Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (1975)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Fundamentals Of Rotary Meters
Author(s): W. K. Clark
Abstract/Introduction:
The first rotary positive displacement gas meters were built about 1920 by the PH & FM ROOTS Company and the Connersville Blower Company, both located in Connersville, Indiana. The two companies later joined to form ROOTSConnersville Blower, and in 1966 the gas meter operation was re-named Dresser Measurement Division. The rotary gas meters manufactured by Dresser Measurement are known as ROOTS Meters. Rockwell International entered the market in the early 1960s with a rotating vane design known as the ROTOSeal Meter and in the late 1960s Singers American Meter Company introduced still another rotating vane design known as the CVM gas-meter. The operating principles for each of these three meters are depicted and explained in Exhibit #1.
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Document ID: 688F7712

Field Testing Amd Maintenance Of Large Capacity Displacement And Turbine Meters
Author(s): Fred 0. Pitts
Abstract/Introduction:
The Distribution Measurement Section at Houston Natural Gas Corporation was responsible for the accurate measurement of 1+7,682,000,000 cubic feet of gas in 1974. This represents 58% of all the gas sold by the Distribution system. To show the magnitude of the responsibility of a Measurement Technician, the average voliune of gas through the 500 large capacity meters that a Measurement Technician tests each year is equal to 5*,000 residential and small commercial volumes. Last year 288l large capacity meters were tested in the field. The volume through the 288l meters is equal to 311,000 residential and small commercial meters. Any error or miscalculation made in the repair or adjustment of one large capacity meter would be equal to the same error in approximately 108 residential meters. Therefore the Measurement Technician should be above average in initiative, responsibility and mechanical aptitude. In most cases training and concern will develop the qualified personnel in these categories.
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Document ID: 86D3B35D

Safety In The Measurement Field
Author(s): Ira L. Simpson
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to look at sarie of the accepted rtethods that are currently in use within the Gas Industry, for field control of three inportant environmental health hazards. Ehey are: Mercury, Hydrogen Sulfide and Noise. The main areas that we will discuss are the general aspects of each, methods of detection, exposure limitations and protection procedures required for the applicable hazard.
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Document ID: 7B180FC7

Domestic Meter Shop Operation And Considerations For Test Frequency
Author(s): Walter R. Griffith
Abstract/Introduction:
The San Antonio City Public Service is a municipally owned combined gas and electricutility. We serve Bexar County and a small area outside the county. However, most of our gas customers are within San Antonio and the adjoining suburban areas. As of June 30, 1975, we had 236,162 gas meters and 276,089 electric meters on premises We have just completed the construction of and moving into a new facility which houses both our gas and electric meter shops and a storeroom, Under our present organization, which has been in effect since 1969, both of our meter shops fall under my super vision. Therefore, this new facility was designed with separate shop work areas for each shop but with a combined clerical and supervisory area.
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Document ID: 111CCF95

Field Experience With Turbine Meters
Author(s): C. E. Stone
Abstract/Introduction:
As the title of this paper indicates, the information presented here reflects opinions, conclusions, and recommendations based on actual field experience using the turbine meter to measure natural gas. Since the introduction of the turbine meter in the natural gas field, there have been many papers published relating to the theory and operation of turbines. For the purpose of this presentation, theory will be disregarded wherever possible in an attempt to concentrate on the selection, installation, and preventive maintenance of turbine meters. In some instances the following may drift away from the central theme to state a fact or problem deemed noteworthy.
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Document ID: 26879459

Meter Shop Performance Amd Repair Costs
Author(s): J. E. Gross
Abstract/Introduction:
Lone Star Gas Company has been in operation since 1909 and, after extensive study, closed all of their meter repair shops end combined all repair in the current location in Dallas, Texas. The Central Meter Shop began processing meters for all company service areas on January 1, I968. Since then we have made use of automated processes that could not have been economically justified at sny one of the small regional shops prior to 1968. We are using the assembly line system to make meter maintenance and repair faster and more efficient. In 1968, the Central Meter Shop cleaned, tested, repaired, and painted 86,900 meters with en average of 27 employees. These include medium and large industrial meters as well as small residential meters. In 1968 there were 111,787 meters processed with 36 employees.
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Document ID: AF6CAA43

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): R. H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
The magic formula for piping design downstream of a gas regulator has yet to be developed. Consequently there is little similarity in the design of regulator stations among companies in the gas industry. The reason for this is because each engineer will have his own personal theories about what is going on inside of the piping system. Nevertheless there is one part of the flow path, downstream of the regulator, that sliould be a key and perhaps even a warning to influence design. This is shown in Figure II1 which tells us that there will tae a very intense stream of gas exiting the regulator that will be most uncoojierative, Ive expect gas in this condition to slow down just because the pipe diameter could allow our desired velocity under ideal conditions. The conditions are far from ideal and the best bet is to cooperate with the high velocity stream rather than try to change it abruptly.
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Document ID: 1401EA5C

Installation And Testing Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): Bill Duncan
Abstract/Introduction:
With the demand and price of natural gas ever on the increase, the importance of correct BTU measurement has definitely increased. Most of us in the industry are well acquainted with the great care and precision which goes in the measurement of each cubic foot of natural gas which we may buy or sell. This alone however, gives us only a partial measurement of the energy being bought and sold, since there may be a greater difference in the heating value of a cubic foot of gas A as compared with the heating value of a gas B. This difference in energy content in like volumes of various natural gases has led to contracts based on the purchase and sale of heat units.
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Document ID: 0BFE6565

Fundamental Gas Laws
Abstract/Introduction:
In gas measurement, the pressure-volume-temperature relationships of a gas are usually used to obtain the quantity of a gas in volume units at a particular pressure and temperature base. These relationships between P, V, and T are called gas laws. Before discussing these laws, some of the terms most used will be defined.
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Document ID: 09F43044

Domestic Meter Shop Operation And Considerations For Test Frequency
Author(s): J. E. Hurst
Abstract/Introduction:
The original Houston gas distribution system dates from 1866, when manufactured gas service was initiated to serve an illuminant load. About 1900, gas began to come into its own, and was beginning to be used for purposes other than lighting, such as cooking and household heating. Our Company progressed from this modest beginning to its present 735,000 customers located in Texas, Louisiana and Mississippi. Initially, meter and regulator repair was handled by numerous small shops located throughout our operations. Over the years, however, these small shops were gradually absorbed by the Houston operation. Our Company is divided into six divisions four, in Texas, and one each in Louisiana and Mississippi. Each division is responsible for delivering and picking up its own meters and regulators.
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Document ID: 807F2FD4

Gpm Testing High Pressure Gas Wells Split( Stream S Full Scale)
Author(s): W. E. Findley, Jr., John L. Bartlett
Abstract/Introduction:
GPM testing for the purposes of this paper shall refer to the deternlnation of the free liquid content of gas produced from gas wells and the gas-oil ratio of oil wells. The term GPM, of course, is an abbreviation symbol for gallons of liquid per thousand cubic feet of gas. This is a figure comnonIy used in gasoline plant balance calculations and also can be used to express the LPG content in gas streams that have had their free liquids renoved. The term Full Scale is a word coined by FESCO to mean a production test with a portable separator. It was developed to distinguish portab le separator tests conducted by FESCO from those conducted by our Split Stream Test Units. A split stream test is 3 production test on a continuous sample withdrawn from a well and produced thru a minature Pilot Plant separator.
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Document ID: 6705A31C

Testing The Orifice Meter Gauge
Author(s): V. J. Schulte
Abstract/Introduction:
An orifice meter is normally considered to be a complete measuring unit, the combination of a primary and secondary device. The primary device consists of a meter tube, straightening vanes, plate holder, and a thin sharp-edged orifice plate. The orifice plate is, in effect, a calibrated restriction which causes a pressure drop in the flow of gas. The secondary device records this pressure drop, and also, the static pressure which, when certain factors are applied, can be used to calculate volume. This secondary device consists of a flow meter or orifice meter gauge, gauge piping, and manifold. This orifice meter gauge, either a mercury type or a bellows type, is so constructed that it may be calibrated to achieve a high degree of accuracy. The folowing discussion will cover testing of the secondary device. Hereafter, for simplicity, the orifice meter gauge will be referred to as a meter.
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Document ID: 56EC6CA5

Design Of Distribution Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): James W. Garden
Abstract/Introduction:
In a typical distribution operation many requests for gas service are received daily. The normal sequence of events would start with the completion of an agreement between the gas company and the prospective customer. As a result of this agreement mains and services would be extended and a meter and regulator station would be constructed to accurately control and measure this exchange of gas. The meter and regulator station design which is the focal point of this paper, is important regardless of size. Even a small station will be responsable for the exchange of a considerable amount of money over its lifetime. Maintenance costs or replacement costs caused by poor design can sometimes make an attractive customer appear unfeasible when he is connected.
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Document ID: 93A814DC

Design Of Metering And Regulating Facilities
Author(s): David L. Pickel
Abstract/Introduction:
The value of natural gas is rapidly increasing because of declining known reserves in the United States. Much of the demand for gas will be satisfied in the future with yet more expensive synthetic and imported gases. Because of the increased value of gas, it is essential that accurate measurement be obtained. The meter is the cash register of the gas industry. Accurate measurement provides a solid foundation for adequate return on expensive investments and also helps eliminate unnecessary waste of natural energy by supplying reliable data for unaccountedfor gas reports. These reports establish guidelines for system maintenance. Therefore, the design of these facilities is of utmost importance. Also, the designer must adhere to the safety regulations that are now the law. The following comments are a general discussion of things to consider.
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Document ID: 3E943676

Fundamentals Of Diaphragm Type Positive Displacement Meters
Author(s): James A. Simpkins
Abstract/Introduction:
Diaphragm meters fall into the category of positive displacement type meters. These measure gas by means of sealing off a known quantity of gas, and subsequently releasing it. The bulk of the meters In use today are of the diaphragm positive displacement type. Over 40 million of these are employed in measuring gas volumes in the U.S. alone. Of this total the large majority are used to measure gas volumes consumed by domestic residential customers.
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Document ID: C465A64D

Application Of Transducers In The Gas Industry
Author(s): Chuck Mcallister
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents a number of considerations that should be viewed in selecting a transmitter. They include Functional Speciricalions, Performance Specifications, Material Selection and desirable features. Also included in this paper aif the definitions of these specifications and the relationship to functional and performance requiroments.
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Document ID: 576F5445

Instrument Calibration Using The Pneumatic Deadweight Tester
Author(s): H. E. Blackman
Abstract/Introduction:
Today we are going to discuss instrument calibration using the AMETEK Pneumatic Deadweight Tester as our primary source. Accurate low pressure instrument calibration has long been a difficult problem for technicians. This instrument has provided the technician with the equipment needed to remove many of his age old problems such as, thermal, surface tension, absorbed gas, etc.
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Document ID: 6E598D70

Control Of Distribution System Pressures And Load Distribution
Author(s): Joe L. Mitchell
Abstract/Introduction:
A gas distribution system will operate only as good as the equipment used and the knowledge of the men that operate it. What is a good practice in one location may not be acceptable in another. While gas distribution systems differ from one another, the basic principles are the same. Once these principles are understood and applied to a particular system the results should be good. In order to regulate distribution system pressures, one of the following types of regulators may be used: lever and weight, spring loaded, or pilot loaded. The older type was the lever and weight type, many of which are still in use today, One of the disadvantages of this type is that the lever guides are exposed to the elements and need to be covered in some manner.
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Document ID: 7103248B

Gas Energy Measurememt
Author(s): Bruce J. Caldwell
Abstract/Introduction:
There is a truism to the effect that the measure of a product must be ascertainable in the marketplace if it is to have commercial value. This is to say that the suitability of a particiilar product to fill a particular need is subject to measure by some standard. It does not follow that the best or most economic standard is always used. The natural gas industry is a case in point.
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Document ID: 79146AA2

How To Improve Glycol Dehydration
Author(s): Don Ballard
Abstract/Introduction:
Millions of dollars per year are lost unnecessarily in high glycol losses, excessive plant shutdowns and equipment replacement. However, a glycol plant, when properly designed, operated and maintained, will provide a low-cost operation, with little difficulty and attendance.
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Document ID: C90A564C

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted-For Gas In Distribution Systems
Author(s): Robert A. Smith, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Unaccounted-For Gas can be defined as the difference between the volume of gas purchased and the* volume of gas sold plus the volume of gas that can be accounted for. The difference then is the volume of gas that can not be properly accounted for and tnds up as a loss or in some cases a gain. For the purpose of this paper, we will discuss losses as it pertains to causes of discrepancies and leakage. In addition, attention will be given to some areas to be watched in controlling Unaccounted-For Gas. This paper is not intended to be an absolute answer to the problem, only a few suggestions in discovering possibilities that cause unaccounted for losses.
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Document ID: 1C2364C9

Mass Measurement For Production And Processing
Author(s): E. F. Blanchard
Abstract/Introduction:
The system is a fully digital calculating system designed to accept as inputs: (1) A 10-50 milliamp signal (Df) from a Densitometer (2) A temperature signal (T) from a platinum resistance bulb mounted within the Densitometer barrel (3) A pulse rate frequency (Vy) from a Flow Meter (4) A Flow Meter TM factor from a four digit set of manually positioned thumbwheel switches that read directly proved pulses per barrel (5) A temperature coefficient of expansion factor A from manually positioned thumbwheel switches. The value of A will be determined from ASTM tables based on average values of Operating Density (D) and Temperature (T) as discussed below.
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Document ID: 00B2894F

Problems Of Sour Gas Processing
Author(s): Perry Engineering Corp.
Abstract/Introduction:
In this paper it is our intention to review tht fundamentals of gas treating by liquid and solid processes. In the first part, we will describe the Ethanolamine Process for treating gas to remove acid gas constituents, propreitory liquid processes including Diglycolamine or the Economine process, Sulfinol process. Propylene Carbonate process, and Selexol process. In the second part of the paper, we will present solid gas treating processes including Iron Sponge, Mol Sieves, and in the third part of the paper, wfc will present a description of Proprietary processes with direct reduction to sulfur including the Townsend process, Stretford process, and the Taxahax process. The last part of this paper will deal with problems associated with sour gas processing.
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Document ID: B3A80F96

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted Foe Gas In Distribution Systems
Author(s): R. m. Hurt
Abstract/Introduction:
Gentlemen in order to determine how much leakage and unaccounted gas there is on a system first you have to separate the sheep from the goats. 1, You can subtract the gas sales from the gas purchases during any given period, preferably a complete billing cycle, and say this is your loss and unaccounted for. However, if you try this you are going to find yourself climbing the wall because the weather, temperature, sales pressure base and purchase pressure base all get into the act and sooner or later you are going to find that these figures will probably mean nothing to you except when used yearly and taken in July or August. Then you will get a fairly accurate accounting of your loss and unaccounted for the year. You can subtract your sales from your purchases and correct for pressure base differences and then you can get some idea of your leakage.
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Document ID: 9DCF2F75

Digital Computers For On-Site Measuping Stations
Author(s): John C. Wallace
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of snail microdigital computers for remote applications has been made attractive to the oil and gas industry for a number of reasons. They are able to remain on the job, doing complex data gathering and control, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. They are highly accurate. They are flexible since they are programmable. They are very fast. Their price is relatively low and they can be easily configured to communicate with a central acquisition and control station. This discussion will cover the use of these machines for on-site measurement stations, although there are many other applications in the industry for this type of computer.
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Document ID: A4710F80

Gas Chromatography
Author(s): David R. Hendricks
Abstract/Introduction:
With the early 1970s serving as evidence of the energy shortages and higher energy prices, natural gas and petroleum industries have become increasingly concerned with the energy content of natural gas and liquid petroleum products. In the natural gas Industry, contracts between sellers, transmitters, buyers, and processors contain strong clauses relating the price of natural gas to energy content. As a result, there has been an increased demand for chromatographic analyses.
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Document ID: E1AE588E

How To Make Ready For Ops And Osha Audits
Author(s): Robert W. Hagee
Abstract/Introduction:
The Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968 establishes the minimum Federal Safety Standards for the transportation of gas and related pipeline facilities. The Office of Pipeline Safety (OPS) was established under the Department of Transportation to administer this law with full authority to set standards and enforce these federal regulations. The Occupational Safety s Health Act (OSHA) establishes additional safety and health standards for workers in the gas industry. OSHA has not only established strict regulations, but has also proven to be a social movement as well. This has created broad implications for U.S. business in that as a social movement it has augmented the workers rights and powers in relation to employers.
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Document ID: 819F666A

Fundamentals Of Moisture Determination
Author(s): W. m. Moore
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the fundamental methods of measuring the water content of gaseous fluids is to observe the evaporation of water into the gas. The rate of evaporation being measured by the temperature depression is caused by the absorption of water. The application of natural laws governing such phenomena produces a measure of water vapor pressure that is relative to the vapor pressure when saturated. Hence, the term relative humidity and the measured quantity Is always in percent of total saturation. This method is utilized in atmospheric studies and other low pressure, high relative humidity conditions. The instruments using this method are primarily spot samplers, and continuous recorders are not frequently used. They are called hygrometers or psychometers.
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Document ID: 71D7D325

How To Make Rhady For Ops And Oska Audits
Author(s): E. E. Bagley
Abstract/Introduction:
I will address myself to the Occupation Safety and Health standards, as my colleagues on this panel plan to discuss the Office of Pipeline Safety standards. Our company strives to meet all federal, state, and local codes and regulations pertaining to proper and safe operation of the natural gas systems as well as the safety and protection of employees and the general public. In order to accomplish this a great deal of special effort must be exercised through policies and procedures established and supervised by management through district managers, superintendents, and field engineers.
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Document ID: 62034E20

The Records Of Leak Survey For Distribution Piping
Author(s): R. F. Clark, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Records should be a vital part of any planned Or unplanned leak survey. They are a vital tool for the control of leakage and for the expenditure of monies connected with gas leakage, let us examin record keeping systems and see the basic requirements that should be satisfied by a good record system.
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Document ID: BDCEBCE2

Field Experience With High Pressure Turbine Meters
Author(s): N. B. Lansverk
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is a valuable or perfect fuel. Not too many years ago this perfect fuel was thought to be useless or in the way and was therefore flared or literally given away. Now we find ourselves with a shortage, possible firm curtailments this heating season, and a product wanted by all at any reasonable price. Knowing this, it is easy to see that the measurement of this lighter than air, colorless, sometimes odorless gas must be accurate, reliable, and repeatable.
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Document ID: 99C7137B

Water Vapor Content Amd Its Effect On Gas Volume Determination
Author(s): William F. Barker
Abstract/Introduction:
It is unfortunate that reservoirs which produce natural gas normally contain water. This water can, and often does, cause severe penalties to be suffered by the gas industry to its detrimental effects on operations beginning at the wellhead and throughout the transmission system to its final destination at the market. Water is probably the most common undesirable and detrimental impurity contained in a gas stream. There is no doubt that adequate dehydration as soon as it is economically feasible will increase the efficiency of over all gas industry operations. It is however, still questionable by producers and transporters of natural gas as to how, where, and to what degree this water should be removed. In the case of offshore production it may be possible, but not probable, that the dehydration process would be more economically performed on shore. Offshore facilities should be adequate to reduce the basic sediments and water to less than 1 percent in the condensate. To my knowledge, this rarely happens.
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Document ID: C8B356CF

What The Office Group Expects From The Field Group
Author(s): Wm. Dale Donegan
Abstract/Introduction:
What is expected -DATA - Basically in the calculation of measured Gas Volumes, the office group itself generates nothing and only acts as a collection center for information and facts furnished by others. This data, as furnished by others, when compiled by the office group becomes the financial base of our industry - measured gas volumes. The economic health of our companies, to a great extent, depends on how well the field and the office personnel perform as a measurement team. Regardless of the efficiency and dedication of one group, the combined efforts of both groups are necessary to produce the desired result of accurate measurement presented in a timely manner, as required by the management of our companies.
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Document ID: 8126DC1E

Fundamentals Of Orifice Mistering
Author(s): Lewis P. Emerson
Abstract/Introduction:
A title like, Fundamentals of Orifice Metering, suggests several subjects that might be discussed, and they are all related to the metering or measurement of fluids that flow in a closed piping system whether they are liquids, vapors, or gases. Orifice metering can be readily broken down into several parts. For instance, there is the primary element in direct contact with the fluid a flat plate with a sharp square-edged hole or orifice in the center that is held between flanges on a pipe. The primary device also includes the flanges that hold the orifice plate in place, the immediately adjacent pipe runs upstream and downstream, and the differential pressure sensing taps. Another important nart is the readout enuipment or secondary clcnent. This consists of the indicators, the recorders, the gauges and/or totalizers that make the measurement intelligible. Another important part, too, is the connecting piping tiie manifolds and valves used to join the primary element with the secondary element.
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Document ID: 6613641A

Principles, Application, And Sizing Of Monitor Regulators
Author(s): George C. Hughes
Abstract/Introduction:
Public Law 90-481, The Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act, became effective August 12, 1968. This act gave the Department of Transportation, Office of Pipeline Safety, the authority to p r e scribe and enforce safety standards. The effect of federal safety standards upon gas connpanies varied as to the degree of previous compliance with the USAS Code 3 - 3 1 . 8 . The coverage of both codes most certainly included overpressure protection installations. However, the federal standards, in addition to being mandatory, are subject to interpretation by others. The interpretation of unsafe over pressuring of the customers appliances, for example.
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Document ID: 9112D48E

Application Of Densitometers
Author(s): m. J. Sergesketter
Abstract/Introduction:
A densitometer Is a device designed to measure the density or specific weight of a substance: solid, liquid or gas. This paper will be limited to the measurement of liquid and gas or fluid, densities. Density Is the mass of a substance per unit volume, while specific weight is the weight per unit volume. For simplicity, we will consider mass and weight as the same and use the term density throughout the paper.
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Document ID: FB477ABB

Odorization Of Gas In Both Large And Small Distribution Systems
Author(s): Louis Lehr
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject of odorization is one of great importance to Distribution Companies and unfortunately is one function that, in many instances in the past, was not given the attention its importance deserved. Natural gas is generally odorless, especially so when diluted with air. It is necessary, therefore, to take ali reasonable steps to avoid the hazards of an air-gas mixture. One of the most important safety measures 1s the addition of an artificial odor to the natural gas in sufficient quantities to insure adequate warning before dangerous gas concentrations are reached. For all practical purposes, we can say that all distribution gas must be odorized and odorized in such a manner that it gives complete warning when even the smallest of gas leaks occur. There can be and should be no valid reason why a gas leak should not be immediately noticed and recognized by the general public. It should be as clear as the sound of a siren or the ringing of a fire alarm because its function is the same, to alert.
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Document ID: D00D6723

Design Of High Pressure Meter And Regulator Stations
Author(s): Chalmus E. Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays world of energy shortages and high prices, the efficient measurement and control of high pressure natural gas is an important job. On large volume stations, measurement errors of 1% can easily make thousands of dollars a day difference at a single station. Thoughtless design of measuring and regulating equipment can build errors of 1% and more into a station which will measure billions of dollars worth of gas during its lifetime. Careless regulator station design may be a potential bomb ready to take lives under the wrong conditions.
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Document ID: 47781F0B

Automation Of A Measurement Office
Author(s): Maurine Roberts
Abstract/Introduction:
In the middle Forties, we as an industry measured gas by sight reading temperature, gravity and pressure charts. Many of the factors were taken from manuals, books, and tables of all sorts. The volume statements were prepared by bookkeeping machine operators. It became obvious that the gas measurement capability curve was flattening out while the market was still rising. Hiring more people to do more hand work was the least imaginative solution available. Automation and computers offered the only hope for maintaining pace with growth potential.
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Document ID: 44C22398

Effects On Entrained Liquid On Orifice Measurement
Author(s): C. V. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
In the measurement of natural gas in field operations using the conventional orifice meter all of the factors used in the calculation of flow are based on the assumption that the gas is dry. This condition is rarely the case in field measurements. The A.G.A. Committee Report No. 3, (1), does not give any information or data regarding the effect water and/or distillate may have upon gas measurement by the orifice meter. It was in this area of gas measurement that graduate engineering students at Texas A&I University, Klngsville, Texas have conducted research operation in the laboratory and in the field.
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Document ID: 288F78B5

Liquid Turbine Meter Measurement
Author(s): Charles L. Boyd
Abstract/Introduction:
The principle of the turbine is by no means a new and novel concept. The turbine was used in many ancient civilizations to perform useful work. The application of the turbine principle as a device for sensing the velocity of a fluid stream also dates back many years. Although the turbine meter has been used for many years as a primary sensing element, it was not until recently with the introduction of new bearing materials, solid state electronics and the computer age that the turbine flow meter has come into its own, The heart of the turbine meter is the bearings and until materials such as tungsten carbide were applied as bearing materials, the turbine meter was limited to measuring clean fluids which had relatively good lubricating characteristics. With the advent of tungsten carbide and other similar bearing materials, the door was opened to use the turbine meter in fluids carrying particles in suspension, non-lubricating fluids, slurries and many other types.
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Document ID: E23CB1C7


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