Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (1974)

Download collection of documents about ISHM 1974 including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, etc.


International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Meter Driven Integrators
Author(s): J. A. Holmes
Abstract/Introduction:
Various instruments are used to measure volumes of natural gas through rotary, positive displacement and turbine meters. The direct driven integrator is the most widely used instrument for this purpose. The integrator is mounted on the meter so the output wriggler of the meter engages directly with the input wriggler of the integrator. Gas flowing through the meter provides the mechanical force required to operate the integrator. The pressure within the meter operates the pressure element and linkage, while the temperature system responds to the changes in temperature of the flowing gas. The changing pressures and temperatures are automatically integrated into the total corrected readout of volumes in mcf by means of cams, ratchet, or rings in the integrator.
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Document ID: 56E20960

Gas Chromatography
Author(s): David R. Hendricks
Abstract/Introduction:
With the early 1970s serving as evidence of the energy shortages and higher energy prices, natural gas and petroleum industries have become increasingly concerned with the energy content of natural gas and liquid petroleum products.
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Document ID: 924EBB10

Diaphragm Meter Capacity Ratings At Elevated Pressures
Author(s): H. W. Berghegger
Abstract/Introduction:
Through the years, the gas industry has been steadily improving, especially from a technological and product improvements viewpoint. Today, the gas industry has standardized on most applications, methods and definitions as compared to the knowledge possessed just twenty short years ago. Within the measurement field, two important areas are still open for discussion and at the discretion of the individual persons or companies operating within these areas. One is the leak of an industry standard definition for a standard cubic foot of natural gas and second is the lack of an industry standard for diaphragm meter capacity ratings at elevated pressures.
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Document ID: 54B39CF2

Institute For Basic Standards National Bureau Of Standards
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents, in summary form, the p r o j ects at the Cryogenics Division of NBS involved with LNG or LNG related measurements. A brief description of each project is given along with identification of the sponsoring agency.
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Document ID: 8CCAF682

Niuiliau C . Y U E I Liiiuiuiiu Product Specialist Toledo Scale Company
Abstract/Introduction:
We appreciate the opportunity to participate in the continuing education efforts of the American Petroleum Institute. It is specifically beneficial for us to participate in the International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement. The industries involved in the production and processing of hydrocarbons represent a very important and growing market to the entire weighing industry. The technology utilized in electronic weighing equipment is changing very rapidly. Any efforts which promote better understanding of the hardware and the return on investment benefits to the users of this hardware, is beneficial to both our industry and personnel in the petroleum industry who utilize this equipment.
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Document ID: D0E1E087

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): R. H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
The magic formula for piping design downstream of a gas regulator has yet to be developed. Consequently there is little similarity in the design of regulator stations among companies in the gas industry.
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Document ID: BA5503BA

The Use Of Manometers In The Gas Industry
Author(s): Nick Gestrich
Abstract/Introduction:
In the Measurement Mans Corner of Gas Magazine in April, 1967, it was stated, If the gas measurement science could be represented by a corpse, upon dissection the heart would turn out to be a manometer.
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Document ID: A375F1B9

Metrication - The Petroleum Industry Response
Author(s): James K. Walters
Abstract/Introduction:
The U.S. petroleum industry is forced by developments in the international, and in some instances the domestic marketplace, to adopt the Metric System (SI) This adoption will not be as difficult as might be thought and will serve the industry well. API is recommending a rational transition beginning with soft conversion.
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Document ID: 794679DC

0ISPERSAT()R
Abstract/Introduction:
I wish to acknowledge the help of a number of people in the preparation of this paper. Part of the information is taken from API Standards 2546. It is recommended that each of you have and use the API standards on sampling petroleum products. Other sources of information include True-Cut Products reports from experiments conducted at Purdue University and numerous people in the oil measurement field
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Document ID: 926C3750

Selection, Operation And Maintenance Of Regulators A Demonstration
Author(s): J. m. Kruse
Abstract/Introduction:
The proper Regulator selection is imperative for satisfactory operation and maintenance of a specific Regulator installation. Prior to the selection of a Regulator for a given application, the operating conditions at which the Regulator is required to function must be analyzed. Optimum operation can be attained only by proper selection of the regulation equipment and the use of an effective maintenance program to prolong the length of acceptable service.
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Document ID: 77AB6080

Bellows-Type Orifice Meters
Author(s): H. S. Biles
Abstract/Introduction:
In recent years an almost bewildering variety of new devices for measuring the flow rate of fluids, has been developed and placed on the market. Some of these have special applications, and others, notably the turbine meter, will become increasingly important to the gas industry. None of them, however, offers the degree of flexibility which is characteristic of the velocity head method of flow measurement.
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Document ID: A579584E

Gauging, Testing And Running Of Lease Tanks
Author(s): L.J. Black
Abstract/Introduction:
The barrel of crude oil we buy or sell occupies a volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons at atmospheric pressure and a temperature of 60 degrees Fahrenheit and contains no impurities (BS&W). This barrel is commonly known as the standard barrel of net clean oil and is the recognized unit of measure for purchases, sales, royalty payments, taxes, and so on. However, the barrel we physically measure and test occupies a volume of 42 U.S. gallons at whatever temperature it is measured, including suspended BS&W. This barrel is commonly known as the gross barrel, and obviously cannot be employed as the net barrel. The employee who actually measures, samples, tests and runs crude oil is called the gauger, regardless of his normal job classification. It is the responsibility of the gauger to provide the accurate measurement and test data necessary to determine the net standard barrel
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Document ID: 18BE3F1C

Problems In Offshore Gas Measurement
Author(s): Robert J. Rau
Abstract/Introduction:
Today, the operation of offshore gas pipe line systems is a necessity to actively compete in the constantly expanding market areas of our country and to also meet the energy crisis our country faces today. Offshore reserves drilling and discovery have been retarded by cancellation of offshore lease sales, legal battles and political battles based on the modern day ecology revolution. Today, I wish to discuss some of the problems encountered in offshore gas measurement now and also some of the future problems we must face and solve.
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Document ID: E39F9423

Gas Measurement By Rotary Meters
Author(s): W. K. Clark
Abstract/Introduction:
Rotary gas meters have been available to the gas industry for more than fifty years. Growing sales in the last ten years are dramatic proof of the rotary meters inherent ability as a measuring instrument due to the rapidly increasing acceptance and usage in the gas industry. This is a general review of rotary meters covering the basic principles of operation, operating characteristics, installation, maintenance, and testing. This discussion will cover the operating principle of the two basic types of rotary meters:
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Document ID: 96539D56

Fundamental Principles Of Regulators
Author(s): Ralph Kubltz
Abstract/Introduction:
A gas pressure regulator is a device for reducing pressure to a certain value. Figure 1 is a diagrammatic of a typical regulator installation with the main external elements labeled.
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Document ID: FA709130

Test Instruments For Pressure, Water Vapor And Supercompres Sibility
Author(s): A. W. Chandler
Abstract/Introduction:
Volume measurement of natural gas at high pressure is principally accomplished by means of orifice type flow meters. Converting orifice meter readings to low pressure volumes requires exact knowledge of pressure and supercompressibility.
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Document ID: 6A49E552

Ac-Me Gravity Balance
Author(s): A. R. Kahmann
Abstract/Introduction:
Computation of natural gas flow volume, when measured by orifice meter, is made by using the formula
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Document ID: 35D9CCF5

Meter Performance
Author(s): Robert H. Kolb
Abstract/Introduction:
Increasingly crude oil and other liquid hydrocarbons are being measured for sales or custody transfer by means of meters. Unfortunately the change in a meter reading that occurs when a quant i t y of oil is metered through it is rarely exactly equal to the number of standard barrels of net clean o i l measured. This paper explains why, and outlines the kind of corrections and adjustments which must be applied to the meter reading.
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Document ID: 12A34536

High Flow Facilities
Abstract/Introduction:
The cubic foot is the most commonly used term in fuel gas measurement in the United States. In the next ten years, the terminology of measurement may change to pounds, therms, cubic meters or kilograms but regardless of the term used, it w i l l be necessary to measure the quantity of fuel gas bought or sold. A change to metric units would require simple conversions from present practice and the shift to mass measurement will still require volumetric measurement.
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Document ID: B3CC6BE2

Distribution Servicemans Role In Measurment
Author(s): Robert N. Mason
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas meter companies have r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f or designing and manufacturing meters which w i ll prove accurate under l a b o r a t o r y c o n d i t i o n s and which w i l l , when p r o p e r l y c a l i b r a t e d , c a r e f u l ly handled, and p r o p e r l y u s e d , maintain accuracy for a long period of s e r v i c e . Their r e s p o n s i b i l i ty f o r careful handling ends, however, with d e l i v e ry of t h e i r meters to t h e i r customers, who then have r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r checking c a l i b r a t i o n , proper h a n d l i n g , and proper use for which the meters were designed. Gas meters must be t r e a t e d with t h e r e s p e c t accorded to p r e c i s i o n i n s t r u m e n ts from the time of manufacture u n t i l , many y e a rs l a t e r , they are f i n a l l y r e p l a c e d . Meter comp a n i e s having p r o p e r l y f u l f i l l e d t h e i r respons i b i l i t y , gas d i s t r i b u t i o n companies, and o t h er u s e r s , must c a r r y on, p r e s e r v i n g the same high s t a n d a r d s of measurement e x c e l l e n c e in the shop t e s t i n g , t r a n s p o r t i n g , h a n d l i n g , s e t t i n g , and on s i t e t e s t i n g and reading of gas m e t e r s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n serviceman plays a very important r o l e in c a r r y i n g out t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , so important t h a t it deserves special examination a t t h i s t i m e.
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Document ID: 86D3826E

Liquid Prover Calibratii
Author(s): Roger E. Guilford
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays world of ever-increasing liquid petroleum prices, accurate product measurement assumes greater importance each time the price of a barrel of product increases. Those of us who make our l i v i ng in the f i e ld of petroleum measurement should take some solace in the fact that King Faisal may have actually improved our job security a few months ago when he permanently halted the flow of cheap crude o i l from the Middle East. Following this line of thought, most of us in this group should be overcome with a warm feeling of security each time we pay our local service station attendant sixty cents per gallon. It is true, though, that we are directly involved in an increasingly c r i t i c a l phase of the oil business.
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Document ID: 85C0736B

Shop Eouipent For FX?TSTIC Meter And Regulator Repair
Author(s): Emil Coneland
Abstract/Introduction:
The financial security of the Cas Connany is to a great extent dependent on the acc u r a l of i t s meters. The improvements in the meter shops and meter shop practices have been a major factor in imnroving meter accuracies as well as l i f e expectancies. fcetings such as t h i s one, help us attain a b e t t e r understanding, not only of meter design and repair, hut it gives a closer relationship between the men who design and make meters and the men who repair and make them work.
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Document ID: 8EE470A1

Testtnn Nisplacemot Pas Eters!
Abstract/Introduction:
The financial security of the Gas Conn any is to a great extent dependent on the accuracy of its meters
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Document ID: 8C16B209

Installation Operation And Maintenance Of Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): Richard L. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
Why an automatic chart changer? The foremost reason for there being an automatic chart changer today is to provide savings to operating companies: in better utilization of their men, in lessening cost of transportation, in increased accuracy of measurement at no appreaciable increase in cost and in better manpower utilization by relief of daily recorder v i s i t s.
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Document ID: 9690E174

Transcos System Of Large And Small Volume Odorant Injection And Monitoring
Author(s): J. m. Hamilton, Jr.,
Abstract/Introduction:
By reason of its tariff and to fulfill certain regulatory requirements, Transco has been odorizing a major portion of its sales gas since the firm launched into operation in 1950. In the past twentyone years, system deliveries have grown from approximately 350 MMCF/Day to nearly ten times that figure today. Transcos odorization program has also grown during this period to keep pace with the increasing volumes by improving odorization techniques.
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Document ID: D1B35E8E

Bellows-Type Orifice Meters
Author(s): Giles m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
The bellows-type orifice meter gauge has widespread application and increasing popularity in orifice metering. Its operation does not require mercury nor critical leveling for operation. The rapid response and high output torque make the bellows meter particularly adaptable to integrating and computing devices. The meter is generally not affected by condensed liquid in the measuring system. The self-draining feature along with proper installation makes it very adaptable to wet gas systems.
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Document ID: AFEB6004

Fundamental Principles Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): Giles m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
To many people, the term orifice meter has come to mean the instrument, built into a rectangular black case, which records (or computes) the flow which occurs through the meter run and orifice plate. Strictly speaking, this is not correct the orifice meter actually consists of the combination of the meter run, orifice plate and gage lines-together with the instrument which senses the characteristics from which the flow rate is computed.
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Document ID: 3A60414F

Application Of Electronic Computers For Calculation Of Gas Measurement
Author(s): B. W. Stavenhagen
Abstract/Introduction:
In calculation for gas measurement, there are several applications in which the electronic computer has become a necessity. These applications have been forced upon the gas industry due to the increase in price of gas, material, labor and government regulations regarding records to be kept by the gas companies. These applications come under five categories: 1) speed 2) accuracy 3) error check 4) storage and access and 5) print out. Each application and how it pertains to the handling of both orifice and positive meter charts will be discussed. Also, each application will be compared between hand and computerized chart operations.
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Document ID: FD72D8BC

Operation And Maintenance Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): Donald R. Kurd
Abstract/Introduction:
The principle of the orifice meter is many years old. Measurement by orifice meter has been developed to be the simplest and most accurate device for measurement of large volumes of g
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Document ID: 0AE097A6

Operation & Maintenance Of Rubber Plug Type Regulators
Author(s): Mack Jacobs
Abstract/Introduction:
The Jet Stream rubber plug type regulator, the first pressure control valve ever designed specifically for the natural gas industry, has been in use since 1958. For this reason, some readers will find this to be a review of matters already known, while others may discover a new valve. Its interesting to note that since 1958 there have been a number of valves designed for gas regulation that incorporate one or two of the same features as the Jet Stream, but none of them have been able to match the rubber plug and the way it can be worked to provide all the same functions.
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Document ID: EBFC79B0

Underground Gas Distribution
Abstract/Introduction:
Underground gas distribution systems in the United States and Canada at the time they were converted to natural gas were very similar in age, type of materials and construction.
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Document ID: 876EE782

Odorization Of Lpg And Natural Gas Odorant Characteristics And Properties
Author(s): Bob C. Blair
Abstract/Introduction:
The intent of this paper is to highlight the basic types of odorants available for odorizing LPG and natural gas. Accordingly, the characteristics of certain families of odorants are discussed. This paper does not recommend the use of any particular odorant or family of odorants, but it does provide information which hopefully will help gas company personnel, working with odorant suppliers, decide which odorant to use in their particular gas system.
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Document ID: 244E9760

The Measurement Mans Role In Planning For And Coping With Gas Curtailment Situation
Author(s): J . 0. Ross
Abstract/Introduction:
We were informed in the l a t e f a l l of 1970 t h at our gas s u p p l i e r would specify the maximum d a i ly q u a n t i t y we would be allowed for each d e l i v e ry p o i n t from S e l l e r s t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e . Maximum Daily Quantity means the maximum volume of gas which S e l l e r is o b l i g a t e d to d e l i v e r to us in any one day.
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Document ID: B381AB90

Effects Of Entrained Liquid On Orifice Measurement
Author(s): C. V. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
In the measurement of natural gas in field operations using the conventional orifice meter all of the factors used in the calculation of flow are based on the assumption that the gas is dry. This condition is rarely the case in field measurements. The A.G.A. Committee Report No. 3, (1), does not give any information or data regarding the effect water and/or distillate may have upon gas measurement by the orifice meter. It was in this area of gas measurement that graduate engineering students at Texas A&I University, Kingsville, Texas, have conducted research operations in the laboratory and in the field.
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Document ID: 231FDF78

Loss Prevention
Author(s): L. J. Black
Abstract/Introduction:
Loss Prevention as the name implies is the effort employed in the prevention of the losses of hydrocarbons in transportation, storage and distribution systems. The standards of the American Petroleum Institute, the American Society For Testing and Materials, the National Bureau of Standards and Company policies should be recognized in the effort. Ideally Loss Prevention should be a prime consideration in the original design and operating plan for such systems. This paper will be limited to systems handling bulk liquid hydrocarbons.
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Document ID: D8D727D3

Determination Of Water Vapor Content And Hydrocarbon Dew Point In Natural Gas
Author(s): Thomas L. Sheen
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is produced from deep wells and is usually transmitted over great distances to the point of ultimate use. The raw gas may contain any number of contaminants, but it is almost always saturated with water. Also, an infinite number of hydrocarbon combinations in the gas mixture is possible, so it may or may not be saturated with condensable hydrocarbons.
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Document ID: F912F72D

Fundamentals Of Turbine Meters
Author(s): R. H. Schieber
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas turbine meter, unlike diaphragm and rotary meters which divide the gas flow into incremental segments of volume, has an output which is proportional to the flowing gas velocity. For this reason the turbine meter cannot be strictly classified as a positive displacement meter. However, since rotor speed is directly proportional to the rate of flow turbine meters measure volumetrically. This paper will cover the theory of operation of gas turbines, calibration standards, gas density effects on performance, piping considerations and field test methods.
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Document ID: A5969210

Installation, Operation, And Maintenance Of Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): Jerald A Berg
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past, much discussion has been given to the reasons and justifications for using automatic chart changers. The reasons cited include the decreasing availability along with the increasing cost of semi-skilled labor. However, as natural gas supplies dwindle, it is becoming necessary to account more accurately for each unit of natural gas. Where a seven or eight day recording chart was once adequate, a magnified and more readable twenty-four hour chart is now desired. Also, vehicle fuel costs are now pacing labor costs to place added emphasis on automatic chart changing As one means for combating these rising costs and for conserving our energy resources, the need for automatic chart changers is obvious.
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Document ID: AD8FBD39

Fundamental Principles Of Pilot Control
Author(s): Frederick R. Loring
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure regulators used in the fuel gas industry are commonly classified as self-operated or pilot (relay) operated. Each type has advantages for certain applications. In this paper we shall examine several types.
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Document ID: EFA7C77B

Balanced Valve Regulators
Abstract/Introduction:
The definition of a large capacity regulator is often difficult to formalize. There are many types of regulators which could be classified as large capacity. This discussion will be concerned with the conventional double ported regulator.
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Document ID: 07B4096C

Application Of Flow Computers For Measurement And Control
Author(s): Norman A. Alston
Abstract/Introduction:
Refinements in electronic instrumentation are continuously providing better and more accurate measurement and control devices. Easy methods of calibrating, programming and operating these instruments for each application are being devised. The great variety of measurement and control applications call for many different combinations of these instruments with varying degrees of accuracy, stability and response time. Therefore, various combinations of measurement and control instruments provide reliable, repeatable and accurate flow response for a lower capital investment.
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Document ID: B52B3CA0

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted For Gas
Author(s): L. G. Tidwell
Abstract/Introduction:
Lost and unaccounted for gas is the difference between the total of all recorded volumes purchased or produced into your system, less the total of all recorded sales or known disposition of volumes off your system. As the term lost and unaccounted for gas indicates, it represent two volumes (l) physical leakage thru holes in pipe and (2) the unaccounted-for due to Cycle Billing, accounting errors, coding errors, measurement errors, line pack, etc. Leakage can not be completely separated from unaccounted for gas volumes. However, the intent of this paper is to help recognize and determine the unaccounted for gas.
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Document ID: E9A13144

High Pressure Farm Tap And Service Regulators
Author(s): Richard Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
High Pressure Farm Tap Regulators and the low pressure service regulator are the most basic and numerically the most common regulators utilized in the gas industry. They are simple, reliable, low in cost, easy to install and require practically no maintenance. Both the high pressure farm tap and the low pressure service regulator share many similar construction features spring and diaphragm, boost effect, single soft seat, mechanical advantage (lever arm) between valve and diaphragm. Despite the relative simplicity of this class of regulator, countless engineering hours have been spent on its development and refinement. Most of this work has been spent in the low pressure version-the service regulator.
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Document ID: FEE53FD9

Variations Of The Cubic Foot
Author(s): W. C. Ingram
Abstract/Introduction:
The chart office is that part of the gas company which deals with the calculations of volumes of gas. Regardless of whether the gas is exchanged, purchased, sold, transferred from one system to another, or used in company operations, the procedures for chart calculations should be designed to accurately account for the quantity of gas represented by the chart record.
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Document ID: F9EB94CC

Variations Of The Cubic Foot
Author(s): G. Frank Bright
Abstract/Introduction:
Since early in 1970 there has been noticeably increasing activity in companies engaged in the transmission and distribution of natural gas in the analysis of the overpressure protection methods that they use. This has taken place, of course, in order to make sure that the provisions of Part 192, Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations Transportation of Natural and Other Gas by Pipelines: Minimum Federal Safety Standards are being complied with - or to make plans to comply. This is not to say that the USAS B31 .8 Code can now be forgotten, for in the words of Department of Transportation John A.VoIpe, The federal regulations will state what must be achieved B31.8 Code will advise on means of meeting the requirement. It would, therefore, seem appropriate to discuss the requirements of DOT for overpressure protection, and how they compare or relate to B31 . 8 .
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Document ID: 233DC059

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted-For Gas
Author(s): James W. Ray
Abstract/Introduction:
The d e t e r m i n a t i o n and the control of leakage and unaccounted-for gas is a problem in the gas i n d u s t r y but it is a problem t h a t can be c o n t r o l l e d , or at l e a s t minimized. The unaccounted-for l o s s r e p r e s e n t s an economic l o s s to the Gas Company and, if the unaccounted-for is due to l e a k age, it can range from a nuisance to a happening t h a t can r e s u l t i n s e r i o u s l i t i g a t i o n
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Document ID: 063F610B

Domestic Gas Meters
Author(s): Howard H. Holmes
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will deal with an elusive and sometimes difficult to categorize group of Positive Displacement Gas Meters known as Domestic Meters. The word domestic is defined as of or pertaining to the household or family, but in the gas industry the historical definition of a domestic meter is one that has a capacity rating of less than 500 cubic feet per hour. This latter definition has recently received some official sanction with the approval of a new American National Standard for gas displacement meters 500 cubic foot per hour capacity and under. This Standard has been numbered ANSI B109.1 (American National Standards Institute) and provides information regarding construction requirements, qualification tests, in-service performance, installation requirements, auxiliary devices, and test methods. This Standard will be a valuable aid to anyone that works with domestic size gas meters.
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Document ID: 24CBA0B7

Sonic Nozzles
Author(s): Harry R. Schroyer
Abstract/Introduction:
The terms sonic nozzle, critical flow nozzle, and critical flow venturi are synonymous. These are nozzles in which a well rounded approach section blends with a small angle diverging cone.
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Document ID: 44B1B561

Positive Displacement Liquid Meters
Author(s): William Reitz
Abstract/Introduction:
A P.D. Meter is a mechanical transducer employing segmentation of a flowing fluid stream to produce a volumetric readout with repeatability and accuracy over a range of flow rates without introducing significant changes in the characteristics of the stream.
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Document ID: 6A99AC3C

Differential Pressure Transmitters
Author(s): Larry D. Condley
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of pressure and differential pressure transmitters is an integral part of the measurements made in the Oil and Gas Industry. Almost every flow, level, and pressure measurement involved in either control or telemetering will involve the use of these transmitters. They are available with either electronic or pneumatic outputs.
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Document ID: CC6064C5

Fundamental Gas Laws
Author(s): F. Mark Townsend
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement is the determination of the volume of a gas at a particular temperature and pressure. The measurement should be as accurate as possible, making use of the best data and techniques available. The gas quantity is usually expressed in cubic feet at some specific temperature and pressure.
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Document ID: 451E852B

Elements Of Gas Contracts
Author(s): Jim R. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
While the principal subject of our discussion today focuses upon a brief review of the basic elements of gas contracts -- more particularly wellhead gas purchase contracts -- it will be worthwhile to spend a few moments taking a retrospective glance at some of the circumstances surrounding recent changes in the gas supply picture, and the resultant shift in emphasis in gas contracting practices.
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Document ID: 4CC32E6C

Field Performance Of Turbine Meter -- Prover Loop Liquid Measurement Systems
Author(s): W. C. Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine meters have reduced equipment and labor costs required for the accurate control of flow rates control and maintenance of liquid inventories of large pipelines. The prover loop has made it possible to relate the dimension less turbine meter data to volume. When these meter-- prover systems perform properly they comprise the most accurate and simple means for measuring flowing liquid volumes.
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Document ID: 1021E6A6

What The Field Group Expects Of The Office Group
Author(s): Robert F. Hoctor
Abstract/Introduction:
My experience in this matter has to do with Natural Gas Measurement in a large Transmission Company with facilities stretching from the Gulf of Mexico to the Canadian Border. No doubt what works for this Company will not work for others in its entirety. Possibly some of the methods used will be of some help. There are many and varied ways of communicating between the Field and the Office. To me good communications from the Office to the Field is what the Field Group expects from the Office Group.
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Document ID: E8E0CC08

Effect And Control Of Pulsation In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Ira J. Meador
Abstract/Introduction:
Webster defines pulsation as a rythmical throbbing or vibrating. This definition does very well for describing pulsation encountered in natural gas measurement work. It can further be said that pulsation in a gas stream takes the form of a pressure wave originating from the source of the pulsation in all directions. This means the wave travels both downstream and upstream irregardless of the direction of gas flow. It is known that this pressure wave travels through the gas at the speed of sound in that gas.
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Document ID: 3C190551

Densitometers
Author(s): Bruce Shrake
Abstract/Introduction:
As a result of our energy crisis, more and more companies are showing an interest in the use of Densitometers. Therefore, this paper will be devoted to trying to explain the fundamentals of the Densitometers and their use in the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: 948E23D0

Inspection, Sampling And Quantity Control Of Petroleum Products In Ships
Author(s): Robert W. Goldstraw
Abstract/Introduction:
The value of petroleum products and the need for their reliable delivery is self-evident. All suppliers and handlers of these products are therefore concerned with taking any practical precautions commensurate with the value of each product to avoid delays, adulteration of the product, discrepancies over quantities and the added expenses involved in each of these problems. Inspection, sampling and quantity control of these products is one of the means utilized in the attempt to protect them from unanticipated problems when shipping or receiving in bulk.
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Document ID: EE6A35E8

Application And Operation Of Ball Valve Regulators
Author(s): W. P. Becker
Abstract/Introduction:
Many years ago one of the plug manufacturers equipped a valve with pneumatic cylinder and a positioner offered it as a monitor regulator. concept was definitely a new method regulation and was the beginning of era. 1 dont believe the plug valve va 1 ve a and The of gas a new manufacturer realized what he had done toward the design of the modern high capacity regulator. A midwestern ut i 1 i ty used these plug valve regulators above grade with relatively good success. believed, however, that a buried va1 regulator (Figure 1) would be more d They ve esi rable than an above ground unit and would greatly reduce the cost of a pressure or flow control station. Units of this nature which were built in the gas utilities shop were successful and p roved to be the key to todays modern pressure and flow control stations.
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Document ID: 1867DBC8

Metering Techniques
Author(s): Kenneth R. Belteau
Abstract/Introduction:
The traditional use of integrated paper charts to calculate mass flow is no longer considered sufficiently accurate for applications involving large volumes of high cost per unit volume gas. It is proposed that accuracy can be increased by using magnetic tape recorders in conjunction with electronic transducers for recording pressure, flow, and temperature data. A computer is required to translate the field data contained in the magnetic tape cassettes into engineering units and transmit this information to a data center computer for mass flow calculations.
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Document ID: AE8061D5

Advanced Applications Of Telemetering Systems And Flow Computers
Author(s): Richard H. Cadmus
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will be a discussion of digital telemetry techniques, utilizing both unidirectional and bidirectional systems. The application of gas flow computers to the systems will also be discussed.
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Document ID: D4E386E8

Specific Gravity Instruments - Care And Operation
Author(s): L. W. Dunn
Abstract/Introduction:
This gravitometer is a direct weighing type instrument and is constructed to measure the difference in the weight of a column of gas and an equal column of dry air. This difference is transmitted to a chart on which is recorded the specific gravity of the gas passing thru the instrument.
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Document ID: DBA0BC99

What The Office Group Expects From The Field Group
Author(s): m. L. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
The Office Group expects many things from the Field Group. The link that binds these two groups together and causes these expectations to be f u l f i l l e d is communication,
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Document ID: D3C128B5

Reguution & Control With Expansible Tube Type Regulators
Author(s): William A. Frels
Abstract/Introduction:
The expansible tube type regulator has only one moving part which is the tube. This tube accomplishes the same function of a conventional control valve with a diaphragm, spring, stem, plug, packing box, and seat ring, without the requirement of a pressure, temperature, or levil controller. Only a small pilot is necessary to accomplish any control requirement.
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Document ID: 4C52EB0F

Electronic Chart Scanning And Related Equipment
Author(s): Conway T. Sinclair
Abstract/Introduction:
Within the comparatively short span of thirteen years (196I-197U) the Electroscanner has completely changed the profile of large scale chart processing in the gas industry.
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Document ID: 64E34454

Specific Gravity Instruments - Installation And Operation
Author(s): E. F. Blanchard
Abstract/Introduction:
Definition - The specific weight of a gas is the number of units of weight in a unit volume. Specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of a definite volume of gas, at some convenient temperature and pressure, to the weight of an equal volume of dry air at the same temperature and pressure. Specific weight is a measurement of the relative weights of gases and varies according to the conditions under which it is determined, whereas specific gravity compares all gases to dry air as the standard. From a comparison of the above definitions, it is seen that specific gravity is the ratio of the specific weight of a gas to the specific weight of dry air, both being at the same conditions of temperature and pressure.
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Document ID: 3FEEC99D

Large Volume Measurement By Turbine And Rotary Meters
Author(s): D A N I E L R. F U L T On
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas turbine meter was introduced in the United States about ten years ago after being developed in Europe in the late fifties. It is widely used now throughout the free world for a variety of measurement applications. In gas transmission the turbine meter is used at city gates and at purchase points from producers. In distribution measurement the turbine meter finds application in measuring gas to commercial and industrial loads. In very recent years the turbine meter has also been used in gas production measurement at the well head.
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Document ID: 2BB4F41A

Flow Measurement By Vortex Shedding
Author(s): Alan E. Rodely
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of hydrocarbon flow measurements are made by sensing either the pressure d i f f e r ential across an obstruction placed in the pipeline or the rotation of a mechanical device. The o r i f i ce plate is the principal example of d i f f e r ential head instruments while rotating devices are exemplified by various designs of positive displacement, turbine and rotary meters. Although continued engineering development, particularly of secondary sensing and readout equipment has significantly added to the usefulness of instruments of both types, the fundamental characteri s t i c s of these primary elements remains the same.
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Document ID: 2763BE22

Fundamental Principles Of Displacement Meters
Author(s): Kenneth R. George
Abstract/Introduction:
The P o s i t i v e Displacement Meter p r i n c i p l e is a p p l i e d on both diaphragm type and r o t a r y type m e t e r s . Although the o p e r a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e is d i f f e r e n t , the f a c t remains t h a t both types measure by means of s e a l i n g off a known q u a n t i ty of g a s , and subsequently r e l e a s i n g i t . The bulk of the meters in use today a r e of the p o s i t i ve displacement t y p e . Over 40 m i l l i o n gas meters a re employed in measuring gas volumes by p o s i t i v e d i s placement in the U.S. Of t h i s t o t a l , the l a r ge m a j o r i t y a r e used to measure gas volumes consumed by domestic r e s i d e n t i a l customers. Other measurement p r i n c i p l e s a r e a p p l i e d in the case of the Turbo-Meter, O r i f i c e Meter or Swirl Meter.
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Document ID: 91EC9100

Flow Measurement By Insertion Turbine Meters
Author(s): John C. Boykin
Abstract/Introduction:
The value of hydrocarbon products today is increasing at an unprecedented rate. The importance of accuracy in measuring these products is, therefore, becoming more critical.
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Document ID: DB84C635

System Of Transfer Proving
Author(s): W. A. Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
Transfer proving as a method for determining the accuracy of meters has become accepted in the Gas Industry based on its proven performance. Its performance in turn is due to the fact that transfer prover provides a simple, straight-forward test method, it is easily set up and within the limitations of the ambient conditions provides a reproducible set of operating conditions for each test.
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Document ID: FEAA7948

High And Low Pressure Gas Regulators A Demonstration
Author(s): Ralph Kubitz
Abstract/Introduction:
Most by far of the regulators used in the gas business are spring type. Most of the remainder are p i l o t operated r e g u l a t o r s.
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Document ID: C78F1E3C

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Don W. Darais
Abstract/Introduction:
All of us today are becoming more aware of the increased value of natural gas and hydrocarbon l i q u i d s . This emphasizes the growing importance of accurate measurement, which usually begins with a signal from the primary element, consisting of the Orifice F i t t i n g , Orifice Plate and Meter Tube.
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Document ID: 4D30D46A

On-Like Computers For Custody Transfer
Author(s): D. A. Tefankjian, W. W. Timmerman
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of electronic flow computers for custody transfer measurement has captured the imagination of the gas industry in the last few years. The primary factors influencing the interest in on-line computers are the potential of greater accuracy in gas measurement, economic benefits that could result and a more sensitive signal for flow control. Furthermore, there has been an acute need for closer comparison of gas volumes between custody exchange measurement and gas measured for dispatching purposes. These needs have been magnified by the increasingly serious shortage of supply and the rising value of natural gas.
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Document ID: 1DFC66C1

Field Testing, Maintenance And Testing Of Electronic Flow Computer
Author(s): John Strickland
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic flow computers are fast becoming widespread in the gas and oil industry. With the energy demand and prices soaring as they are, accurate measurement is a very important factor. After the flow computer has been installed and put into operation, it is most important to keep the instruments accuracy within its closest rated tolerance by not neglecting its maintenance, field testing, and calibration.
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Document ID: 0B3E9D34

Rotating Vane-Type Meters
Author(s): Richard H. Schieber
Abstract/Introduction:
The rotary meter is presently being manufactured in three basic designs. The oldest of these is the lobed impeller meter type which feastures two figure eight shaped impellers. The more recent designs employ rotating vanes with a sealing gate. One variety is of two vane construction while the other meter has four vanes.
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Document ID: A8E06DB3

Large Capacity Positive Displacement Gas Meters Diaphragm And Rotary
Author(s): Howard H. Holmes
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will describe some of the techniques necessary to size and successfully operate large positive displacement gas meters. Large displacement meters are differentiated from domestic size meters on a capacity basis. Normally, any meter measuring more than 500 cfh is classified as a commercial, industrial or large displacement meter. It does not necessarily follow that the large meters will operate at higher working pressures than domestic meters however, more often than not, this is the case. Positive displacement gas meters are devices that measure volumes under pipeline conditions of pressure and temperature. If we are to accurately determine volumes at elevated pressures and varying temperatures, the volumes totalized by the gas meter must be modified to take into account the combines! Gas law and the Deviation from Boyles Law. Large capacity displacement meters are available with atmospheric capacities up to 38,000 cfh, and meter cases are available for static working pressures up to 1,440 psi.
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Document ID: 199614D7

Turbine Meter
Author(s): Frederick R. Loring
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas turbine meters have found a wide acceptance in the fuel gas industry for production, transmission, distribution and industrial uses. They offer high capacity, wide rangeability, compact size and weight, sustained accuracy, and ease of maintenance.
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Document ID: D819159F

Maintenance Of Electronic Chart Scanning Equipment
Author(s): Thomas Y. Tramel
Abstract/Introduction:
The Instrument Division of United Gas Corporations Research Department introduced in 1960 a device which was trade named Electroscanner () . With its speed, accuracy and repeatability, it was the most revolutionary instrument ever developed for orifice meter chart interpretation.
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Document ID: 3E3AC4B7

Industrial And District Regulators And Applications
Author(s): Lawrence L. Eaton
Abstract/Introduction:
Several distinctly different types of gas pressure regulators are used as industrial and district pressure regulators, not all of which are referred to by their manufacturer as such. In that no single regulator design can meet the varied requirements of todays industrial and district regulator applications, specialized regulators are required to meet specific types of applications.
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Document ID: D281E3A9

Installation And Operation Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): A. F. Kersey
Abstract/Introduction:
The Cutler-Hammer recording calorimeter measures the higher heating value BTU content of combustible gas. It continuously samples, indicates, and records BTU per cubic foot of gas.
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Document ID: B66993EF

Oil Accounting In A Changing Environment
Author(s): 0. B. Puryear
Abstract/Introduction:
An individuals experience in a particular discipline or field of business career activity is usually considered to be a thing of substantial value. However, the oil accountant is in danger of becoming a victim of his experience in the present era of rapid and drastic change of concepts and values as they apply to the oil accounting function. We must break out of our mold and develop truly creative new methods, procedures and systems for handling our responsibilities.
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Document ID: A8B49907

Iarge Capacity Displacement Meters
Author(s): Kenneth R. George
Abstract/Introduction:
In positive displacement measurement, an accurately known volume is alternately trapped and released and the number of trapping cycles is recorded on a register calibrated in the desired measuring units. Over 40 million gas meters are employed in measuring gas volumes by positive displacement in the U.S.
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Document ID: 3297F3B4

Meter History
Abstract/Introduction:
For over 100 years, gas has been measured by means of a positive displacement meter. There have been various types and sizes but the basic principle is still the same. In addition to this, the basic difficulties are also the same that were encountered in 1850. Let us dig deeper and see how the present day domestic gas meter overcomes these difficulties.
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Document ID: 84DD4DCD

High Capacity Liquid Measurement Systems
Author(s): Jack R. Babbitt
Abstract/Introduction:
Most of us are at least somewhat familiar with the size of battleships and aircraft carriers which are in the 100,000 DWT size. Perhaps you remember when the 115,000 DWT ice breaker-tanker Manhattan made its historic trip to Purdhoe Bay by way of the Northwest Passage. It didnt load much North Slope oil on that trip back to the United States, but we think of the Manhattan and of the war ships as big vessels.
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Document ID: 6FE54E61

Liquid Measurement Volume Calculation Procedures
Author(s): Judith J. Bigby
Abstract/Introduction:
Meters are important to the oil industry. From production, through refining and shipping, right down to the gasoline pump, meters are a necessary adjunct to conducting business. While there are many kinds of meters, this paper will restrict discussion to the typical pipeline meters used for custody transfer operations such as turbine or positive displacement meters. The accuracy of a pipeline meter cannot be taken for granted, since the quantity and increasing value of the shipments measured, represent a significant portion of the industrys revenues. Just a 0.1 of 1 percent error in the meter of a pipeline pumping 10,000 BPH of product with an average value of 5.00 per barrel represents a gain or loss of 1200 per day. Since meters are manufactured with accuracies ranging up to 1/2 percent, it becomes imperative to develop correction factors for each meter, using accepted meter proving techniques. In simple terms, a meter prover has been calibrated very carefully, and its volume computed out to the fifth decimal place. This known volume is compared to a meters registration which represents the same volume. By dividing the known volume by the meters registration, a meter factor is developed. Applying this meter factor to future registrations assures that accurate volumes are translated into accurate dollars.
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Document ID: 448DEE7F

Techniques Of Liquid Pipeline Leak Detection
Author(s): Jack R. Babbitt
Abstract/Introduction:
Whenever we have a discussion on leak detection of liquid pipeline systems, we must begin the conversation with a definition of what kind of leak detection we are talking about. Pipeline companies have been doing leak detectionin some form or another since the first pipeline was built. Operating companies regularly fly their main line right of ways looking for any signs of difficulties or problems. Over the years, pipelines have developed into ultrasafe transportation machines. Pipeline losses are extremely small compared to alternate methods of moving liquids. Flow in and out of the pipeline is metered to the greatest accuracy possible with material balances logged in the form of overshort reporting. Any deviations from the norm are investigated, and the trouble is located and corrected. Flying the line, over-short reporting and monthly material balances all constitute a form of leak detection. However, most of these techniques are rather slow in nature. The time lapse from when a leak may first occur to detection of product loss may be hours, days, or even weeks.
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Document ID: 1DC23E25

Kinetic Type Indicating And Recording Instruments For Determining Specific Gravity
Author(s): F. B. Leslie
Abstract/Introduction:
The kinetic type gas gravitometer is manufactured as a portable indicating type instrument illustrated in Figure 1 and as a stationary recording type instrument illustrated in Figure 2. The basic operating mechanism is identical for both types but the case, motive power and linkage are modified to adapt the instruments to either portable service or permanent mounting.
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Document ID: 9344BC67

Application Of Densitometers To Fluid Measurement
Author(s): Edgar E. Buxt
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas law r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e commonly used in t h e computation of o r i f i c e flow measurements of gaseous f l u i d s . The well known Boyles Law may be s t a t e d : The volume which a given mass of a g a s eous substance occupies is i n v e r s e l y p r o p o r t i o n al t o t h e p r e s s u r e under which it is measured, p r o vided t h e t e m p e r a t u r e remains c o n s t a n t . This r e l a t i o n s h i p is f r e q u e n t l y s t a t e d in a l g e b r a i c form a s
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Document ID: 0A23FC64

Measuring Station Inspection Progpam And Guide
Author(s): M.J. Mcfarland
Abstract/Introduction:
A good measuring station inspection program is the single, most important tool any company can initiate to assure accurate measurement, adequate maintenance of facilities, safe installations and working conditions, and obtain the necessary reports to document these inspections.
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Document ID: 7C7A1B21

Field Experience With Turbine Meters
Author(s): William G. Birkhead
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will be related to the field use of turbine meters for not only sales but primarily with the purchase of gas. The contents will delve into some of the operating problems for sales and purchase installations both on and offshore. Some recommendations for the manufacturing, testing and use of turbine meters will be discussed.
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Document ID: 6E554DF4

Instruments For Leakage Detection
Author(s): Stuart B. Eynon
Abstract/Introduction:
Detection of leakage of combustible gases from exposed, as well as underground piping systems, continues to be a critical problem to the gas transmission and distribution industry. Our industry has developed an excellent safety record for the transportation, distribution and utilization of natural gas with our customers as well as the general public. During the last 20 years, our gas piping systems have experienced a period of unprecedented expansion and growth and new State and Federal codes have been established. To meet our industry safety objectives and comply with State and Federal codes requires accurate and efficient leak detection. A thorough analysis of the instrumentation available for leakage detection is prerequisite to establishing an efficient leakage surveillance program
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Document ID: F76D3828

Evaporation Losses In Gasoline MAKiJLl Iinu
Author(s): Evaporation Losses In Gasoline MAKiJLl Iinu
Abstract/Introduction:
A discussion of the causes and methods of evaporation loss control. Current legislation and i t s impact is also discussed
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Document ID: CBD58C9E

Department Superintendent, Metering Department
Abstract/Introduction:
Technical prowess has placed men on the moon, procedural techniques have allowed doctors to operate on human hearts even to the point of complete replacement. These two facts cause the thinking man to say What about the heart of the hydrocarbon industry, the meter, the meter repair facility and the equipment and techniques to maintain both. Have the facilities advanced with the times or is the industry one step behind? Only the industry as a whole or individually can answer this question but the following is presented for consideration as a means to design, redesign or upgrade your present facility for receiving and repairing meters
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Document ID: 21C01ACB

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Ray Forbes
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary consideration in the design of a metering station is subtained accuracy. The station should be designed so as to require a minimum of piping alterations should the capacity requirements change, as most metering stations are likely to be in service for a long time. Whether for measurement from gas wells, a field, or on major transmission or distribution systems, the life of the station may be unlimited. The meter station is the key to accurate billing, therefore many particulars must be considered in order to provide this much desired accuracy. The primary element of the meter station is the orifice plate, the orifice plate holding device, and the adjacent pipe sections. Flow through the pipe reaches the orifice plate and passes through the restricted bore. The differential between the pressures on the two sides of the orifice plate varies with the volume of flow and thus provides an accurate indication of the flow volume
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Document ID: 939AFA8B

Liquefied Natural Gas - Operations And Measurement
Author(s): Charles F. Moore
Abstract/Introduction:
In the present energy shortage facing the industrial nations of the world, one of the most prominent sources of energy in the news is LNG. LNG is an abbreviation of liquefied natural gas, generally defined as a natural gas which has been liquefied by cooling and is stored at a pressure slightly above atmospheric pressure. LNG is particularly adaptable and suitable for the two important sectors of residential heating load and a pollution-free fuel for power plants. LNG projects divide into the two (2) main categories of peak-shaving and base-load plants
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Document ID: 75AB5657

Calorimeters
Author(s): T.Y. Mclanahan
Abstract/Introduction:
Energy is one word that has been frequently heard during the past year. As the supply of fuels becomes scarce it is imperative that the energy per measurement unit be accurately accounted for and utilized at the most efficient levels possible. To utilize it efficiently we must first know the energy content per measurement unit. The unit we are concerned with is called the British Thermal Unit. The BTU is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water at its maximum density one degree Fahrenheit. To illustrate the new importance placed on the BTU, many present day gas contracts now include a price adjustment for the variance in the energy unit of the gas sold. With this new emphasis on the BTU per cubic foot, the verification of the instrument involved has likewise taken on new importance.
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Document ID: B14E5455

Metric,
Author(s): Jack R.Neal
Abstract/Introduction:
In the years prior to the late 1950s, the accuracy of liquid meters had been determined by the use of volumetric tanks, a time consuming method fraught with elements of human error as well as one involving large and costly equipment. The use of these tanks played an important part in restricting the growth and development of the state of the art of metering high volume liquid streams.
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Document ID: 5C8A15BA

Meter Station Noise Forecasting
Author(s): W. E. Monty() Mcginnis
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years the gas industry has had a repu t a t i o n for supplying the n a t i o n with i t s c l e a n e st source of raw energy. Its impact on the e n v i r o n ment has been minimal with no water or a i r p o l l u t i o n and only a few i n s t a n c e s of s i g h t p o l l u t i o n. However, in more recent years t h e r e has been a growing amount of p o l l u t i o n of a d i f f e r e n t form around our d i s t r i c t gate s t a t i o n s or metering s t a t i o n s . This is noise p o l l u t i o n and it normally occurs at p r e s s u r e reducing s t a t i o n s where piping and c o n t r o l s are i n s t a l l e d above ground
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Document ID: 62577EC3

Automated Metering Systems For Pipeline Measurement And Tanker Loading
Author(s): Harold R. Lauterbach
Abstract/Introduction:
The modern era of construction for major pipeline and supertanker loading stations has brought about a totally new concept of flow measurement and control. The precise measurement and total accountability of crude oil and refined petroleum products from wellhead to consumer are experiencing critical world-wide attention with increasing emphasis on flexibility and accuracy. New demands are being placed on manufacturers of measurement equipment to design and supply complete pre-packaged measurement and control systems required in pipeline and tanker loading facilities. In the past, design of these systems was done by the oil companys engineering staff and contract engineering firms. Construction of these stations was accomplished by procurement of individual component items assembled and erected on site. The desirability of a single source supplier with expertise in measurement who can provide a complete pre-tested system has created a change in this philosophy
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Document ID: 7447C1A0

Turbine Meters
Author(s): 0. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
While the basic development of the turbine meter goes back approximately 30 to 40 y e a r s , i ts impact on the petroleum industry has only taken p l a c e in the last 12 to 14 y e a r s . Even over t i l i s Lime span, the true acceptance of t u r b i ne meters has been slow to take place and i s , in f a c t , just y e t t i n g a firm foothold in the i n d u s t r y the l a s t 3 or 4 y e a r s . The o f f i c i al r e c o g n i t i o n of the turbine meter as an approved measurement device for the petroleum industry took place with the p u b l i c a t i o n in March, 1970
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Document ID: E6B77AEB

High Pressure Measuring & Regulating Station Design
Author(s): C. F. Taylor
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to present some f the basic rules and information required to design high pressure measuring and regulating stations. A high pressure measuring and regulating station should consistently provide accurate measurement and dependable pressure control. Factors such as safety, flexibility, expansion and governmental laws must also be considered in the overall design of these stations.
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Document ID: 223AB71F

Instrumentation For Surge Control
Author(s): S T U A R T W. Sweet
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of t h i s paper is to discuss the phenomena of surge as applied to c e n t r i f u g a l or a x i a l compressors, and to look at some b a s ic approaches to surge c o n t r o l. GENERAL In the e a r l y y e a r s , gas compression was done mostly with r e c i p r o c a t i n g or c y l i n d e r type machines, because the q u a n t i t i e s being handled were not l a r ge by t o d a y s s t a n d a r d s , and because there was not the emphasis on development of o t h e r types of machines. However, with the i n c r e a s i n g use of gas, along with demands for c r o s s - c o u n t r y t r a n s m i s s i o n in e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g q u a n t i t i e s , the a x i a l and c e n t r i f u g al compressors gained in importance. Today, n e a r ly a l l compression is handled by such machines. The problem of surge, which did not e x i s t with the e a r l i e r machines, proved to be a s e r i o u s one, since i t could destroy a compressor
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Document ID: EC3EFD64

Measurement Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): S. Fred Isaacs
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Processors Association has set up a tentative standard for converting measured volumes of natural gas liquids at operating conditions to equivalent liquid volumes of components at 60F and equilibrium vapor pressure. The reason for establishing such a standard can briefly be explained as a lack of the ability to establish a fair market value for natural gas liquids unseparated. Sellers want component prices buyers want bottom prices. Gas plants invested in fractionators to separate these natural gas liquids for sale to marketing agents of some type. As time passed, more and more of these by-products became marketable. As these markets became more and more competitive,
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Document ID: 53D9B687

Determination Of Hydrogen Sulphide & Total Sulphur By Titration Methods
Author(s): R. R. Austin,J. R. Robison
Abstract/Introduction:
Electrolytic generation of bromine as titrating reagent for measurement of lfur compounds in the gaseous phase was troduced to industry nearly twenty years o. With the development of transistor ectronics and the discovery of a praccal coulometric bromine sensing ectrode system, a new, wide range ectrolytic titrator was developed and signed to meet the specific requirents for continuous sulfur monitoring
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Document ID: 81EAB4E8

Applications Of Telemetering Systems & Flow Computers
Author(s): R. W. Lowell
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will be a basic paper illustrating the various types of telemetering and flow computing systems as utilized in the Gas Industry. The paper will be general in nature, as the entire subject matter represents an entire field of endeavor. Therefore, only basic fundamentals of the various types of flow computing and telemetering systems will be covered in this paper.
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Document ID: 38B29DE0

About Ishm 1974
Abstract/Introduction:
Collection of documents about ISHM including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, exhibitor and sponsor information, etc.
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Document ID: BB30FBE3

Trouble Shooting In Metameter Telemetering Systems
Author(s): Wm. T. A. Caraway
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is concerned with troubleshooting Pulse duration telemetering equipment. Initially a definition of telemetering is in order. Simple definitions simply state Telemetering is remote measurement or telemetering is measurement at a distance .
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Document ID: 59B03D74


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