-Just what do they want me to address?
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Document ID: 19FF99B1

Experiences Of Receiving And Unloading LNG From An LNG Barge
Author(s): Helmut Peter
Abstract/Introduction:
The deniand for energy is growing tremendously in the U.S. and with it the urgent need to provide additional energy producing facilities. On the other hand, we must take every reasonable precaution to protect our environment. We have long passed the time where we can just blindly construct energy producing plants or facilities without considering the impact on the environment. Our need for energy must be somehow balanced by the care we take to protect our environment. This seems to be our main dilemma.
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Document ID: 946B5BC8

Effective Steps In Reducing Fuel Usage
Author(s): James K. Ohara
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the latter part of 1972 the main question facing the United States has been the availability of oil. We are ail aware of the restrictions that were enforced during this time period and the resultant rise in fuel prices. During the past year, it became apparent that with the increased cost of all forms of energy that the fleet manager of today is confronted with the problems of future availability of fuel and its efficient use. We are all aware that the price of gasoline has doubled in the past two years. This fact has added greatly to the operational cost of operating a fleet of any respectable size and we have all felt the same effect in driving our own personal cars. Therefore, fuel conservation has become an extremely important topic in most business concerns and on the home front.
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Document ID: 8F6ADC90

Current Niosh Activities In The Development Of Criteria Documents
Author(s): Gordon D. Nefong
Abstract/Introduction:
Perhaps I should begin my discussion of NIOSH and its criteria development activities by stating what is probably obvious that NIOSH is an acronym for the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, a unit of the United States Public Health Service. NIOSH and the Department of Labors Occupational Safety and Health Administration (or OSHA) were given certain responsibihties by legislative mandate of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 to assure so far as possible every working man and woman in the nation safe and healthful working conditions and to preserve our human resources.
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Document ID: 3B15A0A6

Packaged Management Control Systems For Utility Vehicle Fleets
Author(s): D. J. Posti
Abstract/Introduction:
It would be appropriate I beligve to begin with some understanding as to my definition of a packaged system. To me it means simply that the system has certain predetermined objectives which may be material control, manpower control, vehicle and/or equipment utilization or any combination of these or similar objectives. Beyond this bare bones form, I find it difficult to attach the label of package system. The specific system to which I address myself is a manpower utilization system and in the framework of the definition given above could be considered a packaged system however, in the final form it would have to be considered a custom product designed primarily for our particular needs.
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Document ID: 954276D7

Updating The Emergency Training Of Gas Operating Personnel
Author(s): George F. Gaibler
Abstract/Introduction:
The titles of the various committees in the Operating Section of the American Gas Association, and the content of the excellent papers presented, all emphasize the technical and engineering aspect of our work. I shall depart from this to speak of operations in terms of providing leadership in emergency action. Through our government the public places safety requirements on us in our role of fuel merchants. In this context of the market place, the primary factor is people.
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Document ID: 4F93D54C

New Concept In Materials Distribution
Author(s): E. J. Meyers
Abstract/Introduction:
Pacific Gas and Electric Co. covers a service area of 94,000 square miles. This encompasses most of northern and central California from approximately the Oregon border to Bakersfield and from the coast to the Nevada line. We have 26,678 employees. We are capitalized at approximately 7 billion and our billings run in the area of 1.7 billion. Our total investment in materials and supplies is 35 million. We operate out of 89 service center facilities and employ a total of 600 people in the materials activity.
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Document ID: 5D8808D7

Protecting Bare Steel-Choosing The Proper Criterion
Author(s): Jack. W. Sharp
Abstract/Introduction:
In establishing cathodic protection on buried bare steel piping systems, some unique problems arise that are not usually encountered on coated systems. Since coated systems require relatively little current for protection, any of the five criteria for protection-as stipulated by the Office of Pipeline Safety-are easy to achieve. In many cases, if one criterion is satisfied on a coated system, several or all of the others will also be satisfied. When attempting to protect bare pipe, however, it is unlikely that several of the criteria will be met simultaneously unless an unnecessarily high protective current is supplied.
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Document ID: AE2ED72C

Computer Error Simulation As An Aid To Understanding Orifice Imeter Measurement
Author(s): Wayne Schmaedeke, John Hermanson
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of error analysis as applied to measurement systems is not common in the gas industry. The accuracy of displacement and rate of flow meters used for gas measurement are usually quoted as a definite value. Note that rarely are such statistical measures as average error, median error, mode and range of errors based on the standard deviation ever heard. Of course the main reason for this is that the measurement conditions, equipment, and their resulting accuracy are usually the result of a mutual agreement between buyer and seller. Thus, the contract measurement system tends to be thought of in terms of an error free status, especially with the passage of time.
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Document ID: B45E6695

User Evaluation Of Distribution System Components
Author(s): D. Needham
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1966 the British Gas Corp. set up an Engineering Research Station to work on problems concerned with distribution and transmission. This specialist station which employs a staff of 400 is unique in the western world. With the total integration of British Gas from many companies into a single unit it has been possible to coordinate all engineering activities and use common engineering standards throughout the whole of the United Kingdom. As part of this unification process the Engineering Research Station first concentrated on work for transmission developing specifications, evaluating components and working with the suppliers to improve component quality.
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Document ID: DF7FAF3C

Coal Conversion And Utilization R&D In Erda
Author(s): Raymond I. Zahradnik
Abstract/Introduction:
Marco Polo reported that the Chinese used black rocks for fuel, and recent studies indicate that the Chinese may have used coal in small amounts for two or three millennia previously. The use of coal as a major source of energy however, did not begin until about the twelfth century, when the inhabitants of the northeast coast of England discovered that certain black rocks found along the seashore-and thereafter known as sea coles would burn.
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Document ID: 834B33B5

Use Of Storage Field Automation By The Reservoir Engineer
Author(s): William H. Clark
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the component parts of and the uses for gas storage fleld automation. The reservoir engineer has the responsibility of testing, predicting, scheduling and monitoring the gas storage field. Automation certainly can be a handy tool to assist him in doing his job more efficiently. The installation of automation in ten underground gas storage fields and on some 900 to 1,000 wells has been a giant task. It is not complete, but at this time we can see the light at the end of the tunnel so to speak. Storage field automation is the answer to many problems, and the reservoir engineer can make good use of it.
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Document ID: 9508D9D5

Dekatherm Calculation The Solution To The Measurement Problems Associated With Substitute Gases
Author(s): K. C. Yost
Abstract/Introduction:
The problem of how to equitably distribute energy that confronts the gas industry today is a result of the increased use of substitute gases. The product in the transmission lines today has changed and is on the verge of a much greater change a change which means the lines will no longer be transporting a pure natural gas but will be distributors of a comingled stream composed of a mixture of natural and substitute gas. The sources of these substitute gases will be LNG from Alaska, Algeria, Venezuela and other remote fields synthetic gases made from coal, oil shales, naphtha and solid wastes hydrogen from the sea and other sources that will be the result of todays research.
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Document ID: 30C82F01

Coping With Customer Hazards
Author(s): Hewitt Crosby
Abstract/Introduction:
Whenever a group of Customer Service Managers gets together and the conversation gets around to talking shop, one is amazed at the number of mutual problems we have which has nothing to do with the actual servicing of meters or appliances. At our Customer Service and Utilization Committee meeting last September it was suggessted that we make a pass at indentifying customer-related hazards, and then by means of a questionnaire to member companies, find out how the Industry copes with them.
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Document ID: 158A0CC3

Annual Meter Reading
Author(s): W. T. Taylor
Abstract/Introduction:
Before I describe our Annual Meter Read Program at Michigan Consolidated Gas Company, it would be helpful, I believe, to briefly define what we mean by this phrase. We are referring to a program of reading meters once each year for a residential heating customer who has requested this service and is presently on the budget biUing program or agrees to sign up for the budget billing program. For those of you who are not familiar with the term of budget biUing may I define it as a budget plan designed to give our residential heating customers an opportunity to level off their monthly heating bills.
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Document ID: 72547A9B

Can The Private Gas Utility Survive
Author(s): Herman G. Roseman
Abstract/Introduction:
This subject matter is one which, I must confess, had never really occurred to me prior to my being asked to speak to you. There has been a great deal of talk in recent months about public ownership of the electric power industry. I had been giving a fair amount of thought to that subject both as to the probability of an increased scope for public power, as well as to whether there were any possible gains to the public-from such a course of action-but it had never occurred to me that such a prospect might face gas utilities.
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Document ID: B6953DD6

A.G.A. Research Related To Appliance Utilization
Author(s): F. E. Belles, P. E. Susey
Abstract/Introduction:
Through its Research and Communications program, A.G.A. is sponsoring a number of projects in the area of residential utilization and the Customer Service Committee has expressed interest in several of them. The prime objectives in this work are greater efficiency, conservation of gas, and ever-higher reliability and safety
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Document ID: CE168DC6

The Difference In Converting To Metric Measure And Metric Standards
Author(s): J. G. Langenstein
Abstract/Introduction:
I am sure you are all somewhat familiar with Caterpillar Tractor Co, however, so that you may better understand some of our approaches to metrication I would like to give you some background, We have fourteen manufacturing plants in the United States and eleven overseas. Except for our plants in Mexico, Brazil, and U.S., all plants either operate in metric measure or are converting to metric measure, Ever since Caterpillar started its first operation overseas we have had the policy of producing worldwide interchangeable parts. Thus, a vehicle manufactured in the U.S, and a vehicle manufactured in Belgium can both be serviced by parts manufactured in South Africa, As you can see, we are, therefore, very much concerned with standardization.
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Document ID: D4015131

The Federal Energy Administration Policy Toward Sng
Author(s): John Vernon
Abstract/Introduction:
The authority for the control of energy by FEA rests basically in two laws. The first is the Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act of 1973, P.L. 93-159, which among things, addresses the temporary authority to deal with shortages of crude oil, residual fuel oil, and refined petroleum products or dislocations In their national distribution system in order to minimize the adverse impacts of such shortages or dislocations on the American people and the domestic economy.
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Document ID: 1EA9AB3A

Fingerpointing User Style
Author(s): W. R. Gary
Abstract/Introduction:
Multivendor data communication systems are commonplace today. Mainframes, communications controllers, modems, terminals, even the transmission circuits-may be supplied by a variety of vendors. This is the inevitable result of user efforts to reduce costs, and manufacturer efforts to get a piece of the action, Competition is the name of todays game. Lower-cost multivendor systems are not an unmixed blessing. Like single-vendor systems, they break-and therein lies the rub. When part of your wonderful data system begins to crumble, where is the problem? Is it the terminal, the transmission facility, the modem (remote or local), the controller-or perhaps even the software? Who decides, and who corrects the problem?
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Document ID: D2545710

Deep Onshore Drilling Prospects For The Lower 48 States
Author(s): Robert A. Hefner III
Abstract/Introduction:
I will concentrate today on new natural gas - gas that can be started toward the market in significant amounts beginning in the next two to three years. The majority of that gas will be delivered from areas which are the subject of my remarks - the deep onshore lower 48. I believe the majority of that gas will come from the vast volume of sediments below 15,000 feet. These sediments are presently unexplored and are in traditional supply areas with existing transportation systems.
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Document ID: 8F7DE2AB

Material Handling Methods And Innovations
Author(s): Jack H. Hawkins
Abstract/Introduction:
Efficient economical handling of materials has always been an important function of gas utilities and during these present times of inflated costs for materials, equipment and labor it has grown in importance. This paper is a composite of material handling and storage ideas and procedures currently in use at many of our member companies. While all the ideas to be presented are not absolutely new they are proven concepts that have been and are currently used at many progressive gas utilities. To assure some semblance of continuity and order, subject matter will be presented by area and functions within the areas.
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Document ID: 634DD379

Results Of Field Testing Small Compressor Units
Author(s): m. J. Hooney
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past five years, Panhandle Eastern has greatly increased its compression facilities in the gathering areas of western Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas. This expansion has been brought about by the declining wellhead pressures which have reduced line capacities and thus the capability to adequately produce some wells. In situations such as these, one or a combination of things must be done. New lines of greater capacity may be installed or new compression facilities may be moved closer to the wellhead. In other cases, the installation of new horsepower represents the only solution. To date. Panhandle has installed 198 field units which represent approximately 108,000 HP.
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Document ID: 1FDD21BB

Metrication-From A Gas Industry Supplier Viewpoint
Author(s): W. H. Shenkle
Abstract/Introduction:
When originally asked to present a paper on metrication I was still working in my previous assignment. In that position I had an opportunity to be part of the early stages of metrication planning within Rockwell International. Let me first assure you that our Corporation is proceeding with that planning in the full expectation that metrication will come to the U.S.A. and expects be ready to take advantage of this opportunity as it unfolds. Over the past two or three years, as the metric issue has heated up and then cooled down, much has been written about the units of the SI system, hard conversions, soft conversions and so forth. Since this audience is obviously interested in metric in upcoming changes that will affect your future, elaboration on those aspects of going metric will not be done. Rather, let me describe for you what has happened at Rockwell to get us to the point that we truly do look at metrication as an opportunity. Hopefully you, as members of A.G.A., will also sieze upon this as an opportunity.
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Document ID: 941E88AD

Shoring Of Excavations For Speed And Safety
Author(s): George Hagger
Abstract/Introduction:
As most of you are well aware, the use of proper shoring has become the battle cry of many O.S.H.A. inspectors throughout the country. The lack of. or improper use of shoring is the leading cause of death and injury in the construction industry. It is obvious, therefore, that O.S.H.A. will be taking a close look at our industry, I am not here to convey to you the fine art of shoring, but rather to share with you how Philadelphia Electric has done about training its gas distribution people in proper shoring techniques. I will explain how we constructed and set up a shoring school, what we put into the curriculum, and how we put it across to the manpower. But first lets look at the atmosphere surrounding our decision to set up such a school.
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Document ID: C64F820C

Additional Considerations For Offshore Measurement
Author(s): Robert J. Rau
Abstract/Introduction:
Today, the operation of offshore gas pipeline systems is a necessity to actively compete in the constantly expanding market areas of our country and to meet the energy crisis our nation faces. Offshore development of potential reserves has been retarded by cancellation of offshore lease sales, legal battles and political battles based on the modern day ecology revolution. The time has come to critically assess our energy situation and weigh the solutions to securing adequate energy resources with consideration for all. Today, I wish to discuss some considerations for offshore measurement presently facing us and some future ideas bearing consideration.
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Document ID: 6675804E

LNG Tank Purging, Entry, And Inspection
Author(s): Leonard Devanna, George Doulames
Abstract/Introduction:
Lowell Gas Company in a period of nine weeks successfully purged a 1 Billion cubic foot LNG tank out of service, made necessary repairs and modifications and returned the tank to service. All of this was made possible by maintaining a nitrogen atmosphere in the tank throughout the entire operation. The success of the project can be attributed to pre-planning, when detailed safety, operating, and training procedures were prepared. Several consultants, each one an expert in his field, were used in developing and carrying out the entire operation.
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Document ID: 455869E4

The Effect And Control Of Pulsation In Gas Measurement
Author(s): G. G. Less
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increased cost of natural gas, it is becoming more and more important to do a better job of measurement. The reduction or elimination of pulsation errors could result in saving millions of dollars in unaccounted-for gas. The problem of induced pulsation has long been recognized by the natural gas industry. However, the cure proves to be much more difficult and expensive than the diagnosis of the problem. This paper will briefly review with you what pulsation is, the types and sources of pulsation, what types of measurement devices are affected by pulsation, new devices for detecting pulsation, and what can be done to possibly correct the problem.
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Document ID: B4CDA75C

Stainless Steel Service Risers
Author(s): Harry m. Kemmer
Abstract/Introduction:
The Federal Safety Requirements for Corrosion Control of metallic pipelines became effective July 31, 1971. The interpretation of these rules to require cathodic protection on the short, coated steel service risers used with plastic services has resulted in high and increasing costs for the necessary inspection and maintenance and for the initial installation of this cathodic protection,
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Document ID: 9CE3CEA2

Use Of The Computer For Dot Records
Author(s): W. F. Eckles
Abstract/Introduction:
As we all know, DOT established rules which require that we have good operating practices. One of the problems that DOT created was that we had to have proof of conformance to these rules, Most of us know, or think we know, that our employees are performing inspections properly however, DOT requires more than that. We must have records to prove that the required inspections are being conducted properiy- We know that the rules which have been established are good rules, and we know that they are the minimum standard any gas company should operate by. While these rules result in substantially increased leak repair costs, they also minimize the potential for injuries, bad public relations and legal action resulting from explosions and fires. In thai context, then, they are very desirable.
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Document ID: 4527F035

A History Of Sng At Boston Gas Reasons, Experiences, Opinions
Author(s): Charles P. Buckley
Abstract/Introduction:
On March 13, 1975, Boston Gas completed the first full operating season of its Everett SNG plant with a total production of 2,374 MMCF of Substitute Natural Gas. Capacity of the plant has been exceeded and good gas quality has been obtained. A history of the project is given and certain aspects of construction, startup, operator training and operating experience are discussed.
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Document ID: E1493C9C

New Casing Inspection Log
Author(s): J. F. Cuthbert, W. m. Johnson, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
A new casing-inspection log, in combination with other logs, provides for detailed evaluation of in-place well casing. The new Pipe Analysis Log employs separate tests of the total casing wall and of the inner surface. Together, these two measurements permit detection, with a high degree of resolution, of small defects and corroded areas in the pipe, and also provide the ability to discriminate between defects on the inner and outer walls of a single string of casing. This was not possible with just the wallthickness information provided by the older low-frequency Electromagnetic Thickness Tool. Using the data from the new log along with the older wall-thickness measurement it is also possible to detect and locate severe corrosion or defects in the outer casing of a double string.
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Document ID: 5511A08A

Whats New In Plastic Pipe Research?
Author(s): Raymond A. Day
Abstract/Introduction:
The answer to the question Whats new in plastic pipe research? is, in part, shaped by the response to a closely-related question*, What else is there to learn about plastic pipe and fittings in order to assure their continued satisfactory performance in existing and future gas distribution piping systems?. Several times each year, the answers to these questions are sought by members of an A.G.A. Task Group of gas operating and engineering people that meet regularly to help shape the direction of the continuing plastic pipe research project that has been sponsored since 1960 by the American Gas Association at Battelle- Columbus.
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Document ID: CDDEBFFE

Static Electricity And Lightning Effects On Plastic Pipe
Author(s): George W. Davis
Abstract/Introduction:
The phenomenon which we call static electricity has been observed, studied, reported on and often misunderstood, since 600 B.C. It is considered by most people to be a nuisance which causes shocks, unruly hair, clinging clothes and other annoyances. To those of us in the gas industry, static electricity is also recognized as a potential ignition source and hence a potential hazard. Plastic pipe, with its excellent electrical insulating properties, when exposed to the high velocity flow of natural gas, can cause a very large static charge build up. A purpose of this paper is to identify ihe problem of static electricity with plastic pipe and to present current gas industry methods for dealing with the problem.
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Document ID: 6F8979A2

Performance-Plastic Vs Steel Piping
Author(s): Peter P. Petro
Abstract/Introduction:
In the last couple of years there have been several articles published in national news magazines and within the gas industry that questioned the safety aspect of the use of plastic piping for natural gas distribution systems. Although it appeared that the news stories were based on uninformed opinions and the articles published within the gas industry were based on the extremely limited data reported for one year to the DOT as reportable incidents in accordance with requirements of Section 191.9. it was decided that a letailed study of the problem was necessary to provide reliable statistics that could be used to improve both our distribution system operations and public relations,
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Document ID: 11DF59D1

Estimating Loads For Individual Consumers In A Retail Gas Distribution System
Author(s): E. Philip Ferber
Abstract/Introduction:
All natural gas distribution companies must estimate gas usage for individual consumers. A new computerized method has been developed which calculates load estimating factors for nearly all residential and commercial consumers. This includes consumers whose meters could not be read during most billing periods. Consolidated Gas Supply Corporation developed this method because several affiliated distribution companies bill consumers once each month, but read meters once every two months. This causes half of the billing history to contain estimated gas consumption.
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Document ID: BCEBFDF4

One-Call Systems For Damage Prevention-The Ohio Utilities Protection Service
Author(s): John E. Schurr
Abstract/Introduction:
In an effort to prevent damage to underground facilities by anyone doing excavating work in the vicinity of them. The East Ohio Gas Company, The Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company and The Ohio Bell Telephone Company were responsible in 1971 for forming a committee to develop a one call covers all contractors notification system. The one call covers all name was short-lived, however, as the organizers discovered an insurance company used a similar slogan, so they adopted the name Utilities Protection Service (U.P.S.). Since the committee was formed by three utilities with headquarters in Cleveland, it was decided to develop the one call system in the greater Cleveland area by covering the Cuyahoga and Lake County area first.
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Document ID: 614D8655

Geysering Effects In LNG Lines
Author(s): James P. Lewis, Kenneth A. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Geysering is the self-induced expulsion of a liquid from its containment by the vapors as the liquid boils. A rapid expulsion rate may follow a quiescent period, after which a small disturbance initiates the expulsion from an unstable saturation-pressure condition. The transition from a stable condition to an unstable condition occurs as heat flux into the system increases liquid temperatures to the saturation pressure in portions of the systems which are subject to hydrostatic head. If the hydrostatic head is reduced, then expulsion may be initiated. By gathering information from various disciplines, it is possible to make reasonable estimates as to whether geysering can happen within a system, the resulting volumes and rates which will be involved, and a determination as to what countermeasures, if any, are appropriate. An understanding of the geysering concept is of interest to the LNG industry because geysering can provide unexpected transients in LNG piping systems if not anticipated, but also can provide a beneficial operating technique if understood and used.
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Document ID: A9B89AF8

Trans-Alaska Gas Project
Author(s): James P. Lister
Abstract/Introduction:
The Trans-Alaska Gas Project has been conceived to make Alaskan gas available to markets in both the State of Alaska and in the lower 48 states under conditions which are completely free of foreign control. The application for certification of this project was filed with the Federal Power Commission in September of 1974 and is now in competitive hearings in front of that commission. The magnitude and the serious nature of the energy shortage is now universally recognized. This shortage was anticipated by El Paso and other companies in the natural gas industry several years ago and it is now one of the most serious problems facing the United States.
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Document ID: B86C2AFD

Effects Of Oxygen And Other Trace Elements On Liquefaction Plant Operation
Author(s): Walter E. Schmid, Walter Linde
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past the quality of natural gas in the United States and Canada, which is used as a feedstock to LNO peak shaving plants, has been fairly uniform. The shortage of natural gas reserves and increasingly poor deliverability may cause elements and compounds to show up which may affect the operation of LNG plants. This may be so on account of unconventional gas sources such as from SNG plants or because of differences of handling natural gas production (e.g., air teaks into low pressure field piping). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the effect on LNG plant operation of unconventional trace constituents as they have appeared or may possibly appear in the future. These constituents generally do not affect the normal transmission, distribution or apphcation of natural gas but they may be detrimental to the processing steps used to produce, store and vaporize LNG. These steps essentially consist of purification and reduction in temperature. Some times they include the recovery or production from the feed of components to fill a mixed refrigerant cycle and make up leakage losses from it.
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Document ID: B266A68A

A Fully Automated Gas Storage Field
Author(s): John J. Byrne, T.A. Lu
Abstract/Introduction:
Pacific Gas and Electric Companys McDonald Island Gas Storage Field has expanded ftom average daily deliverability of 200 million standard cubic feet to 1200 million standard cubic feet. The new facilities for gas gathering, processing, and controlling sixty new wells are located at two centralized stations, namely, Whisky Slough Station and Turner Cut Station. The system startup, production, and shutdown operations are fully automated using a real time process digital computer at each station. A well test program is also implemented to monitor the condition of each well. The design and construction of these two stations are based on the concepts of full automation and centralization with emphasis on system reliability and safety.
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Document ID: 8AFF53D3

Gas Appliance Improvement Network Gain()
Author(s): J. R. Peak
Abstract/Introduction:
GAIN is a consumer-oriented national appliance field observation program, designed to benefit the consumer and the gas industry through increased consumer satisfaction and a reduction in service costs to utilities and manufacturers. The primary purpose of GAIN is to enable utilities to bring appliance problems quickly and accurately to the attention of manufacturers. Two of GAINS goals are the same as those of NAFOP (the National Appliance Field Observation Program which GAIN replaced): (1) improved consumer satisfaction with gas and gas appliances, and (2) reduction in overall costs of service for both utilities and manufacturers. An important third objective of GAIN is to enable the industry through performance and results to demonstrate the industrys interest in, and activity on behalf of, the consumer.
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Document ID: 16E48A60

Safety Standard-Truck Brake Systems
Author(s): F. W. Cords
Abstract/Introduction:
Considering the foregoing title it would appear that our discussion will consider the following: 1. Safety: (noun) depicting secure, or free from danger. 2. Standard: (noun) approved model or rule. 3. Truck: (noun) vehicle for carrying heavy loads. 4. Brake: (noun) device for arresting motion. 5. System: (noun) an orderly form or assemblage of parts. According to Webster that would then mean -An approved rule or model describing an orderly form or assemblage of parts comprising a device for arresting the motion of a vehicle carrying heavy loads. The Department of Transportation (DOT) through its various agencies has developed several such rules or models called Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS), Bureau of Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (BMCS), and others of significant importance. Before we go into these, lets first examine what a brake is a device for arresting motion. I would rather call it a machine than a device, and what a machine it is! Lets consider the eight parts of a brake machine.
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Document ID: 1ED0A4DC

Monte Carlo Simulation In The Design Of A Pipeline System
Author(s): Robert F. Pasteris
Abstract/Introduction:
In the natural gas transmission industry it is beneficial to have a model that will predict the behavior of an existing or a proposed pipeline system to establish the contractual throughput volume and to avoid the extremes of being under capacity during peak demand or of being over capacity with a high cost of service. The objective of this paper is to construct a model based on probability theory that can adequately predict the behavior of a pipehne system. This model was tested on an existing pipeline transmission system of approximately 900 miles to determine its adequacy. The effects of an expansion of this system of its throughput capacity is also demonstrated.
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Document ID: 7F45989C

New Methods And Developments For Corrosion Control
Author(s): John W. Haught
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes recent developments in corrosion control which may be of reference value to those responsible for corrosion control activities within their company. It is important that we all stay abreast of our changing industry and be prepared to recommend any new method or development that might prove economically attractive. It is not the intent of this paper, the American Gas Association, the autiior or his company or any other gas utility that may be mentioned that those manufacturer products so described are an endorsement or inducement to purchase or that similar products are not available.
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Document ID: 679CE83F

Construction Of Offshore Platforms And Pipelines In Deep Water And Adverse Environmental Conditions
Author(s): Hugh W. Gordon
Abstract/Introduction:
The offshore construction industry has made steady and consistent progress in its ability to meet the demands and requirements of the oil and gas producing companies as their operations have moved from land to the shallow and protected coastal waters on to the ever increasing depths of the continental shelf. The industrys growth has come not in spectacular jumps ahead, but rather has been achieved by continually striving to meet the challenge of each new project, while at the same time looking ahead to the problems that must be solved if it is to continue to serve in its present capacity. As oil and gas production operations have moved into deeper water and more severe environments, new concepts for drilling/production platforms have evolved, and new technology has been developed for constructing these platforms and the pipelines transporting oil and gas to shore. To date, a 32 inch pipeline has been installed in 480 feet of water and a platform set in 416 feet of water in the North Sea, the deepest water and most hostile environment in which major marine construction projects have been attempted. Plans are underway for installation of platforms in water depths of 850 feet offshore California, 450 feet in the Gulf of Mexico, and in 500 feet in the North Sea. Designs are being prepared for platforms in 1200 foot water depths in the Gulf of Mexico. Considering active and anticipated deep water exploration in such areas as offshore Western Australia. Gulf of Alaska, Gulf of Mexico, East and West Coast USA, Eastern Canada, and the North Sea it is obvious that the trend toward construction in deeper water and more adverse environments will continue.
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Document ID: E19BE72C

Capital Requirements For The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): Kenneth E. Hill
Abstract/Introduction:
At the beginning of 1970, I was asked to outline the financial requirements of the petroleum industry for the decade of the 1970s before the Finance Division of the American Petroleum Institute. In a lengthy analysis I concluded that the worldwide petroleum industry would spend about 250 billion over the ten years, about half in the United States. I also suggested that prices for crude oil throughout the world would remain essentially stable over the period, while prices for natural gas within the United States would rise approximately 50 percent to 25 cents per MCF by 1980. Now that we are half way through the decade, much of that forecast has been rendered obsolete by the drastic changes in control of pricing and production of international oil instituted by OPEC in recent years, the upward effect this has had on prices for oil and natural gas, and the worldwide inflation this action is largely responsible for.
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Document ID: 843E8A9F

New Methods And Developments
Author(s): Frederick Wilcox
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1970 several new task groups and task assignments were initiated by the Distribution Metering Committee to more effectively cover areas of major importance. One extremely important subject selected as a task assignment was New Methods and Developments whose scope reads as follows: To collect, report and distribute information on new methods and developments which promote public and consumer welfare, increase operating efficiencies, improve safety and facilitate data collection. The types of items submitted for this task assignment are listed as follows with the names of the utility and contact for further reference if desired.
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Document ID: 22D53DF4

Performance Characteristics Of Alternate Fueled Vehicles
Author(s): Walter B. Derr
Abstract/Introduction:
Using alternate fuels in place of gasoline is not new in the industry. Some 15 years ago a tree trimming contractor used LPG to run trucks and chippers in the Dallas-Ft. Worth area and realized a considerable savings due to the price structure at that time. Alternate fuels are used extensively in foreign countries where the cost of gasoline is much more than we have seen in this country. A report from the National LP-Gas Association to carburetor conversion kit manufacturer indicates a tremendous increase in kit sales for the first half of 1974 over the same period in 1973. The totals were 120,000 units in 1974 compared to 94,000 in 1973 or about a 78% increase. So we can see that gasoline shortages and prices are the controlling factor in the use of alternate fuels.
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Document ID: B6539B8A

Gas Pipeline Leak Location And Measurement
Author(s): Fred L. Graf
Abstract/Introduction:
Cast-iron joint leakage began to increase with the introduction of nearly moisture-free natural gas into distribution pipelines originally built for manufactured gas. These older pipelines, using bell-and-spigot joints to connect their twelve to sixteen foot section lengths, were sealed with jute and backed with cement or lead to make them gas-tight. The moisture inherent in the manufactured gas kept the jute in a swollen state to prevent gas leakage. With the change to natural gas, the internal condition of the mains became extremely dry. Some utilities injected water, oil, or both into the gas in an attempt to keep the jute swollen. This resulted in limited success. Joint leakage tends to saturate large areas over a long period of time. This creates difficulty when attempting to distinguish significant leaks from negligible or non-leaking joints.
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Document ID: 42B69F7F

Gas Supply And Curtailment Policy From A Regulators Point Of View
Author(s): Ralph H. Wickberg
Abstract/Introduction:
It is a real pleasure to appear before this distinguished audience as a representative of the State Regulatory Commissions. My intuition tells me that this assignment is more of a challenge than a social appearance. The topic assigned to me, as you know, is natural gas supply and curtailment. Solomon was fortunate that he did not have to solve these problems, If he were alive and had been asked, he might not appear to be as wise a man as history records him to be. I am going to liberally construe the parameters of what my assignment is and also attempt to discuss gas supply and curtailment from a state regulators view. My comments on possible new supplies of natural or synthetic gas are going to be short. I do not believe the Federal Power Commission will be able to resolve the competing applications on Prudhoe Bay gas delivery to the lower forty-eight states without assistance from the U.S. State Department and Congress.
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Document ID: 72597CBA

A.S.M.E. Leakage Control Guidelines- Whafs Ahead
Author(s): R. E. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
The title of this discussion is A.S.M.E. Leakage Control Guidelines-Whats Ahead, However, before discussing what is ahead, it would be well to look to where we have been and where we are now. The development of leakage control guidelines has not been a simple task. In fact, there were many who believed a few years ago that it couldnt be done. After all, many companies even had problems being consistent in their leakage control program within their own organization- Therefore, the establishment of leakage control guidelines which would cover the entire United States and the full spectrum from cross country transmission facilities to metropolitan distribution systems seemed insurmountable. However, it was recognized that there was a great need for greater uniformity of leakage classification within the gas industry. As a result of this need, an ad hoc task group was put together by the ASME Gas Piping Standards Committee. This task group was charged with the responsibility to develop leakage control guideline material for the ASME Guide for Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems.
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Document ID: B99F3BF1

Conservation Of Fuel, Oil And Anti-Freeze-A Panel Discussion
Author(s): Ivan Macrae
Abstract/Introduction:
A total of 101 surveys were mailed to utility companies (gas and electric), of which we received 67 replies, and of this total we were able to use a total of 64 which were compatible with each other and/or with the survey information requested. Of the total 64 companies in this survey report we have the following information. Total passenger cars covered in this report- 24,266. Of this number we have the following: Sub-compacts- 1,689 or 7 % Compacts- 10,482 or 45.5% Intermediates-7.453 or 30% Standard size-3.988 or 16.5% and Luxury-294 or 1%. In oil change frequency on a mileage basis, eight companies reported at 2,000 miles, one company at 2,500 miles, ten companies at 3,000 miles, thirteen companies at 4,000 miles, three companies at 5,000 miles, and ten companies at 6,000 miles for a total of 45 reporting on a mileage basis.
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Document ID: D586595B

Recycling Polyethylene Scrap Pipe
Author(s): Kenneth J. Peisker
Abstract/Introduction:
The source of this information on the recycling of polyethylene scrap pipe was obtained through a survey of 31 gas utilities across the United States, including personal observations of plastic pipe installations in the field. The continuing upward trend annually in the use of plastic pipe is significant. In 1965 there was approximately 10,000 miles of plastic pipe in gas distribution systems throughout the country. Considering the footage that was projected for 1974, there should now be approximately 87,000 miles of plastic gas distribution lines in the ground. While this is not all PE. in 197 roughly 80% of the plastic pipe installed for gas distribution was polyethylene. With this kind of continual increase in the use of plastic pipe the amount of scrap becomes considerable, and it is rather imperative that measures be taken now to reduce and to recycle the scrap heaps of PE pipe and tubing. Of the 31 gas utilities I contacted, only two indicated that they were recycling their PE scrap.
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Document ID: 9B5BCBF8

Possibilities For Increased Underground Gas Storage Along The Atlantic Seaboard
Author(s): Richard m. Winar
Abstract/Introduction:
The book called, New Concepts in Underground Storage of Natural Gas (Tek et al, 1966), says, basically, that there is a possibility and desirability to store gas in reservoirs where one or more of the prime requirements is non-existent, to store gas beyond the boundaries of minimum structural closure or aided by impermeation, and these possibilities all point to the urgent need for new concepts in underground storage where . . . storage in new media through novel engineering should play a significant role. I intend to furnish some background history, to let you know where youve been and what you have been doing and what you could be doing in the gas storage business, and I hope to bring up some provocative facts.
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Document ID: 1BECCCF8

Training Technicians For Automated Stations
Author(s): R. J. Mathias
Abstract/Introduction:
We are living in a world today In which the technological advances in all fields of science are so rapid as to be almost unbelievable and we in the Gas Industry are being forced into this era, (some of us very reluctantly to be sure) whether we like it or not. We can wish for the good old days of hand operated throttles, manual valves, reading gauges, reporting by telephone, etc., but this is wishful thinking. These days are almost gone. Most of us have already had some experience in one or more of these fields such as Electronic Data Processing, computer control, automatic control, advanced communications, etc., and those of us who havent, probably have programs in the planning stage. It is uneconomical to operate pipelines as we have in the past, because manpower and efficiency requirements are so critical they demand the use of these new technologies.
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Document ID: 9FD4EB2C

Operation Confidence
Author(s): C. J. Gauthier
Abstract/Introduction:
Halfway through my term as Chairman of the American Gas Association, I welcome this opportunity to stand back and survey the gas industrys major problems and prospects. Putting my thoughts together under your title of Operation Confidence, I wish to emphasize that a positive attitude is imperative not only for our own industrys progress, but also for the entire energy spectrum and the nations economic well-being. Operation Confidence is the gas industrys way of saying we must look ahead with realistic optimism that energy consumers must be convinced of our ability to serve them in the years ahead and that legislative and regulatory leaders must be persuaded we can get the job done if they will provide proper guidelines and encouragements.
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Document ID: 5CAACA9F

Considerations Relating To Fire Protection Requirements For LNG Plants
Author(s): H. R. Wesson
Abstract/Introduction:
Recomniendations on the type of potential fire, vapor dispersion and safety hazards that should be considered in the initial design phases of LNG facilities are presented and discussed. Bibliographies of applicable technical publications relating to each type of potential hazard are presented in a sectionalized format. Recommendations on the design parameters for LNG spill vapor dispersion control, LNG spill lire control, radiation exposure control and LNG facility fire extinguishing systems are presented and discussed.
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Document ID: 501A1E14

Effect And Control Of Corrosion In Gas Storage Wells And Lines
Author(s): E. Bush, A. E. Beasley
Abstract/Introduction:
There are approximately 350 underground gas storage reservoirs presently operating in the United States. These storage facilities serve as a vital part in the economic delivery of natural gas and insure that the movement of gas from source to the point of consumption will not be interrupted. Corrosion control helps to preserve this economic character by increasing the useful life of exposed equipment. Corrosion control is indeed a subject of interest today. This interest has been stimulated by a combination of both old and new criteria. Historically, the justification for controlling corrosion was essentially based on personnel safety and economics. Current federal safety laws, equipment shortages and inflationary repair costs make the old justifications even more important.
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Document ID: 9433CA95

Determination Of Stresses And Structural Performance In Polyethylene Gas Pipe And Socket Fittings Due To Internal Pressure And External Soil Loads
Author(s): William B. Allman
Abstract/Introduction:
Du Pont has developed special techniques for predicting long-term hydrostatic pipe strengths as well as the structural performance of fittings and pipe due to internal pressure and external soil loads. This paper summarizes these techniques and experimental work as it applies to polyethylene pipe and socket fitting. Procedures will be discussed which provide a basis for polyethylene gas distribution system design. Du Pont, as a pipe system producer, is vitally interested in knowing about all aspects of the long-term performance of polyethylene gas distribution systems. Our research and development has involved three basic areas and this report covers these studies and is in three parts
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Document ID: C0D8DC16

Program For Natural Gas Supply Development For Transmission And Distribution Companies
Author(s): Dan L. Gardner
Abstract/Introduction:
Because you are in the gas business and aware of its problems, there obviously is no need to establish the fact that there is a shortage of natural gas available to the interstate pipeline companies and the distribution companies they serve. It seems obvious, also, that there is no necessity to document in detail the reasons why this shortage has developed. It is important to always remember, though, that the basic reason for the shortage is the extremely poor economic return generated by gas exploration and production programs where the gas produced goes to the interstate market. The shortage is a real and abiding thing that you contend with on a day-to-day basis.
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Document ID: A5F654CF

Choosing A Welding Process For LNG Piping And Vessels
Author(s): Albert B. Crichton
Abstract/Introduction:
An ideal pressure vessel or piping system would be made from one piece of metal and would have no joints or splices. Since configuration, arrangement for outlets and inlets, requirements for flow control and measuring devices, etc., make this impossible, a vessel or piping system in most of todays processes must be fabricated from many components. Thanks to todays welding technology it is possible to join these components with strength and reliabihty equivalent to that of the base metals. Some process installations require excellent welds which border on perfection so that the welds are indeed as strong and reliable as the base metals. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Facihties certainly are in this catagory. LNG is stored and transported at about minus two hundred and sixty degrees Fahrenheit.
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Document ID: D8B917E8

New Life For Old Gas Mains
Author(s): George F. Steinmetz
Abstract/Introduction:
Aging, bare steel gas distribution mains are a common inheritance of utilities. Our forefathers installed these systems many years ago with what was considered the best method available. Although they have provided good service over the years, many have reached a stage where corrosion leaks are a chronic problem. Today we must cope with this situation in a way that will satisfy the stringent safety and economic facts of life. Baltimore Gas and Electric has over 250 miles of bare steel in its gas distribution system. These pipelines range in size from 2 inches to 8 inches and operate, for the most part, at pressures in the order of 99.0 psig. Many are in the feeder main category.
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Document ID: F1732E88

Assembly Line Meter Repair
Author(s): Paul m. Herman
Abstract/Introduction:
Michigan Consolidated Gas Companys Metering Department, in its present location, has been operational since May, 1964. In its eleven years of operations it has provided numerous areas of actual efficiencies, many of which will be indicated in this paper. The total work area available is 33,600 square feet, There is in addition to the actual work area a lunch room, locker room and required office area, a part of the total gas service complex which includes the Engineering Department Laboratory and the Service and Meter Reading Division Training Center. It is centrally located near four of the Detroit freeways. It is a one story structure which eliminates a great deal of unnecessary meter handling.
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Document ID: 03359674

Connecticut Underground Utility Protection Plan System Cuupp()
Author(s): George B. Uihlein
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1967, four utilities-gas, electric, telephone and water-in Bridgeport, joined in a local effort to establish a One Call Covers All system patterned after the Rochester, New York system. It provided one telephone number in the Bridgeport area that contractors could call to notify all four utilities of their intent to excavate. Each utihty would then locate and mark their facilities, and work with the contractor to coordinate the excavating operation. The One Call Covers All system proved to be very successful, and during the first year of operation accidental dig-ups were calculated to have dropped 40 percent.
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Document ID: 1D1518C9

Preventing Damage By Training Contractor Equipment Operators
Author(s): E. Hugh Erwin
Abstract/Introduction:
Call Before You Dig is a message which utilities throughout Canada and United States are continually attempting to communicate to the construction industry and the general public. Despite progress made through the onenumber call system, more effective field record systems and improved locating equipment, damage to underground plant continues to involve millions of dollars and numerous personal injuries every year. Education of the construction worker, therefore, remains a priority for the Gas Industry if continued progress can be expected in the future. Various forums promote the Call Before You Dig message including public utilities coordinating committees, contractor/utility nights and, of course, the courts under less favourable circumstances. These meetings are effective but tend to focus on the contractor and his administrative staff. The need remains lo communicate the message directly to the guy who counts, the machine operator. He is the one who proceeds to excavate without a stakeout and who proceeds to excavate following a stake-out for the fatetiil just one more bucket.
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Document ID: CDBB84F9


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