Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (1974)

Managers Guide To Expediting
Author(s): T. C. Stapleford
Abstract/Introduction:
The following is based on Philadelphia Electrics experience and operating philosophy. It has worked well for us and may. with appropriaie modifications to fit different corporate structures, prove to be of value in other utility companies. Our expediting practices may be expressed in six general principles: Organize for expediting Look for trouble . Get the facts Lommunicalc effectively Be persistent Follow up
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Document ID: 002E8816

New Developments-Roots Rotary Gas Meters
Author(s): W. K. Clark
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the last Distribution Conference in Washington, D.C., the Dresser Measurement Division of Dresser industries. Inc. has introduced three new product innovations. These new developments are: Temperature Compensated/insirument Drive Meter Production Service Meter-Line Mounted Demand Monitor
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Document ID: 8317634A

U.S. Coast Guard Regulations And Imco Recommendations For LNG Tankers
Author(s): Thomas R. Dickey, Robert T. Luckritz
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past, the approach taken by the Coasl Guard to ensure the safe carriage of liquefied gases by ships was to require pressure vessel tanks capable of withstanding the cargos vapor pressure at I15F for an indefinite period- If the tanks are insulated. the design must be adequate for the vapor pressure al 105F, This is still the requirement for non-refrigerated carriage. Obviously, this is impossible in the case of liquefied natural gas or methane, as well as ethane and ethylene. Other LFGs such as butane and propane can be. and are, carried either at ambient temperature with full pressure containment, fully refrigerated at atmospheric pressure, or semi-refrigerated at some pressure above atmospheric. As a result, the Coast Guard, as early as 1957, published tentative regulations for refrigerated gas carriers.
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Document ID: 060A9120

Use Of Hydraulically Powered Backhoes In Gaseous Atmospheres
Author(s): Lewis N. Case
Abstract/Introduction:
Like all gas companies, Michigan Consolidated Gas Company is interested in the safety of its employees and customers, Therefore, we were very concerned when we experienced two incidents where minor burns were incurred by employees and our invesligation indicated thai the probable source of ignition was gasoline powered equipmeni. We checked with other companies and found thai ihey had experienced similar incidents. In the interest of safety we considered prohibiting the use of gasoline powered equipmeni in an area where a gas-air mixture could be subject to ignition. This could immediately deny us the effective use of power equipmeni and it could prolong job time. The increase in job time could lead to a decrease in customer safety.
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Document ID: E3FD6710

Unique Methods Of Mitigating Shear In Plastic Pipe
Author(s): David G. Wells
Abstract/Introduction:
It is a well known fact that plastic tubing is most vulnerable to a failure media known as shear and that shear is most likely to occur at the end of the insert stiffener protruding from a compression coupling. The most common compression fitting installed below ground is the tee used as a main connection to the service. This tee is invariably installed by digging an oversized bell hole and the earth settlement after backfill is the culprit which causes the shearing action. Consumers Power Company commenced installation of 5/8-inch and 1 1/8-inch polyethylene service lines in 1968. We were keenly aware of this potential shear problem and issued Standards and provided training on how to install a 3-inch diameter plastic shear protector over the nut of the tee with the other end supported by wood blocking. Sand or compactible material was then carefully hand tamped to cover the tubing.
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Document ID: 29FDCC9E

Training And Qualifying Of Personnel For Heat Fusion Of Plastic Gas Piping
Author(s): E. F. Schrader
Abstract/Introduction:
Our experience with plastic pipe for gas distribution use began in 1956 with experimental laboratory testing of different plastic materials. In 1964, when the company went to straight natural gas. we began installing polyethylene plastic tubing for gas service renewal. In 1965 we installed our first section of heat-fused plastic distribution main, and in 1968 the first section of butt-fused plastic polyethylene pipe was placed into service. As of January 1, 1974 we have installed 280 miles of plastic main and 75,000 plastic gas services. Except for a few installations of reinforced thermoset resin pipe, we have basically relied on polyethylene pipe, PE 2306 and 3406.
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Document ID: 785699B3

A Gas Load Study-Problems Encountered With Magnetic Tape Demand Recorders On A Gas Load Study
Author(s): Jon L. Layton
Abstract/Introduction:
In October of 1972, Consumers Power Company began a one year duration gas load study. One of the main objectives of this study was to determine the demand characteristics of the various classifications of customers in our rale structure. Information of this nature is important in rale making, as one of the common methods of distributing plant costs within the rale structure is based on the anticipated demand that will be created by various classes of customers. This is probably the fairest method of distributing these costs. as the delivery capacity of the distribution line or system and therefore its expense, is determined largely by the demand that will be placed upon it. A survey of the type recently concluded by Consumers, allows rate analysts to recreate a peak day (or days) and determine what portion of the demand was created by each of the classifications of customers in the survey. This information may then be incorporated into new or revised rate schedules.
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Document ID: CF553CE0

Mechanical Service Tees For Plastic Systems
Author(s): Larry W. Papasan
Abstract/Introduction:
The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division is a public utility serving over 200,000 customers in Memphis and Shelby County, Tennessee. We have over 14,000.000 feet of main in our distribution system. Our primary distribution pressure is 99 psi but we have approximately 20% of our system operating at 30 psi and 15% operating at 7-10 inches of water column. In 1967 we began to experiment with the use of PVC as a replacement pipe for mains in our 30 psi system. Approximately 100,000 feet of PVC was installed for mains and services using solvent cement and mechanical couplings for the joints.
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Document ID: B4406F38

Computer Applications For Corrosion Control
Author(s): William G. James
Abstract/Introduction:
It is the purpose of this paper to demonstrate the uses of electronic data processing methofk in maintaining plant records for corrosion control purposes, the design of corrosion control installations. and the effect of such use on productivity. An outline of systems operational in a gas utility with sample input forms and reports for both transmission and distribution plant are presented along with data showing the effect on workload over a five-year period. Additional applications are demonstrated such as the use of computerized records for the electrolysis co-ordinating conunittee covering the province of Ontario.
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Document ID: 3BB7F99F

Remote Monitoring Of Cathodic Protection Systems
Author(s): Robert L. Waters
Abstract/Introduction:
The ideal device for satisfying a given requiiement would have the following characteristics: performs with adequate efficiency and accuracy is compatible with the part of the world with which it must operate costs little initially and requires little maintenance in terms of its function and does not become obsolete within a short time. We have tried to apply the above in developing a practical technique and hardware for monitoring the electrical parameters of cathodic protection systems for pipelines. The philosophy behind this technique of monitoring was that of rapid monitoring with little or no operator participation, to result in the collection of data from certain required points, the data taken having a form which provides information as to the degree of protection and which ties the data taken to the location, in other words, it was decided that the recording end of the system would be flown, that no operator would be required, and that the data, to be transmitted by radio link, would be analog and would include an individual identification of each ground station.
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Document ID: F604A12C

Chemical Considerations In Nuclear Stimulation Of Gas Reservoirs
Author(s): Eddie W. Chew, Philip L. Randolph
Abstract/Introduction:
The current shortage of natural gas has resulted in new interest in some methods of gas recovery, as well as continued interest and research into others. Nuclear stimulation of tight Rocky Mountain formations has been recognized for a number of years as holding promise for recovery from large, known gas deposits. Experiments have established the feasibility of the technique. Projections indicate that nuclear stimulation is one of many approaches that should be pursued to improve the lung-term gas supply situation in the United States.
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Document ID: 70317070

Corrosion Control: A Managers View
Author(s): Joseph m. Devereaux
Abstract/Introduction:
I am sure that managements view on corrosion control will vary to some extent from company to company and from manager to manager. Therefore, my comments today will be based upon my personal experience, observations and opinions. 1 would guess that my introduction to corrosion control and the opinions I have formed in the meantime are not too different from those of many engineers who started their careers with gas utility companies shortly after World War II.
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Document ID: 38C3E02B

Comments On Computer Applications For Corrosion Control
Author(s): A. W. Hamlin
Abstract/Introduction:
I feel that Mr. James has written a very intelligible and comprehensive paper covering computer application in cathodic protection. My comments are, therefore, limited to suggestions for elaboration on the topics listed below, to clarify the few questions I had and to provide additional topics for discussion after the presentation. 1. The size of the Union Gas system, wiih regard to total miles of pipe and miles cathodically protected. 2. A discussion of the economics of computerization related to size of company. This could include justification for lime sharing. 3. More detail on the relationship between survey dates and repair dates for the cathodically protected network as it fits in with general company policy. 4. Discussion of the initial scheduling after computerization, as compared to scheduling before the computer was used. 5. Additional application for a computer, using essenlialiy the same data base.
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Document ID: 21E14F97

Regulator Noise Abatement At Existing Measurement And Regulation Stations
Author(s): Ernest E. Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
Regulators are a principal source of noise at many measurement and regulation stations. The noise is a result of fluid turbulence inherent to the regulator function. This paper concentrates on the following areas critical to regulator noise abatement at existing stations: 1. Analyzing the system relative to regulator noise. 2. Solutions for regulator noise problems.
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Document ID: 68684DE4

The Operating Data Base For Gas Distribution And Transmission Purposes-A Synopsis Of The Task Group Report Published By A.G.A.
Author(s): J. T. Wellener, I. C. Odon, R. T. Ocallaghan
Abstract/Introduction:
For more than 10 years, operations research type individuals in the gas industry have been talking about The Data Base. As you would suspect the term implies the use of the computer. What most of these people have visualized is a somewhat Utopian concept. A fully integrated share the data system for all users within one corporation. The idea of course is, every computer program that needs data on the companys operations or facilities picks and chooses what it wants from the same files. Its a great idea but hard to implement.
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Document ID: B6EE969E

Fleet: A Stochastic Model For LNG Transport Systems
Author(s): R. L. Kelley, H. I. Zimmer
Abstract/Introduction:
Throughout the past 40 years, engineering design technology within the natural gas industry has been under continual development. The first pipelines, many of which are still in use, were designed using crude analytical techniques and built to general specifications, Today, engineering and operations research techniques implemented on the computer made advanced design technology available throughout the industry. Complete pipeline systems, including wells, gathering systems, process plants, compressor stations, transmission lines and distribution systems are now easily designed, built and operated according to optimal specifications.
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Document ID: B2AD425B

Noise Control Guidelines For The 1970s
Author(s): Robert H. Pish, Cecil R. Sparks
Abstract/Introduction:
The increased tempo of legislative action concerning environmental noise control has placed added urgency on noise control programs. While legislation has not contributed to fundamental knowledge concerning the effects of noise on people or communities, il has at least brought into focus a real and immediaie need for noise evaluation and conirol. II has also brought about a flurry of activity which is sometimes ineffective or only partially efleclive, at best. While Ihis activity has been a boon to noise consultants and manufacturers of acoustic materials, the often impractical and disappointing results of such activities has re-emphasized the need within the gas industry for more widespread knowledge of noise analysis and control. An effective noise control program requires both practical understanding and technical knowledge in a number of fields. including noise effects and crileria, measurement. analysis, generation and control. The purpose of this paper is to provide at least an initial overview of the requirements and procedures involved in the control of noise by reviewing elements of acoustic terminology, measurement and analysis techniques. Several case studies are also presented to demonstrate noise treatments for gas distribution facilities.
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Document ID: 2A4CBA6A

Gas Storage In Mined Caverns
Author(s): P. A. Witherspoon, U. Lindblom, C. O. Morfeldt, I., Janelid
Abstract/Introduction:
In the near future, large amounts of liquefied natural gas will be shipped to the United States requiring extensive storage facilities. It is believed that the use of mined caverns offers several possibilities for solving this problem. The need for careful geological investigations to select appropriate sites cannot be overstressed. One possibility is to store in caverns as a gas phase under pressure where existing fracture systems are kept under hydraulic control to prevent leakage. Another possibility is to store gas in the liquid phase under cryogenic conditions. This will require a special grouting technique and research on this is currently underway. PreUminary analysis of rock construction costs shows that mined cavern storage of natural gas can be competitive with the present cost of LNG surface tanks. It would appear that storage in mined caverns has some distinct advantages that need considerably more attention by the gas industry.
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Document ID: D8B17FAD

Utility Gas From Coal Need For Underground Storage
Author(s): Donald L. Katz, Michael W. Britton, Gerald D. Holder
Abstract/Introduction:
The paper points out where gas storage would be advantageous in coal conversion and utility plants. Coal gasification units are contemplated as sources of low sulfur fuels for electric utility plants, where load varies hourly. Separate units generate low Btu gas from coal and metlianate tlie shifted and purified gas. Gas storage of low Btu gases, oxygen, and hydrogen between units can increase the plant capacity for coal conversion processes.
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Document ID: BE589BB5

Engineering Preplanning To Prevent Third-Party Construction Damage
Author(s): E. D. Golke
Abstract/Introduction:
Despite considerable field and footwork to prevent or deal with third-party construction damage, the gas industry continues to be plagued by costly and hazardous interruptions of its service lines from this source. The frenzied building activity surrounding oui metropolitan areas has overloaded normal needs for improvements in the areas of water, sewer and roads. Add to this the on-again, off-again nature of public improvement projects dependent upon the will of local governments (or authorities) and we vacillate between delays caused from unpopularity, indecision or lack of funds, to abrupt and vigorous attacks which seem to have some entire cities under a cloud of dust during the construction season.
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Document ID: CDE85784

Mass Measurement Of Fluids
Author(s): Edgar E. Buxton
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas law relationships are commonly used in the computation of orifice How measurements of gaseous fluids. The well known Boyles Law may be stated: The volume which a given mass of a gaseous substance occupies is inversely proportional to the pressure under which it is measured, provided the temperature remains constant. This relationship is frequently stated in algebraic form as P1V1 P2V2 C
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Document ID: 6E174D14

Analyzing LNG Shipping Trades With Simulation
Author(s): Richard F. James
Abstract/Introduction:
The Columbia Gas System LNG Shipping Trade Simulator was developed to investigate the compatibility of various LNG trades. The need for a simulation computer program was warranted because of the complex interrelationships among the operating aspects associated with such trades. Questions concerning the design of the docking, storage and vaporization facilities at Columbias Cove Point LNG Terminal were analyzed with the aid of numerous simulation case studies. To model the LNG trades a stochastic event oriented simulator was developed. This simulation technique was chosen since it allowed for a realistic representation of the various trades by a network constructed of arcs and nodes in which events could be represented by nodes and activities as arcs.
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Document ID: 867B8436

Improving LNG Simulation Models With Weather Routing Analysis
Author(s): S. J. Mathis, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
This simulation model has been developed in order to study the shipment of Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) between Northern Russia and the East Coast of the United States. It was programmed by Pacific International Computing (PIC), which is now part of Bechtel, and subsequently modified by Tenneco and Texas Eastern. The model considers 20 ships, one loading port, one unloading port, with three berths in each port. The round trip time is about 20 days, including one to three days in port and the rest at sea. The ships studied are 20 knot, 125,000 cubic meter vessels. The model was constructed in order to study the basic behavior of the complete system, and to study the effects of different start-up strategies. The system under consideration is a base load system. The model contains no economic analysis, but data developed by the model can be input to another program designed for that purpose.
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Document ID: 4BD76BB7

A Review Of The Available Non-Corrodible Service Risers Under Present Regulations
Author(s): Frank m. Chapman
Abstract/Introduction:
The current need for the so-called noncorrodible meter riser has come about because of two separate regulations in the federal safety code. One has to do with the requirement that all underground metal gas piping must be caihodically protected and tested frequently. The other has to do with the requirement that plastic pipe may not be used where it may be subjected to temperatures in excess of 100F. Section 192.4 of the federal safely code for gas piping says that all buried or submerged (metal) pipelines . . . must be protected against external corrosion. The section expands upon this requirement by adding, among other things, that all buried metal gas lines must have a cathodic protection system designed to protect the pipeline in its entirety. . . .
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Document ID: FC9116A7

Forecasting Daily Gas Sendout-A Comparison Of Two Methods
Author(s): R. D. Haenel
Abstract/Introduction:
During the past few years the Southem California Gas Company has devoted considerable effort to developing an analytical model to forecast daily natural gas sendout on a continuous basis. Many techniques for data reduction and modeling were tried-some successful, some not. It is the purpose of this paper to present the results of this study and to demonstrate those techniques which were found to be most helpful. The two analytical models compared and presently being used are based on the multiple stepwise regresaon procedure. However, each uses a different data weighting method to provide responsiveness to current changes in relationships between factors influencing gas sendout.
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Document ID: 64F827DA

Heat Fusion Training And Qualification
Author(s): Edwin D. Laughren
Abstract/Introduction:
Probably the most substantial distribution challenge in the history of Southern California Gas Co. was presented by the decision in June 1972. to adopt polyethylene (PE #2306) for systemwide main and service installation and replacement in sizes 1/2 inch through 4 inches, Since 1969 two of the 13 divisions had been using PE on an experimental basis for new installations only. Training during this phase was primarily the on-the-job variety. In other words, we were now faced with a three-faceted training project: (I) initial training of the existing company and contractor work force, (2) on-going promotional training of replacements, and (3) follow-up training as found to be necessary (and it was).
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Document ID: BB03E743

Comments On A Leak Repair Record Keeping System
Author(s): Phil Call
Abstract/Introduction:
Overall, this program seems to be the result of a well thought out plan for recording and analyzing leak repair records. Some of these items of particular interest are: 1. The use of cross-checking for illogical entries which emphasizes the need for accurate data entry. The burden of correction is then consistently and continuously placed in the lap of the user. 2. The ability to resubmit LROs without concern of duplication on the record file is especially imporiani when handling a large volume of data entries. 3. The matching of Atlas page number to a file containing peculiar information concerning that page (e.g. Business Area, corrosion area, etc.) is a good way to build a complete data file with a minimum of repetitive data information. 4. The method of report requests is very versatile and all encompassing. This will reduce programmer-requester confrontations when infrequently used analysis reports are required.
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Document ID: C312877F

LNG Spills On Land
Author(s): A. R. Duffy
Abstract/Introduction:
The work to be described was sponsored by the American Gas Association and many organizations and individuals must be recognized for contributions to the program, as will be noted. This research program grew out of the reahzalion by the LNG industry that there was a need to contmually study safety considerations associated with LNG facilities. In September 1969. the A.G.A. staff and member companies of A.G.A, organized an LNG Safety Task Group whose members had LNG plant experience. It was the mission of the Ta,sk Group to consider and recommend a plan for studying the potential event of an accidental spill of LNG on land. After considerable study, the Task Group concluded that additional data were required, principally on three aspects: 1. Specific types of failures reasonably to be expected. 2. Rates and quantities of LNG discharge that could result. 3. Magnitudes of the resulting hazards to plant owners and to the public.
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Document ID: 98775C51

Application Of The Benedict-Webb-Rubin-Starling Equation Of State
Author(s): Marcus A. Francis
Abstract/Introduction:
Equation of state applications, limitations, and terminology are discussed, with particular emphasis on the BWRS or Starling equation. Heat capacity, acoustic velocity, viscosity, and liquid density relationships for this equation are given. Some basic equations and a list of references with comments are included.
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Document ID: 4E95C817

Preventive Maintenance For Unattended Medium Speed Engines
Author(s): W. A. Thorpe
Abstract/Introduction:
Most gas companies have already, or will have, many medium speed engines to mainlain. There are two big reasons for this (1) The cost of medium speed engines per horsepower is considerably lower, and (2) the medium speed units can be moved from location to location with a mimimum of cost and time. Ail companies will find it necessary, if they arent already doing so, to establish and maintain a good preventive maintenance program. The medium speed engines require a much closer maintenance than tlie slow speed engines tliat we all have been used to. In saying, this, I dont mean tliat tlie slow speed engine can be ignored, but on the medium speed unit timing, ignition, valve clearances, etc, have to be pretty much on the money, if we are to expect the performance they are capable of doing.
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Document ID: 5A543BDE

A Digital Instrument For The Timing And Analysis Of Spark Ignited Engines
Author(s): Arthur C. Eberle
Abstract/Introduction:
Spark igniteo internal combustion engines are used extensively in the gas industry. In the last few years solid state capacitive discharge ignition systems have become common. These systems offer improved engine performance and reliability and potentially more accurate control of ignition timing. Traditional maintenance methods used with conventional ignition systems cannot be used with solid state ignition systems and timing with a conventional timing light is of limited accuracy. Tliis report describes an analyzer for conventional and solid state ignition systems that can time an ignition system to an accuracy of 0.2 degree without the use of a timing liglit. The analyzer has a digital readout of timing advance angle and engine speed and can time all cylinders of a multicylinder enne with only one engine reference mark. It also displays primary and secondary voltage and current waveforms as well as vibration and cylinder pressure waveforms.
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Document ID: 44EC2B8E

Transfer Metering Station With An On-Site Micro Computer At Newton Creek
Author(s): Constantinos Continos
Abstract/Introduction:
Not too many years ago, gas utilities in New York City, as were others in many other cities throughout the U.S.A., were supplying customers with relatively low Btu mixed gases. The major companies serving the New York metropolitan area were ihc Consolidated Edison Company of New York, the Brooklyn Union Gas Company, and the Long Island Lighting Company. The island of Manhattan, the Bronx, a good part of Westchester, as well as two wards in Queens were supplied by the Consolidated Edison Co. while the majority of Brooklyn and the remainder of Queens County were supplied by the Brooklyn Union Gas Company, In addition, two small areas in Brooklyn, the Coney Island area was supplied by the Brooklyn Borough Gas Company and the Bay Ridge area, bv the Kings County Lighting Company, and Staten Island was supplied by the New York and Richmond Gas Company. Nassau County and Suffolk County, which join New York City at its eastern edge, were supplied by the Long Island Lighting Company.
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Document ID: B08E063E

Development Of Practical Method For Odorizing Liquefied Natural Gas
Author(s): David K. Mulliner
Abstract/Introduction:
San Diego Gas & Electric Company, working with Dual Fuels, Inc., has devised a new technique for odorizing liquefied natural gas. This long-awailcd development provides many advantages for the LNG user: 1. For safely reasons it is desirable to odorize the LNG used as a fuel in motor vehicles and the LNG transported over the road in tankers. 2. Salelhte LNG facilities are located in areas remote from pipelines. The odorization of the gas from these installations is usually accomplished by individual wick type odorizers. Better control and less maintenance can be obtained by odorizing the LNG at the bulk loading station and delivering the odorized LNG to the satellite facility.
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Document ID: A356040E

Computerized Analysis Of Two Regulators Operating In Series
Author(s): Cecil A. Head
Abstract/Introduction:
The proUem of find the capacity of two regulators in series with one operating as a monitor or a second cut has always been an interesting one. Some people just guessed as to their capacity while others had simple rules of thumb. Experienced gas engineers had many arithmetic methods. The guesses, rules of thumb and arithmetic methods were fine if the pair of regulators were identical twins operating 100% open, but what if they were not? In the case of different sizes, is the capacity of the smaller the capacity of the pair? What is the capacity if one is 100% open and the other is only partially open? The answer to these questions as well as the theory of determining the capacity of two regulators operating in series can be found by the iterative technique discussed in this paper.
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Document ID: E5E4B828

Operating And Start-Up Experiences Of Consumers Power Companys Sng Plant
Author(s): D. L. Imler, D. E. Lutz
Abstract/Introduction:
The course of events which determined that Consumers Power Company should build an SNG Plant is now history. The plant is now completed the contractors personnel are gone the British advisers have left and both trains are now in operation, producing a combined stream of 5.5 billion cubic feet of SNG per month. We feel the project has been a success. In order to assist others to this same gratifying feehng, we will offer our comments over the next few pages. A short description of our basic project is provided in order to completely tell our story.
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Document ID: 3B3C9DA3

New Methods And Developments
Author(s): Raymond G. Kremer
Abstract/Introduction:
Four years ago, the Steering Committee of Distribution Metering Committee created a task assignment covering New Methods and Developments. The scope of the assignment clearly outlines the ground rules for this activity as: To collect, report and distribute information on new methods and developments which promote public and customer welfare, increase operating efficiencies, improve safety and facilitate data collection Twice a year, the members of the Distribution Metering Committee submit the details of activities that they are aware of which fulfill the intent of this scope, to the coordinator of this project, Mr. John Suridas who compiles them and arranges for general distribution of this collective input, to all members of the committee.
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Document ID: E44A50B4

Comments On Application Of The Benedict-Webb-Rubin-Starling Equation Of State
Author(s): Ronald H. Kuss
Abstract/Introduction:
These comments on Francis paper are based on Northerns experience in developing and using BWRS equation of state program for the past year. Solution of the BWRS requires numerous iterative numerical solutions nested several levels deep, and a substantial part of the development work includes developing testing, and reflning solution techniques that converge the BWRS with minimum computer time. The comments discuss some problems on solving the BWRS equation for density and on estimating starting K-values. These two areas presented particular problems in getting the BWRS to converge consistentiy and correctly.
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Document ID: F11C3D7C

Material Specifications
Author(s): A. H. Cannon
Abstract/Introduction:
The importance of accurate and detailed material specifications cannot be overestimated. I doubt there is anyone who questions that statement. Most of us have lived with material specifications all our lives and since the establishment of the Minimum Federal Safety Standards published in August 1970, it has become a way of life. We cant operate without specifications. I really dont know too much about the history of specifications but I can tell you that 45 years ago at the old gas house in Norfolk, Virginia. I recall there were specifications covering fittings and pipe and how they were to be installed.
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Document ID: DD4211A6

Development Of A Gas Storage Field With Minimum Environmental Impact-West Columbus Field
Author(s): L. D. Horton
Abstract/Introduction:
The West Columbia Field in St. Clair County, Michigan is a pinnacle reef. It has a potential working storage capacity of 21.6 BCF and a maximum flow-rate deliverability of 400 MMCF/D. The development of this field requires that additional wells be drilled. Tlie care with which drilling fluids are handled and wellsites are restored minimizes environmental impact. In addition, the 100 acre parcel of land on which all drilling is being done will be landscaped to look like a park or preserve.
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Document ID: B90F8372

A Utilitys Approach To Plastic Tubing Quality Assurance
Author(s): Ira Feinberg
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the quality assurance program established by the Brooklyn Union Gas Company to insure plastic tubing compliance with both ASTM and industrial standards. Included are: the basis for the selection of polyethylene 3406 tubing for service renewals, the need for a purchase specification with accompanying manufacturers certification, the need to test, and the establishment of a quality assurance laboratory. A detailed discussion is included of the in-plant laboratory testing of polyethylene tubing dealing with the establishment of lest procedures, the outfitting of a plastic testing laboratory, the operation of test equipment, the frequency of testing, and the acceptance and/or rejection criteria. Also discussed are acceptable plastic failure modes both ductile and brittle, and our percent rejection rate for the entire testing program. A final comment is made as to the adaptability of this program tn other plastic materials, for example, polybutylene.
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Document ID: 2DB1A3A6

Dielectric Testing Of Aerial Basket Equipment
Author(s): George W. Ackerman, Fred J. Fischer
Abstract/Introduction:
I would like to give some background of our company before I discuss the testing of our aerial devices. Otter Tail Power Company is an investorowned electric utility serving a 50,000 square mile area in western Minnesota, eastern North Dakota, and northeastern South Dakota, This service area is approximately 550 miles long, northwest to southeast, and 350 miles wide east to west at the widest points. We own and operate 6,000 miles of transmission lines, which range in voltage up to 230,000 volts. Our general office is in Fergus Falls, Minnesota. To make it possible to provide good service to our customers within this large area, our service area is divided into 14 districts with a district office in each district. Each district has five or more area line crews stationed in various de-centraiized locations within the district. These crews are equipped with hydraulic power digger-derricks with fiberglass pin on fiberglass booms and personnel baskets.
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Document ID: 7BF63E45

What Is A Cubic Foot- The Development Of A Volumetric Standard
Author(s): Joseph A. Bonner
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the procedures used to develop an in-house volumetric standard for a wide range of pressures and flow rates. A turbine meter is calibrated against a liquid seal bell prover, and along with diree other meters similarly calibrated, is crosscalibrated to higher flow rates. The resulting secondary standards are calibrated to 900 psig and flow rates above 2.5 million cubic feet per hour of air. The calibration thus achieved has been correlated with calibrations from other facilities and using other techniques. The results of the calibration procedure and other work is presented. A proposed field proving device utilizing a turbine meter is described, citing its advantages as a field calibration device.
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Document ID: A11BD929

Vapor Dispersion, Fire Control, And Fire Extinguishment Of High Evaporation Rate LNG Spills
Author(s): H. R. Wesson, L. E. Brown, J. R. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Series of fire control, fire extinguishment, and vapor dispersion tests were conducted under the high boil-off rates which occur immediately following an LNG spill on land. Correlations of the results provide lire control and extinguishment times with Ary chemical agents and high expansion foams. The magnitude of the reduction in downwind concentrations of methane vapors by the application of high expansion foam on the spill was also determined.
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Document ID: F0D3EE87

Revised A.G.A. Gas Measurement Manual-A Preview
Author(s): John F. Mcdevitt
Abstract/Introduction:
A new revised A.G.A. Gas Measurement Manual is now being prepared through the joint efforts of the Gas Measurement Committee (effective June 1, 1974-Transmission Measurement Committee) and the Distribution Metering Committee (effective June 1, 1974-Distribution Measurement Committee). The manual will be updated to include equipment and developments in the field of measurement that have come into use since the original publication. The manual will also be expanded to cover in depth the field of distribution metering. The A.G.A. Gas Measurement Manual published in 1963 is a fine book that all gas industry personnel concerned with gas measurement should have available for ready reference. The manual material was prepared and published as an undertaking of the Gas Measurement Committee. The manual was primarily directed at transmission measurement and associated subjects. The field of the distribution measurement was only lightly covered.
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Document ID: 99DA591F

Surveillance For Unattended Natural Gas Compressor Stations
Author(s): Francis J. Stastny
Abstract/Introduction:
During the last 20 years natural gas companies have found that operating costs have been increasing, especially at manned compressor stations and other key facilities. This situation, coupled with the expansion of natural gas pipeline systems throughout the country (except during the past two or three years), has been the catalyst for companies to look for ways to decrease tlie number of operating personnel required. Both of these factors led to a greater reliance on devices to perform the sensing duties once carried out by operating personnel. These devices have become so sophisticated tiiat many stations are now completely unattended, or attended eight hours a day, five days a week, by one man who generally performs only housekeeping and caretaker duties. The surveillance devices found in this type of station can be divided into two general categories-those which protect the major operating equipment from damage and/or self destruction, and those which detect trespassing by unauthorized personnel.
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Document ID: C577A75C

Heat Shrink Sleeves For Bell Joint Repair
Author(s): C. Larry Schmidt
Abstract/Introduction:
I am pleased to be here this afternoon to tell you about our experiences with a relatively new method of repairing leaking cast iron bell and spigot pipe joints operating at pressures less than 5 psig. This repair method is through the use of Thermofit Gas Repair Sleeves. The conversion to natural gas in most European countries over the last decade resulted in severe leakage problems from the drying out of the yam sealing cast iron pipe joints. This problem prompted Raychem Corporation to apply the knowledge it had gained through years of research in the field of radiation chemistry and its experience in the production of heat-shrinkable products, to the development of a bell and spigot space-age repair system.
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Document ID: 9D512319

LNG Custody Transfer Procedures
Author(s): Louis S. Belknap, Mason P. Wilson, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
LNG custody transfer procedures for ships, barges, trucks and vapor send out are presented. Specific problems related to LNG instrumentation and procedures are discussed and alternate methods are suggested. Most contract sales of LNG are in terms of units of energy delivered. In contracts between U.S. and foreign companies the thermie. the kilocalorie, and the Btu are commonly used. In the U.S., most companies have adopted the Btu as the unit of measurement. These units of energy measurement pose no real problem by themselves. However, when applied to the gross heating value of LNG, one has to define whether it is the lower or higher heating value, and the pressure and temperature base.
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Document ID: 2BFCB9FE

Anti-Lock And You-Anti-Skid Devices, Air Brakes
Author(s): Henry Schneider
Abstract/Introduction:
Anti-lock systems for the control of vehicle air brakes have become a topic of burning interesi in the motor transportation industry. There is no doubt the initial impetus has been supplied by the federal government. Its generally agreed that only anti-lock systems can provide a practical solution to some of the new air brake performance standards which become effective in 1974. The industry grew and prospered for years without ever having heard of anti-lock. If we never had it before, why do we need it now? The answer is simple. The problems of braking that create a need for anti-lock have always been with us. There have been plenty of previous attempts to solve them (load modulation devices, load transfer valves, fast valve kits, etc.) but the solutions all fell far short of the goal because they never accomplished more than a small part of the job.
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Document ID: C2C018E6

Sng From Heavy Oil
Author(s): John E. Schuster
Abstract/Introduction:
As of September 1973. ten major crude oil gasification projects had been publicly announced and numerous unannounced crude oil projects were in the planning stage. The emergence of crude oil as a preferred SNG feedstock was a logical response to the rising cost of naphtha and to naphthas unavailability. A.S of today, the majority of these crude based SNG projects have been held in abeyance or have been cancelled because of the uncertainties of crude oir.s availability and price. Therefore, it is appropriate to discuss the oil supply first and then to discuss oil gasification processes that would be suitable for these oil supplies.
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Document ID: 6179B0AB

Gas Sendout Forecasting With Weather Sensitive Loads
Author(s): Richard R. Ryan
Abstract/Introduction:
The Laclede Gas Company is a gas distribution utility serving approximately 500,000 customers in tlie St. Louis area. The system sendout is extremely weather sensitive varying at a ratio of 10 to 1 from a 0F average day to a warm summer day. In the early 1950s the sendout was fairly flat very little peak shaving was required, and the natural gas pipeline supply was adequate. As more and more househeating customers were added, this supply reached its capacity limit. The low load factor, brought about by the weather sensitive sendout also made pipeline gas prohibitively expensive under the demand and commodity rate schedule.
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Document ID: D51135E9

New Developments From Fisher Controls Company
Author(s): Robert Schwab
Abstract/Introduction:
New developments during 1973 that will be utilized heavily in the natural gas industry include a high pressure pilot operated gas regulator and a new approach to noise abatement trim in control valves and regulators. These products have recently been offered for sale and a discussion of each follow. The 298H is a pilot operated gas regulator that was designed for operating pressures of up to 1440 psig inlets and 300 psig outlets. It is a new high pressure addition to the existing 298 series of devices. The 298H is a true two-path pilot operated gas regulator. This allows it to be spring closed, sensitive to any load change and very fast in responding to these load changes. In addition, in-line maintenance is very easily accomplished with this device, As with any new design many features are incorporated into it. The list of features for the 298H are lengthy and therefore only the more important ones will be listed here.
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Document ID: 6E7703F8

Adaptation Of Linear Flow Models To Natural Distribution Systems Gas
Author(s): George E. Slater
Abstract/Introduction:
Modeling the behavior of a highly complex natural gas distribution system is an extremely difficult job. Most mathematical models for studying such a network suffer from two major shortcomings. Either the system has to be so simplified that much detail is lost or else the necessary data are nonexistent and must be collected by special effort at considerable expense. With these shortcomings in mind and recognizing the similarity between gas distribution systems and the networks modeled successfully by linear flow models from the area of operations research, the author began an investigation of them as a possible solution to the problem.
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Document ID: 25E7F632

Development Of Aquifer Gas Storage Field With Minimum Environmental Impact
Author(s): William A. Henry, Frank F. Fix
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses in detail the steps in the development of an aquifer storage field from the exploration to full operation status with special emphasis placed upon creating a minimum environmental impact at every stage of development. Discussed are tlie procedures in the discovery, testing, development and operation of an aquifer storage field. The special emphasis is placed upon the discussion of the development of Northern Natural Gas Companys Dallas Center field and the steps taken to offer a minimum environmental impact in the local areas. Also discussed is the various stale and federal agencies to be dealt with during all phases from discovery to development of the gas storage field.
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Document ID: 235B08A4

Aerial Basket Controls
Author(s): K. G. Scantling
Abstract/Introduction:
The present family of hydraulically operated labor savers-buckets and derricks-came on the scene in the early 1950s in very basic form-hydraulically operated booms, reservoir, pumps, valves, and cylinders, Some of them were pretty smooth to operate, some pretty rough, but these unsophisticated machines gave us a sample of what could be done and gave us a hunger for belter things. Improvements were made in every sense, We were given equipment which could lift more, reach further, last longer, protect against higher voltages, and operate better. We now seem to have reached a leveling off point in weight ratings, reach, insulating abilily, and durability. The big changes in the past few years have been in control systems, giving us some options we have not had before.
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Document ID: BB440789

A Portable Plastic Pipe Locator
Author(s): John Van Dyke
Abstract/Introduction:
An ever-increasing problem facing natural gas distribution companies, municipal government agencies, other public utilities and contractors is the rapid and accurate location of buried plastic pipe lines. This paper discusses the design, development and field testing of an instrument that can locate both plastic and metal, gas, water, sewer and drainage lines and conduit at depths to ten feet.
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Document ID: 31436893

Measurement And Regulator Station Design To Reduce Noise
Author(s): William G. Birkhead
Abstract/Introduction:
Sound is what we hear. Sound is produced by the transfer of mechanical vibration or disturbance to air. When an object moves or vibrates, it disturbs the air particles near the object and produces a variation in normal atmospheric pressure. As this pressure variation reaches our eardrums, they too set to vibrating and this is translated by our hearing mechanism into the sensation called sound. Sound is a passing transient disturbance of particles, either in a gas, liquid, or solid. Noise is disagreeable or undesired sound as compared to speech or music which are usually desired sounds. In addition to being annoying or irritating, long exposure to excessive noise can cause permanent loss of hearing.
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Document ID: EFD12E68

A Simulated Investment Analysis For A Gas Pipeline Company
Author(s): Hal Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
The supply and demand schedules for todays gas pipeline companies are probabilistic in form and dynamistic in nature. These factors along with the other uncertainties associated with gas supply investment decisions, must be considered in order to properly evaluate decision alternatives. These dynamic, uncertain and interrelated decision elements can be properly evaluated through computer based simulation where each element not known precisely is considered as a random variate to be simulated. The result of such a simulation is the expected profit and loss (variance from the perfect decision) of each investment alternative evaluated over its anticipated life.
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Document ID: D484EA04

Manufacturers Lead Time
Author(s): K. B. Spencer
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to overcome the problems of extended lead times we are all experiencing now, and to arrive at the best possible solutions, the crystal ball is the most sophisticated piece of equipment the purchasing man can use in these times of critical shortages. It has become very quickly a most useful tool. Today the purchasing department has to be somewhat of a collective swami. Shortages exist in Just about everything a gas distribution company uses. We could go on for hours discussing it. But there are ten items that are most common to all our companies. The first is the API 5L line pipe. With this item, along with weld fittings, the word lead time really does not apply. As we all know allocation is the by-word. A year ago, although allocation didnt exist, loud noises to this effect were heard from the mills. Lead time then was two to four weeks, now it is one big question mark or possibly a visit to our very sophi.sticated crystal ball. Items three through ten are as follows:
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Document ID: 02D204EA

Forecasting Demand With Load Curves
Author(s): Steven m. Roverud
Abstract/Introduction:
I will discuss the basic elements which go into the development of load curves and, more specifically, the procedures used by Peoples Natural Gas Division to develop load curves we use as one of several valuable gas-dispatching tools. For those of you who have several years of experience with load curves, gas control and dispatching work, I hope this discussion will prove helpful to you if you plan to review your procedures. For those of you who are new to load curves and dispatching work, I hope you find some of our procedures helpful if you plan to start a load curve procedure.
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Document ID: D12BC4A8

Natural Gas: Its Role In The Drive Toward Domestic Energy Self Sufficiency
Author(s): F. Donald Hart
Abstract/Introduction:
In these challenging times, our industry needs the full-out effort of highly qualitied and dedicated individuals, and it also needs the collective cooperation and coordination which a large active section. such as the Operating Section, and a large conference of this nature provides. Our foremost consideration, without a doubt, is the question of supply. Where is the gas we need to provide continued reliable service to nearly 41 million customers? How can we get it? How soon? And at what cost? I certainly cannot qualify as a prophet, but I can offer an update on major trends and developments in the hope that we can get some feeling of our industrys future. As you probably know, proved natural gas reserves have continued to decline. The A.G.A, Committee on Natural Gas Reserves reported recently that the proved invenlory dropped 6% last year-the fifth decline in the past six years. The only plus year during this period came in 1970. when proved reserves in Alaska were included for the first time.
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Document ID: 4CFB0E9D

Measurement And Regulator Station Design Equipment To Reduce Noise
Author(s): Ronald E. Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
I would like to set up a framework describing the general area of regulator noise and regulator noise control. The first step in building this framework is of course, to discuss the basic noise and generation loss mechanisms caused by throtthng a high pressure fluid through a restriction, The next branch of the framework will be a discussion of the field manifestation of the noise that is generated. I will then touch on the currently available practical noise control techniques. As the final beam in this framework, I will discuss file pertinent variables that should be considered in applying noise control measures to field problems. Much of our experience has been in the area of vent control noise, which is basically a pressure reducing valve that hasnt any downstream piping but reduces the upstream pressure to 14.7 PSIA.
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Document ID: 14B4988B

Development Of An Electroscanner
Author(s): E. F. Blanchard
Abstract/Introduction:
The electroscanner was developed to automatically interpret orifice meter and single trace charts for companies using several people to perform the job manually. Within the comparatively short span of 14 years (1960-1974), the electroscanner has completely changed the profile of chart processing in the gas mdustry. In early May 1961, the first electroscanner was delivered by its manufacturer to the chart office of a major gas company. That particular instrument, consisting of a digital computer and two separate scan stations, represented at best to its inventor, manufacturer and user a highly complicated, expensive piece of electronic equipment, with a somewhat limited apphcation and certainly a hmited market.
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Document ID: 6FDC7667

Automatic Tape Sound Filmstrip Training For Distribution Personnel
Author(s): P. J. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Training is becoming increasingly important in the gas industry for several reasons: 1. Our hiring practices are different than they used to be. The educational backgrounds of new employees are not as extensive as they were previously, 2. Our promotional practices are changing. A greater burden for providing opportunities to employees to learn the requirements of the next job lies with management than formerly. 3. Equipment, tools and technology are all more complex than they used to be. 4. Errors in operating practices are evaluated more frequently and criticized more vehemently than ever before. 5. The consumer expects better performance from us today than ever before.
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Document ID: DC5E56E4

Field Testing Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Paul J. La Nasa
Abstract/Introduction:
The increasing acceptance of gas turbine meters in this country has created for many the problem of establishing suitable methods for field testing. The requirement for field testing is predetermined by the need, through contract or otherwise, to maintain and demonstrate accuracy in measurement. In attempting to establish a suitable method for field testing one finds oneself trying to obtain laboratory results under field conditions. At best this is a frustrating experience, although necessary. At this point I wish to point out distinction between a calibration and a field test. The need for this distinction is to qualify the type of results that should be expected. The field test and the laboratory calibrations are not necessarily one in the same and at best will only approach each others results. The point is that in performing one you should not expect the results of the other. The degree of difference can be attributed to many factors such as environmental condition, instrumentation, duration of run, variations of flowing stream and difference in standards.
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Document ID: 0CBB2159

Synthetic Fuels From Coal
Author(s): Neal P. Cochran
Abstract/Introduction:
I believe it is important to set the stage for my later remarks by describing coals position and some factors that bear on its future utilization. Perhaps the most important factor in future utilization of coal is our need and dependence on energy in one form or another. The Chase Manhattan Bank issued a special petroleum report in April of this year that included the following quotation: The satisfaction of virtually all needs for goods and services throughout the world depends upon the use of energy. Without a sufficient supply of energy, the developed nations of the world cannot maintain their existing standard of living and the less developed nations will not be able to achieve the economic and social gains they so urgently need.
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Document ID: 1AF495BA

The Repair Or Replace Decision-An Approach To Decisions On Meter Retirements
Author(s): Frank Cassidy
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents an approach to the solution of perhaps the most common problem in meter economics: given a meter in need of major repair, should it be repaired or replaced? The approach requires a minimum of basic data, and once the basic data is assembled, decisions on a case-by-case basis require only a few simple calculations. In this paper the percent condition approach will be presented, along with the techniques necessary to calculate the basic data needed.
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Document ID: 2DF75027

SPACE-A Program For Planning And Scheduling Gas Distribution Engineering Activities
Author(s): W. P. Start, G. D. Carlson
Abstract/Introduction:
Consumers Power Company is a combination gas and electric utility serving 950,000 natural gas and 1,200.000 electric customers in Michigans lower peninsula. Consumers Power Companys service area is divided into 15 operating divisions. Fourteen of the divisions serve natural gas in a 12,940 square mile service area to 790 communities. Our SPACE Program will be used in 10 of our 14 gas divisions and will affect 150 division gas engineering employees. (The remaining four gas divisions have six gas engineering employees and are not included in our program.) The average number of employees in the 10 division gas engineering departments is 15. The smallest department has eight employees and the largest 20.
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Document ID: 0CAEBB42

Metric Conversion In The United States And Its Implications For The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): Malcolm E. Ohagan
Abstract/Introduction:
A major move towards universal adoption of the metric system of weights and measures was initialed in 1965 when the United Kingdom embarked on a lO-year program of metric conversion. Following the lead of the U.K. other commonwealth countries initiated similar metric conversion programs. As a resuli. South Africa will be substantially metric this vear.Auslralia and New Zealand by 1976 and the U.K. .sometime this decade. Conversion in Britain has advanced steadily in the engineering industries. A number of factors however have slowed progress in the consumer goods area and accordingly the 1975 target date is not likely to be met.
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Document ID: E668C925

Osha And Metering
Author(s): Donald F. Bulger
Abstract/Introduction:
Since May 29,1971 we have really heard very litde in the safety line except OSHA says this and OSHA says that. But is safety really new to the gas industry? Your answer, I hope, is a qualified no. OSHA regulations were primarily taken from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) regulations and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) regulations. For many years the safety people in the gas industry have used these regulations as guidelines for safety procedures and they have, of course, proven effective. We rank 19th in 42 major industry frequency rates and have maintained a frequency below the national average for many years. OSHA came about due to a great deal of pressure from labor unions throughout our country who fell that industry was not doing enough to ensure each employee a place of employment free from recognized hazards that could cause injury or death.
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Document ID: A2DBBEB2

Safe Handling Of Ammonia In Air Conditioning Service Work
Author(s): P. B. Bevan
Abstract/Introduction:
Safe handling of ammonia for use in air conditioning service work is not a subject that can be covered in a twenty minute presentation. so I am not going to attempt to cover the whole field. Instead, I am going to concentrate on the standard. DOT approved, portable anhydrous ammonia cylinder the most basic item of equipment carried by the serviceman. In the past two years there have been seven instances of ruptures of standard portable cylinders, as far as we have been able to determine. Six of these ruptures occurred in open areas or inside unoccupied service van, on the freeway in Los Angeles, as far as we know, no reports were filed.
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Document ID: 37A28CDC

New Developments-Mercury Instruments
Author(s): Richard D. Hannan
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the advantages to a gas operations manager whose management career is made easier by using the ten year, field proven concept of magnetic tape recording of flow at the meter site. Revealing-sometimes startling-detailed load information stimulates customers to strive to shave peak demands, thus, raising capacity utilization. Detailed load information also leads to more profitable rates. These advantages, plus accelerated and accurate billing, make for a more pleasant life for the operations manager.
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Document ID: 4B46FE01

Resisting The Lure Of The Instant Answer
Author(s): John O. Logan
Abstract/Introduction:
UOP-through our Process Division and through Procon, our construction subsidiary- has been a significant partner with many of your organizations in the gas industry. We are particularly proud of our long-standing relationship with one of your pioneering forces, the Institute of Gas Technology. We at UOP share an even larger concern with you. We share the concern of many about having to conduct business in the face of certain (and in some cases, uncertain) lures thrust upon us in todays society. The lures of instant profit. The lures of instant answers.
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Document ID: BC992FB0

Monitoring Microseismic Activity From Reservoir Rocks At Various Gas Storage Pressure Levels
Author(s): H. Reginald Hardy, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The Pipeline Research Committee of the American Gas Association has supported a research program (Project PR-12-43) in the Department of Mineral Engineering at The Pennsylvania State University since 1966. This program is concerned with a number of rock mechanics aspects of reservoir storage, in particular, the development of techniques for determining optimum storage pressures, Since 1971 studies have been underway at Penn State to investigate the feasibihty of using microseismic techniques to monitor the stability of underground gas storage reservoirs. When stressed, most solids emit bursts of microlevei acoustic energy a phenomenon commonly termed microseismic activity.
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Document ID: 0A640C28

Comments On Record Keeping For Leak, Excavation And Corrosion Control
Author(s): Michael D. Orton
Abstract/Introduction:
To evaluate the system as to a large or small company. It would be important lo know the number of leaks they arc repairing, It is very much like our system, but there are some frills that we dont consider necessary because of our volume. Talking about a method of routing for surveys. We did this at one time but it is felt it can be done on reduced plat sheets, this is, reduced maps, and the survey information plotted directly on the map rather than in the book, and doing it again on another piece of paper, I think we started doing it that way and then changed. They use a strip chart showing leak reduction, and we started this and we felt it creates too much confusion.
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Document ID: 1393A456

A Guide For Evaluation Testing Of Mechanical Fittings For Plastic Gas Pipe
Author(s): George S. Buczala
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is based on a letter survey conducted by the A.G.A. Plastic Pipe Task Committee 71-4, Fittings. The survey was made to determine what the gas industry considered meaningful tests for evaluating fittings used with plastic piping systems. The paper describes the tests that were suggested for evaluating fittings. There are several illustrations of the types of fittings discussed and of testing equipment in progress.
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Document ID: DC581EB4

Synthetic Gas Manufacture-Recent Experience And Future Prospects
Author(s): R. N. Bery
Abstract/Introduction:
A discussion of recent experience in establishing synthetic gas plants and review of viable options for gas manufacture to supplement natural gas supplies in meeting future demand. Until a few years ago, the supply of energy was in reasonable balance with demand. Steadily rising requirements caused the building of new electric generating stations, the installation of larger transmission systems, drilling of new oil wells and increases in refinery capacities. Seemingly, there was an orderly, predictable rate of growth and plans for augmenting supplies could be closely coordinated with actual need.
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Document ID: 1780A6ED

Insertion Of Plastic Pipe In Live Gas Mains
Author(s): Glenn K. Dippon
Abstract/Introduction:
Our gas distribution system dates back to the 1890s in some of our areas and includes cast iron pipe that was installed from the 1890s to the 1940s. We have bare steel pipe installed from the 1920s to the 1940s and coated and wrapped steel pipe installed in the 1930s to the present time. In 1970 we had 7,268 miles of distribution main 5.5% was cast iron, 11.3% wrought iron and bare steel and 83.2% coated and wrapped steel. Most of our cast iron system is on low pressure and most of our coated and wrapped steel system is on what we call medium pressure, between 10 and 60 psi.
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Document ID: B2CF9952

A Preliminary Appraisal Of Hydraulic Hand Tool Operation
Author(s): T. E. Temen, P. E. Long, J. A. Fairchild
Abstract/Introduction:
Both gas and electric operating departments became interested in evaluating hydraulically powered portable hand tools about four years ago. Our motives were somewhat different in that the electric side of the house wanted to do away with the 65 cfm air compressor used on line trucks to gain space needed for other purposes. It would also eliminate a duplicated power source since their line trucks already had a hydraulic power system essential in operating the pole derrick and grabber equipment. Our gas departments primary interest in the hydraulic tools was in the hope that they would provide a significant improvement over standard pneumatic tools in solving noise polution problems.
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Document ID: 44A84C50

Special Considerations In Automation Systems Offshore And In Other Hostile Environments
Author(s): David E. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
Our primary consideration will be centered around desert areas, far north snowbound areas, and those locations that are in swamp, jungle, or over water in coastal or offshore regions. Some of the problems encountered in these areas are unique, but the majority are the same as those we experience in less hostile regions, but are amplified by their remoteness and the severity of the weather conditions. Because many of the gas transmission companies are presently operating or are planning large-scale operations in the offshore areas, our emphasis will be concentrated in these regions.
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Document ID: 7034F069

LNG Trade Simulation-From Liquefaction To Regasification
Author(s): Thomas Hext
Abstract/Introduction:
GPSS (General Purpose Simulation System) has been used to develop a computer modeling system that simulates the hourly liquefaction, ocean transport, and regasification of natural gas from the point it enters overseas liquefaction plants to its final sendout from southern California regasification facilities. The simulation system collects statistics during each computer run and summarizes them to show the estimated performance of the system, including possible inefficiencies and the total volume and the estimated cost per tiiousand cubic feet of gas transported. Our system designers use this information to analyze the sensitive elements of the modeled system and to make it more efficient.
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Document ID: 42F95851

The Evaluation Of A Central Computer Based Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition System
Author(s): R. J. Linville
Abstract/Introduction:
Panhandle Eastern Pipe Line Company has been in the process of implementing a long range program of automatically acquiring important field operating data in our central gas control offices in Kansas City since the summer of 1966. The acquisition of this field data is being accomplished via a large scale, high speed, solid state, Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system Utilizing our privately operated microwave communications system as the principle communications medium. We are presently automatically receiving operating conditions from twenty-two different field locations which comprises essentially all of our current mainline transmission system including stations on major laterals, major sales facilities, and our larger underground storage fields.
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Document ID: 0F9B6548

Regulatory Changes In Our Federal Energy Program
Author(s): William O. Doub
Abstract/Introduction:
As many know, the Atomic Energy Commission is presently in a stage of transition. The quality of AEC organizational structure and responsibilities is being weighed against other alternatives. New arrangements have been recommended by the Administration to consolidate into essentially one organization the principal energy research and development activities of the nation. A separate independent nuclear regulatory agency has been proposed to assume the burden of regulating commercial appUcations of nuclear technology. It is right and proper that these new organizational concepts be studied and acted upon by the Congress . . . particularly in these days of striving for energy self-sufficiency. It is often said that nothing gives rise to solutions faster than a good crisis, I believe that the crisis mode of the past winter has enough staying power to outlive events such as the lifting of the Arab oil embargo.
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Document ID: 0E930D17

Vendor Performance And Delivery Evaluation
Author(s): S. W. Betts
Abstract/Introduction:
Materials managers are concerned with the Total Net Cost resulting from the purchase of materials. There are many functions in the material cycle that contribute to the total net cost, including: requisitioning, negotiating, ordering, expediting, packaging, delivery, receiving, inspecting, storing, invoicing and payment. There are also unnecessary costs caused by faulty material rejection, damage, material return and replacement. adjustment and negotiating for settlement. The vendor plays a key role in the material cycle and his performance has a great effect on the total net cost. For example, poor quality may result in rejection, lost time and added administration costs late deliveries could result in a project delay and added construction cosls: and poor material performance and service would increase maintenance costs and reduce the long term useful life.
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Document ID: D8177CE6

The Production Rotary Meter
Author(s): E. A. Povhonen
Abstract/Introduction:
A production rotary meter is a device installed in a piping system in which the flowing fluid is constantly and mechanically isolated into segments of known volume. These segments are counted as they move through the piping system and their total is continually accumulated and indicated on the meter register. The rotary meter with a defined static volume measures the volume passed through the meter with a degree of accuracy that is acceptable to the regulatory bodies and the mutual satisfaction of the contracting parties, be they the buyer, seller, or the in-plant operator.
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Document ID: C50EE2B8

Females Performing Distribution Construction And Maintenance Work
Author(s): Arthur Resowski
Abstract/Introduction:
The topic of this is of major concern lo Consumers Gas Company and presented some interesting and unusual chalJenges, problems, and situations in what has been basically a male oriented organization. The only females employed in the department are a number of secretaries located in our administrative offices. Only male employees were working in our field stations until about October 1973. From this point on. we would like to discuss the laws, company policies and practices, employment statistical information, and our experiences related to employment of females.
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Document ID: 977EB9B6

Record Keeping For Leak, Excavation, And Corrosion Control
Author(s): Gene R. Dyer
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry has now experienced over five years of operations under the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act and over four years of operations with the DOT requirements of leak reporting. During this period, we have all had to upgrade and refine our record systems to handle these regulations and many of us have gone to the computer for the solutions to the record keeping process. We at Mountain Fuel first went this direction in 1967, and since that time have gained a great deal of experience in developing and maintaining the leak and excavation record. We have previously reported on our total underground and leakage program to the Pacific Coast Gas Association in April of 1970, and to the IGT Hazard Prevention Symposium in August of 1973. The many expressions of interest we have had throughout the country certainly strengthen our belief as to the importance of maintaining these kinds of programs.
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Document ID: 95A5A948

Quality Control As It Affects Construction And Maintenance
Author(s): N. Paul Hartleben
Abstract/Introduction:
Quality. Much like a ping-pong ball, quality is a word that gels batted around quite a bit. But think about it we must. The search for it has become another way of life in many companies, plants, or departments in almost any phase of industry today. The big question about quality that remains is how to acquire more of it, how to control it, or deliver it in volume. Assurance of quality materials purchased and made available for construction and maintenance is one of the subjects of concern in the materials management field of our industry. The quality of material that is delivered to the field will ultimately affect the quality of performance in that area. The savings and benelits. direct or indirect, to many departmental units that purchasing and stores support can readily be seen from one small application of quality control.
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Document ID: FE3E7062

Employee Motivation
Author(s): Remi C. Pattyn
Abstract/Introduction:
The transportation and equipment function is one of the most important operating functions in a utility. It pleases me to hear from top utility executives thai the managers and supervisors of these departments are some of the most qualified operating people in the utility business. You work at your jobs and keep abreast of developments. I like to be with successful people and that is one reason why I like being here. Employee motivation is a difficult subject and yet it is easy to talk about. It seems everyone has an opinion on the subject and is willing to discuss it without prodding.
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Document ID: 6BD89196

Large Diameter Plastic Pipe Insert Renewal Installations
Author(s): James O. Monroe
Abstract/Introduction:
National Fuel Gas operates 12,275 miles of pipeline serving 700,000 customers in western New York and northwestern Pennsylvania. The three major metropolitan areas of Buffalo, Niagara Falls, and Erie, Pa., are included in this area. The central portions of these cities have facilities dating back to the I860s: a large portion of the annual capital investment and operating budget is therefore spent on system replacement. In the mid-60s, the company began to replace services using plastic insertion. In 1968. NFG investigated systems for main replacement by insertion. Steel pipe was vetoed because of problems in preventing and elimination casing shorts. Use of plastic would make cathodic protection monitoring and maintenance unnecessary.
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Document ID: 914ECC82

A Corporate Financial Planning Model
Author(s): A. A. Douloff
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the organizational and technical development and uses of TransCanada PipeLines Corporate Financial Planning Model. All aspects of the companys physical and financial operations are simulated by tiie computer model to give management a quick method of obtaining answers to tire many what-ifs that are a part of every-day corporate life. The model analyzes all the major functional areas of the company: sales, gds supply, facilities planning, financing and rates design to produce proforma financial statements for up to 10 years into the future.
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Document ID: 386770E4

Training and/or Qualifying Personnel For Heat-Fused Joining Of Plastic Pipe-A Pipe Manufacturers Viewpoint
Author(s): Myron S. Pfeifer
Abstract/Introduction:
As representatives of major gas distribution companies, you obviously are interested in safely. No gas company can afford to promote individuals who are indifferent toward safety. Surely there is no worse news that can befall a gas company than to suddenly hear that, because of a leak. there was an explosion and several people were killed. There seems to be general agreement in the gas distribution industry that plastic pipe is indeed a very safe way to transport natural gas. For instance, there are no inherent corrosion problems which plague steel pipe. However, the plastic pipe producers maintain that plastic gas pipe is a safe way to distribute gas only if all the proper fusion methods have been observed. Our company has been appalled frequently at the techniques we have witnessed in the field which indicated ihat some gas companys personnel were obviously untrained in the fusion of plastic pipe. Who would consider having anyone else than a qualified welder working on steel lines? By the same token, who could logically consider having anyone but a qualified joiner working on plastic lines?
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Document ID: DA5CEC2D

Purging LNG Tanks Into And Out Of Service Considerations And Experience
Author(s): Carl C. Hanke, Jr., I. V. La Fave, L. F. Litzinger
Abstract/Introduction:
The purging of LNG tanks in and out of service requires experience, knowledge and involves many considerations. Predictable results in purging operations are of great importance to operators and owners of LNG facilities. To date, on a world-wide basis, some 100 LNG tanks have been placed into operation safely, providing broad experience under a wide variety of conditions. Also, to date, a number of LNG tanks have been purged out of service so that repairs or modifications could be safely undertaken. Companies who have been responsible for purging have used, effectively, the guidelines established in the American Gas Associations 1954 book. Purging Principles and Practice, which also appears in an abstracted form in the A.G.A.s more recent publication, Gax Engineers Handbook, as Chapter 14.
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Document ID: 47AFE0FC

New Concepts In LNG Shipping
Author(s): Richard A. Norman
Abstract/Introduction:
In relation to the new concepts in LNG shipping, the following should be considered: 1. The recent price increase of imported oil (and LNG) is so high that many projected LNG import projects will not be fully developed, 2. Those LNG projects that are developed will require a total smaller number of LNG ships that originally projected- 3. Existing LNG ship designs will have a competitive edge over new designs because of proven operational performance and reliability. 4. Shipyards already in the business will have a reluctance to try new LNG ship designs because of sunk costs in existing designs and an uncertain market to pay off new investments. 5. New shipyards desiring to enter the business will be at a competitive disadvantage because of initial startup costs, lower unit orders over which to amortize investments and buyer reluctance to try a new design over a proven design.
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Document ID: 9385775F

Conservation Of Vehicle Fuels
Author(s): Richard C. Rose
Abstract/Introduction:
There are various items-hardware and otherwise-which claim to be the answer to vehicular fuel conservation. Some of these items may be helpful: others may simply be not harmful: but theyre all intriguing. I will discuss three or four of these iiems. I dont endorse them or even particularly recommend them, but I do think they point up thai theres any number of gadgets on the market to save gasoline-and you will no doubt have the opportunity in the near future to hear a salesperson extol their virtues, if you havent already. The first item is The Pill . . . not the pill youre probably thinking of, although this one too, lets you go farther than ever All thats necessary with the pill is to drop two into your gas tank every 50,000 miles and-bingo-better mileage, to say nothing of increased power.
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Document ID: C2C59AFC

Economic Analysis Of Requirements To Project Gas Sales
Author(s): Robert K. Todd
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to give you some idea of the complexity of developing a forecast for daily gas sales on Northerns transmission system, you should have some appreciation for the extent of Northerns marketing area. Northern Natural Gas Company owns and operates natural gas pipe lines extending from the gas fields of southwest Texas, southeastern New Mexico, the Texas Panhandle, the Oklahoma Panhandle and southwestern Kansas through Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa and Minnesota into South Dakota, Illinois, Wisconsin and Michigan, Natural gas is purchased in Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma and Kansas and is transmitted through Northerns own pipe lines to its markets in Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan. Northern also owns and operates an underground facihly in Iowa.
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Document ID: E8BC2D0D

Contractor Replacement Of Cut Services With Plastic Pipe To Avoid Damage Through Settlement
Author(s): Adam R. Adams
Abstract/Introduction:
The Pontiac Division of Consumers Power Company has experienced a dramatic reduction in damage to gas services caused by settlement following deep sewer construction. This reduction has resulted from our program of allowing contractors to replace cut services with plastic pipe. Cutting and replacing gas services with plastic pipe has not only reduced damages due to settlement but has reduced damages caused by contractor excavating equipment, By allowing sewer contractors to replace the services with plastic pipe, Consumers Power and the contractors have realized significant cost savings.
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Document ID: 25C79CC6

Research Projects Associated With Customer Service
Author(s): Robert H. Reinauer
Abstract/Introduction:
There are two areas of research associated with customer service that I will cover, First is a study of Energy Conservation in Housing being conducted by Princeton University and second is the Gas Industry Research Plan 1974 through 2000. The Center for Environmental Studies at Princeton University, under the .sponsorship of the National Science Foundation, is conducting a very comprehensive study of the use of energy-both gas and electric in a planned unit development community located in Twin Rivers. New Jersey. This program was initiated in 1971 to till some of the voids in the data on residential energy usage. This includes determining how energy is used, what variables affect consumption, and how energy consumption can be reduced.
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Document ID: 09FDEBF4

Use Of Telemetered Data For Billing Purposes
Author(s): J. Ronald Farrell
Abstract/Introduction:
With the present and forecasted gas supplv and gas demand imbalance. it has become increasingly important for pipelines and distribulors to utilize their systems to the fullest exicnt possible and to ensure the constant availability of peak-day gas supplies for the premium market, i.e., the residential and small volume customers. Many distribution companies have attempted to accomplish these objectives by installing and operating telemetering equipment in order to determine gas consumption rales on a real-time basis.
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Document ID: 3D3C1733

The Development And Current Status Of Light Hydrocarbon Based Sng Plants
Author(s): Stanley E. Dale
Abstract/Introduction:
With the confusion which presently surrounds petroleum supplies, the future of SNG (substitute natural gas) plants using light hydrocarhons for feedstock is subject to many uncertainties. To better understand some of these uncertainties, a brief background of SNG process technology is discussed along with the current status of the SNG projects previously announced. Of the 30 projects formally announced, four have been abandoned, 12 are being held in abeyance and 13 are either operational or scheduled for operation within about a year. The predominant reason for so many of these projects being held in abeyance or being canceled is the inability to procure a long-term, reliable source of feedstock at reasonable cost.
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Document ID: 0F8C0C9D

Offshore Compressor Operations With Two Phase Flow
Author(s): m. R. Trudeau
Abstract/Introduction:
It is no longer necessary to plot latitudes and longitudes to find a point of interest in the waters of offshore Louisiana. With a map as shown in Figure 1, one can locate at Block 149 in the Vermilion Area the approximate location of a new compressor station with quite unusual capabilities. The site is at the very hub of Sea Robins extensive pipe line system in the Gulf of Mexico. A 26 inch, 24 inch, 20 inch line extends eastward through the South Marsh Island area, the Eugene Island area to Block 222 in the Ship Shoal area. To the West, a 30 inch, 24 inch stretches to Block 195 and then southward to Block 265 in the East Cameron area. The new plant receives the gas and condensate from both legs and separates the liquids from the gas stream.
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Document ID: E664CB10

A New Look At The Utility Appliance Servicing Business
Author(s): Joseph J. Drechsler
Abstract/Introduction:
Ten years ago we, like most gas utilities, were servicing gas appliances gratuitously, and the cost for this service was rising rapidly each year. This practice was justified by the usual historic reasons: 1. The potential bayards related to the use of gas. 2. Supply and appliance problems created by the fuel itself. 3. The promotional value. 4. The positive efiect on customer and public relations. However, an in depth analvsis of the reasons indicate the first reason was still valid but questioned the validity of the other three. A closer look at our service calls revealed thai supply and appliance calls were usually related to appliance and appurtenance failures and were seldom caused by the fuel. The promotional value was highly questionable because of the obvious acceptance of natural gas as the preferred fuel in the new home market and increased installations in the replacement market.
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Document ID: 8EF6E9EC

Detection And Inhibition Of Internal Gas Pipeline Corrosion
Author(s): Clyde D. Marsau
Abstract/Introduction:
For many years men have striven to prolong life and enhance the safety of natural gas pipelmes. In the infancy of the natural gas industry the participants met the task of entering relatively clean and dry methane gas into a pipeline system designed to handle relatively low pressures and transport this gas to market. If dirty, wet gas was encountered, it was often by-passed in favor of clean gas from another area. Today, however, with the well-publicized shortage of natural gas now confronting our industry we are usually willing to pick up gas saturated with contaminants, enter this gas into our pipeline systems, clean and dry it at various locations, and condition it for re-sale.
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Document ID: DCFCA125

Mechanical Testing And Certification Of Aerial Device Components
Author(s): H. A. Sackett
Abstract/Introduction:
The increased use of mobile mechanical equipment over the past 15 years has caused many changes in equipment specifications, maintenance practices and overhaul schedules. The change from the old standard line truck with a manual derrick, swing-down pin type jacks and mechanically driven floor winch to todays modern hydraulically driven aerial device with power tools, lift attachments and winch, has required extensive changes in all phases of our operations. Of prime concern, to all companies, is the safety of the people operating aerial equipment. It is an established fact thai any person in an uncontrolled fall above 5 feet could sustain a serious injury.
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Document ID: 2AD7CDCC

Unique Design Features-Philadelphia Gas Works LNG Plants
Author(s): Orlo B. Holman, Henry J. Post
Abstract/Introduction:
In brief description of the LNG facilities at the Philadelphia Gas Works, the original CIG or cryogenic inground storage system at the Richmond plant location, to be built as part of the liquefaction facilities, was abandoned early in 1969. The liquefaction and vaporization systems were completed and placed into operation by using ten 15,000 gallon tanks that were installed at that time to accommodate the startup. During startup, a crippling fire in the vaporization system was experienced. The vaporization system at that lime was the isopentane intermediate fluid type. The liquefaction plant, of the conventional cascade type, has a gross daily capacity of 25 million cubic feet per day and the vaporizers 500 million cubic feet per day. Many millions of cubic feet of natural gas have been liquefied for others in the last five years.
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Document ID: 886AE432

Import Terminal Safety And Design Priorities
Author(s): Robert J. Bolan
Abstract/Introduction:
LNG import terminals represent a new generation of domestic LNG facilities. Since these facilities differ in many respects from their earlier counterparts in this country, it is not surprising to see new and different emphases assigned to design and safety priorities for various parts of these plants. In some cases the differences are due to significant variations in size or capacity. In others, the differences may be due to operational needs. For Ihe purpose of this paper, we will examine some of the differences and discuss them from an overall safety and design viewpoint. For comparison purposes, we have chosen two other types of LNG facilities.
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Document ID: A4F64218

Application Of Ruff-Cote To Improve Cement Bonding In Gas Storage Wells
Author(s): Robert T. Riggle
Abstract/Introduction:
Many papers have been written over the years on how to improve primary cementing jobs. Since the first casing was cemented back in 1903, we have all been working on more efficient cementing techniques and aids to stop cement failures. Several things can be done by reviewing methods and reasons for using cementing aids and techniques in gas storage wells: 1. Sandblast casing to remove mill varnish, rust, and any other unstable surface, 2. Space out ccntralizers, scratchers, or wipers, and stop collars. 3. Apply special epoxy evenly to the clean casing. 4. Spray angular granite-like particles completely over the epoxy. 5. Movement of the casing.
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Document ID: D488E6D7

The Hierarchy Of A Control System
Author(s): Dale A. Schafersman
Abstract/Introduction:
The invention of the steam engine is said to have marked the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. The concept of these early engines is quite similar to modern internal combustion and turbine engines. These engines required the constant attendance of men using their senses of touch, hearing and sight to determine operating conditions and to adjust mechanisms and valves to produce the desired output. The operators knowledge and physical strength were necessary for proper and safe operation.
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Document ID: 7305077F

Computerized Gas Pipeline Information Systems
Author(s): Robert D. Sickafoose
Abstract/Introduction:
The paper describes the contents of the computerized data base of a Service Pipe Information System and a Gas Main Information System used by The Peoples Gas Light and Coke Company and North Shore Gas Company and how these data bases are used to satisfy the Department of Transportation reporting requirements on the companys gas pipeline facilities, to conduct corrosion control surveys of cathodically protected facilities and to conduct gas leak surveys by issuing inspection orders and retaining records on inspection results.
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Document ID: 5C8AE873

Air Leakage Testing Of Gas Turbine Regenerators
Author(s): Charles R. Bath
Abstract/Introduction:
In the late 1950s Texas Eastern began testing regenerators using a standard pressure drop test recommended by one of the regenerator manufacturers. This test consisted of blanking the regenerator inlet and outlet flanges and pressurizing the unit to 10 psig and noting the pressure drop in one minute. The regenerator manufacturer stated that any pressure drop of one pound or less in one minute was satisfactory however, they could not relate the air loss to the total air involved at operating conditions or say how much horsepower would be lost by the turbine due to the air leakage. Shortly after this initial testing system was set up on our system, two regenerator manufacturers supplied the user industry with formulas for calculating the percentage air loss at operating conditions, still using the pressure drop method previously explained.
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Document ID: 2D7DCC51

Purchasing Delays
Author(s): William T. Ochsenwald
Abstract/Introduction:
It was just about a year ago that I really found out about purchasing delays, the time between the requisitioning of material and the writing of the purchase order. On July 1, 1973, instead of buying materials for locations in Ohio only. I suddenly was faced with the problem of buying materials for locations in six more stales. These new states added were New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia. Maryland. West Virginia. and Kentucky. When buying for Ohio, we were accustomed to overnight mail service or at the most two-day service from the Cleveland area. Now I must expect three and sometimes four days for mail to arrive from Binghamton. New York, or Manassas, Virginia.
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Document ID: BEF198B6

LNG Terminals-A Comparison Of Existing And Proposed Systems
Author(s): P. J. Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
Fourteen LNG base-load terminals are in operation throughout the world. Five of these are export terminals, and nine are import (receiving) terminals. The particulars of these terminals are given in Tables I and 2. In the United States there are one operating receiving and one operating export terminals, Table 3. Three receiving terminals are under construction. Eight receiving and one exporting terminal are also in various stages of engineering design-for a total of 14. In general, the technology of terminaling LNG can be considered proved. The terminal operations involving LNG differ, however. from operations with most other liquids, which are handled at correspondingly high transfer rales and in large volumes, in that LNG is a boiling cryogenic liquid. This paper discusses the design and operation of terminal .system components including ship handling, liquid/vapor transfer, storage, and vaporization.
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Document ID: 2929C0F2

Rotary Meter Application
Author(s): F. T. Solomon
Abstract/Introduction:
Rotary meters were developed initially from equipment and components normally used in the manufacture of industrial air blowers. The first rotary meters, introduced in 1920, were constructed of heavy metals with machined cases. Some of the early rotary meters were extremely heavy and quite large in size. These early meters normally operated at low pressure and were used primarily on service to commercial and industrial customers. Heavier steel case meters were also manufactured for rotary meters that allowed their operation at pressure above 15 psig. There were practical meters where fluctuating flows and pressures were prevalent.
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Document ID: 01538D11

The Birdwell Casing Finder
Author(s): R. W. Baltosser, R. W. Weibel
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for integrity of gas storage reservoirs is apparent. When storing gas in depleted reservoirs with old abandoned wells, verification of this integrity requires knowing that the plugging is adequate for storage operations. The need of verification resulted in the request for and development of the Birdwell Casing Fiiider. The resulting tool measures effects in the earths magnetic field. The old casing string acts as a bar magnet with the casing top and seat being the poles. More specifically the tool measures the differential of the horizontal component of the magnetic field between two sensors. This paper will report on the development, testing, and operational procedures that evolved around this tool.
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Document ID: BD6F98A4

Acoustic Emission Testing Of Buried Gas Pipelines
Author(s): Edward A. Lehman
Abstract/Introduction:
Between the mid-nineieen-leens and mid-nineieen-fifties, approximately 500 miles of steel pipe, four inches in diameter and larger, were installed by oxyacetylenc joint welding techniques in what is now the Philadelphia Electric Companys gas distribution system. Though the quality of many of these welds would be questioned by todays standards, the incidence of failure has been small, averaging about one a year for the past seven or eight years. These failures emphasized the need to develop an inspection technique to moniior these pipelines, locate critical conditions, and make corrections before a failure occurred. The testing system should not require excavating and exposing each weld for inspection.
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Document ID: E7B3B7B3

Partial Shipments
Author(s): Lee Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
When discussing partial shipments, information should come from the people who are involved purchasing department, the receiving clerk, storeroom record clerk, and the cash management department which records information to the purchase order before approving invoices for payment. After discussing partial shipments with these people and from my own analysis, I would like to share with you some observations, problems, and possible solutions. Partial material shipments can be good and they can be bad. As an example, a partial shipment is good whenever a firm orders a years supply of an item and asks the vendor to ship the order in partial shipments. This arrangement is convenient for both buyer and seller. It enables the buyer better control of his inventory and lets the vendor know of his customers long-range plans so seller can plan accordingly to meet his commitment to the buyer.
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Document ID: 67398872

A Leak Repair Record Keeping System
Author(s): J. Richard Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
Our needs for statistics on leak repairs, and our resources for producing these statistics, are probably similar to most other gas utilities throughout the country. Such utilities, generally, perform a large number of leak repairs-too numerous, at least, to tally manually into the many information needs. Repair activities might be conducted and reported by a decentralized organization spanning a wide serving territory, and the inhouse computer facilities available to process the leak reports are probably centrally located and locally controlled. In other words. a teleprocessing capability for remote data or job entry does not exist.
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Document ID: 1574675F

Sample Testing Periodic Meter Exchanges
Author(s): Raymond J. Crawford
Abstract/Introduction:
Historically, utilities have exchanged meters either using a fixed period of time for exchanges or a mileage basis. Briefly. let us examine them and note the advantages and the disadvantages inherent in each system. Using this system, meters are exchanged at a fixed interval, which has been decided by either the utility or the public service commission. Some distinction may or may not be made between various types and sizes of meters. The advantage of using this method is that the work load can be forecast, not only for the meter shop, but also for the operating departments. This allows each area to budget with some degree of accuracy its manhours. to be spent in exchanging, testing and repairing of meters.
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Document ID: E3602E46

Improving Supervisory Performance By Use Of Feedback And Positive Reinforcement
Author(s): John Suridis
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays dramatic changing economical conditions, there is an imperative need to improve the financial position of our gas industry. Now, more than ever before, we must call upon the men and women in our companies to reach new heights in their productivity. This paper highlights the techniques used by the Supervisors at Long Island Lighting Company (LILCO) to assist our people in achieving their productivity goals.
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Document ID: 570AC643

Heat Fused Polyethylene Service Line Connections
Author(s): W. T. Clark
Abstract/Introduction:
Lone Star Gas Companys experience with various types of plastic piping in gas service dates to the early 1950s. In 1968, we adopted polyethylene plastic as our standard distribution piping material. Our system now contains over 11 million feet of polyethylene mains in sizes from 1% inches through 6 inches. Over 96,000 polyethylene service lines are of various sizes, mostly 3/4-inch IPS. Our distribution system operating pressures range up to 60 psi. All service lines are connected to polyethylene mains by heat fusion.
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Document ID: 26BC85E2

The Gas Industrys Long-Range Research And Development Program For Producing Synthetic Fuel Gases
Author(s): Martin A. Elliot
Abstract/Introduction:
A research and development program for producing substitute natural gas (SNG) from indigenous feedstocks has been formulated as a part of the American Gas Associations long range Gas Industry Research Plan. 1974-2000. The proposed SNG research program includes work on: (1) the production of SNG from coal, heavy oil, oil shale, biomass and solid waste (2) reaction kinetics and new processing concepts (3) coal and shale mining (4) materials of construction in SNG plants (5) the production of hydrogen from water and, (6) problems relating to the preservation of the environment in SNG plants.
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Document ID: 1F4BEC23

One Step At A Time-A Safety Program
Author(s): John E. Lacey
Abstract/Introduction:
Long term improvement in accident prevention has generally been frustrated by an inability to sustain employee interest over a long period of time. This program achieves this goal by constantly reminding employees that the long term results can only be achieved by working safely now-whatever the task-and so getting there One Step at a Time.
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Document ID: 31FAA138


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