Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (1974)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Liquid Level Measurement Techniques
Author(s): Victor N. Lawford
Abstract/Introduction:
MEASUREMENT OF THE LIQUID CONTENTS IN TANKS CAN BE ACCOMPLISHED BY MANY DIFFERENT METHODS AND A WIDE VARIETTY OF INSTRUMENTS. QUITE OFTEN, SATISFACTORY PERFORMANCE CAN BE OBTAINED FROM SEVERAL OF THE DEVICES, SO THE SELECTION OF THE BEST INSTRUMENT MUST BE BASED ON THE SPECIFIC APPLICATION. THIS PRESENTATION REVIEWS METHODS OF MEASURING THE UNKNOWN QUANTITY OF LIQUID, AND CONVERTING IT INTO A SIGNAL THAT CAN BE USED TO OBSERVE, INDICATE, OR CONTROL.
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Document ID: 478E044B

Fundamentals Of Gas Regulation
Author(s): Ralph Kubltz
Abstract/Introduction:
A gas pressure regulator is a device for reducing pressure to a certain value. Figure 1 is a diagrammatic of a typical regulator installation with the main external elements labeled, if the burner goes from high to low fire, the gauge needle will begin to rise and you must move the valve more closed. If the burner goes off you fully close the valve. If you do the job correctly you will constantly match gas flow to demand and the gauge needle will remain at set-point. Note carefully that what you do manually is essentially what any standard regulator does automatically and that is the heart of it.
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Document ID: FC7932AC

A Metermans Comments On Electronic Flow
Author(s): John B. Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1969, Transco endeavored to make comparative tests between electronic flow measurement and the long standing meter chart system of computing flow using orifice meters. The results of these tests produced a surprising correlation over an 8-month period of less than .25% error. (See Figure I) In the last year, we placed in service a large station measuring in the vicinity of 100.0 million cubic feet per day. Both of these systems used the density method and computer systems, the former using an analog and the latter digital. Both systems printed out the flow each 24 hours.
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Document ID: 24A4B2A4

Problems In Offshore Gas Measurement
Author(s): Robert 0. Rau
Abstract/Introduction:
Today, the operation of offshore gas pipe line systems is a necessity to actively compete in the constantly expanding market areas of our country and to also meet the energy crisis our country faces today. Offshore reserves drilling and discovery have been retarded by cancellation of offshore lease sales, legal battles and political battles based on the modern day ecology revolution. Today, I wish to discuss some of the problems encountered in offshore gas measurement now and also some of the future problems we must face and solve.
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Document ID: 4E279692

What Is A Cubic Foot?
Author(s): Joseph A. Bonner
Abstract/Introduction:
A cubic foot is defined as the volume of a cube with the dimensions of one foot on each side and height. Volume is a derived quantity related to the fundamental units of length. This space, when occupied by natural gas, requires further definition since gas expands to occupy its allotted space. The cubic foot of fuel gas is defined as the quantity of gas occupying o cubic foot of space at a specified temperature and pressure. The definition can be expanded further to tie down calorific values and other conditions of the gos however, the prime measurement is a volume at stated conditions.
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Document ID: 8D726D0C

Automation Of Measurement Offices
Author(s): David A. Ward
Abstract/Introduction:
In this age of advances in technology, better equipment is constantly being made available to our industry. The purpose of this paper will be to introduce a few of these devices and their use in the Measurement Office. First let us look at the basic steps a chart record follows as it passes through a gas measurement office, followed by a description of the responsibilities of each group and the equipment they use.
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Document ID: 7E0A76FC

Elements Of Gas Contracts
Author(s): John W. Hague
Abstract/Introduction:
Before we discuss our subject today (i.e., Elements of Gas Contracts), let us take a very brief look at the history of natural gas. Among the first people to have utilized natural gas as a fuel are the Chinese, who in search of salt produced natural gas from wells drilled to a depth of approximately 2,000 feet and then transported this fuel through beuaboo pipelines to the places of consumption. The Japanese, as early as 615 B.C., are known to have also used natural gas. From these early beginnings until the natural gas industry was born in I821 in the village of Fredonia, New York, many other cultiires are known to have utilized natural gas.
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Document ID: D5E0693C

Curtailment, Monitoring, And Control Of Gas With A Computer
Author(s): Brenson L. Abbott, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to introduce you to the rapidly growing field of computerized control. The digital computer has many advantages which lend themselves to the solution of the problet?, s at hand. I will try to show how various computer techniques may be used to eliminate or ease the particular problems involved in curtailment and control of large natural gas customers. In addition, many ideas of measurement and monitoring may also become evident. Before I go into the particular solutions of the problems presented, I would like to give you a brief review of some background information that may better describe the problems that exist. The curtailment of gas service is becoming a topic of great concern to both suppliers and users. The basic idea is that you want to continue service as long as possible without running into a gas shortage or penalty condition.
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Document ID: 9E6E5D88

Effects Of Entrained Liquid On Orifice Measurement
Author(s): C. V. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
In the measurement of natural gas 1n field operations using the conventional orifice meter all of the factors used in the calculation of flow are based on the assumption that the gas is dry. This condition is rarely the casein field measurements. The A.G. A. Committee Report No. 3, (1), does not give any Information or data regarding the effect water and/or distillate may have upon gas measurement by the orifice meter. It was 1n this area of gas measurement that graduate engineering students at Texas A&I University, Kingsville, Texas, have conducted research operation in the laboratory and in the field. Schuster, (2), has conducted full range field tests of gas-liquid mixtures at 600 and 1,000 pounds per square inch pressure using the orifice meter. In these tests a 4-inch meter run was used to measure the dry gas. After this measurement, water and/or distillate in varying amounts was introduced and the two-phase stream was then measured first through a 4-inch meter run and then by a 3-Inch meter, these tests covered liquid-gas ratios up to 600 barrels of liquid per million cubic feet of gas. A cubic foot of gas in this paper Is measured at 14.65 pounds per square inch absolute and 60 Fahrenheit.
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Document ID: 20AC9F0B

Fundamental Principles Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): Norman Porter
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter as we are most familiar is an instrument that records or computes a flow that occurs in a meter run and orifice plate. To be more precise it is a device that meters the velocity. The volume flow rates are obtained by considering the cross-sectional areas involved. The total quantity, over a measured period is obtained by multiplying the flow rate by the elapsed time. The basic flow equation comes from an analysis made originally by Daniel Bernoulli in 1738 and is based on the conservation of energy as applied to flowing fluids.
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Document ID: 03C69068

Orifice Meter Testing And Calibration
Author(s): Raymond E. Young
Abstract/Introduction:
When charts are received by a gas accounting department, do they have an accurate record of flow? Do you think they know whether the chart is right or wrong? It will be handled as if it is correct unless someone informs them differently. Whether a chart is from a production, purchase, storage, sales or exchange meter it means money to your Company. The first step for correct charts is the responsibility of the field measurement personnel. We see that field personnel are accountable for your Companys monies. These are some of the major qualities they should have.
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Document ID: 0C4F3907

Fundamentals Of Densitometers
Author(s): W. m. Moore
Abstract/Introduction:
It is not the purpose of this paper to explore all concepts of density measurements such as is typified by hydromators, pycnometers, and gravitometers (whether of the balance type or viscous drag type) as it is felt that these are extraneous to the discussion or are amply covered in other papers or discussions. The aim is to call attention to hardware now sold that can measure gas densities with suitable accuracies needed for fluid metering. Commercially available gas densitometers now marketed are based on three quite different operating principles. Although the measuring methods are distinct, the output results are satisfactory in all cases. The environments in which the densitometer must operate and other conditions are often the parameter directing the choice of type employed.
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Document ID: 7EFADCE3

Gas Turbine Power Supply
Author(s): Warren E. Hodges
Abstract/Introduction:
The turbine is no stranger to the gas industry. The turbines in this paper represent a novel approach to the generation of electrical power for precision electrical instrumentation. A paper was presented at ISA-Houston, October 1973, describing the Bristol Turbine Power Supply. This paper will include the following: 1. Review of 2-watt Turbine Power Supply 2. Field experience with 2-watt Supply 3. Introduction of 25-watt Turbine Power Supply.
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Document ID: 86C27C3B

Primary Measuring Elements
Author(s): Claude E. Sams
Abstract/Introduction:
Although men have understood the principles of orifice measurement for centuries, it has not been until modem times that the science has been refined to the point where consistent results could be predicted. The purpose of this paper is to describe some of the equipment and the care taken in its manufacture to achieve the accuracy in orifice measurement required today.
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Document ID: CBD7BCAC

Fundamental Principles Of Displacembnt Meters
Author(s): Budd Spitler
Abstract/Introduction:
There are a variety of meters used in the measurement of gas today. We will consider in this paper only the meters that measure gas volume directly without regard to its temperature, pressure or density. These meters are generally referred to as positive displacement meters. There are three basic types of meters that fall in to this category-wet meters, dry-type diaphragm meters and rotary meters. The firstpractical displacement meter was the revolving drum, water sealed, wet meter, developed in England around I8I5 by Samuel Glegg. This meter was first used to measure manufactured gas as it left the plaint. Most of these meters were very large, however a few small ones were used to measure domestic customers. Although the wet meter is a very accurate device, it is not very practical for use as a field distribution meter because of the difficulty in maintaining a proper water level and in preventing freezing in the winter months. For gas distribution measurement, the wet meter was discarded in favor of a dry type meter.
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Document ID: 4ABAF72D

What Does Gas Chromatography Do For You?
Author(s): John W. Askins
Abstract/Introduction:
Today you and your children are influenced by processes that were unheard of forty years ago - color television, jet planes, freezers, space ventures, pollution, computers, and chromatography. Did you know that twenty years ago over 80% of todays jobs were non-existent? Technology has advanced at such a rapid speed when compared to the Industrial Revolution that it would be like comparing the T Model Ford to the jet planes of today. Now you can span the USA in a matter of hours. This is progress! Time is of great importance, roan-hours saved may mean the difference between whether a company makes a profit or folds its doors because of a loss, this has made chromatography important.
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Document ID: E7208161

Meeting Ops-Dot Requirements For Pressure Relief Valves
Author(s): Joe K. Wells, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968. DOT-OPS. Part 192 Title 49 EFR. Have you heard these terms before? Do you know what they are? If you are responsible or involved in design, operation, and/or maintenance activities associated with natural gas and the transmission and distribution thereof, you have an obligation to yourself, your company, and the public, to be familiar with these terms and knowledge of the requirements imposed by these regulations in your areas of responsibility. Your presence here this afternoon is evidence of your desire to meet this obligation.
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Document ID: F4C439DF

Odorization In Small Distribution Systems
Author(s): John Y. Evans
Abstract/Introduction:
Odorization is not a new subject however, I believe that each of us still has something to learn about it. Our company, one of the pioneers in the field of odorization in the Southwest, began using malodorant in distributed gas during 1931 and we are still learning about odorization. On May 17, 1937, the State of Texas passed its first gas odorization law, which required odorization of all gas used for private or commercial use, including public buildings, and made the Railroad Commission their law enforcement agency. In I968, the Office of Pipeline Safety made odorization mandatory in all states by adopting the ASA B31.8 Code as their interim standard until their own standards could be written. In November, 1970, the Office of Pipeline Safety published their own regulations, which superseded the ASA B31,8 Code and under which we now operate.
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Document ID: 904627BD

Custody Transfer Measuring Without Charts
Author(s): Rogers G. Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
A thought always in the back of the mind of many people in the natural gas industry is the elimination of the problems associated with use of orifice meter charts. These problems are due primarily to the delay involved in chart mailing, processing, and volume calculations. A comprehensive and sophisticated computer program is required to accomplish these calculations. It usually requires from five to eight days to arrive at a chart volume due to mailing, processing, and computing time requirements. In addition, some companies only calculate volumes periodically during the month. This results in no actual volumes until late in the month. In an effort to solve these problems, various techniques such as integrating orifice meters, pneumatic and electronic computers, mass meters and various turbine and rotary meter combinations have been tried. The success of all of these methods has been impaired by two central problems: how to compute supercompressibility, and how to account for specific gravity.
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Document ID: 1E1C6BFA

Application Of Densitometers To Fluid Measurement
Author(s): Edgar E. Buxton
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas law relationships are commonly used in the computation of orifice flow measurements of gaseous fluids. The well known Boyles Law may be stated: The volume which a given mass of a gaseous substance occupies is inversely proportional to the pressure under which it is measured, provided the temperature remains constant. This relationship is frequently stated in algebraic form as
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Document ID: 0325B314

Field Experience With Turbine Meters
Author(s): William G. Birkhead
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will be related to the field use of turbine meters for not only sales but primarily with the purchase of gas. Ihe contents will delve into some of the operating problems for sales and purchase installations both on and offshore. Some recommendations for the manufacturing, testing and use of turbine meters will be discussed, In 1968 United Gas Pipe Lines Measurement Department was faced with the problem of measuring gas to a customer in East Texas with a very fast changing load. This was an attempt to measure gas from 10 up to 250 MSCFH at 150 psig. This load grew from a smaller load with a reasonable amount of variation to one of wide range abillty and fast reaction. This required the removal of an automatic dual tube orifice measuring station and the installation of a four large diaphragn positive metering station. The load still grew in size and suddenness of action to a point where the four diaphragm positive displacement meters were overloaded. On an average, one diaphragm per month was needed for repair even with the use of the recommended size flow restricting orifices. Rotary positive displacement meters were considered, but their range ability was not great enough. So a single 6 turbine meter was installed for evaluation in series with the abovementioned four diaphragm PD meters and four 2 critical flow orifice prover stacks. After s ix months of tests, the most variance was + 2% with an average of less than + 1%. The quality of gas was good, and the turbine meter was lubricated monthly, and spin-down times equalled or exceeded the manufactured minimum as removed. As a result of these evaluation tests, Uniteds nanagement approved and obtained the customers approval for the use of turbine meters.
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Document ID: 921E44CC

How To Control Unaccounted-For Gas
Author(s): Stuart B. Eynon
Abstract/Introduction:
Underground gas distribution systems in the United States and Canada at the time they were converted to natural gas were very similar in age, type of rraterials and construction. However, since conversion, many of the old small diameter, low pressure mains in urban areas have been replaced with larger capacity mains constructed to modern standards. Original larger diameter cast iron mains have been reconditioned by external clanping, internal sealing techniques and by the insertion or lining with plastic pipe.
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Document ID: 846D01E2

Determination Of Hydrogen Sulfide And Total Sulfur
Author(s): Wm. A. Garratt
Abstract/Introduction:
Generally speaking, the time, effort and money spent to achieve any analysis is a function of the inortance of the information which the analysis yields. This importance, in turn, is a function of contract obligations, monetary liabilities, and safety. These restrictions have caused the natural gas companies to become increasingly interested in gas quality and the analysis of natural gas for sulfur derivatives has emerged as one of the more important analytical procedures.
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Document ID: 22393457

Design Of Gas Distribution Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): J. D. Harp
Abstract/Introduction:
Distribution metering and regulating stations cover a wide range in capacities from a domestic setting designed for 175 cfh to large industrial stations capable of handling several thousand cfh. The mechanical equipment involved might range from a meter only (low pressure set), to several stages of regulation, over pressure protection devices, under pressure protection devices, filters, scrubbers, drips, heaters, alcohol Injection systems, odorization equipment, remote control equipment, and various types of recording instruments. Proper initial design and Installation is very important from the standpoint of measurement accuracy and future operation and maintenance, Faulty design that is discovered after the station has been installed and placed in service is costly to correct. One of the most important aspects to any design is the obtaining of the most accurate information available on load characteristics and pressures as this affects the sizes and types of equipment that are selected.
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Document ID: 9F88461B

System Of Transfer Proving
Author(s): Henry Hubbard
Abstract/Introduction:
Transfer proving as a method for determining the accuracy of meters has become accepted in the Gas Industry based on its proven performance. Its performance in turn is due to the fact that transfer prover provides a simple, straight-forward test method, it is easily set up and within the limitations of the ambient conditions provides a reproducible set of operating conditions for each test. The controlling element of any transfer proving system is the standard meter used to determine the accuracy of the meter under test. The characteristics of the standard meter must be such that it exhibits a consistent and predictable proof over the range of flow rates for which it is intended to be used. Regardless of the control techniques employed, the basic accuracy of the transfer prover as a system depends primarily upon the accuracy and repeatability of the standard meter.
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Document ID: 20AD18F6

What The Office Group Expects Frcm The Field Group
Author(s): Ernest Meyer
Abstract/Introduction:
What the Office Group Expects From The Field Group may seem a demanding statement to make of the field group, yet, a complete, accurate measurement program with the desired results depends heavily on the continuous flow of accurate data from the field. Anything short of accurate data will adversely effect the office groups volume calculations resulting ultimately in erroneous payments. In this report we will examine the meter technician and chart changers role in furnishing the needed charts, reports, and information, to the office group. There is, of course, a reciprocal need for a similar flow of information from the office group to the field group, but time does not permit us to examine both sides.
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Document ID: E0ACA2C0

Basic Telemeters And Flow Computers
Author(s): Richard H. Cadmus
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will be a discussion of digital telemetry techniques, utilizing both unidirectional and bidirectional systems. The application of gas flow computers to the systems will also be discussed. First of all, a review of analog telemetry techniques is in order before we proceed into digital telemetry. There are three basic types of analog telemetry used today. The first type is utilized over short distances, and usually limited to private circuits not exceeding 5000 feet. The system is utilized at such locations as compressor stations, regulator stations, etc. with telemetering of variables from the point of measurement into a central control panel. The system is called current telemetering where the variable to be telemetered is normally represented as a 4-20 m.a. d-c signal, Since the signal is two-wire transmission, power is required only at the receiving end, thus keeping the system simple and keeping installation at a minimum.
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Document ID: 36DDE277

Use Of Video Tape Vtr() In A Measurement Department
Author(s): Hank Hendrix
Abstract/Introduction:
Transwestem Pipeline Company is a subsidiary of Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation and coordinates its training through the Training and Development section. The video tape concept is not only used as training medium, but is also used as a maintenance and trouble-shooting tool. Most of our films are made by experts in their field, especially those on instrumentation. Manufacturers representatives have been especially helpful in making this type film. A part of the indoctrination of new measurement employees is to become familiar with these training films. The skilled Technicians often view these films in the irresponsibility of maintaining or repairing and adjusting measurement equipment. The how to concept can cover not only test and Inspection procedures involving measurement equipment and facilities, but all internal company operating procedures. Instrument micro-adjustments can even be shown and explained with the close-up lens.
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Document ID: F2EE2F3E

Turbo-Meters With Instruments For Large Volume Customers
Author(s): J. L. Pond
Abstract/Introduction:
Rockwell introduced the gas turbine meter to Lhe U. S. market in 1963. The original units were 6 flanged meters with a capacity of 30,000 CFH at 4 ounces inlet pressure and 125# working pressure cast aluminum bodies. Due to the rapid acceptance of this relatively new gas metering concept by all phases of the gas industry, development of additional sizes and working pressures of gas turbine meters has been fairly rapid. Today, Rockwell Turbo-Meters are available in the following sises and working pressures:
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Document ID: 0B524327

How To Determine When To Re-Manufacture Domestic Gas Meters
Author(s): C. Wayne Burrell
Abstract/Introduction:
As far as I have been able to ascertain, there has not been any prior papers given at any school on this subject. Also, I think we can say that it is a relatively new concept in the way companies handle their domestic meter repair programs, and as far as we at Sprague are concerned this concept is gaining momentum. Let me say at the outset that What is good lor the goose is not necessarily good for the gander, and that we as manufacturers are not necessarily qualified to tell you when you should remanufacture meters. But, grant us this, that we have some ideas that have worked for others, and that possibly could work for you and your company. Im sure that the majority of you here today are not having anything remanufactured, but Im here today to suggest that it might be good for you and your company to explore this concept.
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Document ID: 0F3C06D0

Determination Of Gas Leakage In Small And Large Distribution Systems
Author(s): Bill Henn
Abstract/Introduction:
There are several methods for determining leakage in a distribution system, (1) Unaccounted-for determined by measurement of gas in and out of a system, (2) Leak reports from the public, (3) Leak reports from gas company field employees who should always be on the alert for gas leakage, and (4) Leak Surveys. This paper will primarily cover the Leak Survey program used by Houston Natural Gas Corporation as it is the principle source for locating leaks. These leak surveys are run in various size systems, from small rural communities to , large cities.
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Document ID: D0B46F16

Sound Pressure Level Determination
Author(s): Ernest E. Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
Noise fields present in industrial environments are frequently generated by more than one source. The validity of sound pressure level (SPL) measurements for quantification of the noise contribution of individual or specific sources in sound environments containing more than one source is dependent on the relative acoustic power and location of the individual sources. The microphone, the sensing element, of a sound level meter responds to all sound pressure incident on its diaphragm.
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Document ID: 52EEF5A2

Keeping Osha In Perspective
Author(s): F. L. Hiett
Abstract/Introduction:
I woTild like to discuss with you how companies may blend OSHA into their existing safety and health program. Through necessity, I will draw on the experience with the company I work for, Tennessee Gas Pipeline, and how we dealt with the OSHA law. As you all know, we are a nation of laws and in particular, the gas industry, with all the federal regulations that we have to comply with. Of course, we have lived with the Federal Power Commission and the Pipeline Safety Act of I968 for years. More recently we have the safety regulations under Department of Transportation, the Construction Safety Act, Environmental Protection Agency, and of course, the Department of Interior and Coast Guard. Then In late 1970, the Occupational Safety and Health Act was signed into law.
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Document ID: B0DAEB17

Selection, Operation And Maintenance Of Regulators
Author(s): J. m. Kruse
Abstract/Introduction:
The proper Regulator selection is imperative for satisfactory operation and maintenance of a specific Regulator installation. Prior to the selection of a Regulator for a given application, the operating conditions at which the Regulator is required to function must be analyzed. Optimum operation can be attained only by proper selection of the regulation equipment and the use of an effective maintenance program to prolong the length of acceptable service. Regulator Selection Requirements: Figure Number 1 shows the requirements that should be considered when selecting a Regulator.
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Document ID: B43B56D3

Distribution Service Techhicians Role In Measurement
Author(s): J. E. Gross
Abstract/Introduction:
The role of a Service Technician is as important in measurement es the role of any other employee directly related to measurement and must be given special consideration. Considerable time, effort, and money are expended each year to develop and expand purchasing specifications, meter shop procedures, and meter and instrument repair technique, all for the specific purpose of providing a meter and instrument that have been properly prepared for accurate registration of both maximum end minimum demands and will have the endurance to make an accurate registration over an extended period of time.
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Document ID: A06903FC

Fundamentals Of Rotary Meters
Author(s): Gary L. Hanson
Abstract/Introduction:
The rotary positive displacement gas meter was first built in 1920 by the PH & FM ROOTS Company and the Connersville Blower Company, both located In Connersville, Indiana. The two companies joined to form the ROOTSCONNERSVILLE Blower, and In 1966 the gas meter line was formed into a new company named Dresser Measurement Division. The figure-8 lobed rotary gas meters made by this company are known as ROOTS meters. During the early 1960s, Rockwell International entered the market with a rotating vane design known as the ROTO-SEAL Meter, and late In the 1960s, Singer American Meter Company Introduced still another rotating vane design known as a CVM gas meter.
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Document ID: DBB4919A

Sonic Nozzles Foe Gas Meter Calibration
Author(s): Harry R. Schroyer
Abstract/Introduction:
The terms sonic nozzle, critical flow nozzle, and critical flow venturi are synonymous. These are nozzles in which a well-rounded approach section blends with a small angle diverging cone. Smith and Matz in 1962 described a form of sonic nozzle. The emphasis was on a shape that permitted the nozzle calibration to be calculated from theoretical considerations. This form of construction, with minor alterations, has been widely used and has been proposed as an international standard.
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Document ID: BBA2B3F7

Meter Calibration Using The Pneumatic Deadweight Tester
Author(s): Charles F. Drake
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past few years a new device for calibrating D/P meters or transducers has been introduced to the petroleum industry. The device is most commonly called the PK Tester but is actually a deadweight primary device that uses gas as the fluid medium. A schematic of the PK Tester appears as Figure I and is very similar in design and exactly the same in principle as the deadweight pressure testers we have been using for decades to calibrate pressure gauges and static pressure springs.
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Document ID: D826DB7D


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